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using Back Propagation Network Approach

Charu Khare

M.Tech. Scholar

RCET, CSV Technical University

Bhilai, INDIA

kharecharu111@gmail.com

RCET, CSV Technical University

Bhilai, INDIA

kapilkn@ieee.org

suffering some form of distortion or degradation can be

recovered to its original form. Many techniques have been

implemented for image restoration for achieving better

performance and quality image, often the benefits of

improving image quality to the maximum possible extent far

outweigh the cost and complexity of the restoration algorithms

involved. In this paper, we consider the problem of an image

restoration degraded by a blur function and corrupted by

noise. Here we are applying the Back Propagation Neural

Network approach for image restoration. This method is an

iterative approach and attractive because of its improved

performance and achieving high quality image in terms of

peak signal to noise ratio.

Keywords- Back Propagation Neural Network, Peak Signal

to Noise Ratio, Image Restoration, Neural Network Approch,

Blur Model, Point Spread Function.

I.

INTRODUCTION

information. Due to imperfections in the imaging and

capturing process, however, the recorded image invariably

represents a degraded version of the original scene. The

undoing of these imperfections is crucial to many of the

subsequent image processing tasks. There exists a wide

range of different degradations that need to be taken into

account, covering for instance noise, geometrical

degradations (pin cushion distortion), illumination and color

imperfections (under/overexposure, saturation), and blur.

Image processing is a rapidly growing area of computer

science. Its growth has been fueled by technological

advances in digital imaging, computer processors and mass

storage devices. Fields which traditionally used analog

imaging are now switching to digital systems, for their

flexibility and affordability. Image processing algorithms are

designed to handle different problem domains. Some of the

broad area includes (i) Image Representation and Modeling

Image Transforms, (ii) Image Enhancement (iii)Image

Restoration, (iv) Image Analysis (v) Image Reconstruction,

(vi) Image Segmentation and (vii) Image Data Compression.

Important examples are medicine, film and video production,

photography, remote sensing, and security monitoring. These

May Issue

data every day, more than could ever be examined manually.

Digital image processing is concerned primarily with

extracting useful information from images. Ideally, this is

done by computers, with little or no human intervention.

Image processing algorithms may be placed at three levels.

At the lowest level are those techniques which deal directly

with the raw, possibly noisy pixel values, with denoising and

edge detection being good examples. In the middle are

algorithms which utilize low level results for further means,

such as segmentation and edge linking. At the highest level,

are those methods which attempt to extract semantic

meaning from the information provided by the lower levels,

for example, handwriting recognition. Natural images have

distinct features that allow the human visual system to detect

the presence of distortion, and to extract remaining

information from the observation.

A. Image Restoration

The field of image restoration has a long history that

began in the 1950s with the space program. The objective of

image restoration is to reconstruct the original image from its

degraded version. Goal is to treat an image corrupted by

noise in order to recover the original image. It is usually

done by modeling the noise and removing it without

removing every high frequency component of the image,

since it may also remove image fine details. Image

restoration, is to obtain the original, sharp version of a

blurred image. There exist many applications for image

restoration, including astronomical imaging [12], medical

imaging [6], law enforcement, forensic science, and digital

media restoration and many other poor-quality imaging [5].

The problem has attracted strong research interest and will

continue to do so, not only because it has many applications

but also because it has a simple mathematical formulation

yet it is a classical inverse problem [1] for which good

solutions are not easily obtained. The simple equation for

expressing image blurring/degradation is as follows:

g=fh+n

(1)

The field of image restoration (sometimes referred to as

image deblurring or image deconvolution) is concerned with

Page 25 of 53

Vol. 2, No. 5, 2011

the reconstruction or estimation of the uncorrupted image

from a blurred and noisy one. Essentially, it tries to perform

an operation on the image that is the inverse of the

imperfections in the image formation system. In the use of

image restoration methods, the characteristics of the

degrading system and the noise are assumed to be known a

priori.

B. Degradation model

Capturing an image exactly as it appears in the real world

is very difficult if not impossible. One has to content with

Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) and inter symbol

interference (ISI). In case of photography or imaging

systems these are caused by the graininess of the emulsion,

motion-blur, and camera focus problems. The result of all

these degradations is that the image is an approximation of

the original. The above mentioned degradation process can

adequately be described by a linear spatial model as shown

in Fig 1. The original input is a two-dimensional (2D) image

. This image is operated on by the system H and after

the addition of

one can obtain the degraded image

. Digital image restoration may be viewed as a

process in which we try to obtain an approximation to

given

and H.

(2)

and

. For the linear spatial

model depicted in fig 1, we may also write

(3)

and also,

(4)

inputs equals the sum of the response to each individual

input. This is known as the additively property. Equation (4)

indicates that the response to a constant multiple of any input

is equal to the response to that input multiplied by the

particular constant. This is referred to as the homogeneity

property. The operator H is said to be position or space

invariant if

(5)

May Issue

There are two primary sources of degradation, each of

which introduces peculiar problems for image restoration.

The most basic of these is observation noise. Observation

noise is a randomly introduced degradation and can be

caused by film-grain noise, quantization noise, or other

random disturbances. For each of these causes, however, the

process by which the degradation is introduced cannot be

described deterministically, and information in the image is

lost. Another source of image degradations is blur. Blur can

be introduced by an improperly focused lens, relative motion

between the camera and the scene, or atmospheric

turbulence. Attempting to reverse or invert this blur process

introduces a number of problems. First, the inversion of this

process often amplifies the noise in the image. Second, the

process may be non-invertible, so that multiple solutions are

possible. Third, the blurred image is typically a windowed

version of the blurred scene, so that some of the boundary

information necessary for reversing the blur is lost. Finally,

the blur itself may be unknown or incompletely specified. In

each case, the image restoration process must deal with the

fact that information has been lost or obscured.

for any

A number of new restoration methodologies have been

developed in recent years and has interest in new aspects of

image restoration problems. In general restoration techniques

are oriented towards the recovery of the real image by

applying a restoration process to its degraded version

[10][14]. Some common methods for image restoration

include the inverse filter, the Wiener filter, the movingaverage filter, the parametric Wiener filter, the meansquared-error filter, the Richardson-Lucy algorithm, the

Adaptive Fuzzy Mean Filter, the band-pass filter and the

singular value decomposition technique [10], as well as, the

regularization filter.

Recently, some of the methods for image restoration have

been modified in an attempt to improve their solutions and

reduce the computational complexity [8]. Due to the wide

use as tools for information processing, Artificial Neural

Network (ANN) models have also been used to design new

solutions to the image restoration problem. A Neural

network is a machine that is designed to model the way in

which the brain performs a particular task or function of

interest: The network is usually implemented by using

electronic components or is simulated in software on a

digital computer. A neural network is a massively parallel

distributed processor made up of simple processing units

which has a natural propensity for storing experiential

knowledge and making it available for use. It resembles the

brain in two respects: 1) Knowledge is required by the

network from its environment through a learning process.2)

Interneuron connection strengths, known as synaptic

weights, are used to store the acquired knowledge [17].

They present some features that may lead to better results in

the image restoration process [19]. Such features are related

Page 26 of 53

Vol. 2, No. 5, 2011

to its plasticity and their parallel computing power that have

made them appropriate for applications in pattern

recognition, signal processing, image processing, computer

vision, and several other application areas.

Neural networks is a form of multiprocessor computer

system, with simple processing elements, a high degree of

interconnection, adaptive interaction between elements,

When an element of the neural network fails, it can continue

without any problem by their parallel nature [11].

as long as the amount of spreading in the

continuous image is smaller than the sampling grid

applied to obtain the discrete image, equation (7)

will be arrived.

Uniform Linear Motion Blur

Motion blur incorporates a number of specific

blurring phenomena, including general translations,

rotations, and scale changes. Probably the most

common of these is uniform linear motion blur,

which has a simple functional form. Assume that

the scene is translating with respect to the camera at

a constant velocity v at an angle of from the

horizontal axis for the time period T. If L = vT, the

length of motion during exposure, the PSF is given

by:

(8)

function given a set input output example and for the

reconstruction function from a class a images. Algorithm

such as the Backpropagation and the Perceptron use

gradient- decent techniques to tune the network parameters

to best-fit a training set of input-output examples. In this

paper we present a novel neural network based Back

Propagation approach for image restoration. This approch is

capable of learning complex non-linear functions is expected

to produce better structure espacially in high frequency

regions of the image. We used a two-layer Backpropagation

network with full connectivity.

D. Blur Model

The goal of blur identification is to estimate the attributes

of the imperfect imaging system from the observed degraded

image itself prior to the restoration process [9]. These blurs

appear frequently in practice and were used in the

experiments. Because blurring is a continuous process, the

blur functions are presented in their continuous forms. In

digital image processing, these blur functions must be

discretized. A number of common blur models are presented

in this paper [4].

No Blur Model

In case the recorded image is imaged perfectly, no

blur will be apparent in the discrete image. The

spatially continuous PSF can then be modeled as a

Dirac delta function 19]:

d(x,y)=(x,y)

and the spatially discrete PSF as a unit pulse:

(9)

PSF and is a function of the focal length and the

distance of the object from the camera. This model

assumes that the distance of the object from the

camera does not vary across the image; however, if

the object distance varies across the observed scene,

the PSF will be spatially variant.

Long Term Atmospheric Turbulance Blur

Atmospheric turbulence blur is a factor in image

acquisition over a significant distance through the

atmosphere, such as in aerial imaging for weather

forecasting [4]. Although turbulence is not a

deterministic process, the long-term effects can be

modeled adequately as a Gaussian PSF by:

(10)

(6)

(7)

May Issue

If the entire scene is moving, the PSF is spaceinvariant. However, if an object within the scene is

moving independently of the background, the PSF

is clearly spatially variant.

Out of focus Blur

The PSF describing an out-of-focus blur must take

into account the focal length, the aperture of the

lens, the distance between camera and object, and

the wavelength of the light [4]. If the degree of

defocusing is large relative to the wavelengths of

the light passing through the optical system,

geometrical optics provides an adequate functional

representation of PSF, which is given by:

The parameter

controls the severity of the

degradation .

Where Point Spread Function (PSF) is the degree to

which an optical system blurs (spreads) a point of light [2].

The PSF is the inverse Fourier transform of Optical Transfer

Function (OTF).in the frequency domain ,the OTF describes

Page 27 of 53

Vol. 2, No. 5, 2011

the response of a linear, position-invariant system to an

impulse.OTF is the Fourier transfer of the point (PSF) [13].

II.

B. Mathematical Analysis

Flow Diagram

METHODOLOGY

Back propagation is a form of supervised learning for

multi layer nets, also known as the generalized delta rule.

Error data at the output layer is "back propagated" to earlier

ones, allowing incoming weights to these layers to be

updated. It is most often used as training algorithm in current

neural network applications [3][7]. The back propagation

algorithm was developed by Paul Werbos in 1974 and

rediscovered independently by Rumelhart and Parker. Since

its rediscovery, the back propagation algorithm has been

widely used as a learning algorithm in feed forward

multilayer neural networks. What makes this algorithm

different than the others is the process by which the weights

are calculated during the learning network. In general, the

difficulty with multilayer Perceptrons is calculating the

weights of the hidden layers in an efficient way that result in

the least (or zero) output error; the more hidden layers there

are, the more difficult it becomes. To update the weights, one

must calculate an error. At the output layer this error is easily

measured; this is the difference between the actual and

desired (target) outputs. At the hidden layers, however, there

is no direct observation of the error; hence, some other

technique must be used. To calculate an error at the hidden

layers that will cause minimization of the output error, as this

is the ultimate goal. The back propagation algorithm is an

involved mathematical tool; however, execution of the

training equations is based on iterative processes, and thus is

easily implementable on computer. By using the back

propagation approach, better restored images are achieved in

comparative to other techniques used.

A typical back propagation network [16] with Multilayer, feed-forward supervised learning is as shown in the

figure: 3. Here learning process in Back propagation requires

pairs of input and target vectors. The output vector o is

compared with target vector t. In case of difference of o

and t vectors, the weights are adjusted to minimize the

difference. Initially random weights and thresholds are

assigned to the network. These weights are updated every

iteration in order to minimize the mean square error between

the output vector and the target vector.

1.

2.

Figure 3: Basic Block of Back Propagation Neural Network

May Issue

Page 28 of 53

Algorithm Used

Back-propagation algorithm [17] is a widely used

learning algorithm in Artificial Neural Networks.

This algorithm is based on the error correction

learning rule. Error propagation consists of two

passes through the different layers of the network, a

forward pass and a backward pass. In the forward

pass the input vector

is applied to the sensory nodes of the network and

its effect propagates through the network layer by

layer. Finally a set of outputs is produced as the

actual response of the network. During the forward

pass the synaptic weight of the networks are all

fixed. During the back pass the synaptic weights are

all adjusted in accordance with an error-correction

rule. The actual response of the network is

subtracted from the desired response to produce an

error signal. This error signal is then propagated

backward through the network against the direction

of synaptic conditions. The synaptic weights are

adjusted to make the actual response of the network

move closer to the desired response.

Normalize the inputs and outputs with respect to

their maximum values. It is proved that the neural

networks work better if input and outputs lie

between 0-1. For each training pair, assume there

are I inputs given by

and n outputs

in a normalized form.

nx1

Assume the number of neurons in the hidden layer

to lie between 1<m<2I.

Vol. 2, No. 5, 2011

3.

4.

5.

6.

Input neurons and hidden neurons and [w]

represents weights of synapses connecting hidden

neurons and output neurons. Initialize the weights

to small random values usually from -1 to 1.For

general problems, can be assumed as 1 and the

threshold values can be taken as zero.

= [random weights]

= [random weights]

=

= [o]

For the training data, present one set of inputs and

outputs. Present the pattern to the input layer as

inputs to the input layer. By using linear activation

function, the output of the input layer may be

evaluated as

(11)

1x1

1x1

Compute the inputs to the hidden layer by

multiplying corresponding weights of synapses as

(12)

mx1 mx1 1x1

Let the hidden layer units evaluate the output using

the sigmodial function as:

(13)

7.

8.

multiplying corresponding weights of synapses as

(14)

nx1 nxm mx1

Let the output layer units evaluate the output using

the sigmodial function as:

(15)

9.

Calculate the error and the difference between the

network output and the desired output as for the ith

training set as

(16)

mx1 mxn nx1

(20)

[X] =

1xm 1x1 1xm

1x1 1xm

14. Find

1xm

1xm 1xm

15. Find

(21)

(22)

(23)

(24)

Error Rate =

(25)

rate is less than the minimum value (tolerance

value).

III.

SIMULATION RESULT

Restoration Techniques, like Lucy- Richardson algorithm,

Wiener Filter with Back Propagation Neural Network

algorithm has been presented in Figure 7, and also

quantitative results has been given in table [Table I ]

showing their performance. Along with the figures and table,

graph is plotted, shown in Figure 5 [graph1], has also been

given for all the quantitative measures, of four different

standard images (Lena, Camera Man, Fruits, Baboon) to

have a quick insight into the comparative performance of the

applied approaches along with the proposed one i.e. Back

Propagation Neural Network Algorithm. Graph is plotted of

standard Image LENA using Back Propagation Neural

Network in Figure 6 [graph (a), (b), (c)] representing

different PSNR values with respect to different parameters

i.e. length, snr, angle.

TABLE I.

PSNR of Restoration Techniques

Images

(17)

[Y] =

mxn mx1 1xn

12. Find

1xm

1xm

May Issue

(18)

Lucy

Wiener

NN

Lena

12.1537

14.28

30.0361

Camera Man

9.096

10.743

33.4281

Fruits

11.4185

13.3395

31.9419

Baboon

13.7738

15.6843

28.6984

where

(19)

1xm

Page 29 of 53

Vol. 2, No. 5, 2011

35

Peak Signal to noise Ratio (PSNR

30

25

Lena

20

Camera

Man

Fruits

15

Baboon

10

30.18

30.17

30.16

30.15

30.14

30.13

30.12

30.11

30.1

30.09

30.08

BPN

30.1729

30.1135

30.1406

30.1348

30.1496

(c)

0

Lucy

Wiener

NN

Figure 6: Graph Showing (a)PSNR wrt Length (b) PSNR wrt SNR (c)

PSNR wrt Angle, of standard Image LENA using Back Propagation NN.

Restoration Techniques.

30.18

30.16

30.14

30.12

30.1

30.08

30.06

30.04

30.02

30

29.98

29.96

BPN

30.1117

30.1046

30.1547

30.0361

30.1024

(a)

IV.

CONCLUTION

Restoration. Several approaches have been applied and were

presented using various filters, algorithms and Artificial

Neural Network. The Back Propagation Neural Network has

the simplest architecture of the various Artificial Neural

Networks that have been developed for Image Restoration.

Many research works have been carried out to improve the

performance of degraded image. All these methods are

computationally complex in nature. Experimental results

show the adequacy of the proposed approach to the problem.

Quantitative analysis shows the better performance of

proposed method presented i.e. Back Propagation Neural

Network algorithm compare to Lucy Richardson

Algorithm and Wiener filter.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Principal, RCET- Bhilai for his kind support. We would also

especially grateful to Mr. Santosh Rungta, Chairman, RCETBhilai for providing necessary facilities to incorporate this

research work.

30.14

30.13

30.12

30.11

30.1

30.09

30.08

30.07

30.06

30.05

30.04

BPN

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30.1349

30.0934

30.1135

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May Issue

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Figure 7: Applying Back Propagation Neural Network Approach at four different Images (Lena, Camera Man, Fruits, Baboon

May Issue

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