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1.

0 ABSTRACT

The objective of the first experiment was to determine the Electrical Stability ( ES ) drilling mud
sample while the second experiment was to determine the content of liquids and solids for each
sample drilling fluids . To determine the stability of Electrical tester kit will be used. Sensor Kit
will be dipped and stirred into the mud samples and the results for the water -based mud is 4
volts and 73 volts for oil-based mud. This kit is designed to ensure the accuracy of the results
successfully. The furnace is used to separate the solid and liquid composition of drilling mud or
fluid samples. Furnace heated to very high temperatures to separate the two types of states of
matter. As a result, the mud will be separated from water and soil. Water out through the outlet
into a measuring cylinder and the soil is trapped in the furnace.
2.0 INTRODUCTION

The first experiment was carried out to determine the stability of the electricity in the drilling
mud samples. Samples to be used are of two types, namely oil-based mud and water based mud .
Each mud has certain voltage current flow to show the stability of the emulsion in its use for
good . Common devices used are electrical tester kit has detachable dipping sensor and the main
box has a small screen to show the data. Indications emulsion mud with good will display the
number of high electrical stability. Conversely, if the test kit displayed low values of electrical
stability, clear mud emulsion that has not been tested well.
The second experiment is to separate liquids and solids content of the drilling fluid .. This
investigation is important for proper control of the solid content in the form of mud that has a
higher tendency to avoid problems such as arranging the pipes . Knowing the composition of the
drilling mud is beneficial where there is poor performance mud itself, improve the range of
composition of the mud by adding compounds or other chemicals that can help to its
performance . For this experiment, the furnace with the capacity to heat the liquid up to 500 C
is used . The equipment used has a combination of three working principles of hot , evaporation
and condensation at the end of the experiment in which it will produce solid compounds present
in the mud tested and also liquid initially present in certain mud , whether it is water or oil .

3.0 OBJECTIVES

3.1 Part A
To determine the Electrical Stability (ES) of drilling mud samples.
3.2 Part B
To determine the contents liquid and solid of each of the drilling fluid samples.
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4.0 THEORY
4.1 Part A
Emulsion tester is used in the evaluation of inverted emulsion drilling fluids, cement and
fracturing fluid. This test indicates the stability and types of emulsion whether water-in-oil or oilin-water. Time stability and resistance to electrolyte contamination of these systems can be
predicted from a measurement of relative emulsion stability. The indication of a mud with a good
emulsion will display a high number of electrical stability.
Electrical Stability (ES) test is a test that applied to oil-base and synthetic-base muds that
indicates the stability of the emulsion and oil wetting capacity of the sample. The electrical
stability is determined by applying a steadily increasing sinusoidal alternating voltage across a
pair of parallel flat plate electrodes submerged in the drilling fluids. Maximum voltage that the
mud will sustain across the gap before conducting current is displayed as the ES voltage.
The Electrical Stability (ES) is one of vital properties for oil based mud. It shows the voltage of
the current to flow in the mud. The ES number represents mud emulsion stability. In general, oil
base fluid is non-conductive material. Therefore, the base fluid will not transfer any current.
Only water phase in the mud will conduct the electricity. If the mud has good emulsion, high
number of ES will be displayed. On the other hand, if the emulsion of the mud is bad, it will
shows the low ES value.

4.2 Part B
Knowledge of the liquid and solids content of a drilling mud is essential for good control of the
mud properties. Such information will often explain poor performance of the mud and indicate
whether the mud can best be conditioned by the addition of water or whether treatment with
chemical thinner or the removal of the contaminant is required. Similarly, proper control of an oil
emulsion mud depends upon a knowledge of the oil content. For muds containing only water and
solids, the quantity of each can be determined from the mud density and from the evaporation of
a weighed sample of mud. Oil and water content can also be obtained measuring the liquid
fraction.
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Drilling fluid composition consists of liquid which is oil and water and also solid. Solids content
is fundamental to proper control of mud properties such as rheology, density, and filter cake
building properties. The amounts of solids need to be controlled to avoid drilling problem such
as pipe sticking. The Oil & Water Retort provides a simple, direct field method for directly
measuring the percent by volume of oil and water by samples in drilling mud. The volume of
solids is found by subtraction from 100%.
The liquid and solids content of a drilling mud is essential for good control of the mud
properties. Such information will often explain poor performance of the mud and indicates
whether the mud can be best conditioned by the addition of water or treatment with chemical
thinner or the removal of the contaminant is required. Similarly, proper control of an oil
emulsion mud depends upon knowledge of the oil content.
For muds containing only water and solids, the quantity of each can be determined from the mud
density and from the evaporation of a weighed sample of mud. Oil and water content can also be
obtained by measuring the liquid fraction. The retort kit working principle is based on the
heating, vaporization and condensation. The mud is heated up until more than 500C until the
liquid is vaporized. The vapour then flow into the condenser and condensed back to liquid form.

5.0 PROCEDURE
5.1 Part A Emulsion Test
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2.
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4.
5.

The ON button was turned on.


The calibration kit (1823 and 600) was placed in the socket.
TEST button was pressed until the reading remained constant.
Mixed mud was prepared and was poured into a beaker.
The probe was connected to the electrical tester and was dipped into th beaker containing

the mud.
6. ES voltage was recorded.
7. The experiment was repeated with oil based mud.
5.2 Part B Solid and Liquid Extraction Content

1. The furnace set was prepared. The chamber consists of two compartments, bottom and
the upper part.
2. The upper chamber was stuffed with steel wool to the maximum level.
3. The lower chamber of the mud was filled with mud and the lid was replaced to allow
excess sample mud to escape. The excess mud flowing out off the chamber was wiped
off. The thread of the chamber was insulated with grease.
4. Sample chamber with lid was screwed into upper chamber. It was hand tighten by using a
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6.
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square bar retort wrench which was later placed into the furnace.
The condenser was connected and tightened.
One to three drops of wetting agents was added into the measuring cylinder.
The furnace was switched on and was left to run for 45 minutes.
The liquid sample in the measuring cylinder was left to cool off for one to two minutes.

The sample volume was recorded.


9. The chamber was left to cool for two to three hours before the solid sample was
collected.
10. The solid sample was then weighed by using an electronic balance.

6.0 APPARATUS

6.1 Part A
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2.
3.
4.
5.

Electrical Stability (ES) Tester


Calibration kit
Water- based mud and oil-based mud (drilling mud)
Beaker
Cleaning kit

Figure 6.1 shows the

Electrical Stability
(ES) Tester

6.2 Part B
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2.
3.
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6.

Water based mud and oil based mud (drilling fluid)


Grease
Retort Kit Oil and Water
Measuring cylinder
Cleaning kit
Wetting agent

Figure 6.2 shows the apparatus set up for part B


7.0 RESULT
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7.1 Part A: Emulsion Test

7.2 Part B: Solid and Liquid Extraction Content

8.0 CALCULATION

Mass of mud = (mass of mud + plastic plate) mass of plastic plate

9.0 DISCUSSION
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In this experiment, there are two tests were to be made involving two types of mud that are water
based mud and the oil base mud. In the first experiment, both type of muds were tested with the
electrical stability tester (EST). The EST works by applying a pair of parallel electrode with
steadily increasing sinusoidal alternating voltage into the mud so that the resistivity of the mud
can be observed. The reading obtained on the EST is the peak voltage of the current flowing
between the electrodes immersed in the mud or also can be used to determine the emulsion
quality of the mud. The ES value represents the emulsion quality of the mud. Based on the test
conducted, it was found out that the oil based mud has way higher ES value compared to the
water based mud. When tested with the EST, the reading obtained is higher than the water based
mud. This is because the oil based mud is a non conductive fluid with higher resistivity for
current to flow. The water based on the other hand, has low resistivity compared to the oil based
mud.
Drilling mud as we all know have many functions such as to create mud filtrate at the wall of
wellbore during a drilling process. The emulsion property of the mud will determine whether the
mud is of good condition or not. There are several factors that may reduce the quality of the mud
such as the oil-water ratio, solid content, temperature and pressure. During a drilling process, a
mud engineer will always monitor the mud ES value to ensure the smoothness of the drilling
process. If the ES value of an oil based mud is lower than normal mud specification, it shows
that the mud is contaminated by water or salts that reduce the quality. It is well known that below
the earth, there are many type of fluids such varying salinity and resistivity that may contaminate
the mud.
The second part of experiment is about determining the oil, water and solid content of the water
based mud. The experiment took time as it used retort kit which is a high temperature electrical
furnace. The water based mud as we all knew is a mixture of oil, water and solid parts. It was
first heated in the furnace to a very high temperature to make the mud boil and vaporise. The
heat inside the furnace supply very high energy to the atoms of the mud that it collides and the
mud composition that has lower boiling point which is the water and oil will vaporise and turned
to gaseous form. It is then escaped the furnace through an opening at the top of the mud
container. It travelled through the opening to a condenser which is lower in temperature and
made the gases converted back to liquid form. The liquids were collected in a measuring cylinder
at the end of the condenser. From that, the amount of water and oil contained in the mud can be
determined. It was found out that there were 47 mL of water and 1mL of oil in the mud. After the
furnace was let for few hours to cool down, the container of the mud inside the furnace was
retrieved. There were solid parts remainings of the mud inside the container. It was then collected
and weighed. The solid remainings weighed as much as 2.849g.
In the industry, the most frequent usage of muds are of the water based as it is way cheaper and
easily obtained or prepared. Compared to the oil based mud, it needs proper care as it might
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cause pollution if not being handled or disposed properly. This will increase costs for the oil
company. In a water based mud, it may contain few percent of oil content, however, the oil
composition must be separated and segregated with other compositions of the mud in a
distinctive phase called discontinuous. Oil based mud is made by making refined or crude oil as
the continuous composition. It may has water composition with low percentage or the water
content dispersed in the continuous oil composition.

10.0 CONCLUSION
In conclusion , from Part A, Emulsion Tester is used to determine the stability of Electricity, it
shows that the resistance to higher oil-based mud with an average of 170 , while the resistance to
water-based mud lower average 2. This is because the water-based mud has a better conductor of
oil-based mud . For Part B , the determination of the composition of the solid and liquid drilling
fluid or mud samples , the furnace is used to heat a very high temperature to separate the two
types of states of matter . For water-based mud, it contains 47 mL of water, 1 mL of oil and 2.849
g of solid compound.

11.0 RECOMMENDATIONS
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During the emulsion test, the result was taken several times to get the accurate reading, where
there are a bit different between the result collected. This might be some of parallax error
especially when operated the self contained batteries, 12 volt DC or from 115 volt AC. The tester
dont get accurate reading and might effect in the result
Furthermore, when the probe was immersed, it was not stir completely and may affect the
voltage reading. Besides, the same probe is using to test between the oil based mud and the water
based mud, the probe must be completely clean before test with different mud. Some precaution
must be taken such as do not touch the bare metal when instruments in turn on and don not short
out electrodes which will completely affect the result taken.
For the solid and liquid extraction content test, the error may occur on the result when the air are
fill in the chambers. After the mud is filled, make sure that there are no air is trapped in the
chambers because an accurate charge of mud is essential.
To get the best result, some of care equipment should be consider which is use the spatula to
scrape the dried mud from the mud chamber and lid to assure correct volume, remove and
replace any mud caked steel wool and lastly clean the retort drain tube and condenser with a pipe
cleaner.

12.0 REFERENCES
1) www.wikipedia.org
2) http://www.oilproduction.net/files/Drilling_engineering.pdf
3) King Fahd university of Petroleum and Minerals, Pete 203,Drilling engineering
4) Petroleum and Natural Gas Wells Drilling Engineering Laboratory ,Professor Musaed N.
J. Al-Awad

13.0 APPENDICES

13.1 Fann emulsion


13.2 Oil/water retort kit

13.3 Water based mud

13.4 Oil based mud


13.5 Oil and water in measuring cylinder resulted at the end of experiment

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13.6 Rheometer

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