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1.

ACTUATOR SOLENOID - The solenoid in the actuator housing on the back of the
injection pump which moves the control rack as commanded by the engine controller.
2. AC Alternating Current. Electric current in which the flow of electric charge
periodically reverses direction, whereas in direct current (DC, also dc), the
flow of electric charge is only in one direction. The abbreviations AC and DC
are often used to mean simply alternating and direct, as when they modify
current or voltage. AC is the form in which electric power is delivered to
businesses and residences.
3. Adapter A cord or block style device with different ends that allows different
devices to connect.
4. ALTERNATOR - A device which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.
5. ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC) - A flow of electrons which reverses its direction of flow
at regular intervals in a conductor.
6. AMBIENT TEMPERATURE - The temperature of the surrounding medium, such as gas,
air or liquid, which comes into contact with a particular component.
7. AMMETER - An instrument for measuring the flow of electrical current in amperes.
Ammeters are always connected in series with the circuit to be tested.
8. Amperage Amps/Amperes/Ampacity/Rated Amperage - A unit of measure for the flow
of current in a circuit. One ampere is the amount of current flow provided when one volt
of electrical pressure is applied against one ohm of resistance. The ampere is used to
measure electricity much as "gallons per minute" is used to measure water flow.
9. AMPERE-HOUR - A unit of measure for battery capacity. It is obtained by multiplying the
current (in amperes) by the time (in hours) during which current flows. For example, a
battery which provides 5 amperes for 20 hours is said to deliver 100 ampere - hours.
10. AMPLIFIER - A device of electronic components used to increase power, voltage, or
current of a signal.
11. AMPLITUDE - A term used to describe the maximum value of a pulse or wave. It is the
crest value measured from zero.
12. ANALOG IC - lntegrated circuits composed to produce, amplify, or respond to variable
voltages. They include many kinds of amplifiers that involve analog - to - digital
conversions and vice versa, timers, and inverters. They are known as Operational
Amplifier Circuits or OP - Amps.

13. ANALOG GAUGE - A display device utilizing a varying current to cause a mechanical
change in the position of its needle.
14. ARMATURE - The movable part of a generator or motor. It is made up of conductors
which rotate through a magnetic field to provide voltage or force by electromagnetic
induction. The pivoted points in generator regulators are also called armatures.
15. ARTIFICIAL MAGNETS - A magnet which has been magnetized by artificial means. It is
also called, according to shape, a bar magnet or a horseshoe magnet.
16. ATOM - A particle which is the smallest unit of a chemical element. It is made up mainly
of electrons (minus charges) in orbit around protons (positive charges).
17. AUXILIARY SPEED SENSOR - The engine speed sensor located on the engine timing
gear cover. It serves as a back - up to the primary engine speed sensor.
18.AWG American Wire Gauge; standard measuring gauge for non-ferrous
conductors (i.e., non-iron and non-steal). Lower gauge numbers indicate
larger conductor size.
19. BENDIX DRIVE - One type flywheel engaging device for a starting motor. It is said to be
mechanical because it engages by inertia.
20. BRUSH - A device which rubs against a rotating slip ring or commutator to provide a
passage for electric current to a stationary conductor.
21. Cable A cable is a set of wires, usually encased in an outer protective jacket. A cord
would be a cable by this definition so far, but a cable is part of a permanent installation; a
cord is more flexible and often has a plug end for a portable appliance or lamp.
22. Cable Harness A string of cables and/or wires which transmit informational signals or
operating currents (energy). The cables are bound together by clamps, cable ties, cable
lacing, sleeves, electrical tape, conduit, a weave of extruded string, or a combination thereof.

23. CALIBRATION - The determination or rectification of the graduations used on a testing


instrument.
24. CAPACITOR - A device which stores electrical energy. Commonly used for filtering out
voltage spikes.
25. CE Conformite Europeene. A European standard of safety. The CE marking on end
products indicates compliance with all applicable directives.

26. CHARGE - To restore the active materials in a storage battery by the passage of direct
current through the battery cells in a direction opposite that of the discharging current.

27. Conductor The internal material of a cord that conducts electricity. Copper is the most
common material used for electrical wiring. Silver is the best conductor, but is expensive.
Because it does not corrode, gold is used for high-quality surface-to-surface contacts.
28. Connector A female cord mounted wiring device with the conducting elements recessed
behind the mating surface. This type of device is normally wired to be live when nothing is
plugged in to it. Therefore, connectors are wired to the source of power.
29. CSA Canadian Standards Association, a Canadian product safety and certification
organization. Their registered mark shows that a product has been independently tested and
certified to meet recognized standards for safety or performance.
30. Current The rate of flow of electrical energy through a conductor or wire, comparable to
the amount of water flowing in a pipe. Electric current is measured in amperes or amps.

31. CURRENT FLOW - The flow or movement of electrons from atom to atom in a
conductor.
32. CYCLE - The change in an alternating electrical sine wave from zero to a positive peak
to zero to a negative peak and back to zero.
33. CYCLING - The process by which a battery is discharged and recharged.
34. DC Direct Current. Current which moves in a single direction in a steady flow. Normal
household electricity is alternating current (AC) which repeatedly reverses its direction.
However, many electronics devices require DC, and therefore must convert the current into
DC before using it.

35. DIAGNOSTIC CODE - A number which represents a problem detected by the engine
controller. Diagnostic codes are transmitted for use by on - board
displays or a diagnostic reader so the operator or technician is aware there is a problem
and in what part of the fuel injection system the problem can be found.
36. Dielectric Any insulating medium, which intervenes between two conductors and permits
electrostatic attraction and repulsion to take place across it.
37. Dielectric Test Tests which consist of the application of a voltage higher than that of the
rated voltage for a specified time for the purpose of determining the adequacy against
breakdown of insulating materials and spacing under normal conditions.

38. DIFFERENTIATOR CIRCUIT - A circuit that consists of resistors and capacitors


designed to change a DC input to an AC output. It is used to make narrow pulse
generators and to trigger digital logic circuits. When used in integrated circuits it is
known as an inverter.
39. DIGITAL IC - lntegrated circuits that produce logic voltage signals or pulses that have
only two levels of output that are either ON or OFF (yes or no). Some component output

examples are: Diagnostic Codes Output, Pulse - Width - Modulated (PWM) Throttle
Output, Auxiliary Speed Output, and Fuel FlowfThrottle Output.
40. DIODE - An electrical device that will allow current to pass through itself in one direction
only. Also see "Zener diode."
41. DIRECT CURRENT (DC) - A steady flow of electrons moving steadily and continually in
the same direction along a conductor from a point of high potential to one of lower
potential. It is produced by a battery, generator, or rectifier.
42. DISCHARGE - To remove electrical energy from a charged body such as a capacitor or
battery.
43. DISTRIBUTOR (IGNITION) - A device which directs the high voltage of the ignition coil
to the engine spark plugs.
44. DISTRIBUTOR LEAD CONNECTOR - A connection plug in the wires that lead from the
sensor in the distributor to the electronic control unit.
45. DYER DRIVE - One type of flywheel engaging mechanism in a starting motor.
46. ELECTRICAL FIELD - The region around a charged body in which the charge has an
effect.
47. ELECTRICITY - The flow of electrons from atom to atom in a conductor.
48. ELECTROCHEMICAL - The relationship of electricity to chemical changes and with the
conversions of chemical and electrical energy. A battery is an electrochemical device.
49. ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC VALVE - A hydraulic valve actuated by a solenoid through
variable voltage applied to the solenoid coil.
50. ELECTROLYTE - Any substance which, in solution, is dissociated into ions and is thus
made capable of conducting an electrical current. The sulfuric acid - water solution in a
storage battery is an electrolyte.
51. ELECTROMAGNET - core of magnetic material, generally soft iron, surrounded by a coil
of wire through which electrical current is passed to magnetize the core.
52. ELECTROMAGNETIC CLUTCH - An electromagnetic device which stops the operation
of one part of a machine while other parts of the unit keep on operating.
53. ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD - The magnetic field about a conductor created by the flow
of electrical current through it.
54. ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION - The process by which voltage is induced in a
conductor by varying the magnetic field so that lines of force cut across the conductor.

55. ELECTRON - A tiny particle which rotates around the nucleus of an atom. It has a
negative charge of electricity.
56. ELECTRON THEORY - The theory which explains the nature of electricity and the
exchange of "free" electrons between atoms of a conductor. It is also used as one theory
to explain direction of current flow in a circuit.
57. ELECTRONICS - The control of electrons (electricity) and the study of their behavior
and effects. This control is accomplished by devices that resist, carry, select, steer,
switch, store, manipulate, and exploit the electron.
58. ELECTRONIC CONTROL UNIT (ECU) - General term for any electronic controller. See
"controller:'
59. ELECTRONIC GOVERNOR - The computer program within the engine controller which
determines the commanded fuel delivery based on throttle command, engine speed, and
fuel temperature. It replaces the function of a mechanical govnor.
60. ELECTRONIC IGNITION SYSTEM - A system in which the timing of the ignition spark is
controlled electronically. Electronic ignition systems have no points or condenser, but
instead have a reluctor, sensor, and electronic control unit.
61. ELEMENT - (1) Any substance that normally cannot be separated into different
substances. (2) The completed assembly of a battery consisting of negative plates,
positive plates, and separators mounted in a cell compartment.
62. ENGINE CONTROLLER - The electronic module which controls fuel delivery, diagnostic
outputs, back - up operation, and communications with other electronic modules.
63. Ferrite Ferrimagnetic ceramic non-conductive compound material used to prevent high
frequency electrical noise from entering or exiting the equipment.

64. FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR (FET) - A transistor which uses voltage to control the
flow of current. Connections are the source (input), drain (output) and gate (control).
65. FIXED RESISTOR - A resistor which has only one resistance value.
66. FREOUENCY - The number of pulse or wave cycles that are completed in one second.
Frequency is measured in Hertz, as in 60Hz (hertz) per second.
67. FUNDAMENTAL LAW OF MAGNETISM - The fundamental law of magnetism is that
unlike poles attract each other, and like poles repel each other.
68. FUSE - A replaceable safety device for an electrical circuit. A fuse consists of a fine wire
or a thin metal strip encased in glass or some fire-resistant material. When an overload
occurs in the circuit, the wire or metal strip melts, breaking the circuit.

69. GATE - A logic circuit device which makes a YES or NO (one or zero) decision (output)
based on two or more inputs.
70. GENERATOR - A device which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.
71. GFCI Ground-Fault Circuit-Interrupter. An electrical wiring device that disconnects a
circuit whenever it detects that the electric current is not balanced between the energized
conductor and the return neutral conductor. Such an imbalance is sometimes caused by
current leakage through the body of a person who is grounded and accidentally touching the
energized part of the circuit.

72. GRID - A wire mesh to which the active materials of a storage battery are attached.
73. Ground A connection between an electrical device and the Earth or at the voltage defined
as zero (in the U.S., called ground; in the UK, called earth).

74. GROUNDED CIRCUIT - A connection of any electrical unit to the frame, engine, or any
part of the tractor or machine, completing the electrical circuit to its source.
75. GROWLER - A device for testing the armature of a generator or motor.
76. Harmonized Code An international coding system for specifying the attributes of cord
voltages, jackets, diameters, etc.
77. Hertz Measurement of frequency, equaling one cycle per second, U.S. devices are
typically 60 Hertz and international devices are typically 50 hertz.

78.HYDROMETER - An instrument for measuring specific gravity. A hydrometer is used to


test the specific gravity of the electrolyte in a battery.
79. ICC International Color Code. Standard for wire jacket colors; Hot=Brown, Neutral=Blue,
Ground=Green/Yellow.
80. IEC International Electrotechnical Commission, an international organization that sets
standards for electrical products
81. IEC320 IEC standard of thirteen 2 or 3 wire plugs, connectors, inlets or outlets usually
used in the computer industry.

82. IGNITION CONTROL UN IT - The module that contains the transistors and resistors that
controls the electronic ignition.
83. INDUCTANCE - The property of an electric circuit by which an electromotive force
(voltage) is induced in it by a variation of current either in the circuit itself or in a
neighboring circuit.
84. INDUCTOR - A coil of wire wrapped around an iron core.

85. Inlet A male flange mounted wiring device with the conducting pins protruding and
exposed. This type device should never be wired to make the exposed pins live while the
mating device is unplugged.

86. INSULATED GATE FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR (IGFET) - A diffused transistor which
has an insulated gate and almost infinite gate - channel resistance.
87. Insulation The material that encases a conductor preventing leakage of current from a
conductor.

88. INSULATOR - A substance or body that resists the flow of electrical current through it.
Also see "Conductor:'
89. INTEGRATED CIRCUIT (IC) - An electronic circuit which utilizes resistors, capacitors,
diodes, and transistors to perform various types of operations. The two major types are
Analog and Digital Integrated Circuits. Also see "Analog IC" and "DigitaI IC."
90. INTEGRATOR CIRCUIT - A circuit that consists of resistors and capacitors and functions
as a filter which can pass signals only below a certain frequency.
91. INVERTER - A device with only one input and one output; it inverts or reverses any
input.
92. IP Rating Ingress Protection Rating, a two digit code, and an optional letter, specifying
the level of protection from foreign objects with the first digit referring to protection from
solids and the second digit referring to protection from liquids. The optional letter can be
appended to classify only the level of protection against access to hazardous parts by
persons or to provide additional information related to the protection of the device.
IP Rating Referance Chart.
93. ION - An atom having either a shortage or excess of electrons.
94. ISOLATION DIODE - A diode placed between the battery and the alternator. It blocks
any current flow from the battery back through the alternator regulator when the
alternator is not operating.
95. Jacket Outer material layer of a cord.
96. LIGHT EMITTING DIODE (LED) - A solid - state display device that emits infrared light
when a forward - biased current flows through it.
97. LINES OF FORCE - Invisible lines which conveniently illustrate the characteristics of a
magnetic field and magnetic flux about a magnet.
98. LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY (LCD) - A display device utilizing a special crystal fluid to
allow segmented displays.

99. MAGNET - A body which has the property of at. tracting iron or other magnets. Its
molecules are aligned.
100.
MAGNETIC FIELD - That area near a magnet in which its property of magnetism
can be detected. It is shown by magnetic lines of force.
101.
MAGNETIC FLUX - The flow of magnetism about a magnet exhibited by
magnetic lines of force in a magnetic field.
102.
MAGNETIC INDUCTION - The process of introducing magnetism into a bar of
iron or other magnetic material.
103.
MAGNETIC LINES OF FORCE - Invisible lines which conveniently illustrate the
characteristics of a magnetic field and magnetic flux about a magnet.
104.
MAGNETIC MATERIAL - Any material to whose molecules the property of
magnetism can be imparted.
105.
MAGNETIC NORTH - The direction sought by the north pole end of a magnet,
such as a magnetic needle, in a horizontal position. It is near the geographic north pole
of the Earth.
106.
MAGNETIC PICKUP ASSEMBLY - The assembly in a self - integrated electronic
ignition system that contains a permanent magnet, a pole piece with internal teeth, and a
pickup coil. These parts, when properly aligned, cause the primary circuit to switch off
and induce high voltage in the secondary windings.
107.
MAGNETIC SOUTH - The opposite direction from magnetic north towards which
the south pole end of a magnet, such as a magnetic needle, is attracted when in a
horizontal position. It is near the geographic south pole of the Earth.
108.
MAGNETIC SWITCH - A solenoid which performs a simple function, such as
closing or opening switch contacts.
109.
MAGNETISM - The property inherent in the molecules of certain substances,
such as iron, to become magnetized, thus making the substance into a magnet
110.
MICROPROCESSOR - An integrated circuit combing logic, amplification and
memory functions.
111.
Midget Referring to an inlet or outlet with a shallow depth. Commonly mounted in
areas where space is limited.

112.

MILLIAMPERE - 1/1,OOO,OOO ampere.

113.
MOLECULE - A unit of matter which is the smallest portion of an element or
compound that retains chemical identity with the substance in mass. It is made up of one
or more atoms.
114.

MOTOR - A device which converts electric energy into mechanical energy.

115.
MUL TIMETER - A testing device that can be set to read ohms (resistance),
voltage (force), or amperes (current) of a circuit.
116.
MUTUAL INDUCTION - Occurs when changing current in one coil induces
voltage in a second coil.
117.

NACC North American Color Code; Hot=Black, Neutral=White, Ground=Green.

118.
NATURAL MAGNET - A magnet which occurs in nature, such as a lodestone. Its
property of magnetism has been imparted by the magnetic effects of the Earth.
119.
NEGATIVE - Designating or pertaining to a kind of electricity. Specifically, an
atom that gains negative electrons is negatively charged.
120.
NEMA National Electrical Manufacturers Association, an organization based in
the U.S. that sets many common standards used in electrical products.

121.
NEUTRON - An uncharged elementary particle. Present in all atomic nuclei
except the hydrogen nucleus.
122.
NON-MAGNETIC MATERIAL - A material whose molecules cannot be
magnetized.
123.
NORMALLY OPEN and NORMALLY CLOSED - These terms refer to the
position taken by the contacts in a magnetically operated switching device, such as a
relay, when the operating magnet is de. energized.
124.

OD Outer Diameter, the outer diameter of a cord.

125.

OEM Original Equipment Manufacturer.

126.
OHM - The standard unit for measuring resistance to flow of an electrical current.
Every electrical
conductor offers resistance to the flow of current, just as a tube through which water
flows offers resistance to the current of water. One ohm is the amount of resistance that
limits current flow to one ampere in a circuit with one volt of electrical pressure.
127.
OHMMETER - An instrument for measuring the resistance in ohms of an
electrical circuit.

128.
OHM'S LAW - Ohm's Law states that when an electric current is flowing through
a conductor, such as a wire, the intensity of the current (in amperes) equals the
electromotive force (volts) driving it, divided by the resistance of the conductor. The flow
is in proportion to the electromotive force, or voltage, as long as the resistance remains
the same.
129.
OPEN OR OPEN CIRCUIT - An open or open circuit occurs when a circuit is
broken, such as by a broken wire or open switch, interrupting the flow of current through
the circuit. It is analogous to a closed valve in a water system.
130.
OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER - A high - voltage gain, low - power, linear
amplifying circuit device used to add, subtract, average, etc.
131.
OVERRUNNING CLUTCH - One type of flywheelengaging member in a starting
motor.
132.
PARALLEL CIRCUIT - A circuit in which the circuit components are arranged in
branches so that there is a separate path to each unit along which electrical current can
flow.
133.
PERMANENT MAGNET - A magnet which retains its property of magnetism for
an indefinite period.
134.
PIEZO ELECTRIC DEVICE - A device made of crystalline materials, such as
quartz, which bend or distort when force or pressure is exerted on them. This pressure
forces the electrons to move.
135.
Pigtail A very short patch cable or wiring adapter. Primarily used in the automotive
industries where a longer cable assembly is not needed.
136.

Pin and Sleeve Common term in reference to an IEC60309 device Outbound Link.

137.
PLATE - A solid substance from which electrons flow. Batteries have positive
plates and negative plates.
138.
Plug A male cord mounted wiring device with the conducting pins protruding and
exposed. This type device should never be wired to make the exposed pins live while
unplugged. Therefore, plugs are always dead until they are plugged into a power source
such as a wall outlet or generator outlet.

139.
POLARITY - A collective term applied to the positive (+) and negative ( - ) ends
of a magnet or electrical mechanism such as a coil or battery.
140.
Polarized A plug and connector formed in a way that only allows proper
connection.

141.
POLE - One or two points of a magnet at which its magnetic attraction is
concentrated.
142.
POLE SHOES - Iron blocks fastened to the inside of a generator or motor
housing around which the field or stator coils are wound. The pole shoes may be
permanent or electro - magnets.
143.
POSITIVE - Designating or pertaining to a kind of electricity. Specifically, an atom
which loses negative electrons and is positively charged.
144.

POTENTIOMETER - A variable resistor used as a voltage divider.

145.
POWER SWITCH TRANSISTOR - The part responsible for switching off the
primary circuit that causes high voltage induction in the secondary winding in an
electronic ignition system.
146.
PRIMARY SPEED SENSOR - An engine speed sensor located inside the
actuator housing on the back of the injection pump.
147.
PRINCIPLE OF TURNING FORCE - Explains how magnetic force acts on a
current - carrying conductor to create movement of an armature, such as in an electric
motor.
148.
PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD - A device used to hold integrated circuit
components in place and provide current paths from component to component. Copper
pathways are etched into the board with acid.
149.
PROTON - A particle which, together with the neutron constitutes the nucleus of
an atom. It exhibits a positive charge of electricity.
150.
PULSE - A signal that is produced by a sudden ON and OFF of direct current
(DC) within a circuit.
151.
PULSE-WIDTH-MODULATED (PWM) - A digital electronic signal which consists
of a pulse generated at a fixed frequency. The information transmitted by the signal is
contained in the width of the pulse. The width of the pulse is changed (modulated) to
indicate a corresponding change in the information being transmitted, such as throttle
command.
152.
Receptacle A female flange mounted wiring device with the conducting elements
recessed behind the mating surface. Often referred to as an outlet. This type of device is
normally wired to be live when nothing is plugged in to it. Therefore, receptacles are wired to
the source of power.

153.
RECTIFIER - A device (such as a vacuum tube, commutator, or diode) that
converts alternating current into direct current.

154.
REGULATOR - A device which controls the flow of current or voltage in a circuit
to a certain desired level.
155.
RELAY - An electrical coil switch that uses a small current to control a much
larger current.
156.
RELUCTANCE - The resistance that a magnetic circuit offers to lines of force in a
magnetic field.
157.
RELUCTOR - A metal cylinder, with teeth or legs, mounted on the distributor
shaft in an electronic ignition system. The reluctor rotates with the distributor
shaft and passes through the electromagnetic field of the sensor.
158.
RESISTANCE - The opposing or retarding force offered by a circuit or
component of a circuit to the passage of electrical current through it. Resistance is
measured in ohms.
159.
RESISTOR - A device usually made of wire or carbon which presents a
resistance to current flow.
160.
RHEOSTAT - A resistor used for regulating a current by means of variable
resistance; rheostats allow only one current path.
161.
RIGHT-HAND RULE - A method used to determine the direction a magnetic field
rotates about a conductor, or to find the north pole of a magnetic field in a coil.
162.
RoHS Restriction of Hazardous Substances, a European directive dictating
materials that may not be used in the manufacture of certain products. Materials restricted
include: Lead, Mercury, Cadmium, Hexavalent Chromium, Polybrominated Byphenyls, and
Plybrominated Diphenyl Ether.
163.

ROJ The designation to Remove Outer Jacket.

164.
ROTOR - The rotating part of an electrical machine such as a generator, motor,
or alternator.
165.
SELF-INDUCTION - Voltage which occurs in a coil when there is a change of
current.
166.
SEMICONDUCTOR - An element which has four electrons in the outer ring of its
atoms. Silicon and germanium are examples. These elements are neither good
conductors nor good insulators. Semiconductors are used to make diodes, transistors,
and integrated circuits.
167.
SENDING UNIT - A device, usually located in some part of an engine, to transmit
information to a gauge on an instrument panel.

168.
SENSOR - A small coil of fine wire in the distributor on electronic ignition
systems. The sensor develops an electromagnetic field that is sensitive to the presence
of metal. In monitors and controllers, they sense operations of machines and relay the
information to a console.
169.
SEPARATOR - Any of several substances used to keep one substance from
another. In batteries a separator separates the positive plates from the negative plates.
170.
SERIES CIRCUIT - A circuit in which the parts are connected end to end, positive
pole to negative pole, so that only one path is provided for current flow.
171.
SERIES-PARALLEL CIRCUIT - A circuit in which some of the circuit components
are connected in series and others are connected in parallel.
172.
SHORT (OR SHORT CIRCUIT) - This occurs when one part of a circuit comes in
contact with another part of the same circuit, diverting the flow of current from its desired
path.
173.
SHUNT - A conductor joining two points in a circuit so as to form a parallel circuit
through which a portion of the current may pass.
174.
SLIP RING - In a generator, motor, or alternator, one of two or more continuous
conducting rings from which brushes take, or deliver to, current.
175.

Slitting The designation to separate insulated parallel wires.

176.
SOLENOID - A tubular coil used for producing a magnetic field. A solenoid
usually performs some type of mechanical work.
177.
SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS - Electronic (integrated) circuits which utilize
semiconductor devices such as transistors, diodes and silicon controlled rectifiers.
178.
SPARK PLUGS - Devices which ignite the fuel by a spark in a spark - ignition
engine.
179.
SPECIFIC GRAVITY - The ratio of a weight of any volume of a substance to the
weight of an equal volume of some substance taken as a standard, usually water for
solids and liquids. When a battery electrolyte is tested the result is the specific gravity of
the electrolyte.
180.
SPRAG CLUTCH DRIVE - A type of flywheel engaging device for a starting
motor.
181.
STARTER MOTOR - A device that converts electrical energy from the battery into
mechanical energy that turns an engine over for starting.

182.
STATOR - The stationary part of an alternator in which another part (the rotor)
revolves.
183.
STORAGE BATTERY - A group of electrochemical cells connected together to
generate electrical energy. It stores the energy in a chemical form.
184.

Straight Blade Refers to a NEMA device with straight prongs.

185.
Stripping The designation of the removal of the insulation or jacket from a
conductor/wire.

186.
SULFATION - The formation of hard crystals of lead sulfate on battery plates.
The battery is then "sulfated."
187.
SWITCH - A device which opens or closes electrical pathways in an electrical
circuit.
188.

SYNCHROGRAPH - An all - purpose distributor tester.

189.
TACHOMETER - An instrument for measuring rotary speed; usually revolutions
per minute.
190.
Terminal A terminal is the point at which a conductor from an electrical component,
device or network comes to an end and provides a point of connection to external circuits. A
terminal may simply be the end of a wire or it may be fitted with a connector or fastener. The
connection may be temporary, as for portable equipment, or may require a tool for assembly
and removal, or may be a permanent electrical joint between two wires or devices.
191.
Temperature Rating The maximum temperature at which insulation will maintain
its integrity.

192.
TEMPORARY MAGNET - A magnet which loses its property of magnetism
quickly unless forces act to re - magnetize it.
193.
THERMISTOR - A temperature - compensated resistor. The degree of its
resistance varies with the temperature. In some regulators, it controls a Zener diode so
that a higher system voltage is produced in cold weather, when needed.
194.
TRANSFORMER - A device made of two coil windings that transfers voltage from
one coil to the next through electromagnetic induction. Depending upon the number of
windings per coil, a transformer can be designed to step - up or step - down its output
voltage from its input voltage. Transformers can only function with alternating current
(AC).
195.
TRANSIENT VOLTAGE PROTECTION MODULE (TVP) - A device which
protects the engine controller electronics against high energy voltage transients such as
alternator load dumps.

196.
TRANSISTOR - A device constructed of semi - conductors that is used in circuits
to control a larger current by using a smaller current for operation. Its function is the
same as a relay.
197.
TRIMMER RESISTOR - A resistor used in applications where only a small
resistance change is needed.
198.
Twist-Locking Refers to a NEMA device with circular prongs that locks the
connection in place. Locking connectors use curved blades. Once pushed into the
receptacle, the plug is twisted and its now-rotated blades latch into the receptacle. To unlatch
the plug, the rotation is reversed. The locking coupling makes for a more reliable connection
in commercial and industrial settings, where vibration or incidental impact could disconnect a
non-locking connector.
199.
UL Underwriters Laboratories, an independent non-profit product safety and
certification organization.

200.
VACUUM FLORESCENT DISPLAY (VDC) - An anode - controlled display which
emits its own light. It works like a television tube, directing streams of electrons to strike
phosphorescent segments.
201.
VARIABLE RESISTOR - A resistor that can beadjusted to different ranges of
value.
202.
VISCOSITY - The internal resistance of a fluid, caused by molecular attraction,
which makes it resist a tendency to flow.
203.
VOLT - A unit of electrical pressure (or electromotive force) which causes current
to flow in a circuit. One volt is the amount of pressure required to cause one ampere of
current to flow against one ohm of resistance.
204.
VOLTAGE - That force which is generated to cause current to flow in an electrical
circuit. It is also referred to as electromotive force or electrical potential. Voltage is
measured in volts.
205.
VOLTAGE REGULATOR - A device that controls the strength of a magnetic field
produced by a generator or alternator. It prevents the battery from being overor
undercharged during high - or low - speed operation of the generator or alternator.
206.
VOLTMETER - An instrument for measuring the force in volts of an electrical
current. This is the difference of potential (voltage) between different points in an
electrical circuit. Voltmeters are connected across (parallel to) the points where voltage
is to be measured.
207.
WATT - A unit of measure for indicating the electrical power applied in a circuit. It
is obtained by multiplying the current (in amperes) by the electrical pressure (in volts)
which cause it to flow. That is: watts = amperes x volts.

208.
WATT-HOUR - A unit of electrical energy. It indicates the amount of work done in
an hour by a circuit at a steady rate of one watt. That is, watthours = ampere - hours x
volts.
209.
WAVE - A signal that is produced by varying a continuous flow of current within a
circuit. Waveforms can be created by either AC or DC current.
210.
WAVEFORM - A graphical representation ofelectrical cycles which shows the
amount of variation in amplitude over some period of time.
211.
WINDING - The coiling of a wire about itself or about some object. Often
identified as a series winding, a shunt winding, etc.
212.
WIRING HARNESS - Thf3 trunk and branches which feed an electrical circuit.
Wires from one part of the circuit enter the trunk, joining other wires, and then emerge at
another point in the circuit.
213.
ZENER DIODE (Reverse Bias Direction Diode) - A semiconductor device that will
conduct current in the reverse direction when the voltage becomes higher than a
predetermined voltage.