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Draft

Reclamation and Rehabilitation Plan


Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine
Allum Prashant, Bellary (M.L. No.2352)

Submitted by

ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT DIVISION


Directorate of Extension
Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education

(An autonomous body of the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India)

P.O.-New Forest, Dehradun-248006 (UK)


Website: www.icfre.gov.in

S. No. Chapter
SUMMARY
ABBREVIATION
CHAPTER-1 : INTRODUCTION
1.1.
BACKGROUND
1.2
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
1.3
METHODOLOGY
CHAPTER-2 - MINE DESCRIPTION
2.1.
INTRODUCTION
2.2
LOCATION OF MINE
2.3.
MINING PLANS AND ENVIRONMENTAL CLEARANCES
2.4.
MINING METHODOLOGY
2.5.
MINE PROFILE
2.5.1.
Mine machineries
2.5.2
Mine pits
2.5.3

2.6

2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10

2.11

2.12
2.13
3.1

3.2
3.3

Mine dumps
2.5.3.1 Inactive dump
2.5.3.2 Active dump
2.5.4
Sub grade ore
EXPLORATION
2.6.1
Past Exploration
2.6.2
Proposed Exploration
MINE DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTION
ESTIMATED IRON ORE RESERVE
STRIPPING RATIO PRESENT AND FUTURE
Roads
2.10.1 Approach roads
2.10.2 Haulage roads
TRANSPORTATION OF ORE
2.11.1 Existing transportation facility
2.11.2 Proposed transportation facility
SAFETY ZONE
VIOLATION (IF ANY) AND ITS COMPLIANCE
CHAPTER-3 BASELINE DATA
STUDY AREA
3.1.1
Climate
3.1.2
Physiography/Topography
REGIONAL GEOLOGY
3.2.1
Local Geology
PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
3.3.1
Soil
3.3.2
Landuse Pattern of Sandur Taluk

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3.4

3.5

4.1

5.1
5.2

5.3
5.4

3.3.2.1
Land use pattern of the Mine Lease Area
3.3.3
Air Environment
3.3.4
Noise Environment
3.3.5
Water Environment
3.3.5.1
Basin Characteristics
Water Bodies
3.3.5.2
3.3.5.3
Drainage Pattern
Ground Water Quality
3.3.5.4
BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT
3.4.1
Flora
3.4.2
Fauna
SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT
3.5.1
Demographic Status of the Mine Affected Villages
3.5.2
Land Use Pattern of Villages/Town in Buffer Zone
CHAPTER-4 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OPEN CAST IRON ORE MINING
4.1.1
Impact on Landscape
4.1.2
Impact on Ecology
4.1.3
Impact on Air Quality
4.1.4. Impact on Noise and Vibration
4.1.5
Impact on Water Quality
4.1.6
Impact on Soil Fertility
4.1.7
Impact on Aquatic Life
4.1.8
Impact on Society
CHAPTER-5 RECLAMATION AND REHABILITATION PLAN
INTRODUCTION
RECLAMATION AND REHABILITATION MEASURES
5.2.1 Reclamation and rehabilitation plan for area under encroachment
5.2.2
Stabilization of Dump
5.2.2.1
Waste dump
5.2.3.1.1
Waste Dump Management Plan
5.2.2.2
Engineering measures
5.2.2.3
Sub Grade Stack/ Fine Ore stack
5.2.3
Surface Water Management
5.2.3.1
Gully Plugs
5.2.3.2
Check Dams
5.2.3.3
Settling Tank
BIOLOGICAL MEASURES
5.3.1
Species Selection and Plantation
OVER BURDEN DUMP
5.4.1
Other points to be for OB dump management
5.4.2
Mine pit management and rehabilitation
5.4.3
Management of Refractory sites

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5.5

5.6

5.7

5.8
5.9

5.10
5.11
5.12
5.13
5.14

5.4.4
Mine drainage management and rehabilitation
5.4.5
Management of haul roads
AFFORESTATION
5.5.1
Multipurpose plant species
5.5.2
Establishment of Nursery
GREENBELT DEVELOPMENT PLAN
5.6.1
Cost of developing green belt
5.6.2
Recommended plant species
BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION PLAN
5.7.1
Flora
5.7.2
Fauna
5.7.3
Habitat protection
5.7.4
Providing a corridor for the dwelling and movement of
Herpetofauna
5.7.5 Creation of Habitat for Avifauna
5.7.6
Reducing anthropogenic pressure
5.7.7
Aquatic fauna
SOIL MANAGEMENT PLAN
PRODUCTION CAPACITY BASED ON RESERVE, DUMP AND ROAD
CAPACITY
5.9.1
Permissible production capacity based on reserve
5.9.2
Permissible production capacity based on dump
5.9.3
Permissible production capacity based on road
5.9.4
Additional measures
OBSERVATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING
COST SUMMARY OF THE PROPOSED PLAN
TIME SCHEDULE
BIBLIOGRAPHY
PLATES
ANNEXURES (I-IV)

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100104
105
106109
110165

TABLES
Table-2.1

Details of inactive dump

Table-2.2
Table-2.3
Table-2.4
Table-2.5
Table-2.6
Table-2.7

Details of active dump


Existing engineering measures within in the ML area
Existing engineering measures outside in the ML area
Proposed year-wise production of sub grade ore (in tonnes)
Haulage roads in mine lease area
Year wise production (Quantity in tonnes)

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9
10
10
11
12

Table-2.8

Details of the category wise mineable reserves

14

Table-2.9
Table2.10
Table-3.1
Table-3.2
Table-3.3
Table-3.4
Table-3.5
Table 3.6
Table 3.7
Table 3.8
Table 3.9

Details of the updated reserves (Quantity in Million Tonnes)


List of Violations as per IBM and Its Compliance
Physiographical information of the lease area
Land use pattern of Bellary taluk
land use pattern of the Mine Lease Area
Air quality data
Noise level data carried out in 4 different locations.
Showing ground water quality data of four different locations.
List of plants occurring in outside the lease area
List of plants occurring inside the lease area
List of butterflies recorded in the three study regions based on direct
observations, present study and the secondary information
List of fish species of Daroji Lake of Hospet, Bellary District
Status of Herpetofauna in the study area
List of terrestrial birds recorded in the three study ranges of the study
List of aquatic birds recorded and reported from the wetlands
List of mammals
Showing demographic details of the mine affected villages within 10 km radius
Showing landuse pattern of villages/town in Buffer zone.
Estimate for R and R plan of the encroached areas
Estimate for Dump Management Plan
Proposed Costs of Surface Water Management Plan
Species Recommended for Hydro seeding (HS)
Grasses and bamboos (Family: Poaceae) recommended for stabilization of the
OB dumps
Species Recommended for Nitrogen Enrichment of Mine Areas
Plant Species suitable for OB Dump and Mine Pit Stabilization
Plant Species suitable for stabilization of Refractory Sties
Plant Species suitable for Stabilization of Nalla/Drain Courses
Plant Species Recommended for Avenue Plantation along Mine Haul Roads
Multipurpose plant species recommended for eco-reclamation and ecorehabilitation of mine areas

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Table 3.10
Table 3.11
Table 3.12
Table-3.13
Table-3.14
Table-3.15
Table-3.16
Table-5.1
Table-5.2
Table-5.3
Table-5.4
Table-5.5
Table-5.6
Table-5.7
Table 5.8
Table-5.9
Table-5.10
Table 5.11

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84
85

Table 5.12
Table-5.13

Figure-2.1

Cost Estimate for Developing Green Belt


88
Tree Species recommended for Greenbelt Development around the mine lease 89
area.
Details of the category wise mineable reserves
93
Details of the updated reserves (Quantity in Million Tonnes)
94
Criteria for Estimation of Permissible Production limit for, ML- 2352
95
Cost Summary of the Proposed Plan
99
FIGURE
Key Mining Plan of the Haraginadona Iron ore Mine, ML 2352
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Figure-2.2
Figure2.3

Google Map of the Haraginadona Iron ore Mine, ML 2352


Map showing the Surface Plan of the Haraginadona Iron ore Mine, ML 2352

Table 5.14
Table 5.15
Table 5.16
Table 5.17

Figure-3.1
Figure-3.2

Index Map of District Bellary


Map showing the Locations of Environmental Monitoring Stations in
Haraginadona Iron ore Mine, ML 2352
Figure-3.3 Map showing the Geological plan of the Haraginadona Iron ore Mine
Figure-3.4 Map showing Existing Land Use Plan in the Mine Lease Area of Haraginadona
Iron ore Mine, ML 2352
Figure- 5.1 Existing Dump Management Plan for Haraginadona Iron ore Mine, ML 2352
Figure-5.2 Surface Water Management Plan of Haraginadona Iron ore Mine, ML 2352
Figure-5.3 Dump Management Plan of Haraginadona Iron ore Mine, ML 2352

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Reclamation And Rehabilitation Plan Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine ICFRE


Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)

SUMMARY

The Honble Supreme Court of India has directed the Government of Karnataka to
formulate Reclamation and Rehabilitation Plan (R&R) for the mine affected districts
viz., Bellary, Chitradurga and Tumkur. The study was entrusted to Indian Council of
Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE), Dehra Dun, by the Government of
Karnataka, vide letter No.DMG/MLS/R&R/2011-12 dated 27.12.2011. The ICFRE in
association with specific domain experts carried out the study. The main objectives of
the study are:
Preparation of R&R Plan for the mining leases found to be involved in illegal
mining;
Preparation of Supplementary Environment Management Plan for incorporating
additional environmental safeguards in respect of the leases not found to be
involved in illegal mining;
Comprehensive environment plan for Mining Impact Zone (MIZ) for the areas
surrounding the mining lease area;
i) Short term measures; and
ii) Long term measures.
The main objectives of the study are:
To delineate the level of degradation on various environment, such as physical,
biological and sociological aspects due to mining.
To identify suitable site specific plan for rehabilitation and reclamation.
To provide code of practices and guidelines for pollution reduction, recovery,
reuse and recycle as well as frame work for rehabilitation and reclamation
plan

Reclamation And Rehabilitation Plan Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine ICFRE


Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)

This will include all the leases, including non working leases.
The scope of the study includes collection of the existing environmental status such as
topography, production technology, overburden dump, top soil, soil conservation
measures, environmental quality to assess the impacts and to formulation of site
specific R&R plan.
Considering the time limit and constraints in collection of baseline data on the existing
environmental status the study had to mainly relay on the secondary sources of
information viz., EIA/EMP reports, Mining Scheme, environmental monitoring
conducted by external agencies such as the SPCB, Department of Mines and Geology,
and mine owners.
1. Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine of M/s Sri Allum Prashant (ML No. 2352) has a
lease area of 69.60 ha. The entire lease area is non- forest land, which was granted
for mining of Yellow Oxide, initially, for a period of 20 years, from 21.07.2000 to
20.07.2020. The mining operations in this Mine were started in July 2001.
Subsequently, in 2002, fresh lease deed was issued in co-terminus with original
lease period, after inclusion of Iron Ore mineral. The Mine is located near
Haraginadona village of Bellary Taluk, in Bellary District, Karnataka State. The
Mine area comes in Survey of India Topo sheet No. 57A/16 at Latitude 150 08
40.1N to 150 07 43N to and Longitude760 4534.5E to 760 464.5E. The Mine
is situated in the revenue land. The road distance of the Mine area from Bellary
town is about 12 km; the nearest sea port and airport are Marmugoa (425 km)
and Bangalore (350 km), respectively.
2.

Mining scheme for the period 2011-12 to 2015-16 submitted to IBM, vide letter
dated 23.09.2011. However, IBM has returned the document vide letter dated
29.03.2012 asking the applicant to incorporate details like CEC duly certified
sketch, the details of maximum production of mineral fixed by State Govt.

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Reclamation And Rehabilitation Plan Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine ICFRE


Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)

3. Environmental Clearance initially was accorded by MoEF, vide letter no. J11015/49/2002-IA.II (M) dated 31.05.2006 for production of 10,000 TPA .
Subsequently during July, 2007 the Environmental Clearance by MoEF granted
for enhanced capacity of 2.50 lakh TPA, vide letter no. J-11015/165/2007-IA.II
(M) dated July 5, 2007 .
4. Currently, the total area under mining and allied activities is 69.60 ha.
5. Licence for using explosives was granted on 20.05.2009 and valid till 31.03.2014.
6. The mine lease area is mainly hill locked valley with an altitude between 560 to
615 m above M.S.L. The iron ore deposit comprises mostly BAQ Floats/ Soil,Iron
ore / Red oxide / Yellow oxide,BHQ (Iron ore),Shale,Green stone / Schist
7. Soil is derived from Schistose rocks, Granites and Gneisses . They are permeable
and mildly alkaline in nature. The thickness of the soil varies from 0.2 to 1.00 m.
The Red soil is the major type of soil in the area due to presence of iron.
8. Based on the periodical monitoring by Karnataka State Pollution Control Board
in the indentified location the Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) ranged from
150 and 199 g /m3 respectively and Respirable Particulate Matter (RPM) range
from 41g /m3 and 63 g /m3 in 4 stations located near the mine area.
9. The main sources of noise are from stationary mining equipment, mobile mining
equipment and transportation of vehicles. Based on the data obtained from the
Karnataka State Pollution Control Board (KSPCB). The noise level ranged from
50-68 dB(A) Leq during day time and 42-66 dB(A) Leq, during night time near
the mine lease area.
10. There are no perennial springs in the vicinity of the mining lease area.
11. Water courses are seasonal and observed in monsoon season only. Hence, the
descent of rainwater from the hills needs to be controlled by constructing
structures like gully checks, gully plugs and check dams.
12. The drainage pattern is subdendritic in nature

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Reclamation And Rehabilitation Plan Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine ICFRE


Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)

13. The annual rainfall varies from 350 mm to 650 mm with an average of 574.9 mm.
The rainfall is mostly (60%) confined to the period from June to September
during south-west monsoon.
14. The physical and chemical characteristic of the ground water is studied in 4 the
pH value recorded 7.45 to 8.11 and the ground water is of Carbonate type. CaCo3
recorded between 115 -389 mg/l. Chloride is recorded between 50-255 mg/l.
15. The vegetation occurring in the area belongs to Southern tropical thorny/scrub
forests consisting of Deciduous forest (Champion and Seth, 1968). The forest is
degraded and in several places, the canopy is highly opened.
16. The plant resources inside and outside the mine lease area are 28 and 34 species
respectively consisting of herbs, shrubs and trees.
17. 13 villages fall in the core zone (at 5km radius) and buffer zone (at 10 km radius).
The total population within the buffer and core zone is about 30041.
18. Clearing of vegetation/forest cover in the mine lease area and overburden have
an important bearing on the habitat and quality of all associated faunal species
due to fragmentation. The faunal species recorded during the survey include
mammals, reptiles, amphibians, butterflies, avifauna and aquatic birds.
19. There are two dumps, one is inactive and another is active. The inactive (old)
dump D-3 is located in block A . The dump slope is 40 and the total area is 0.21
ha.. Active dump is located at the east-northeastern part of the A-block. The
dump slope 40, the total area is 2.13 ha.
20. The sub grade mineral with an iron content is 35% which is recovered and the
total production is 1, 84,587 tonnes.
21. As per the actual production of ore and waste material during last five years the
ore to waste ratio is 1:3.61
22. The mine owner has constructed 2 retaining walls and check dam 2 nos. inside
the lease area to control the sediment flow and erosion into stream and 1
retaining wall, 16 check dams and 1 garland drain outside the lease area. In order

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Reclamation And Rehabilitation Plan Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine ICFRE


Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)

to have adequate engineering measures further. 4 masonary check dams 10 gully


plugs, 2 stone masonary settling tanks and 13 rock fill check dams are proposed
outside the lease area.
23. It is recommended for maintenance of the haul roads at regular intervals, which
are leading to the mine. The roads must be regularly sprinkled with water to
avoid dust during transportation of ore material through trucks with adequate
tarpaulin. The drainage system is inadequate along the haul roads and it is
suggested that drainage be provided all along the haul roads, to arrest sediment
flow downstream.
24. Green belt development all along the haul roads with avenue tree species such as
Aegle marmelos, Bauhinia racemosa, Boswellia serrata Ficus arnottiana, Cassia fistula
has been recommend to suppress noise and dust pollution
25. There is no green belt available in the safety zone around the mine lease area. It
is recommended for development of green belt i.e. 7.5m width, as stipulated by
MoEF with immediate effect. Species like Albizia lebbeck,

Albizia amara,

Azadirachta indica, Ficus microcarpa, Grewia villosa, Terminalia arjuna, Wrightia


tinctoria are suggested with suitable planting model for tree, shrub and herb
species.
26. Biological measures for management of overburden dumps, sub-grade stock/
dump, mine pit area, refractory sites, mine drainage, surface water, haul road
etc., with reconstruction of suitable techniques to improve the ability and to
support the vegetation growth has been recommended with the application of
organic matter, and use of geo-textile/geo-matting.
27. A biodiversity conservation measure has also been suggested considering the
importance of the forest ecosystem in terms of its environmental services suitable
floral species have been recommended for restoration of the mined out areas for
timber, fodder, fuel wood and medicinal plant to meet the community
requirement and overall ecosystem development.

Reclamation And Rehabilitation Plan Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine ICFRE


Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)

28. Creation of fauna habitats and corridors during restoration, using logs, stumps
and other natural materials have been suggested. Besides creation of fauna
corridors to connect the nearby forest to encourage smaller species of mammals
and reptiles, which are reluctant to traverse long distances of open ground, to
colonize in the restored areas has been contemplated.
29. Tree hollows are recommended to substitute by providing nest boxes of
appropriate size for the target species in the proposed restored areas. Animals,
particularly invertebrate species, are important in many ecological processes,
such as nutrient cycling, litter decomposition, soil aeration, seed dispersal, seed
predation and plants ability to survive fire or set seed, so that they can reestablish after fire.
30. The ultimate objective of the biological measure is to restore the natural
vegetation occurring in and around the mine area and also to provide a corridor
for free movement of the wildlife. The species selected for establishment is based
on the future land use of the area, soil conditions and climate.
31. For the sustainable and scientific mining recommended by CEC there is a need to
cap the overall ceiling of iron ore production. Therefore feasible production
capacity of the Iron ore has been calculated based on Reserve, Dump and Road.
32. Reserves: As per the last approved scheme of mining the estimated total
mineable reserves are 5.30 Million. Therefore the production of 0.27 million
tonnes per annum could be possible to achieve during the next 20 years.
33. Dump: The additional waste dump that would be accommodated in the defined
area during the next plan period is 0.28 MCM. Therefore the production of 0.032
million tonnes per annum could be possible to achieve during next 5 years.
34. Road: The total ore mined moves towards NH-63 for domestic users, traversing
through 2 different stretches & State Higway-19. Computation is annexed at
HIM-3. The capacity assignable to Hariginadona Mine M.L No 2352 of Allum
Prashant is 0.315 MTPA based on the limit from Road Section R9.

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Reclamation And Rehabilitation Plan Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine ICFRE


Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)

35. Based on the availability of mineral reserves, dump capacity, volume of traffic
and further planning for the resources an annual production level of 0.032
Million tonnes based on dump capacity is considered as a feasible production
level.
36. Rehabilitation and Reclamation plan will be useful in providing a framework for
various target groups for undertaking scientific rehabilitation and reclamation of
mined out areas. An estimate cost of Rs. 248.17 lakh has been proposed for
excluding R &R Plan including the cost for Biodiversity Management Plan,
Monitoring and Evaluation, Capacity Building, development of common
infrastructure, etc.
37. Regular monitoring of the R&R programme will not only establish valuable
reference data for authorities to ensure and demonstrate compliance with
regulatory requirements but also in subsequent decision-making on operational
parameters needed to ensure better oversight of the entire site specific land use
for sustainable management.

And, the success of the Reclamation and

Rehabilitation plan will depend upon its proper implementation and rigorous
monitoring which can be ensured only through a specialized institution that has
the requisite competence, composite scientific expertise and professionals. The
capacity building of the personals involved in implementation of this plan by an
expert scientific organization is also an essential input for the successful
implementation of this plan.
38. The successful, regional management of Reclamation and Rehabilitation plan
requires strategic integration of a very specialized ecological, taxonomical,
biological and engineering interagency that allows scientists and land managers
to reach a consensus. . In our country there are limited institutions have such
composite expertise and experience for execution and monitoring of such
specialized tasks. Therefore, consortium of institutes headed by ICFRE may be
formulated for effective monitoring and the implementation of the R & R Plan.

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Reclamation And Rehabilitation Plan Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine ICFRE


Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)

39. Further, the task force constituted as per the recommendation made in Chapter-9
of the macro EIA report- ICFRE can ensure proper monitoring and
implementation of R&R plan, EMP and Capacity building of the personal
involved in the implementation of proposed plan. And, these parameters should
be the key indicators while revalidating the mine plan with good mining
practice.

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Reclamation And Rehabilitation Plan Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine ICFRE


Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)

S. No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
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18.
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21.
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23.
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27.
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29.
30.

Abbreviation

Full Form

%
cm
CPCB
CSO
Cum
EIA
EL
FC
Fe
ha
HEMM
km2
m
m2
m3
masl
mg/l
ML
mm
MoEF
MTPA
NAAQS
NMDC
PWD
RET
SPCB
UNDP
UNFC
C
SH

Percentage
Centimeter
Center Pollution Control Board
Central Statistic Office
Cubic meter
Environment Impact Assessment
Elevation
Forest clearance
Iron
Hectare
heavy earth moving machinery
Kilometer square
Meter
Meter square
Meter cube
Meter above sea level
Milligram per Liter
Mining lease
Millimeter
Ministry of Environment and Forest
Metric ton per annum
National Ambient Air Quality Standards
National Mineral Development Corporation
Public Works Department
Rare, Endangered and Threatened
State Pollution Control Board
United Nations Development Programme
United Nations Framework Classification
Degree Centigrade
State Highway

i|P a g e

Reclamation And Rehabilitation Plan Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine

ICFRE

Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)-

CHAPTER-1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND
The Honble Supreme Court of India, considering the severe and significant damage caused
due to unscientific and unregulated mining in Bellary, Chitradurga and Tumkur districts in
Karnataka and based on the macro EIA report submitted by ICFRE directed the Government
of Karnataka to submit a Reclamation and Rehabilitation (R & R) plan for the mine affected
districts within three months. The Government of Karnataka, keeping in view the National
Environmental Standards and the commitment for holistic approach for sustainable
management of the area affected has awarded the study of formulation of R & R plan to
Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE), Dehra Dun, vide letter
No.DMG/MLS/R&R/2011-12 dated 27.12.2011. The Director, Department of Mines and
Geology, Bangalore, vide letter no. DMG/MLS/R&R/2011-12/15179 dated 31.03.2012, called
upon the Director General, ICFRE, Dehra Dun to take up the task of preparation of
Reclamation and Rehabilitation plan for category A mines, with lease area of 50 ha and
above, in the first phase.
The work assigned to ICFRE includes:

Preparation of Reclamation and Rehabilitation Plan for the mining leases found to be
involved in illegal mining.

Preparation of supplementary Environment Management Plan for incorporating


additional environmental safeguards in respect of the leases not found to be involved in
illegal mining.

Preparation of comprehensive environmental plan for Mining Impact Zone (MIZ) for the
areas surrounding the mining leases area including all the leases with and non working
leases with respect to

Short term measures and

Long term measures

ICFRE initiated the R&R study in association with domain experts and in consultation
with district administration and Department of Mines and Geology, Bellary district, for
identifying representative mines. Accordingly, Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine of M/s Sri
Allum Prashant with M.L. Number 2352 was taken up for the preparation of R & R Plan,

Reclamation And Rehabilitation Plan Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine

ICFRE

Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)-

as the mine was cleared by the Central Empowered Committee (CEC). The main
objectives of the study are as under :

To delineate the level of degradation on various environmental components such as


physical,, biological and sociological aspects due to mining.

To identify suitable site specific model plan for rehabilitation and reclamation.

To provide code of practices and guidelines for pollution reduction, recovery, reuse and
recycle as well as frame work for rehabilitation and reclamation plan.

The team of experts, along with the domain experts and other officials of the Mines and the
officials of the Department of Mines and Geology, Bellary district, undertook a detailed
survey of Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine of M/s Sri Allum Prashant on 18.05.2012.
1.2

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scopes of the study inter-alia include all the mine related and allied activities. The scope
of the study is briefed below:

Sample iron ore mine, study area indicating their location on the map.

Technology presently used in iron ore mining and pollution control measures adopted.

In-depth study of sample representative mines for formulating R&R plan on the basis of
technology, production, and pollution and CEC approval.

Primary data collection through survey and field visits. Secondary sources of
information were from EIA/EMP reports, documents from the mine owners, CPCB,
SPCB, regional IBM, Department of Mines and Geology with respect to air quality, water
quality, waste, other environmental concerns regarding iron ore mining; relevant
documents collected from stakeholders and State Government Departments.

1.3

METHODOLOGY

The study was basically carried out in two phases. In the first phase, the team of ICFRE held
high level meetings on 08th May, 2012 with the district administration, district officials of the
statutory and regulatory bodies, such as State Pollution Control Board, State Directorate of
Mines and Geology, State Forest Department, State Agriculture Department, stakeholders
and representatives of Federation of Indian Mineral Industries (FIMI) for generation of
various data. The ICFRE team visited, Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine of M/s Sri Allum
Prashant on 08.5.2012

suggested by the Director, Mines and Geology, vide letter dated

Reclamation And Rehabilitation Plan Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine

ICFRE

Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)-

31.03.2012. In the second phase, in-depth study on sampled mine regarding geology,
geographical location, scale and techniques of mining operations, production capacity, mode
of operation, dump sites, over burden management practices, road, transport mechanism
and environmental management practices followed by the mine lessee were assessed in
depth. Additional data with respect to environmental quality monitoring were collected
from different agencies, such as SPCB, Department of Mines and Geology etc. Opinions
were also sought from the reputed experts in the field of mining across the country and
suitable site specific/best practices elsewhere also referred.

Reclamation And Rehabilitation Plan Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine

ICFRE

Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)-

CHAPTER-2
MINE DESCRIPTION
2.1 INTRODUCTION
Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine of M/s Sri Allum Prashant (ML No. 2352) has a lease area of
69.60 ha. The entire lease area is non- forest land, which was granted for mining of Yellow
Oxide, initially, for a period of 20 years, from 21.07.2000 to 20.07.2020. The mining
operations in this Mine were started in July 2001. Subsequently, in 2002, fresh lease deed
was issued in co-terminus with original lease period, after inclusion of Iron Ore mineral.
Minimum and maximum temperature is 18C and 45C respectively.
2.2

LOCATION OF MINE

The Mine is located near Haraginadona village of Bellary Taluk, in Bellary District,
Karnataka State. The Mine area comes in Survey of India Topo sheet No. 57A/16 at Latitude
150 08 40.1N to 150 07 43N to and Longitude760 4534.5E to 760 464.5E. The Mine is
situated in the revenue land. The road distance of the Mine area from Bellary town is about
12 km; the nearest sea port and airport are Marmugoa (425 km) and Bangalore (350 km),
respectively.

2.3

MINING PLANS AND ENVIRONMENTAL CLEARANCES

(A)Approved mining plan/scheme including copy of plan/scheme

submitted to IBM/

pending for approval


(A) Mining plan / Mining scheme: Mining scheme for the period 2011-12 to 2015-16
submitted to IBM, vide letter dated 23.09.2011. However, IBM has returned the document
vide letter dated 29.03.2012 asking the applicant to incorporate details like CEC duly certified
sketch, the details of maximum production of mineral fixed by State Govt.
(B) Environment clearance: Environmental Clearance initially was accorded by MoEF, vide
letter no. J-11015/49/2002-IA.II (M) dated 31.05.2006 for production of 10,000 TPA
(Annexure-1). Subsequently during July, 2007 the Environmental Clearance by MoEF
granted for enhanced capacity of 2.50 lakh TPA, vide letter no. J-11015/165/2007-IA.II (M)
dated July 5, 2007 (Annexure-2).

Reclamation And Rehabilitation Plan Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine

ICFRE

Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)-

Consent to operate Karnataka State Pollution Control Board vide combined consent
order no: 601/ KSPCB/RO(BLY) DEO/AEO-1/F-467/2009 dated: 8/12/09(Annexure-3).

Licence for using explosives vide letter no. E/SC/KA/22/321 (E21123) dated:
20/05/2009 (Annexure-4).

Mining lease deed from the Dept. of Mines and Geology, Govt. of Karnataka, dated
21.07.2000 (Annexure-5).

Mining lease deed from the Dept. of Mines and Geology, Govt. of Karnataka, dated
27.04.2002 (Annexure-6).

2.4

MINING METHODOLOGY

Open cast Mining Method is used for the extraction of Iron Ore from the Mine. No proper
benches. as per regulation of MMR1961 has been formed. Drilling (holes of 4 to 5 m are
drilled) and blasting techniques are used to break the ore waste formation; further sorting
and breaking are done manually. ROM is transported to crushing/screening plant to
produce saleable fractions. (-40+10mm). All waste materials are dumped unsystematically in
the area in the mine lease area. Controlled blasting technique is used to control the vibration
and fly rock. Excel shock tube (NONEL) delay detonators are used as shock-tube initiation
system, which give better fragmentation and increase of safety standards in the mine.

Reclamation And Rehabilitation Plan Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine

ICFRE

Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)-

Figure-2.1: Key Mining Plan of the Haraginadona Iron ore Mine, ML 2352

Reclamation And Rehabilitation Plan Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine

ICFRE

Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)-

Figure-2.2: Google Map of the Haraginadona Iron ore Mine, ML 2352

Reclamation And Rehabilitation Plan Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine

ICFRE

Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)-

2.5

MINE PROFILE

2.5.1 Mine machineries


A wheel loader and two trucks are deployed for handling mined out materials. Jack hammer
drills and diesel driven compressors are used for drilling. A crushing/screening plant
already exists to achieve buyers requirement. One water tanker and a jeep are deployed for
spraying and other works.

2.5.2 Mine pits


There is only one working pit in A-block in the northern portion. No systematic benches are
observed in working pit. The length of benches varies from 5 to 48m. Mining pits top RL of
the pit is 620 meters MSL and the bottom RL of 570meters MSL. The angle of mine pit is
about 700. The dimension of the pit is about 150m X80m. Existing land use plan is enclosed
as Fig.3.4
2.5.3 Mine dumps
There are two dumps, one is inactive and another is active.
2.5.3.1 Inactive dump
There is only one inactive (old) dump D-3 is located in block A. Apart of which is falling
outside the CEC lease sketch area (M.L) and its dimensions are given in table no. 2.1
Table No. 2.1: Details of inactive dump

Dump

Inactive dump

Dimensions
(i)

Area

(i) 0.21 ha

(ii)

Height

(ii) 10 m

Gradient of slope

40

Reclamation And Rehabilitation Plan Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine

ICFRE

Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)-

2.5.3.2 Active dump


There is one active dump at the east-northeastern part of the A-block is present and its
dimensions are given in table no. 2.2.

Table No. 2.2: Details of active dump

Dump

Active dump

Dimensions
(iii)

Area

(iii) 2.13 ha

(iv)

Height

(iv) 10 m

Gradient of slope

40

For protection of the mining area and to prevent further degradation of land, and sliding
down of waste material in the down slopes, following measures in the form of construction
of retaining wall, garland drains, settling tanks, gully plugs, masonry check dams have been
taken at different locations both within and outside the ML area.Fig.5.2

Table No. 2.3: Existing engineering measures within in the ML area

Items

Dimension

Area in sq mt.

Volume cumt

Check dam (CD-1)

25mX 2m X 3m

50

150

Check dam (CD-6)

30mX 3m X 3m

90

270

24

19.2

16

12.8

Retaining wall (RW- 30m X 0.8mX 0.8m


2)
Retaining wall (RW- 20m X 0.8mX 0.8m
3)

(source: surface water management plan Figure 5.2)

Reclamation And Rehabilitation Plan Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine

ICFRE

Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)-

Table No. 2.4: Existing engineering measures outside in the ML area


Items

Dimension

Area in sq mt.

Volume cumt

Check dam (CD-2)

14m X 1.0m X 2.0m

14

28

Check dam (CD-3)

12m X 0.5m X 1.0m

06

06

Check dam (CD-4)

08m X 0.5m X 0.5m

04

02

Check dam (CD-5)

08m X 0.5m X 0.5m

04

02

Check dam (CD-7)

70m X 2.5m X 4.0m

175

700

Check dam (CD-8)

25m X 0.5m X 1.5m

12

19

Check dam (CD-9)

65m X 2.5m X 4.0m

163

600

Check dam (CD-10)

20m X 1.0m X 2.0m

10

20

Check dam (CD-11)

50m X 1.5m X 4.0m

75

300

Check dam (CD-12)

10m X 0.5m X 1.5m

05

08

Check dam (CD-13)

10m X 0.5m X 2.0m

05

10

105

300

Check dam (CD-14)

40m X 2.5m X 3.0m

Check dam (CD-15)

18m X 0.5m X 1.5m

09

14

Check dam (CD-16)

12m X 0.5m X 2.0m

06

12

Check dam (CD-17)

15m X 0.5m X 1.5m

08

11

Garland drain

150m X 0.8m X 0.8m

120

96

Retention wall (RW-

95m X 0.8m X 0.8m

76

61

1)
(source: surface water management plan fig. 5.2)
2.5.4 Sub grade ore
Sub grade ore is BHQ of +35% Fe, which is also mined along with iron ore. This is sold to
local steel (pig iron) plants. Proposed year-wise production of sub grade ore is given in
Table 2.5.
Table No. 2.5: Proposed year-wise production of sub grade ore (in tonnes)
YEAR

2011-12

2012-13

2013-14

2014-15

2015-16

Total

Tonnage

20,754

50,975

42,391

37,207

33,260

1,84,587

(Source: EIA and EMP report of Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine of Allum Prasanth)

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Reclamation And Rehabilitation Plan Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine

ICFRE

Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)-

Apart from above several small heaps of mineral have been observed outside the lease area
in the private land which were spread in very unsystematic manners without taking
preventive measures regarding their spread in the nearby low line areas.
2.6

EXPLORATION

2.6.1 Past exploration


A total of 340 m of drilling in 12 Nos. of boreholes were carried out.
2.6.2 Proposed exploration
As part of exploration programme, apart from the past exploration, 11 Nos. of DTH/Core
drill holes will be made in the current scheme period. Location of the proposed core
boreholes is shown in the Geological plan and year wise proposals in Table No. 2.6
Table No. 2.6: Details of proposed exploration
PBH No.

Section

Co-ordinates

Level

Depth

NORTH

EAST

mRL

(m)

1.

A-A

1541

926

904

60

C-C

1417

976

962

60

F-F

1294

1056

977

60

H-H

1225

1096

982

70

B1-B1

837

801

904

70

B2-B2

870

1111

962

50

C2-C2

1020

483

904

70

C4-C4

856

605

962

60

D2-D2

345

1048

977

50

10

E1-E1

485

1828

556

50

11

E3-E3

318

1942

840

60

TOTAL

2.7

Year

2012-13

2012-13

660

MINE DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTION

In the mine lease area, about 25.0 ha area is mineralized and mining is proposed in this
portion in first phase. The mine is operated by open-cast manual mining method but
without forming of systematic and regular bench formation. The ore zone in the A-block is

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Reclamation And Rehabilitation Plan Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine

ICFRE

Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)-

worked and it will be continued by extending the works along the strike direction of northwest to south-east.
On either side of the ore body, ferruginous shale and greenstone exist and they need to be
stripped. It has been proposed to work further in the existing pit and open up the ore body
along the strike in the coming years. The Table 2.7 gives the production figures for each
year.
Table No. 2.7: Year wise production (Quantity in tonnes)
Years
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
Total

ROM
12885
97223
39174
65157
20489
234928

Waste
21000
237000
237000
307500
45000
847500

Ore to waste ratio


1.63
2.44
6.05
4.72
2.20
3.61

(Source: Draft scheme of mining for the period 2011-12 to 2015-16 submitted to
IBM, vide letter dated 23.09.2011)

12

Reclamation And Rehabilitation Plan Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine


Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)-

Figure-2.3: Map showing the Surface Plan of the Haraginadona Iron ore Mine, ML 2352

13

ICFRE

Reclamation And Rehabilitation Plan Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine

ICFRE

Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)-

2.8

ESTIMATED IRON ORE RESERVE

A draft scheme of mining was submitted to IBM on 23.09.2011 for the period of 2011-12 to
2015-16 however IBM has returned the same on 29.03.2012 therefore, the estimates of the
reserves presented in the scheme has not been taken into account. The reserves estimated of
the earlier approved scheme of mining furnished in the aforesaid draft scheme have been
considered and the geological and minable reserves are furnished bellow in the Table 2.8.
Table No. 2.8: Details of the category wise mineable reserves
Ore (Quantity in Million Tonnes)
Iron Ore
Sub Grade (BHQ) Yellow Oxide Red Oxide
Total
9.51
Geological
1.71
5.97
1.31
0.52
5.53
Mineable
0.94
3.52
0.75
0.32
(Source: the quantum of reserves as on 2006 as mentioned in the draft scheme of mining submitted on
Category

23.09.2011 for the period 2011-12 to 2015-16; Page no. 9)


After the approval of previous scheme a total production of 0.23 Million Tonnes (Tbale No.
2.7) was obtained from 2006-07 to 2010-11 and which has been depleted from the reserves of
5.53 Million Tonnes. The updated and the balanced geological and minable reserves are
given below in the table 2.9.
Table No. 2.9: Details of the updated reserves (Quantity in Million Tonnes)
Category
Geological
Mineable
2.9

As per the previous


approved scheme
9.51
5.53

Updated
9.12
5.30

STRIPPING RATIO

The stripping ratio is 1: 3.61 (Table no. 2.7)


2.10

ROADS

2.10.1 Approach roads


The approach road to the mine is through Bellary - Hariganadona village PWD road. From
the same road, a separate 40 feet broad road is made through agricultural fields of local
village to approach the mine lease. This road is of 1.1 km length, graded and compacted. The
terrain is plain. This road is exclusively used by the lessee for transportation and approach
to mine.

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Reclamation And Rehabilitation Plan Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine

ICFRE

Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)-

2.10.2 Haulage roads


The mine has haulage road of 2100 m length having width ranging from 6 to 8 meters.
2.11

TRANSPORTATION OF ORE

2.11.1 Existing transportation facility


The ore is transported by road mainly to RBSSN plant, via Veniveerapura towards Hospet
and via Belagalu and Halakundi to Popuri Steels. Some ore is also sent by rail via
Cantonment as well as Bellary railway sidings.

2.11.2 Proposed transportation facility


No new transportation facility is proposed.

2.12

SAFETY ZONE

Safety zone at the northern portion has been partially developed with plantation and
remaining area is to be planted.

2.13 VIOLATION (IF ANY) AND ITS COMPLIANCE


Details of violations pointed out by IBM and DGMS during the last five years are given in
Table No. 2.9.
Table No. 2.10: List of Violations as per IBM and Its Compliance
Sl.No.

Rule No. Violations

13(1)

Compliance

Mining operations are carried out in


contravention

to

the

following

provision of scheme of mining


approved on 26/04/2006

six

nos.

of

To know the ore body

total

behavior and continuity of ore

depth of 560 meters have been

body at depth totally 12 nos. of

proposed

approval

bore holes has been drilled during

scheme of mining but it has not

month of May 2010 to a total

exploratory

bore

is

the

hole

15

Reclamation And Rehabilitation Plan Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine

ICFRE

Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)-

depth of 340 meters at different

been implemented.

locations. Actual no. of bore holes


drilled is more than the proposed
depth because of the difficulty in
drilling since the nature of the ore
body

is

friable/powdery.

However, we are going to drill


some more bore holed within the
end of the mining plan period to
know the characteristic of ore
body further. we shall intimate he
result of the same to IMB without
fail

It was proposed to produce

The required production and

total production of 7, 01,600

development program could not

tonnes

be

for

the

year

reached

because

of

the

(comprising of Iron ore and

following mentioned reasons. a)

red ochre ) 2006-07 to 2009-

The iron is enriched from the

10

BHQs and there are small pockets

and

development

of

waste to the time of 2,91,422

of

unleashed

BHQ

tonnes for the year 2006-07

remained here and there in the ore

2009-10. But the lease could

zone where it is reducing the

produce total production of

grade of the ore produced. the

1, 60,550 tone iron ore only,

general nature of body is friable to

which is not accordance with

medium/soft

the proposal given in the

between 52 to 56% fe. b) there was

approved scheme of mining

loss of man days at several time

and not matching with the

for a no. of small temporary

proposals.

stoppages of mining activity for

ore

patches

analyzing

no. of survey works from task


forces, joint task force, Forest
department, Department of Mines

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Reclamation And Rehabilitation Plan Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine

ICFRE

Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)-

and

Geology,

Revenue

department etc. as the targeted


production could not be achieved
for the reasons explained above
and

it

has

also

effected

in

corresponding

developmental

work.

developmental

Presently

work is in progress to open the ore


body enabling to mine quality ore.
We are hoping to produce the
targeted quantity of ore and its
corresponding waste handling in
the coming years of Mining plan.

Slicing down of the hillock of a

As noticed, work progress was at

block was proposed commencing

level of 590 RL to form the proper

from 610 m RL. But on the day of

benches of 8 meters height. The

inspection mine working were

slicing of working faces are started

found in the middle of the hill

from the 610 meters RL. Two

lock at about 590 m RL resulting

excavators are deployed to rectify

10 m high side walls. Moreover,

the benches of more height. On

selective mining is also observed

the inspection day the machine

on the southern side of the

which supposed to work at 610 RL

hillock.

the

was breakdown and only machine

mineral

which was deployed at 590 RL

This

principles
conservation

is

against

of
and

systematic

development of the deposit.

was

working.

Now

we

are

working with two excavators with


time bound program to rectify
benches.

Photo

of

the

developmental work which is in


progress is enclosed for your kind
ready reference annexure 4. We
are targeting to complete the

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Reclamation And Rehabilitation Plan Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine

ICFRE

Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)-

rectifying benches with in couple


of weeks and immediately we will
submit the report to IBM for
further needful in the matter.
2

15(2)

Benches in side burden have not Work is in progress to advance the


been sufficiently advanced.

benches of side burden the working


plan shoeing the proposed benches is
shown

in

annexure

the
no.

plan
3a

enclosed

and

3b.

as

Two

excavators have been engaged to


handle the side burden material. After
completion of the work once again
area will be surveyed and the same
will submitted to IBM for information.
3

20(3)

Screening of iron ore is carried out Screening of iron ore has been done
but analysis and account of feed, very occasionally for very meager
product and tailing, are not quantity as production it self is very
maintained in bound book

much limited quantity because of the


reason explained in the above paras.
However, we will keep record in
bound

paged

book

keeping

information of feed, product etc.

27(4)

It is mechanized a category mine. Plan and sections are updated and


But plans and sections are not enclosed.
updated within 3 months.

33(2)

Efforts have not been made for Presently there is one active dump.

and (5)

stabilization of the dumps.

Retention will has been constructed


below dumps. Bottom area of the
dumping site has been planted to
keep the green belt around. After

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Reclamation And Rehabilitation Plan Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine

ICFRE

Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)-

maturity of first stage dumping when


we start the second stage dumping
over it, the first stage slope of the
dump will be planted with deep
rooted saplings like agava suckers,
and also it is proposed to psread
hemata grass and local bellary jaali
seeds.
6

42(1) b(i) Mining

engineer

has

not

appointed.

been Earlier appointed mining engineer to


this mine and mean time recently the
same person left the job with us. We
are in search of new mining engineer
and as early as possible we will fulfill
the requirement and we will intimate
to your kind selves.

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Reclamation And Rehabilitation Plan Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine

ICFRE

Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)-

CHAPTER-3
BASELINE STATUS
3.1. STUDY AREA
3.1.1 Climate
Bellary district is part of the northern maiden region with an extensive undulating plateau.
The district is known for hot summer and very dry weather for major part of the year and
the temperature varies between 22C and 43C. The annual rainfall varies from 350 mm to
650 mm with an average of 574.9 mm. The rainfall is mostly (60%) confined to the period
from June to September during south-west monsoon. From October to November are the
months of retreating monsoon (24% rainfall) and another 16% of rainfall occurs as sporadic
in other months of the year. On an average, the district has 39 rainy days in a year. The
rainfall decreases from south-west to north-east.
3.1.2 Physiography of Mine Lease Area
The Mine area is part of NW-SE trending hillocks with valleys running towards north-east
and east directions. There are two major and two minor valleys present here. The lease is
occupying major hillocks and valleys of the area. The elevation of the lease area varies from
560 m to 615 m above MSL. Other information is given in Table No. 3.1.
Table No. 3.1: Physiographical information of the lease area
Features

Details

Altitude (SOI Topo)

675

Village,

Tehsil,

District, Hariganadona

State

village,

Bellary taluk, Bellary district,


Karnataka state.

Nearest highway

NH 63

Nearest railway station

Bellary

Nearest railway junction

Bellary

Nearest village

Hariganadona

Nearest city

Bellary

Nearest forest

Chikkantapur Reserve forest

Historical plakhes

Hampi- 55 KM

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Reclamation And Rehabilitation Plan Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine

ICFRE

Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)-

3.2

REGIONAL GEOLOGY

Sandur basin is the smallest of the three geological basins of Karnataka and covers an area of
960 km2. It is structurally highly disturbed and squeezed out of shape by the intrusion of
younger granite. Shale facies is confined to the western margin. The basin is characterized
by well-developed mafic magmatism and strong development of manganiferous greywacke,
phyllite and numerous bands of banded magnetite and haematite quartzite. The basin is
known for its rich accumulation of both iron and manganese ore. Basement-cover relations
are obscured because of intense deformation and intrusion by younger granite. Recent study
has recognized the following five formations in the Sandur schist belt for which new names
have been given:
Vibhutigudda Formation: (banded ferruginous chert, greywacke, polymict conglomerate,
acid and basis volcanic).
Taluru formation: (dominated by pillow-structured amphibolites and a thick layered
complex of metagabbro and tremolite-chlorite schist occupying the central part of the belt).
Donimalai Formation: (dominated by banded ferruginous chert with intercalated basaltic
flows, sills dolerite and gabbro).
Ramanamalai Formation: (banded ferruginous chert, amphibolites, and greywacke).
Deogiri Formation: (Dominated by calcareous manganese-rich greywacke with crossbedded quartzite and stromatolite-bearing limestone).
Total thickness of the sequence is estimated to be as much as 15 km which is the result of
thickening by thrusts. The Sandur valley discontinuity is interpreted as a thrust separating
the Raman Malai Formation from overlying Donimalai Formation. Six types of granite have
been identified as intruding the schist belt. All of them are stated to have affinity with IType of granites of collision zones. A 3000 m thick metagabbro and tremolite schist has been
identified as a stratiform layered complex which intruded sediments and extrusive volcanic
rocks of the Taluru Formation. A major acid volcanic breccia is reported 200 m southeast of
Belagallu. This breccias is described as unique which deserve for preservation as a protected
national monument.
The higher metamorphic state of the Sandur belt is attributed to the effect of the regional
high thermal gradient that was associated with the large-scale intrusion of younger granites
(close pet) which engulf the schist belt on all sides. The intrusion of younger granites has
complicated the decipherment of the geological history. The lithological assemblages,

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Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)-

structural configuration and deformation history suggests that the eastern and western
meta-sedimentary belts represent two sub basin spatially separated by central meta basic
unit.

Later compression and shearing have caused the telescoping of the sedimentary

sequences (Radhakrishna and Vaidyanathan, 1997).

3.2.1 Local geology


The Mine area falls in the southernmost part of Belagal Range in Copper Mountain Region
of famous Sandur Schist Belt. The litho units present in the area are as follows:
BAQ Floats/ Soil
Iron ore / Red oxide / Yellow oxide
BHQ (Iron ore)
Shale
Green stone / Schist

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Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)-

Figure-3.1: Index Map of District Bellary

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Reclamation And Rehabilitation Plan Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine

ICFRE

Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)-

3.3

PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

3.3.1 Soil
The soils of the Bellary taluk are derived from Schistose rocks, Granites and Gneisses. The
Sandy loam soil mixed with blakhk and grey soil occurs along the stream beds. These are
originated from gneisses and granites. They are permeable and mildly alkaline in nature.
The thickness of the soil varies from 0.2 to 1.00 m. The Red soil is the major type of soil in the
area due to presence of iron.

3.3.2 Land use pattern of Bellary Taluk


The land use pattern of Bellary taluk is given in Table No. 3.2.

Table No. 3.2: Land use pattern of Bellary taluk

Land category

Area (Acres)

Cultivation land
Dry land Extent

89800.36

Irrigation land Extent

4458.82

Total Extent

94259.18

Government land Particulars


Anadena Extent

8422.53

Gramanatha Extent

1571.81

Buril Land Extent

127.76

Railway Line Extent

617.41

Tank Extent

6305.38

Halla Extent

3897.93

Forest Extent

57537.21

UAW Extent

39551.86

Road Extent

1616.81

Misc. Extent

13178.87

Total Extent

132827.57

Total geographical area 278797.19


(Source: EIA and EMP report of Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine of Allum Prasanth)

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Reclamation And Rehabilitation Plan Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine

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Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)-

Figure-3.2: Map showing the Locations of Environmental Monitoring Stations in Haraginadona Iron ore Mine, ML 2352

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Reclamation And Rehabilitation Plan Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine

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Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)-

Figure-3.3: Map showing the Geological plan of the Haraginadona Iron ore Mine,

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ICFRE

Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)-

ML 2352
3.3.2.1 Land use pattern of Mine Lease Area
The existing land use of the mine area is enclosed in Fig.3.4 and details given in the table
below
Table No. 3.3: land use pattern of the Mine Lease Area.
Land Use

Area in ha

Mining

1.820

Dumping

2.130

Safety zone

1.192

St. Building

0.014

C&S Plant with stock yard

0.680

Roads

0.024

Water catchment area with check dam 0.732


Existing afforestation

1.800

Area untouched

61.208

Total

69.60

(Source: EIA and EMP report of Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine of Allum Prasanth)

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Figure-3.4: Map showing Existing Land Use Plan in the Mine Lease Area of
Haraginadona Iron ore Mine, ML 2352

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3.3.3 Air environment


The impacts on air environment from the mining activity depend on various factors like
production capacity, machinery involved, control measures adopted, operation and
maintenance of various equipments and vehicles. Apart from these, there will be other
activities associated viz., transportation of ore and waste, stocking facilities and dump
management within the mine lease area that may contribute to pollution.
The air quality details recorded by the lessee for four stations located near the Mine are
provided in Table No. 3.4.
Table No. 3.4: Air quality data
Date

Station
Haraginadoni
Tumati
SO2 NOx SPM RPM SO2 NOx SPM

RPM

2.03.11

11

14

191

58

13

20

196

62

3.03.11

11

13

190

62

11

16

195

66

7.03.11

15

22

187

60

06

19

192

64

8.03.11

16

15

188

55

14

10

193

59

16.12.11

16

18

185

54

08

15

190

58

17.03.11

12

12

182

52

12

13

187

56

26.03.11

14

15

174

51

16

12

179

55

27.03.11

09

16

189

52

09

21

194

56

3.04.11

12

14

185

51

11

14

190

55

4.04.11

14

10

182

54

09

14

187

58

9.04.11

13

11

184

58

18

15

185

50

10.04.11

10

10

192

65

19

17

178

57

17.04.11

11

17

186

63

09

22

175

55

18.04.11

10

10

183

61

16

16

184

53

26.04.11

12

19

143

51

13

21

187

43

27.04.11

10

14

179

62

14

20

172

54

Minimum

10

143

51

10

172

43

22

192

65

19

22

196

66

Maximum 16

Average
12.3 14.4 182.5 56.8 12.4 16.6 186.5 56.3
Standard
80
80
200
100
80
80
200
100
(Source: EIA and EMP report of Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine of Allum Prasanth)

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Date

Station
Avinamodgu

Antapur

SO2 NOx

SPM

RPM SO2 NOx

SPM

RPM

2.03.11

18

13

180

63

13

21

191

56

3.03.11

14

17

173

70

17

10

199

63

7.03.11

09

22

170

68

11

17

193

61

8.03.11

12

11

179

66

10

23

190

59

16.12.11

13

21

182

56

18

19

150

49

17.03.11

14

20

167

67

10

14

186

60

26.03.11

11

09

160

58

08

24

179

51

27.03.11

12

12

177

67

16

11

193

60

3.04.11

15

15

164

68

11

22

183

61

4.04.11

08

19

181

67

12

14

186

60

9.04.11

14

20

199

46

14

14

188

47

10.04.11

11

16

198

50

11

16

187

51

17.04.11

06

22

195

48

13

22

184

49

18.04.11

07

10

196

43

16

22

185

44

26.04.11

08

18

193

42

08

18

182

43

27.04.11

12

13

190

40

12

13

179

41

Minimum

160

40

10

150

41

Maximum 18

22

199

70

18

24

199

63

Average

11.5

16.1

181.5 57.4

12.5

17.5

184.7 53.4

Standard

80

80

200

80

80

200

100

100

(Source: EIA and EMP report of Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine of Allum Prasanth)
3.3.4 Noise environment
The noise levels are dependent upon the deployment of mining machinery and heavyduty vehicles in the area. Noise is produced due to movement of machinery, drilling,
blasting etc., but the pronounced effect of noise is felt only near the active working area.
The main sources of noise in the mine are classified as follows:
Stationary Mining Equipment
Mobile Mining Equipment
Transportation Vehicles

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Noise survey was carried out at 4 locations by the lessee and it was observed that the
noise levels are within the prescribed standard, vide Table No. 3.5.
Table No. 3.5: Noise level data carried out in 4 different locations.

Sampling Location

Date

Noise level [dB(A) Leq]


Daytime

Night time

Standard Result Standard Result


Working area

12.04.2011 75

68

70

66

Haraginadoni

12.04.11

55

58

45

43

Tumati

12.04.11

55

55

45

41

Avinamodgu

12.04.11

55

52

45

46

Antapur

12.04.11

55

50

45

42

(Source: EIA and EMP report of Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine of Allum Prasanth)
3.3.5 Water environment
The Mining operation has been done on the top portions of the hill range and there are
no perennial streams or Nallas. Water courses are seasonal and observed in monsoon
season only. Hence, the descent of rainwater from the hills needs to be controlled by
constructing structures like gully checks, gully plugs and check dams.

3.3.5.1 Basin characteristics


The seasonal Nallas around the mine area contribute to ground water recharging and the
nalla flows down to village stream. A check dam constructed in the Nalla flowing
through the middle portion of A block of the lease area arrests water flow. In the mine
pit, no water accumulation takes plakhe as it is a slope.

3.3.5.2 Water bodies


No water bodies available in the lease area.

3.3.5.3 Drainage pattern


The Mine lease area is on sloppy terrains with a few seasonal streams /drains running
along the valleys. The drainage pattern of the area is sub dendritic in nature.

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Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)-

3.3.5.4 Ground water quality


The data provided by the lessee on the analysis of ground water from the bore wells
located at four stations are given in Table No. 3.6.
Table No. 3.6: Showing ground water quality data of four different locations.

Sl. No.

Parameter

Unit

Haraginado
ni
Bore well

Physical Parameters
1
Color
2
3
4

Hazen

Odour

Taste
pH
Conductivit
y

mhos/cm
5
Total
Dissolved
6
Solids
mg/l
7
Turbidity
NTU
Chemical Parameters

9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

4
Unobjection
able

Tumati
Bore
well

Antapur

Avinamodg
u

Bore well

Bore well

4
Unobjectio
nable

5
Unobjectiona
ble

Agreeable
7.92

4
Unobject
ionable
Agreeabl
e
7.86

Agreeable
8.11

Agreeable
7.45

1128

651

800

475

902
<5

521
<5

640
<5

380
<5

Total
Alkalinity
as CaCO3
mg/l
320
80
165
198
Total
Hardness
as CaCO3
mg/l
342
115
322
389
Calcium
mg/l
12.0
14.0
15.0
15.0
Magnesium mg/l
32.0
12.0
27.0
35.0
Chloride
mg/l
255.0
50.0
125.0
180.0
Sulfate
mg/l
130
20.00
55.00
112.00
Nitrate
mg/l
8.50
4.90
7.00
14.50
Fluoride
mg/l
0.95
0.65
0.80
0.65
Sodium
mg/l
13.0
10.0
930.0
8.0
Potassium
mg/l
3.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
(Source: EIA and EMP report of Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine of Allum Prasanth)

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3.4. BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT


3.4.1 Flora
Natural vegetation
The vegetation occurring in the area belongs to Southern tropical thorny/scrub forests
consisting of Deciduous, low thorny trees and xerophytes. In this type of forests canopy
is more or less broken (Champion and Seth, 1968). According to the classification made
by Legris and Pascal (1982) the area falls under Deciduous climax forests and
degradation group. Under this group the area can be grouped under Dry deciduous
Scrub forests. Saldanha (Flora of Karnataka, 1984) groups these types of areas under
Upland thorn and Scrub type. These consists of armed trees with tiny leaflets such as
Prosopis juliflora and species of Acacia especially Acacia chundra, Acacia horrida etc.
The dominant tree species found in the area are Acacia chundra , Acacia horrida,
Dichrostachys cinerea. Shrubs like Cassia auriculata is found commonly.

Cassia

auriculiformis, Carissa spinarum and Canthium parvfiflorum are occasionally seen. Prosopis
juliflora can be seen colonising open spaces. Xerophytes like Opuntia stricta, Euphorbia
stricta, Euphorbia tirucalli,Euphorbia tortilis are common. Climbers like Pergularia daemia,
Cocculus hirsutus are also found, but sparsely. Ground flora consists of Mimosa pudica,
Achyranthes aspera, Acalypha indica, Caralluma umbellata, Vicoa indica etc. Grass species like
Heteropogon contortus, Aristida setacea, Apluda mutica are frequently seen (Tables 3.7 and
3.8)
Table No. 3.7: List of plants occurring in outside the lease area
Sl.

Botanical name

No.

Local/

kannada Family

Habit

name
1.

Acacia chundra

2.

Acacia horrida

3.

Aerva javanica

4.

Kempu jaali

Mimosaceae

Tree

Mimosaceae

Shrub

Dodda hindi gida

Amaranthaceae

Herb

Aristida hystrix

Bili unagada hullu

Poaceae

Grass

5.

Azadirachta indica

Bevu

Meliaceae

Tree

6.

Calotropis procera

Bili ekka

Asclepiadaceae

Shrub

7.

Canthium

Rubiaceae

Shrub

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parvfiflorum
Canthium

Kaare mullu

Rubiaceae

Shrub

Chikka kavali

Apocynaceae

Shrub

10. Cassia auriculata

Aavarike

Caesalpiniaceae

Shrub

11. Cassia fistula

Kakke

Caesalpiniaceae

Tree

12. Chromalaena odorata

Communist kale

Asteraceae

Shrub

13. Chrysopogon fulvus

Ganjigarike

Poaceae

Grass

14. Croton

Milgunari

Euphorbiaceae

Herb

Vadavaarada gida

Mimosaceae

Tree

16. Dodonaea viscosa

Bandarike

Sapindaceae

Shrub

17. Euphorbia tirucalli

Kolu kalli

Euphorbiaceae

Tree

18. Euphorbia hirta

Kempunene akki

Euphorbiaceae

Herb

19. Fagonia cretica

Mullu muddu gida

Zygophyllakheae Herb

20. Grewia hirsuta

Chikkudippe

Tiliaceae

Shrub

21. Heteropogon

Oobina hullu

Poaceae

Grass

22. Hyptis suaveolens

Ganga thulasi

Lamiaceae

Herb

23. Lepidagathis cristata

Gantukaalu gedde

Acanthaceae

Herb

24. Maytenus

Thandraasi

Celastraceae

Shrub

25. Mimosa pudica

Muttidare muni

Mimosaceae

Herb

26. Pergularia daemia

Haalu koratige

Asclepiadaceae

Climber

Mimosaceae

Shrub

8.

parviflorum
9.

Carissa spinarum

bonplandianus
15. Dichrostachys
cinerea

contortus

emarginata

27. Prosopis juliflora


28. Rhus mysorensis

Salabe

29. Scutia myrtina

Kurudi

Anacardiaceae
hannina Rhamnaceae

Shrub(straggler)

gida
30. Sehima nervosum

Chikka saadi hullu

Poaceae

Grass

31. Tephrosia purpurea

Koggi

Fabaceae

Herb

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Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)-

32. Tribulus terrestris

Neggilu

Zygophyllakheae Herb

33. Tridax procumbens

Gabbu shaavathi

Asteraceae

Herb

34. Ziziphus mauritiana

Bore,

Rhamncaeae

Tree

yalakhhihannu

Table No. 3.8: List of plants occurring inside the lease area:
Sl.

Botanical name

Local/ kannada name

Family

Habit

No.
1.

Acacia auriculiformis

Mimosaceae

Tree

2.

Acacia horrida

Mimosaceae

Shrub

3.

Acalypha indica

Kuppi gida

Euphorbiaceae

Herb

4.

Achyranthes aspera

Uttaraani

Amaranthaceae

Herb

5.

Aerva javanica

Dodda hindi gida

Amaranthaceae

Herb

6.

Azadirachta indica

bevu

Meliaceae

Tree

7.

Barleria prionitis

Mullu goranti

Acanthaceae

Herb

8.

Boerhavia diffusa

Adakaputtana gida

Nyctaginaceae

Herb

9.

Calotropis gigantea

ekka

Asclepiadaceae

Shrub

10.

Canthium parviflorum

Kaare mullu

Rubiaceae

Shrub

11.

Cassia auriculata

aavarike

Caesalpiniaceae

Shrub

12.

Cassia fistula

Kakke

Caesalpiniaceae

Tree

13.

Chrysopogon fulvus

Ganjigarike

Poaceae

Grass

14.

Cocculus hirsutus

Garudapaathaala

Menispermaceae

Climber

15.

Dichrostachys cinearea

Vadavaarada gida

Mimosaceae

Tree

16.

Dodonaea viscosa

Bandarike

Sapindaceae

Shrub

17.

Echinops echinatus

Brahma dande

Asteraceae

Herb

18.

Heteropogon contortus

Oobina hullu

Poaceae

Grass

19.

Maytenus emarginata

Thandraasi

Celastraceae

Shrub

20.

Merremia tridentata

Ili kii soppuv

Convolvulakhea

Herb(Twining)

e
21.

Mimosa pudica

Muttidare muni

Mimosaceae

Herb

22.

Opuntia stricta

Paapasu kalli

Cactaceae

Shrub

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23.

Pongamia pinnata

24.

Prosopis juliflora

25.

Rhus mysorensis

Salabe

Anacardiaceae

26.

Sehima nervosum

Chikka saadi hullu

Poaceae

Grass

27.

Solanum trilobatum

Habbu sunde

Solancaeae

Herb

28.

Vicoa indica

Mooguthi soppu

Asteraceae

Herb

Honge

Fabacaeae

Tree

Mimosaceae

Shrub

3.4.2 Fauna
The information on the species presence in the study area was assessed using the
published research papers, research reports, and report of the Macro level EIA study
conducted by ICFRE in Bellary District of Karnataka during 2011. The secondary
information was collected after interviewing the local peoples and which was later on
authenticated while interating with the Forest Department, Bellary personals. The
conservation status of the faunal species reported to be present or distributed in the study
area was given as per various schedules of Wildlife Protection Act of India 1972, and as
per the IUCN 2000 and CAMP 1998 criteria. The mine lease area falls within the reserved
forest. During the study, it was revealed that 29 mammalian species belonging to 18
families were reported to be present in the study area (Table 3.14); 32 species of reptiles
belonging to 14 families (Table 3.11); 7 species of amphibians belong to 4 families (Table
3.11); 80 species of butterflies belong to 5 families (Table 3.9) and 17 families of aquatic
birds comprising of 63 speices (Table 3.13) and 191 species and 36 families of birds
(Table No. 3.12) were reported to be present as per the secoundary data sources and the
primery study survey conducted during the study. In view of the fact that there is no
perrineal stream flowing across the ML area no fishes or other aquatic microflora and
macrofauna were observed. However, the inventory of the fishes observed at Daroji lake
20 km away from the
Table No. 3.9: List of butterflies recorded in the three study regions based on direct
observations, present study and the secondary information
S.N
o

Species name

Common
name

Conservation Status
IUCN
2000

Hesperiidae (Skippers)

36

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S.N
o

Species name

Common
name

Conservation Status
IUCN
2000

Hasora chromus

Common
Banded Awl

Spialia galba

Indian
Skipper

Caprona agama

Spotted
Angle

Sarangesa
purendra

Spotted
Small Flat

Telicota ancilla

Dark
Dart

Pelopidas
mahtias

Small
Branded
Swift

Sancus fuligo

Coon

Papilionidae (Swallowtails)
Graphium
Common
sarpedon
Bluebottle

8
9
10

11

Graphium
agamemnon
Papilio polytes
form romulus &
stichius
Papilio
polymnestor

WPA

Palm

Tailed Jay
Common
Mormon
Blue
Mormon

12

Papilio
demoleus

Lime
Butterfly

13

Papilio parts

Paris
Peacock

14

Papilio crino

Common
Banded
Peacock

15

Atrophaneura
aristolochiae

Common
Rose

16

Atrophaneura
hector

Crimson
Rose

17

Troides minos

Southern

37

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S.N
o

Species name

Common
name

Conservation Status
IUCN
2000

Birdwing
3
18

Pieridae (Whites & Yellows)


Eurema
One
Spot
andersoni
Grass Yellow

19

Eurema brigitta

Small Grass
Yellow

20

Eurema hecabe

Common
Grass Yellow

21

Eurema laeta

Spotless
Grass Yellow

22

Catopsilia
pomona

Common
Emigrant

23

Catopsilia
pyranthe

Mottled
Emigrant

24

Colotis danae

Crimson Tip

25

Colotis eucharis

Plain Orange
Tip

26

Colotis fausta

Large
Salmon Arab

27

Ixias Marianne

White
Orange Tip

28

Ixias pyrene

Yellow
Orange Tip

29

Hebomoia
glaucippe

Great
Orange Tip

30

Pareronia
valeria

Common
Wanderer

31

Appias albina

Common
Albatross

32

Pieris canidia

Indian
Cabbage
White

33

Cepora nerissa

Common
Gull

34

Delias eucharis

Common
Jezebel

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S.N
o

Species name

Common
name

Conservation Status
IUCN
2000

35

Leptosia nina

Psyche

36

Belenois aurota

Pioneer

Lycaenidae (Blues)
Loxura atymnus Yamfly

37
38

Castalius
rosimon

Common
Pierrot

39

Leptotes plinius

Zebra Blue

40

Jamides celeno

Common
Cerulean

41

Jemides bochus

Dark
Cerulean

42

Lampides
boeticus
Tarucus nara

Pea Blue

44

Zizeeria
Karsandra

45

Pseudozizeeria
maha

46
47

Freyeria
trochylus
Zizina otis

Dark Grass
Blue
Pale
Grass
Blue
Grass Jewel

48

Zizula hylax

49

Azanus uranus

50

Neopithecops
zalmora
Megisba
Malaya
Euchrysops
cnejus
Celastrina
lavendularis

43

51
52
53
54

Celatoxia
albidisca

Rounded
Pierrot

Lesser Grass
Blue
Tiny Grass
Blue
Dull Babul
Blue
Quaker
Malayan
Gram Blue
Plain Hedge
blue
White-disc
Hedge Blue

39

WPA

ICFRE

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Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)-

S.N
o

Species name

Common
name

Conservation Status
IUCN
2000

55
5
56
57
58
59
60

61
62
63

64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73

Chilades
Plains Cupid
pandava
Nymphalidae (Brush-footed
Butterflies)
Tirumala
Blue Tiger
limniace
Danaus genutia Striped Tiger
Danaus
Plain Tiger
chrysippus
Parantica aglea Glassy Tiger
Euploea
Doublesylvester
branded
Crow
Euploea core
Common
Crow
Polyura
Common
athamas
Nawab
Melanitis leda
Common
Evening
Brown
Mycalesis
Common
perseus
Bushbrown
Mycalesis visala Long-brand
Bushbrown
Ypthima
Common
asterope
Threering
Acraea violae
Tawny
Coster
Phalanta
Common
phalantha
Leopard
Neptis hylas
Common
Sailer
Euthalia
Common
aconthea
Baron
Euthalia nais
Baronet
Ariadne ariadne Angled
Castor
Ariadne
Common

40

WPA

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Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)-

S.N
o

Species name

Common
name

Conservation Status
IUCN
2000

74
75

merione
Junonia orithiya
Junonia hierta

76

Junonia iphita

77

Junonia almana

78

Junonia
lemonias

79

Hypolimnas
bolina
Hypolimnas
misippus

80

Castor
Blue Pansy
Yellow
Pansy
Chocolate
Pansy
Peacock
Pansy
Lemon
Pansy
Great Eggfly
Danaid
Eggfly

41

WPA

ICFRE

Reclamation And Rehabilitation Plan Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine


Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)-

Table No. 3.10: List of fish species of Daroji Lake of Hospet, Bellary District
S.No
Scientific Name
Common Name
1
Cyprinus carpie communis
Gonoproktepterus kolus
2
3

Garra getyla sternorhynchus

Nemacheilus anguilla

Clarias batrachus

Poecilia reticulates

Glossogobius giuris giuris

Esomus danricus

Puntius sopore

10

Puntius dorsalis

Long-snouted Barb

11

Puntius sarana sarana

Sarana Barb

12

Puntius amphibius

Scarlet Banded Barb

13

Puntius choln

Swamp Barb

14

Puntius ticto

Tieto Barb

15

Salmostoma clupeoides

Minnow Carp

16

Cirrhinus reba

Reba Carp

17

Ompok bimaculatus

Butter Catfish

18

Mystus vittatus

Striped Dwarf Catfish

19

Catla catla

Catla

20

Danio aequipinnatus

Giant Danio

21

Mastacembelus armatus

Spiny Eel

22

Labeo calbasu

Orange-fin Labeo

23

Lepidocephalus thermalis

Common Spiny Loach

24

Salmestoma acinaces

Silver Razor-belly Minnow

25

Amblypharyngodon mola

Mola Carplet

26

Cirrhinus mrigala

Mrigal

27

Mystus cavasius

Gangetic Mystus

28

Aplocheilus lineatus

Striped Panchas

29

Rasbora daniconius

Slender Rasbora

30

Labea rahita

Rohu

31

Channa orientalis

Asiatic Snakehead

32

Channa marulius

Giant Snakehead

33

Channa striatus

Sol

34

Barilius barilia

Barred-billed Trout

Barb

42

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Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)-

Table No. 3.11: Status of Herpetofauna in the study area


Species name
Common
and
Conservation
Vernacular Names
CAMP 1998
WPA
IUCN 2000
AMPHIBIANS
Bufonidae
Bufo melanostictus
Common Indian Toad
_

Bufo stomaticus

Marbled Toad

Bufo holoius

Malabar Toad

Microhylidae

Microhyla ornata

Microhyla rubra

Ranidae

S.No

A
1

LR-nt

Ornate Frog

LR-lc

Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis

Skittering Frog

LR-nt

Sch-IV

Euphlyctis hexadactylus

Indian Pond or Cricket


Frog

VU

Sch-IV

Rhacophoridae

Polypedates maculatus

Common tree frog

B
5
9

REPTILES
Boidae
Erix conicus

Common sand boa

LR-nt

Sch-IV

10

Eryx johnii

Red Sand Boa (Italqi


Hvoo)

LR-lc

Sch-IV

11

Python molurus

Indian rock python


( Hebba havoo)

LR-nt

Sch-I

Colubridae
Ahaetulla nasuta

12

Common Vine Snake ()

13

Coelognathus
Helena

helena Copper-headed Trinket


Snake

14

Lycodan aulicus

Common wolf snake

15

Oligodon arnensis

Banded Kukri Snake

16

Ptyas mucosa

17

Xenochrophis piscator

7
18

Elapidae
Bungarus caeruleus

19

Naja naja

Sch IV
LR-nt

Sch-IV

LR-lc

Sch-IV

Indian rat snake (Kere)

LR-nt

Sch-II

Checkered
Water Snake

keelback

LR-lc

Sch-II

Indian
(Kadambale)

Krait

Spectacled
(Nagara havu)

cobra

43

Sch IV
LR-nt

Sch-II

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S.No

Species name

Common
and
Vernacular Names

20

Typhlopidae
Ramphotyplops braminus

Braminy Blind Snake

21

Typhlops jerdoni

Jerdons Blind Snake

9
22

Viperidae
Echis carinatus

23
10

Conservation
CAMP 1998
WPA
IUCN 2000
LR-nt

Sch-IV

Saw-scaled Viper

LR-nt

Sch-IV

Daboia russelii

Russells Viper

LR-nt

Sch-II

24

Agamidae
Calotes rouxii

Rouxs Forest Lizard

25

Callotes elliotii

Elliots Forest Lizard

26

Calotes versicolar

Indian garden
(Vothi)

lizard

LR-nt

27

Psammophilus dorsalis

South
Indian
Agama

Rock

28

Sitana ponticeriana

Fan-throated lizard

LR-lc

11

Chamaeleonidae
Chamaeleo zeylanicus

Indian Chamaeleaon

VU

30

Gekkonidae
Cnemaspis indica

Indian Day Gecko

31

Hemidactylus brookii

Brooks gecko

LR-lc

32

Hemidactylus flaviviridis

Yellow-green
gecko

LR-lc

33

Hemidactylus frenatus

Asian House Gecko

34

Hemidactylus maculatus

Spotted Rock gecko

35

Hemidactylus reticulatus

Reticulated Gecko

36

Hemidactylus triedrus

Termite-hill Gecko

37

Hemidactylus gigantieus

Giant Gecko

13

Lakhertidae
Acanthodactylus cantoris

29
12

38
14

Indian
Lizard

house

Fringe-toed

39

Scincidae
Lygosoma punctatus

Spotted Supple skink

LR-lc

40

Eutropis carinata

Keeled grass skink

LR-nt

41

Eutropis macularia

Bronze Grass Skink

LR-lc

15

Varanidae

42

Varanus bengalensis

VU

Sch-II

Bengal
(Oodoombu)

44

Monitor

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Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)-

S.No

Species name

16

Crocodylidae

43

Crocodylus palustris

17

Testudinidae

44

Geochelone elegans

18

Trionychidae

45

Lissemys punctata

Common
and
Vernacular Names

Mugger
or
Crocodile

Marsh

Indian Star tortoise


Indian flapshell turtle

45

Conservation
CAMP 1998
WPA
IUCN 2000
VU

Sch-I

VU

Sch-II

LR-nt

Sch-I

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Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)-

Table No. 3.12: List of terrestrial birds recorded in the three study ranges of the study
area
S.No
Scientific Name
Common Name
Conservation
Status
WPA
IUCN
1
Phasianidae
1

Calloperdix lunulata

Painted Spurfowl (R)

Calloperdix spadicea

Red Spurfowl (R)

IV

Francolinus pondicerianus

Grey Francolin* (R)

IV

Francolinus pictus

Painted Francolin (R )

Pavo cristatus

Indian Peafowl* (R)

Gallus sonneratiti

Grey Junglefowl (R)

Coturnix coromandelica

Rain Quail (R)

Coturnix coturnix

Common Quail (M)

Perdicula asiatica

Jungle Bush-Quail (R)

10

Perdicula aegoondab

Rock Bush Quail (R)

Turnicidae

11

Turnix sylvatica

Small Buttonquail (R)

IV

12

Turnix suscitator

Barred Buttonquail* (R)

IV

Picidae

13

Jynx torquilla

Eurasian Wryneck (M)

14

IV

Woodpecker

IV

Dendrocopos maharattensis

Yellow-crowned
(R)

15

Dinopium benghalense

Blakhk-rumped Flameback* (R)

IV

16

Dinopium javanense

Common Flameback (R)

17

Chrysocolaptes festivus

White-naped Woodpecker (R)

Megalaimidae

18

Megalaima zeylanica

Brown-headed Barbet (R)

19

Megalaima viridis

White-cheeked Barbet (R)

20

Megalaima haemacephala

Coppersmith Barbet* (R)

Bucerotidae

21

Ocyceros birostris

Upupidae

22

Upupa epops

Coraciidae

23

Ciracias benghalensis

Alcedinidae

24

Alcedo Hercules

Dacelonidae

IV

Indian Grey Hornbill (R)


Common Hoopoe* (M)
Indian Roller* (R )
Common Kingfisher (R)

46

IV

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Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)-

S.No

Scientific Name

25

Halcyon smyrnensis

10

Cerylidae

26

Ceryle rudis

Common Name

Conservation
Status
WPA
IUCN

White-throated Kingfisher* (R)


Pied Kingfisher (R)

11

Meropidae

27

Merops orientalis

Green Bee-eater* (R )

28

Merops Philippinus

Blue-tailed Bee-eater (M)

12

Cuculidae

29

Eudynamys scolopacea

Asian Koel* (R)

IV

30

Clamator jacobinus

Pied Cuckoo (M )

IV

31

Phaenicophaeus viridirostris

Blue-faced Malkoha (R)

32

Phaenicophaeus leschenaultii Sirkeer Malkhoha (R)

IV

Common Hawk Cuckoo


(R )

33

Hierococcyx varius

13

Centropodidae

34

Centropus sinensis

14

Psittacidae

35

Psittacula keupatria

Alexandrine Parakeet (R)

36

Psittacula krameri

Rose-ringed Parakeet* (R)

IV

37

Psittacula cyanocephala

Plum-headed Parakeet (R)

IV

15

Apodidae

38

Collocalia unicolar

Indian Swiftlet (R)

39

Cypsiurus halasiensis

Asian Palm Swift* (R)

40

House Swift (R)

41

Apus affinis
Hemipronce coronata

16

Strigidae

42

Bubo bubo

Eurasian Eagle-Owl (R)

IV

43

Brown Fish-Owl (R)

IV

44

Ketupa zeylonensis
Tyto alba

Barn Owl (R)

IV

45

Otus bukkamoena

Collared Scops Owl (R)

46

Otus scops

Eurasian Scops Owl (R)

47

Glaucidium radiatum

Jungle Owlet (R)

48

Athene brama

Spotted Owlet* (R))

IV

17

Caprimulgidae

49

Caprimulgus asiaticus

Indian Nightjar *(R)

IV

50

Caprimulgus indicus

Grey Nightjar (R)

18

Columbidae

Greater Coucal* (R )

IV

Crested Tree-swift (R)

47

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Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)-

S.No

Scientific Name

Common Name

Conservation
Status
WPA
IUCN

51

Columba livia

Rock Pigeon* (R)

52

Streptopelia chinensis

Spotted- Dove* (R)

IV

53

Streptopelia senegalensis

Laughing Dove* (R)

IV

Streptopelia decaocto

Eurasian Collared Dove*


(R)

IV

54
55

Streptopelia tranquebarica

Red collared Dove (R)

IV

56

Streptopelia orientalis

Oriental Turtle Dove (M)

57

Chalcophaps indica

Emerald Dove (R)

58

Treron phoenicoptera

Yellow-legged Green- Pigeon


(R)

19

Pteroclidae

IV

59

Pterocles exustus

Chestnut-bellied
(R)

Sandgrouse

60

Pterocles indicus

Painted Sandgrouse (R)

IV

20

Charadridae
IV

61

Vanellus malarbaricus

Yellow-wattled Lapwing*
(R)

62

Vanellus indicus

Red-wattled Lapwing* (R)

21

Accipitridae

63

Pernis ptilorhyncus

Oriental Honey-Buzzard (R)

64

Butastur leesa

White-eyed Buzzard (R)

65

Sarcogyps calvus

Red-headed Vulture (R)

66

Neophron percnopterus

Egyptian Vulture (R)

IV

67

Gyps bengalensis

White-rumped Vulture (R)

IV

68

Circus macrourus

Pallid Harrier (M)

69

Circus aeruginosus

Eurasian Marsh Harrier (M)

70

Circus pygargus

Montagus Harrier (M)

71

Haliastur indus

Brahminy Kite* (R)

72

Milvus migrans

Blakhk Kite* (R )

73

Elanus caerulus

Blakhk-shouldered Kite* (R )

74

Accipiter badius

Shikhra* (R )

75

Circaetus gallicus

Short-toed Snake Eagle


(R )

76

Accipiter nisus

Eurasian Sparrow hawk (R)

77

Aquila rapax

Twany Eagle (R)

78

Hieraaetus pennatus

Booted Eagle (R)

48

NT

IV
IV

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Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)-

S.No

Scientific Name

Common Name

79

Spizaetus cirrhatus

Changeable Hawk-Eagle (R)

80

Hieraaetus fasciatus

Bonellis (Hawk) Eagle (R)

81

Spilornis cheela

Crested Serpent Eagle (R)

Conservation
Status
WPA
IUCN

22

Falconidae

82

Falco jugger

Laggar Falcon (R)

83

Falco peregrinus

Peregrine Falcon (R)

84

Falco tinnunculus

Common Kestrel (R)

23

Lanidae

85

Lanius meridionalis

Southern Grey Shrike (R)

86

Lanius excubitor

Great Grey Shrike (R)

87

Lanius cristatus

Brown Shrike (M)

88

Lanius vittatus

Bay-backed Shrike (M)

89

Lanius schach

Long-tailed Shrike* (M)

24

Corvidae

90

Dendrocitta vagabunda

Rufous Treepie* (R)

91

Corvus macrorhynchos

Large-billed Crow* (R)

92

Corvus splendens

House Crow* (R)

IV

93

Pericrocotus cinnamomeus

Small Minivet (R )

94

Oriolus oriolus

Eurasian Golden Oriole (R)

IV

95

Oriolus xanthornus
Pitta brachyura

Blakhk-hooded Oriole (R)

Coracina macei
Coracina melanoptera

Large Cuckoo-shrike (R)

99

Hypothymis azurea

Blakhk-naped Monarch (R)

100

Rhipidura aureola

White-browed Fantail (R)

101

Rhipidura albicollis

White-throated Fantail (R)

102

Dicrurus macrocercus

Blakhk Drongo* (R )

IV
IV

103

Dicrurus paradiseus

Greater Racket-tailed Drongo


(R)

104

Dicrurus leucophaeus

Ashy Drongo (M)

105

Dicrurus caerulescens

White-bellied Drongo (R)

IV

106

Terpsiphone paradise

Asian Paradise Flycatcher (M)

IV

107

Aegithina tiphia

Common Iora (R)

IV

108

Chloropsis aurifrons

Gold-fronted Leafbird (R)

IV

109

Chloropsis cochinchinensis

Blue-winged Leafbird (R)

96
97
98

IV

Indian Pitta (M)


Blakhk-headed Cuckoo-shrike
(R)

49

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Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)-

S.No

Scientific Name

110

Tephrodornis pondicerianus

Common Name

Conservation
Status
WPA
IUCN

Common Woodshrike (R)

25

Muscicapidae

111

Muscicapa dauurica

Asian Brown Flycatcher (M)

112

Muscicapa muttui

Red-throated Flycatcher (M)

113

Ficedula superciliaris

Ultramarine Flycatcher (M)

114

Cyornis tickelliae

Tickell's Blue-Flycatcher (R)

115

Culicicapa ceylonensis

Grey-headed Canary Flycatcher


(M)

116

Eumyias thalassina

Verditer Flycatcher (M)

117

Saxicoloides fulicata

Indian Robin* (R)

118

Copsychus saularis

Oriental Magpie Robin (R)

119

Phoenicurus onchruros

Blakhk Redstart (M)

120

Saxicola torquata

Common Stonechat (M)

121

Saxicola caprata

Pied Bushchat (M)

122

Monticola solitaries

Blue Rock-Thrush (R)

123

Zoothera citrina

Orange-headed Thrush (M)

26

Sturnidae

124

Sternus roseus

Rosy Starling (M)

IV

125

Sturnus pagodarus

Brahminy Starling* (R)

IV

126

Sturnus erythropygius

Chestnut-tailled Starling (R)

127

Acridotheres tristis

Common Myna* (R)

IV

27

Paridae

128

Parus major

Great Tit (R)

IV

28

Hirundinidae

129

Hirundo concolor

Dusky crag-Martin (R)

130

Hirundo rustica

Barn Swallow* (R )

131

Hirundo smithii

Wire-tailed Swallow* (R)

132

Hirundo daurica

Red-rumped Swallow (R))

133

Hirundo fluvicola

Streak-throated Swallow (R)

Artamus fuscus

Ashy Woodswallow

IV

IV

IV

IV

29

Pycnonotidae

134

Pycnonotus Xantholaemus

Yellow-throated Bulbul (R)

135

Pycnonotus cafer

Red-vented Bulbul* (R)

IV

136

Pycnonotus jocosus

Red-Whiskered Bulbul (R)

IV

137

Pycnonotus luteolus

White-browed Bulbul (R)

30

Cysticolidae

50

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S.No

Scientific Name

Common Name

Conservation
Status
WPA
IUCN

138

Prinia hodgsonii

Grey-breasted Prinia (R )

139

Prinia buchanani

Rufous-fronted Prinia (R)

140

Prinia inornata

Plain Prinia* (R)

141

Prinia sylvatica

Jungle Prinia (R)

142

Prinia socialis

Ashy Prinia* (R)

143

Cisticola juncidis

Zitting Cisticolq* (R)

IV

31

Zosteropidae

144

Zosterops palpebrosus

Oriental White-eye (R)

IV

IV

32

Sylvidae

145

Sylvia curruca

Lesser Whitethroat (R)

IV

146

Orthotomus sutorius

Common Tailorbird* (R )

IV

147

Phylloscopus collybita

Common Chiffchaff (R)

148

Phylloscopus trochiloides

Greenish Warbler (M)

149

Acrocephalus dumetorum

Blyths Reed Warbler (M)

150

Hippolais caligata

Booted Warbler (M)

151

Acrocephalus stentoreus

Clamorous Reed Warbler (M)

152

Acrocephalus agricola

Paddyfield Warbler (R)

153

Pellorneum tickelli

Buff-breasted Babbler (R)

154

Turdoides caudatus

Common Babbler (R)

IV

155

Turdoides subrufus

Jungle Babbler (R)

IV

156

Turdoides malcolmi

Large Grey Babbler* (R )

157

Turdoides affinis

Yellow-billed Babbler (R)

158

Dumetia hyperythra

Tawny-bellied Babbler (R)

159

Chrysomma sinense

Yellow-eyed Babbler

33

Alaudidae

160

Mirafra erythroptera

Red winged Bush-lark (R)

161

Ammomanes phoenicurus

Rufous-tailed Lark (R)

162

Mirafra cantillans

Singing Bush Lark (R)

163

Mirafra erythroptera

Indian Bush Lark (R)

IV

164

Galerida deva

Sykess Lark (R)

IV

165

Alauda gulgula

Oriental Skylark (R)


IV

166

Eremopterix grisea

Ashy-crowned Sparrow Lark*


(R)

34

Nectarinidae

167

Nectarinia asiatica

Purple Sunbird (R )

IV

168

Nectarinia zeylonica

Purple-rumped Sunbird* (R)

IV

51

IV

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Of Allum Prashant, Bellary (Ml No.2352)-

S.No

Scientific Name

Common Name

169

Dicaeum agile

Thick-billed Flowerpecker (R)

170

Dicaeum erythrorhynchos

Pale-billed Flowerpecker *(R)

Conservation
Status
WPA
IUCN
IV
IV

35

Passeridae

171

Passer domesticus

House Sparrow* (R)

172

Petronia xanthocollis

Chestnut-shouldered
(R)

173

Anthus hodgsoni

Olive-backed Pipit (M)

174

Anthus rufulus

Paddyfield Pipit (R)

175

Anthus campustris

Tawny Pipit (R)

176

Anthus similes

Long-billed Pipit (R)

177

Ploceus philippinus

Baya Weaver* (R)

178

Ploceus manyar

Streaked Weaver (R)

179

Amadava amandava

Red Avadavat (M)

180

Lonchura malabarica

Indian Silverbill* (R)

IV

181

Lonchura punctulata

Scaly-breasted Munia* (R)

IV

182

Lanchura malakhca

Blakhk-headed Munia (R)

183

Motacilla maderaspatensis

White-browed Wagtail* (R)

184

Motacilla cinerea

Grey Wagtail (M )

185

Motacilla alba

White Wagtail (M)

186

Motacilla flava

Yellow Wagtail (M)

187

Motacilla citreola

Citrine Wagtail (M)

36

Fringillidae

188

Carpodacus nipalensis

Common Rosefinch (M)

189

Emberiza melanocephala

Blakhk-headed Bunting (M)

190

Emberiza bruniceps

Red-headed Bunting (M)

191

Emberiza buchanai

Grey-necked Bunting (M)

52

Petronia

IV

IV

IV

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Table No.3.13: List of aquatic birds recorded and reported from the wetlands
S.N
Scientific Name
Common Name
WPA
o
Schedule
1
Anatidae
1

Anser indicus

Bar-headed Goose (M)

Tadorna ferruginea

Ruddy Shelduck (M)

IV

Sarkidiornis melanotus

Comb Duck (R)

IV

Anas poecilorhyncha

Spot billed Duck (R)

IV

Anas crecca

Common (Green winged)


Teal (M)

IV

Anas acuta

Northern Pintail (M)

IV

Anas querquedula

Garganey (M)

IV

Anas clypeata

Northern Shoveler (M)

IV

Anas Penelope

Eurasian Wigeon (M)

IV

10

Cotton Pygmy Duck ((M)

IV

11

Nettapus
coromandelianus
Aythya ferina

Dendrocygnidae

12

Dendrocygna javanica

Gruidae

13

Grus virgo

Rallidae

14

Gallirallus striatus

Slaty-breasted Rail (M)

15

Gallinula chloropus

Common Moorhen (R)

16

Porphyrio porphyrio

Purple Swamphen (R)

IV

17

Fulica atra

Common Coot (R)

IV

18

Amaurornis phoenicurus

White-breasted Waterhen (R)

19

Amaurornis akool

Brown Crake (R)

Scolopacidae

20

Numenius arquata

Eurasian Curlew (M)

IV

21

Tringa totanus

Common Redshank (M)

IV

22

Tringa nebularia

Common Greenshank (M)

23

Tranga glareola

Wood Sandpiper (R)

IV

24

Actitis hypoleucos

Common Sandpiper (R)

IV

25

Tringa ochropus

Green Sandpiper (R)

IV

26

Calidris minuta

Little Stint (M)

27

Gallinaga gallinaga

Common Snipe (R)

Rostratulidae

28

Rostratula benghalensis

Common Pochard (M)


Lesser Whistling-Duck (R)

IV

Demoiselle Crane (M)

IV

Greater Painted-snipe (R)

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S.N
o
6

Scientific Name

Common Name

WPA
Schedule

Jacanidae

30

Hydrophasianus
chirurgus
Metopidius indicus

Burhinidae

31

Burhinus oedicnemus

Eurasian Thick-knee (R)

IV

32

Esacus recurvirostris

Great Thick-knee (R)

IV

Charadriidae

33

Himantopus himantopus

Blakhk- winged Stilt (R)

IV

34

Charadrius dubius

Little ringed Plover (R)

IV

Laridae

35

Larus brunnicephalus

Brown-headed Gull (R)

36

Chlidonias hybridus

Whiskered Tern (R)

37

Sterna acuticauda

Blakhk-bellied Tern (R)

38

Sterna aurantia

River Tern (R)

10

Podicipedidae

39

Tachypaptus ruficollis

11

Anhingidae

40

Anhinga melanogaster

12

Phalakhrocoracidae

41

Phalakhrocorax niger

Little Cormorant (R)

42

Indian Cormorant (R)

43

Phalakhrocorax
fuscicollis
Phalakhrocorax carbo

13

Ardeidae

44

Butorides striatus

Little Heron (R)

IV

45

Ardeola grayii

Indian Pond Heron (R)

IV

46

Bubulcus ibis

Cattle Egret (R)

IV

47

Egretta garzetta

Little Egret (R)

IV

48

Mesophoyx intermedia

Median (intermediate) Egret


(R)

IV

49

Cosmerodius albus

Great Egret (R)

50

Ardea cinerea

Grey Heron (M)

IV

51

Nycticorax nycticorax

Blakhk-crowned Night
Heron (R)

IV

14

Phoenicopteridae

52

Phoenicopterus ruber

29

Pheasant-tailed Jacana (R)


Bronze-winged Jacana (R)

Little Grebe (R)


Darter (R)

IV
IV/NT
IV

Great Cormorant (R)

Greater Flamingo (M)

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S.N
o
15

Scientific Name

Common Name

WPA
Schedule

Threskiornithidae

53

Pseudibis papillosa

Blakhk Ibis (R)

IV

54

Plegadis falcinellus

Glossy Ibis (R)

IV

55

Blakhk-headed Ibis (R)

IV

56

Threskiornis
melanocephalus
Platalea leucorodia

Eurasian Spoonbill (R)

16

Pelecanidae

57

Pelecanus philippensis

17

Ciconiidae

58

Mycteria leucocephala

Painted Stork (R)

IV

59

Anastomus oscitans

Asian Openbill (R)

IV

60

Blakhk-necked Stork (M)

61

Ephippiorhynchus
asiaticus
Ciconia episcopus

62

Ciconia ciconia

White Stork (M)

63

Leptoptilos javanicus

Lesser Adjutant (M)

Spot-billed Pelican (M)

Woolly-necked Stork (R)

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Table No. 3.14: List of mammals


Species name
Common name

S.No

Conservation Status
CAMP 1998 Anon
IUCN 2000
1972

Cercopithecidae
Macaca radiata

Bonnet Macaque

LR

Sch.II

Semnopithecus entellus

Hanuman Langur

LR

Sch.II

2
3

Cervidae
Muntiacus muntjak

Indian Muntjac

LR

Sch.III

Axis axis

Spotted Deer

LR

Sch.II

3
5

Bovidae
Tetracerus quardicornis

Four-horned Antelope

VU

Sch.I

Antilope cervicapra

Blakhk buck

VU

Sch.I

Suidae
Sus scrofa

Wild Pig

LR-

Sch.III

Ursidae
Melursus ursinus

Sloth Bear

VU

Sch.I

Canidae
Canis lupus

Indian Wolf

LR-nt

Sch.I

10

Canis aureus

Jackal

LR-lc

Sch.II

11

Vulpes bengalensis

Indian Fox

LR

Sch.II

Hyaenidae
Hyaena hyaena

Striped Hyaena

LR

Sch.III

13

Felidae
Panthera pardus

Common Leopard

LR

Sch.I

14

Felis chaus

Jungle Cat

LR-nt

Sch-II

Mustelidae
Mellivora capensis

Ratel

LR-nt

Sch.I

16

Viverridae
Viverricula indica

Small Indian Civet

LR-nt

Sch.II

17

Paradoxurus hermaphroditus

Common Palm Civet

LR

Sch.II

11
18

Herpestidae
Herpestes edwardsii

LR-lc

Sch.IV

19

Herpestes javanicus

Small Indian Mongoose

12

Manidae
Manis crassicaudata

Indian Pangolin

LR

Sch.I

Leporidae
Lepus nigricollis

Indian

LR-lc

Sch.IV

7
5
8
6

12
8

15
10

20
13
21

Common
Mongoose

56

Grey

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S.No

Species name

Common name

Conservation Status
CAMP 1998 Anon
IUCN 2000
1972

(Blakhknaped)
14
22
15
23
16
24
17

Soricidae
Suncus murinus
Hystricidae
Hystrix indica
Sciuridae
Funambulus palmarum

House or Grey Musk


Shrew

LR-lc

Indian Porcupine

LR-lc

Sch.IV

LR-lc

Sch.IV

LR-lc

Sch.IV

Three striped
Squirrel

Palm

25

Muridae
Tatera indica

Indian Gerbil

26

Rattus rattus

Rock/House Rat

27

Mus musculus

House Mouse

18
28

Pteropodidae
Pteropus giganteus

Indian Flying Fox

LR-nt

29

Cynopterus sphinx

Short-nosed Fruit Bat

LR-nt

3.5

SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT

3.5.1 Demographic status of the Mine affected villages


The demographic status of 13 villages situated in the buffer zone of the Mine lease area, is
shown in Table 3.9.
Table No. 3.15: Showing demographic details of the mine affected villages
within 10 km radius
Description

Numbers

Demography
Total Villages

13

Total no. of House Hold

5453

Total Population

30041

Total Male Population

15375

Total Female Population

14666

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Total SC Population

8729

Total SC Male Population

4420

Total SC Female Population 4309


Total ST Population

4302

Literacy Level
Total Literate Population

12277

Employment Pattern
Cultivators

4967

Agricultural Labour

3708

House Hold Workers

207

Other Workers

2792

Total Main Workers

12368

Total Marginal Workers

1839

Total Non Workers

15834

(Source: EIA and EMP report of Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine of Allum Prasanth)

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3.5.2

Land use pattern of villages/towns in Buffer Zone


Table No. 3.16: Showing landuse pattern of villages/town in Buffer zone.

Sl.
No

Name

of Area in

Village

Hectare

Antapura

Uncultivable

Uncultivable

Forest

Irrigated

Unirrigated

1140

206.29

0.00

688.10

28.38

217.05

Avinamadugu

1330

518.61

96.32

439.04

0.00

275.57

Chikkantapur

1473

369.85

1.60

671.65

0.00

430.27

Gangalapur

348

153.74

12.95

163.13

17.81

0.81

Gundlahalli

687

0.00

0.00

561.38

17.48

108.12

Kodalu

2138

151.65

4.66

561.71

2.20

1417.81

Metriki

1218

541.50

0.00

558.11

39.03

79.57

waste

(Source: EIA and EMP report of Haraginadona Iron Ore Mine of Allum Prasanth)

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CHAPTER-4
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
4.1. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OPEN CAST IRON ORE MINING
The open cast iron mining has several environmental impacts and the details are
summarized as below:
4.1.1 Impact on Landscape
The landscape of the terrain has been modified to a large extent due to mining activities
since the year 2001. The disposal of waste material has been carried out in the mine lease
area in an unscientific manner, without proper measures for stabilization, resulting in
erosion of the waste dumps. Some of the natural streams/ Nallas which are seasonal
were cut off, resulting in hindrance to their smooth flow downwards.
Erosion from OB dumps results in significant loading of sediments (including chemical
pollutants) to nearby water-bodies, especially during rainy season. Erosion/sediment
loading has been observed from mining areas such as open pit areas, waste rock and
overburden piles, haul roads and access roads, ore stockpiles, exploration areas and
reclamation areas.

4.1.2 Impact on Ecology


The Mine lease area is located in the revenue (non-forest land), but there are adjoining
scrub jungles, the ecology of which will be much affected due to mining activities and
transportation of mined out materials. Therefore, reclamation of the mined out area and
proper afforestation plan using native species are to be taken up to restore the ecology.

4.1.3 Impact on Air Quality


The impacts on air environment from a mining activity depend on various factors like
production capacity, machinery involved, control measures adopted, operation and
maintenance of various equipments and vehicles. Apart from these, there are other
activities associated viz., transportation of ore and waste, stocking facilities and dump
management within the mine lease area will contribute to pollution.

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4.1.4 Impact of Noise and Vibration


Mining machinery and heavy-duty vehicles in the area cause noise pollution and effect of
noise is much pronounced near the active working areas. The main sources of noise are
from stationary mining equipment, mobile mining equipment and transportation
vehicles. The location of the Mine is near to human habitations and agricultural lands and
therefore, there will be lot of negative impacts of noise and vibration on the human
beings.
4.1.5 Impact on Water Quality
Mining activities cause adverse impact due to mine drainage and siltation through storm
water. The mine workings are above the ground water table therefore impact on ground
water regime are minimal. No perennial rivers / Nallas are present in this area. But, there
are many seasonal streams, which are draining into small streams and they may carry
much polluted water from the Mine area.

4.1.6 Impact on Soil Fertility


The run-off water directly going to nearby agricultural fields changes the nutrient
contents of soil and subsoil layers, thereby reducing the fertility of the land. This
manifests itself in the form of loss of yield of crop. As the mining activity disturbs the
topsoil, which contains the nutrients and beneficial microbes, the soil fertility will be
completely lost.
4.1.7 Impact on Aquatic Life
There are no water bodies inside the mine lease area and in the buffer zone found two
tanks namely Kudithini and Haraganadoni

4.1.8 Impact on Society


The villagers in the buffer zone are mainly dependent on agriculture for their livelihood.
The mining activities provide them employment opportunities and improved standard of
living. However, the people who get employment in mine related activities lose interest
in agricultural works which indirectly affects the food production. Occupational health

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hazards like noise induced hearing loss and occupational lung diseases due to inhalation
of silica dust and fine iron ore particles are the major problems encountered.

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CHAPTER-5
REHABILITATION AND RECLAMATION PLAN
5.1 INTRODUCTION
In the process of opencast mining, several changes occur in the physical, chemical,
biological and microbial properties of the environment (Kundu and Ghose, 1998; Singh
and Singh, 2006; Padmavathiamma and Li, 2007, Sheoran et al., 2009; Sheoran et al., 2010;)
Degradation level depends on climatic conditions and various other factors. If the
biological reclamation is not done well in time, leaching will remove the nutrients due to
the rainwater erosion, the nutrient cycle will break down, and the soil will ultimately
become biologically unproductive. The objective of the study is to assess the
deterioration due to mining and allied activities and to evolve restoration techniques for
the renewal of the damaged land for its sustainable and beneficial use.
The mine rehabilitation plan should aim:

To stabilize loose over burden (OB) dumps and mined out areas

To check soil erosion and sediment loss

To ameliorate substratum in terms of:


Soil moisture retention
Nutrient retention
Microbial biomass

To enhance diversity of plants, animal and micro-organisms

To regulate natural process of ecosystem, namely,


Productivity
Nutrient cycling
Water recharging
Soil protection
Sheltering and providing conditions to plant and animal species

To cater the need of local people for their daily needs

To develop visual and aesthetic view of the area

The successful Reclamation and Rehabilitation plan for the mine will primarily depend
on following considerations:
1.

Rehabilitation and Reclamation of Encroached Areas.

2.

Loose OB dumps and their stabilization

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3.

Mining pits, their back filling and stabilization

4.

Nalla/Stream courses and their stabilization

5. Development of vegetation on non-mineralized areas


6. Safety zone and Greenbelt Development
7. Avenue plantation all along mine haul roads
8. Regular monitoring by an independent scientific agency

5.2 REHABILITATION AND RECLAMATION MEASURES


The measures contemplated under the R and R plan are broadly categorized under the
following heads:
1. R and R measures for areas considered under encroachment.
2. Stabilization of Dumps
3. Surface Water Management
4. Afforestation/ Plantation
5. Green Belt Development
6. Supplementary Environment Safeguard Plans (SESP) for the areas impacting the
environment within and outside the mine lease areas

5.2.1 Reclamation and Rehabilitation Plan for Area under Encroachment


The areas observed and considered as encroachment by the Joint Team, constituted for
the purpose by the CEC, in respect of ML 2352 is delineated in Fig. 5.1. The total extent of
the area outside the CEC lease sketch is 0.21 ha which is spatially located towards west
boundary covered between the grids N 1674300 to 1674100 and E 689500 to 689300 The
encroachment is categorised as overburden dump (0.21 ha). The encroached dump is
completely un-stabilized and engineering measures like strengthening of the dump toe
wall and garland drain is required to check the siltation in the adjacent area of the lease.
The cost of rehabilitation and reclamation measures are enumerated in Table 5.1.

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Table-5.1: Estimate for R and R plan of the encroached areas


Sl.
No.

Particulars

No

L (m)

B (m)

Retaining walls at toe of waste dump


1
(i) R-R dry stone 1
297
2
masonry
Garland drain (1 1
300
2
m bottom width,
2 m top width
2
and 1 m deep in
all terraces)
Providing
and
fixing geo-textile
on outer surface
3
of slope of waste
dump
Plantation over 1
4
waste dump area
TOTAL
5.2.2

H
(m)

Qty.
m3

Rate (Rs.)

Amount
(Rs.
Lakh)

1782

520/m3

9.26

600

520/m3

3.12

0.21ha

10 lakh/ ha

2.10

0.21 ha

1.74lakh/ha

0.37
14.85

Stabilization of Dumps

Control of erosion is important both during mining and post mining rehabilitation
program. A major objective of rehabilitation is to establish an adequate cover of
vegetation to stabilize the site and prevent or control erosion.
5.2.2.1 Waste dump
Only one waste dump located in North-East portion of the lease area over an extent of
2.13 ha has been envisaged. The height of the waste dump varies from 16 m to 8 m and
the angle of the dump varies from 320o to 35 o. At present, the waste is being dumped in
2.13 ha area. Till now 18450 cum waste material has been filled in this active dump.
During the conceptual plan period the average slope angle of this dump will be 30 o and
the average height will be 30 m. Based on the cross section taken on the portion of the
dump where the dumping is proposed for next plan period in over an area of 2.27 ha
with further dumping capacity of 1.76 Lakh cum or 0.18 M cum.

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5.2.2.2 Engineering measures


The waste dump has to be properly maintained such that any subsidence or slide of the
material disposed out of the dump could not take plakhe. Therefore, it has to be
stabilised and strengthened by taking various engineering protective measures such as,
well designed stone masonry retaining wall at toe and garland drain of size 1 m bottom
width, 2 m top width, 1 m height with 1:2 side slopes in front of it. At lower RL two stage
settling tanks SP1 and SP2 having dimensions 30 m x 15m x 3 m is proposed along with
the garland drain for checking up the siltation. Along this dump one retaining wall of
length 320 m and a garland drain of length 320 m is proposed. The proposed Engineering
measures is enclosed as Fig.5.2
Table-5.2: Estimate for Dump Management Plan
Sl.
No.

Particulars

No

L (m)

B (m)

H (m)

Qty.m3

Rate (Rs.)

Amount
(Rs.
Lakh)

Retaining walls at toe of waste dump


1a

2a

(i). R-R dry stone


masonry (RW-1)
(ii). R-R dry stone
masonry (RW-2)
Garland drain (1 m
bottom width, 2 m
top width and 1 m
deep in all terraces)
GD-1
GD-2

320

1920

520/m3

9.98

297

1782

520/m3

9.27

1
1

320
300

2
2

1
1

640
600

520/m3
520/m3

3.32
3.12

0.09ha

10lakh/ha

0.90

2.27 ha

1.74lakh/ha

3.94

Providing
and
fixing
geo-textile
on outer surface of
3
slope
of
waste
dump
Plantation
over
5
waste dump area
TOTAL

30.53

5.2.2.3 Sub Grade Stack/Fine Ore Stack


The sub grade material is not found anywhere within this lease area. In future the sub
grade ore will be blended with the saleable ore as per the market demand. Hence, no
sub-grade dump is proposed within this lease.

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5.2.3 Surface Water Management


The run-off resulting from rainfall on the surface of the ML area if not allowed to flow
through natural streams shall result in heavy erosion in the form of sheet and gullies
erosion. This will result in land degradation and detachment of soil particles which in
turn increase the turbidity of flowing water and thus impairing its quality. The rainwater
should be channelized and controlled through various engineering structures like
retaining wall, gully plugs, check dams, garland drains and settling tanks depending
upon the field conditions to prevent the further land degradation and rolling down the
soil/waste material to the down slope. Details of the engineering and biological
measures are discussed below. The surface water management plan is enclosed as
Fig.5.2.
5.2.3.1 Gully Plugs
Gullies are mainly formed on account of physiography, soil type and heavy biotic
pressure in an area. The scouring of streams at their peak flows and sediment laden runoff

cause

gullies.

The

gullies

would

be

required

to

be

treated

with

engineering/mechanical methods. The mine owner has not constructed any gully plug
outside the mine lease area to control the sediment flow and erosion in stream. Ten gully
plugs are now being proposed outside the ML area across the seasonal drainage flowing
from the mining area to down slopes. The proposed dimensions are 10 m x 3 m x 3 m.
5.2.3.2 Check dams
Check dams would be constructed in some of the areas outside the ML to promote
growth of vegetation to arrest flow of water and consequently to lead the stabilization of
slopes/area and further prevention of deepening of gullies and erosion. Different types
of check dams such as masonry and rock filled have been proposed to be constructed at
vital portion across the streams. Though the mine owner has constructed 2 masonry
check dams inside the lease area and 15 were constructed outside the mine lease area by
state government of Karnataka and 4 masonry check dams of dimensions 20 m x 4 m x
2.5mand 13 rock filled check dams of dimensions 20 m x 2 m x 3 m have been proposed
outside the mine lease area.

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5.2.3.3 Settling tanks


One settling tanks of 30m x 15m x 3m have been proposed each inside and outside the
lease area. These are connected to garland drains to slow down the flow of water and to
arrest the loose sediments from the waste dumps and also to store water for watering the
green belt. The settling tanks should be constructed in stone masonry in cement sand
mortar 1:5 and shall be plastered from inside.
5.2.3.4 Culvert
A major stream passing through the two mine lease blocks of the mine lease area and the
ore is being transported over the stream through trucks. To stabilize the stream from
erosion and from obstruction due to transport, a culvert was proposed across the stream.
The dimension of the culvert 11.70m X 9.00m X 3.35m by providing 3 hume pipes. An
approximate cost has been proposed to construct the culver is Rs 4.05 lakh.
5.2.4 Cost estimate for Surface water management
The following individual engineering measures are needed to be constructed, such as
settling tanks, check dams, gully plugs, rock filled dams and culverts within and outside
the mine lease area for surface water management. The number of engineering structures
to be required for the entire area was assessed and accordingly the financial provisions
have been made. The overall cost of the surface management plan is shown in Table-5.3
and the cost has been worked out to be Rs. 84.79 lakh +4.05 lakh (culvert cost ) = Rs.
88.84 lakh

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Table-5.3: Proposed Costs of Surface Water Management Plan


Sl.
No.

Amount
Particulars

L (m)

B (m)

H (m)

Qty.m3

Rate (Rs.)

(Rs.
lakh)

Gully Plug

Masonry
2

No

Check

10

10

900

520/m3

4.68

20

2.5

80

40,000/running

32.00

Running

Dam

m
3

Rock

Check

13

20

1560

520/m3

30

15

2700

20

8.11

Dam
Stone

fill

masonry

settling tank (30m


x 15 m x 3 m) 2
Nos.
RR Stone masonry

1:5 Cement mortar

approximately

(in long walls)

for each tank

Cement plaster in
ii

lakh

30

15

2700

30

15

2700

40.0

1:4 in cement sand


mortar

(inside

tank)
Cement plaster in
iii

1:4 in cement sand


mortar

(top

of

tank)
TOTAL

84.79

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Figure-5.1: Existing Dump Plan of Haraginadona Iron ore Mine, ML 2352

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Fig.5.2 Surface Water Management Plan of Haraginadona Iron ore Mine, ML 2352

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Fig.5.3: Dump Management Plan of Haraginadona Iron ore Mine, ML 2352

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5.3. BIOLOGICAL MEASURES


Engineering and biological measures in restoration of ecology and its functioning in
mined areas are important parameters. Mechanical measures aid in restoration of
physical features while biological measure help in reclamation of living and biodiversity
components of ecology. Biological measures must be drafted and implemented with
immediate effect. While attempting to restore a native ecosystem, effort is to establish a
self-sustaining system, so that succession processes lead to the desired floral and faunal
complexes. The seasonal distribution and reliability of rainfall determines the best time
to establish vegetation. Biological measures, if implemented successfully will result in the
establishment of self sustaining ecosystem. All the preparatory works must be completed
before the time when seeds are most likely to experience the conditions that they need to
germinate and survive, i.e. adequate rainfall and suitable temperatures. The biological
measures will employ the identification and selection of suitable plant species adaptable
to the existing climatic and sub-stratum conditions, collection of planting materials
(seeds, rhizomes, bulbs, cuttings etc.), raising these planting stocks in nursery or directly
sowing on the OB dumps/mined out areas depending on the species characteristics and
availability of planting resource. The elevation of mine site varies between 560 m to 615
m above msl.
5.3.1 Species selection and plantation
The ultimate objective of the biological measure is to restore the natural vegetation
occurring in and around the mine area and also to provide a corridor for free movement
of the wildlife. The species selected for establishment is based on the future land use of
the area, soil conditions and climate.
Species which have similar growth forms as compared to the original vegetation,
and thrive in areas with comparable soil types, drainage status, aspect and
climate, are most appropriate.
The native species which occur in the natural vegetation area are the best
candidates for restoration purpose.
Care must be taken to avoid introducing a species which could become an
unacceptable fire hazard, invade surrounding areas of native vegetation, or
become a weed.

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Suitable leguminous species should be selected to improve fertility of the mine


disturbed substratum.
Species having a good canopy cover should be selected and used where a quick
cover for erosion control is required.
The grasses and herbaceous species available locally in abundance can be used
for management of OB dumps.
When establishing native plants with a cover crop, a compromise must be
reached between the densities of the cover crop needed to provide rapid erosion
control, and the tendency of the cover crop to suppress or smother the native
species.
Depending upon the plant characteristic, seed size the species can be propagated by
various methods i.e., seed broadcast, seed mixed with soil, hydro-seeding, seedlings,
rhizomes, bulbs, slips, root stocks.
a) Seed broadcasting: Seeds can be sown directly by broadcasting them over the
selected areas.
b) Seed mixed with soil: Seeds are mixed in soil and made into small balls which
are then broadcasted over the selected sites. This practice is applied in those
species whose seeds are very minute like grasses. The earthen balls are made by
mixing soil, farm yard manure (FYM), seeds and required quantity of water.
c) Hydro-seeding: Inaccessible areas like steep slopes hydro seeding technique can
be applied. In this technique a slurry of appropriate consistency and quantity is
to be prepared consisting of water, FYM, and seeds. This slurry is sprinkled over
the selected sites with the help of either hydro-seeders or manually sprinkling
with a jug or such containers.
d) Planting rhizomes, bulbs, slips, root stocks: These stocking materials are planted
by simply digging holes of appropriate depth.
e) Planting seedlings: In this method a pit of an appropriate size, depending on the
site conditions and size of the poly-bag, is dug out and stones are removed. Pits
are filled back with the mixture of good quality soil (preferably from the silting
tanks/top soil preserved) and FYM. In this dressed pit the seedlings are planted.

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Reconnaissance survey was made to assess the present status of biological components of
the adjoining areas of mined lands for identification and selection of plant species to be
used in restoration process.
5.4 OVER BURDEN DUMPS MANAGEMENT
The mine has several dumps all along mine haul road, one active dump over an area of
2.27ha which has not been maintained properly. The existing dump has no terraces, The
proposed dump will have 4 stages and 3 terraces with about similar dimensions. The
lessee has not done any afforestation efforts on the proposed dump. However some
sporadic planting of Acacia auriculiformis, Agave americana, (bordering the dump),
Pongamia pinnata, Azadirachta indica and Hardwickia binata plantation has been maintained
properly. But monoculture method has been followed, which should be discontinued
hereafter. No plantation work has been undertaken by the lessee on the overburden.
The species used in restoration process should be in proper combination of all plant
forms such as grasses, herbs, shrubs and trees as recorded in the natural forests. In
addition, the aim of restoration should be on protection of soil erosion from loose
overburden dumps, soil moisture retention as well as enrichment of soil fertility.
Before initiation for biological restoration, the OB dumps should be made into
recommended benches and terraces with appropriate angle. The steep OB dump slopes
being unstable and having loose material may get disturbed immediately by rains which
may result in soil erosion and formation of gullies. Furthermore direct exposure to
sunlight may also result in loss of soil moisture and increase of substratum temperature
which may hamper the growth and establishment of vegetation. To overcome these
problems geo textile/coir mats may be used followed by the seed broadcasting and
planting of suitable plant species over geo textile or coir mat. Seed broadcasting has to be
taken up by using hydroseeder or by spreading slurry manually. The species
recommended for hydroseeding on mine OB dumps and fragile unstable surfaces are
Apluda mutica, Bothriochloa pertusa, Cassia auriculata, Cassia occidentalis, C. tora, Crotalaria
juncea, C. albida, Cymbopogon flexuosus, C. martinii, C. nardus, Dactyloctenium aegyptium,
Dichanthium annulatum, Heteropogon contortus, Stylosanthes fruticosa, Tephrosia purpurea etc.
(Table-5.4). These species will get established in due course of time and cover the
disturbed areas. In addition to hydroseeding planting of suitable shrubs, creepers and
trees have to be done on slopes by making holes in geo textile/coir mat.

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On the slopes and terraces where no geo matting/coir mat is used, contour trenches
should be made on the slopes for giving proper anchorage and support to the seeds and
other planting stock, especially grasses. The distance between two adjoining contours
should be about one meter. For stabilization of steep slopes rows of grasses, which are
known drought tolerant, fast colonizers in low nutrient soil and best soil binders, are to
be planted. Grasses to be planted should be raised in the nurseries and then planted on
the slopes of OB dumps and any other areas. In the absence of sufficient stock of grasses
in the nurseries, clumps of grasses can also be collected from adjacent areas without
disturbing the natural vegetation cover of the area.
Table-5.4: Species Recommended for Hydro seeding (HS)
Sl. No. Species

Local Name

Family

A. Herbs and Grasses


1.

Bothriochloa pertusa

Aanekattu hullu

Poaceae

2.

Caasia senna

Nelavarike

Fabaceae

3.

Cassia occidentalis

Dodda thagase

Caesalpiniaceae

4.

Cassia tora

Gunduthagase

Caesalpiniaceae

5.

Crotalaria albida

Giligili gida

Fabaceae

6.

Crotalaria juncea

Sanna senabu

Fabaceae

7.

Cymbopogon flexuosus

Anthibale hullu

Poaceae

8.

Cymbopogon nardus

Ganda hanchi hullu

Poaceae

9.

Cynodon dactylon

Garike hullu

Poaceae

10.

Dactyloctenium aegyptium Kaadu raagi hullu

11.

Dichanthium annulatum

Ganjala garike hullu Poaceae

12.

Heteropogon contortus

Ooobina hullu

Poaceae

13.

Stylosanthes fruticosa

Hamata grass

Fabaceae

14.

Tephrosia purpurea

Kaadu thogari

Fabaceae

Poaceae

B. Shrubs
15.

Calotropis gigantea

Ekka

Asclepiadaceae

16.

Calotropis procera

Kempuekka

Asclepiadaceae

17.

Cassia auriculata

Aavarike

Caesalpiniaceae

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Grasses
The important grass species to be planted on exposed slopes and terraces are: Bothriochloa
pertusa, Chrysopogon fulvus, Cymbopogon flexuosus, C. nardus, Cynodon dactylon,
Dichanthium annulatum, Heteropogon contortus, etc., These species have been suggested for
planting in the form of slips, seed broadcast, earthen balls, and hydro-seeding as given in
Tables-5.5.
The grass species are available in plenty around the area. It is strongly recommended that
the above grasses may be grown and multiplied in the nursery for their plantation in the
mined areas. Different species of grasses should be planted on slopes as slips at distance
of about 30 cm from plant to plant.
Table 5.5.Grasses and bamboos (Family: Poaceae) recommended for stabilization of
the OB dumps
Sl. No. Species

Local Name

Method of Propagation*

Bothriochloa pertusa

Aanekattu hullu

EB, HS

Chrysopogon fulvus

Ganjigarike

EB, HS, S

Cymbopogon flexuosus

Anthibale hullu

HS, S

Cymbopogon nardus

Ganda hanchi hullu

HS, S

Cynodon dactylon

Garike hullu

HS, EB

Dichanthium annulatum Ganjala garike hullu EB, HS

Eleusine indica

Hechhulli hullu

EB, HS

Heteropogon contortus

Ooobina hullu

EB, HS

*EB-Earthen balls, HS-Hydro-seeding, Rh-Rhizome, S-Slips


Leguminous species
In addition to the grass species preference for leguminous should also be given in order
to enrich the soil fertility. The legumes play an important role in increasing the soil
nitrogen for they have symboitic nitrogen fixing bacteria. Seeds of following species
suggested for mined out areas and OB dumps can be collected from adjacent forest area
or purchased from the recognized private nurseries/forest department: Cassia senna,
Crotalaria albida, C. juncea, C. retusa, C. verrucosa, Mimosa pudica, Stylosanthes fruticosa,
Tephrosia purpurea, etc., (Table-5.6).

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Table-5.6: Species Recommended for Nitrogen Enrichment of Mine Areas


Sl.

Species

Local Name

Family

No.

Method
Propagation*

A.Herbs
1.

Cassia mimosoides

Nelathangadi

Caesalpiniaceae

HS, SB

2.

Cassia occidentalis

Dodda thagase

Caesalpiniaceae

HS, SB

3.

Cassia senna

Nelaavarike

Fabaceae

SB

4.

Cassia tora

Ganduthagase

Caesalpiniaceae

HS, SB

5.

Crotalaria albida

Giligili gida

Fabaceae

HS, SB

6.

Crotalaria juncea

Sanna senabu

Fabaceae

SB

7.

Crotalaria retusa

Gejje gida

Fabaceae

SB

8.

Crotalaria verrucosa

Gijigiji gida

Fabaceae

HS, SB

9.

Mimosa pudica

Muttidare muni

Mimosaceae

EB, SB

10.

Stylosanthes fruticosa

Fabaceae

EB, SB

11.

Tephrosia purpurea

Fabaceae

EB, SB

12.

Tephrosia villosa

Fabaceae

EB, SB3

Kaadu thogari

B.Shrubs
13

Cassia auriculata

Aavarike

Caesalpiniaceae HS, SB

14

Cassia hirsuta

Ganduthagase

Caesalpiniaceae HS, SB

*EB-earthen balls, HS-Hydro-seeding, SB-Seed broadcast


Trees
After the establishment of the grasses and shrubs on the slopes and terraces of the OB
dumps the planting of indigenous tree species should be taken up within one years of
grass plantation. Plant to plant spacing of tree on the terraces should be in 3m x 3m
distance. Similarly on slopes spacing should be 2m x 2m. Species composition should be
mixed as recorded in the natural forest around the mine. The detail of tree species to be
planted is given in Table-5.7.

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Table-5.7: Plant Species suitable for OB Dump and Mine Pit Stabilization
Sl.

Plant species

Local names

Family

No.

Method
propagation*

A. Herbs and Grasses


1

Bothriochloa pertusa

Aanekattu hullu

Poaceae

Cassia senna

Nelavarike

Fabaceae

Chrysopogon fulvus

Ganjigarike

Poaceae

EB, HS, S

Cymbopogon flexuosus

Cymbopogon

Poaceae

HS, S

EB, HS

flexuosus
5

Cymbopogon nardus

Ganda hanchi hullu

Poaceae

HS, S

Dichanthium annulatum

Ganjala garike hullu

Poaceae

EB, HS

Fagonia cretica

Muddu

mullina Zygophyllakhe

gida

ae

Heteropogon contortus

Ooobina hullu

Poaceae

EB, HS

Stylosanthes fruticosa

Hamata grass

Fabaceae

HS, SB

B. Shrubs
10

Agave americana

Aane Katthaale

Agavaceae

11

Agave sisalana

Boodu Katthaale

Agavaceae

12

Calotropis gigantea

Ekka

Asclepiadaceae

EB, HS

13

Calotropis procera

Kempuekka

Asclepiadaceae

EB, HS

14

Canthium parviflorum

Kaare mullu

Rubiaceae

SL

15

Cassia auriculata

Aavarike

Caesalpiniaceae

HS, SB

16

Dodonaea viscosa

Bandarike

Sapindaceae

SB, SL

17

Maytenus emarginata

Thandraasi

Celastraceae

SB

18

Rhus mysorensis

Salabe

Anacardiaceae

SL

19

Vitex negundo

Lakki

Verbenaceae

BC

C. Trees
20

Acacia catechu

Kaachu

Mimosaceae

SL

21

Acacia chundra

Kaachu

Mimosaceae

SL

22

Acacia ferruginea

Banni mara

Mimosaceae

SL

23

Acacia horrida

Aane gobli

Mimosaceae

SL

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24

Acacia nilotica

Kari gobbali

Mimosaceae

SL

25

Albizia lebbeck

Baage

Mimosaceae

SL

26

Albizia odoratissima

Bilvaara

Mimosaceae

SL

27

Albizia amara

Bilibaage

Mimosaceae

SL

28

Annona squamosa

Seethaphala

Annonaceae

SL

29

Anogeissus latifolia

Dindiga

Combretaceae

SL

30

Azadirachta indica

Bevu

Meliaceae

SL

31

Bauhinia racemosa

Kaadu mandaara

Caesalpiniaceae

SL

32

Cassia fistula

Kakke

Caesalpiniaceae

SL

33

Dalbergia sissoo

Shishta baage

Fabaceae

RS, SL

34

Diospyros melanoxylon

Beedi yele mara

Ebenaceae

SL

35

Euphorbia tirucalli

Kolukalli

Euphorbiaceae

BC

36

Ficus religiosa

Arali

Moraceae

SL

37

Givotia rottleriformis

Bili poliku

Euphorbiaceae

SL

38

Gmelina arborea

Shivane mara

Verbenaceae

SL

39

Grewia tiliifolia

Sannudippe

Tiliaceae

SL

40

Hardwickia binata

Asanagurgi

Caesalpiniaceae

SL

41

Holoptelea integrifolia

Tapasimara

Ulmaceae

SL

42

Lagerstroemia parviflora

Holedaasavaala

Lythraceae

SL

43

Limonia acidissima

Baelada mara

Rutaceae

SL

44

Morinda pubescens

Haladi paavate

Rubiaceae

SL

45

Phyllanthus emblica

Nelli

Euphorbiaceae

SL

46

Pithecelobium dulce

Seeme hunise

Mimosaceae

SL

47

Pongamia pinnata

Honge

Fabaceae

SL

48

Tamarindus indica

Hunise

Caesalpiniaceae

SL

49

Wrightia tinctoria

Kodseege, Beppaale

Rubiaceae

SL

50

Ziziphus mauritiana

Bore

Rhamnaceae

SL

*Bulb/Bulbills, BC-Branch cutting, HS-Hydro-seeding, EB-earthen balls, Rh-Rhizome,


RS-Root stock, S-Slips, SB-Seed broadcast, , SL-seedling

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5.4.1 Other points to be for OB dump management.


In addition to the engineering and biological measures other points of consideration for
OB dump management are as follows:

The overburdens are to be dumped as per the specifications of IBM and MoEF
stipulated conditions and the overall slope of the dump are to be maintained at
not more than 28 angle.

The topsoil collected and stacked during the initial stages of mining should be
used in plantation programme.

The over burdens have to be dumped in benches made for the purpose of
stabilization, and it should be ensured that no over burden crosses out of the nalas
under any circumstances.

All along the slope of the OB dumps, garland drains with bottom width of 2.0 m,
top width 1 m with side slope 1:2 and 5 m height should be constructed and
connected to natural drain/nala. Regular de-silting has to be carried out, i.e.,
before and after monsoon season and the silt material can be used for plantation
purpose.

The over burden should be filled back in such a way that the water drains out into
the streams in the same ratio as it is flowing naturally. Therefore, provision
should be made to flow down the rainwater gradually in all natural streams
equally. The direction of course of flow should not be changed or modified.

5.4.2 Mine pit management and rehabilitation


After extraction of iron ore, all hard overburden/wastes generated during mining
operations should be used in back filling of mine pits or dumped in the worked out area
of the mine so as to maintain and bring back the original shape of the terrain as far as
possible. The mine pits have to be leveled after extraction of the ore to match the contour
of the area. The stacked top soil has to be spread over on compacted back filled area in
order to facilitate the re-vegetation process, which in turn controls silt flow towards the
downstream. The construction of channels all along the boundary of the mine pit has to
be made to help in arresting runoff and preventing soil erosion.

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5.4.3 Management of refractory sites


The areas which lakhk any nutrient containing soil can be planted with Agave americana,
A. sisalana, Dodonaea viscosa, Euphorbia tirucalli, E. tortilis, Sterculia urens which have been
proved successful in extreme conditions (Table 5.8).
Table No. 5.8: Plant Species suitable for stabilization of Refractory Sties

5.4.4

Sl. No.

Plant species

Local Name

Family

Habit

Agave americana

Aane Katthaale

Agavaceae

Shrub

Agave sisalana

Boodu Katthaale

Agavaceae

Shrub

Dodonaea viscosa

Bandarike

Sapindaceae

Shrub

Euphorbia tirucalli

Kolu kalli

Euphorbiaceae

Shrub

Euphorbia tortilis

Thirugu kalli

Euphorbiaceae

Shrub

Sterculia urens

Kempu dale

Sterculiaceae

Tree

Mine Drainage Management and Rehabilitation

The drainage management and rehabilitation plan for this mine is recommended as
follows:
a) Provide proper gradient and drainage arrangement at the mine benches and over
burden dumping area
b) After trapping the suspended solids in garland drains just below the over burden
dumps, the water has to be allowed to flow down the dump slopes to join natural
streams/nallas through settling tank with filtration arrangements, so that all the
suspended solids and sediments will be arrested.
c) Plantation of indigenous and other economically important trees, shrubs, herbs
and grasses at the point of discharge, where the mine outlet will pass through bioengineering structures and on OB dumps has to be taken up, so that the
sediment/silt flow will be arrested from the site and soil moisture can be
maintained.
d)

The drain/nallas bunds shall be planted with suitable grasses, herbs, shrubs and
trees, namely, Acacia nilotica, Agave americana, A. sisalana, Bambusa arundinacea,
Calotropis gigantea, Calotropis procera, Cassia auriculata, Chrysopogon fulvus,
Cymbopogon flexuosus, C. martinii, C. nardus, Dendrocalamus strictus, Dichanthium
annulatum, Ficus racemosa, Heteropogon contortus, Indigofera cassioides,

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spontaneum, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia arjuna, Vitex negundo etc. (Table-5.9). At


steep slopes necessary engineering and biological measures have to be
undertaken to prevent soil erosion.
Table 5.9. Plant Species suitable for Stabilization of Nalla/Drain Courses
Sl. No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15
16
17
18
5.4.5

Plant species
Acacia nilotica
Agave americana
Agave sisalana
Calotropis gigantea
Calotropis procera
Cassia auriculata
Chrysopogon fulvus
Cymbopogon flexuosus
Cymbopogon nardus
Dichanthium annulatum
Heteropogon contortus
Vitex negundo
Azdirachta indica
Albizia odorattisima
Dalbergia paniculata
Ficus religiosa
Morinda pubescens
Pongamia pinnata

Local/kannada name
Kari gobbali
Aane Katthaale
Boodu Katthaale
Ekka
Bili ekka
Aavarike
Ganjigarike
Anthibale hullu
Ganda hanchi hullu
Ganjala Garike hullu
Ooobina hullu
Lakki
Neem/Bibu

Family
Mimosaceae
Agavaceae
Agavaceae
Asclepiadaceae
Asclepiadaceae
Caesalpiniaceae
Poaceae
Poaceae
Poaceae
Poaceae
Poaceae
Verbenaceae
Meliaceae
Mimosaceae
Fabaceae
Moraceae
Rubiaceae
Fabaceae

Habit
Tree
Shrub
Shrub
Shrub
Shrub
Shrub
Herb
Herb
Herb
Herb
Herb
Shrub
Tree
Tree
Tree
Tree
Tree
Tree

Management of haul roads

The present condition of haul roads, which are leading to the mine should be
maintained at regular intervals. The roads must be regularly sprinkled with water to
avoid dust spreading during transportation of ore material through trucks.
Tarpaulin covering during the transportation of iron ore is a must. The drainage system
is inadequate along the haul roads and it is suggested that drainage has to be provided
to arrest sediment flow towards downstream.
All along the haul roads following fast growing avenue tree species should be planted
to suppress the noise and dust pollution (Table-5.10): Albizia lebbeck, A. odoratissima,
Azadirachta indica, Cassia fistula, Ficus benghalensis, Gmelina arborea,Grewia tiliifolia ,
Pongamia pinnata, Tamarindus indica, Thespesia populnea and Terminalia catappa (three rows
on either side at a distance of 2.5 m apart)

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Table-5.10: Plant Species Recommended for Avenue Plantation along Mine Haul
Roads
Sl. No.

Plant species

Local names

Family

Acacia horrida

Aanegobli

Mimosaceae

Acacia nilotica

Kari gobli

Mimosaceae

Albizia amara

Chigare

Mimosaceae

Albizia lebbeck

Baage

Mimosaceae

Albizia odoratissima

Bilvaara

Mimosaceae

Azadirachta indica

Ishwari

Meliaceae

Cassia fistula

kakke

Caesalpiniaceae

Dalbergia latifolia

Beete mara

Fabaceae

Ficus benghalensis

Aalada mara

Moraceae

10

Ficus religiosa

Aralimara

Moraceae

11

Grewia tiliifolia

Sannudippe

Tiliaceae

12

Hardwickia binata

13

Holoptelea integrifolia

Tapasimara

Ulmaceae

14

Pongamia pinnata

Honge

Fabaceae

15

Tamarindus indica

Hunise

Caesalpiniaceae

16

Thespesia populnea

Hoovarasi mara

Malvaceae

17

Trema orientalis

Gorklu mara

Ulmaceae

Caesalpinaceae

5.5 AFFORESTATION
Afforestation of the mined out and other available areas which are not fragmented but
are degraded due to mining activity is the main component of re-vegetation process to
mitigate the negative impacts of the mining on environment. By afforestation, restoration
of the ecosystem as closely to the pre-mining is possible and accomplished.
In the context of the mines under study the mine lease area though not fully mined out,
an afforestation plan has been formulated considering the conceptual closure plan of the
mines. After excluding the area finally classified under green belt, plantations and over
burden dumps, the area to be afforested in ML-2352 has been worked out to be 64.338
ha. [lease area 69.60 ha (OB dump 2.27 ha + Green belt 1.192 ha + plantations 1.80 ha)].

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The afforestation covering 1000 trees and 2500 shrubs per ha, inclusive of maintenance
for five year has been worked out as per the norms of State Forest Department,
Karnataka. The total cost for afforestation in 64.338 ha @ Rs. 1.74 Lakh/ha has been
worked to be Rs 111.94 Lakhs. It is recommended that the work of afforestation should
be entrusted to the State Forest Department, Karnataka and the periodical monitoring
shall be assigned to a national specialized scientific institution.
Afforestation shall be made through:
Propagates (seeds, tubers, corms, bulbs, rhizomes and roots) stored in top
soil.
Planting nursery-raised seedlings
By seed dibbling
Transplants of individuals from natural areas
It is usually more economical to establish plants by direct seeding than by planting
seedlings. Planting nursery-raised seedlings is most appropriate when the particular
species cannot be established in suitable numbers through seeding or topsoil return. It
may be possible to propagate these species from seed, cuttings, bulbs, rhizomes and
grow them on in containers in a nursery and then plant them as a part of the restoration
process. Planting seedlings may also be appropriate where the restoration objectives
require a systematic layout of plants, as in the case of establishing a plantation.
5.5.1 Multipurpose plant species
The multipurpose plant species recommended for eco-rehabilitation and reclamation of
mine areas are presented in Table 5.11.
Table No. 5.11. Multipurpose plant species recommended for eco-reclamation and ecorehabilitation of mine areas
Sl. No. Plant species

Local name

Family

Uses

A. Grasses and Herbs


1

Abutilon indicum

Shrimudre

Malvaceae

Acacia nilotica

Karigobli

Mimosaceae

Aristida setacea

Doddahanchihullu

Poaceae

Bothriochloa pertusa

Aanekattu hullu

Poaceae

Cassia occidentalis

Doddathagase

Caesalpiniaceae M

Cassia senna

Nelavarike

Caesalpiniaceae M

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Cassia tora

Gundu thagase

Caesalpiniaceae M

Chrysopogon fulvus

Ganjigarike

Poaceae

Crotalaria juncea

Sanna senabu

Fabaceae

10

Cymbopogon flexuosus

Anthibale hullu

Poaceae

11

Cymbopogon nardus

Ganda hanchi hullu

Poaceae

12

Cynodon dactylon

Garike hullu

Poaceae

13

Dactyloctenium aegyptium

Kaadu raagi hullu

Poaceae

14

Dichanthium annulatum

Ganjala garike hullu

Poaceae

15

Heteropogon contortus

Ooobina hullu

Poaceae

16

Mimosa pudica

Muttidare muni

Mimosaceae

17

Tephrosia purpurea

Koggi

Fabaceae

B. Climbers and Shrubs


18

Agave americana

Aane Kaththaale

Agavaceae

19

Agave sisalana

Boodu Katthaale

Agavaceae

20

Calotropis gigantea

Ekka

Asclepiadaceae

21

Calotropis procera

Kempu ekka

Asclepiadaceae

22

Cassia auriculata

Aavarike

Caesalpiniaceae M

23

Euphorbia tirucalli

Atthimara

Euphorbiaceae

24

Jatropha curcas

Dodda haralu

Euphorbiaceae

M, C

25

Vitex negundo

Lakki

Verbenaceae

26

Aegle marmelos

Bilva patre

Rutaceae

27

Alangium salvifolium

Ankole

Alangiaceae

M,T

28

Ceiba pentandra

Booruga

Bombaceae

29

Dalbergia latifolia

Beete mara

Fabaceae

30

Dalbergia paniculata

Pachari mara

Fabaceae

31

Dalbergia sissoo

Shishta bage, Britimara Fabaceae

32

Ficus benghalensis

Arali

Moraceae

M, T, F

33

Ficus religiosa

Shivani

Moraceae

M,F

34

Givotia rottleriformis

Hetthaega

Euphorbiaceae

35

Grewia tiliifolia

Sannudippe

Tiliaceae

C. Trees

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36

Hardwickia binata

Asanagurgi

Caesalpiniaceae T

37

Holoptelea integrifolia

Tapasimara

Ulmaceae

38

Limonia acidissima

Rutaceae

M, E, C

39

Morinda pubescens

Rubiaceae

40

Phyllanthus emblica

Nelli

Euphorbiaceae

M,C

41

Pithecelobium dulce

Seemehunise mara

Mimosaceae

E, F

42

Pongamia pinnata

Honge

Fabaceae

M, C

43

Syzygium cumini

Nerale

Myrtaceae

T, E,C

44

Tamarindus indica

Hunise

Caesalpiniaceae T, E,C

45

Wrightia tinctoria

46

Ziziphus mauritiana

47

Combretaceae

Haale

Rubiaceae

Acacia catechu

Bore

Rhamnaceae

E,C

48

Acacia nilotica

Kaachu

Mimosaceae

49

Aegle marmelos

Kare Jaali

Mimosaceae

50

Albizia amara

Dodda mara

Simaroubaceae

51

Albizia lebbeck

Chujjulu

Mimosaceae

52

Annona squamosa

Baage

Mimosaceae

53

Anogeissus latifolia

Seethaphala

Annonaceae

M,E,C

54

Azadirachta indica

Dindiga

Combretaceae

55

Cassia fistula

Maddi mara

Burseraceae

M, C

M=Medicinal; T=Timber; E=Edible; F=Fodder; C=Commercial


5.5.2 Establishment of Nursery:
The lessee has not established any nursery for undertaking plantations.

Following

suggestions are made to establish a nursery.

Minimum of two acres of land must be allotted for setting up the nursery.

Efforts should be made to employ local people familiar with the local flora.

Seeds of the species prescribed for various purposes should be procured for
raising the seedlings.

A separate

area should be earmarked for establishing Medicinal plant nursery.

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Unemployed youth and women should be employed in the nursery. They should
be given adequate training in nursery technique.

The programme of raising seedling by the local women should be encouraged


and buy back system may be introduced.

5.6 GREENBELT DEVELOPMENT PLAN


In order to minimize the impact of mining on environmental components outside the
mine lease area, greenbelt zone of 7.5m width should be established in safety zone inside
mine lease area. The establishment of Green belt will help wildlife movement, and also
human health. The greenbelt will act as a barrier to trap the suspended dust particles and
also suppresses noise and air pollutants. It is also important to create a green belt with
tall seedlings (>1 m height) of fast growing species to hasten the process of greening the
area. Green belt available in the safety zone of this mine has been partly planted. It is
suggested that the areas which are not planted should be planted with the species
specified in this report at the earliest.
5.6.1 Cost of Developing Green Belt
The greenbelt area has to be developed along total 1.192 ha along the periphery within
the Mine Lease Area- 2352. Based on the per hectare cost of Rupees 2.57 Lakhs the cost of
developing green belt in safety zone of Mine Lease Areas works out to Rs. 3.06 Lakhs as
given in Table-5.12.
Table-5.12: Cost Estimate for Developing Green Belt
Sl.

MI area

Area of Green Belt (ha) Rate/ha(Rs. in lakhs) Amount(Rs. in lakhs)

No.
1

ML-2352

1.192

2.57

Total

3.06
3.06

5.6.2 Recommended Plant Species


The important tree species, namely, Albizia amara, A. lebbeck,

Azadirachta indica, Cassia

fistula, Ficus benghalensis, F. religiosa, Hardwickia binata, Holoptelea integrifolia, Lagerstroemia


parviflora, Phyllanthus emblica, Pithecelobium dulce, Pongamia pinnata, and Tectona grandis
have been recommended for greenbelt plantation around the mine lease area in four rows
(2.5mx2.5m spacing) as given in Table-5.13.

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Table-5.13: Tree Species recommended for Greenbelt Development around the mine
lease area.
Sl. No. Botanical name

Local name

Family

1.

Acacia nilotica

Karigobli

Mimosaceae

2.

Alangium salvfolium

Ankole

Alangiaceae

3.

Albizia amara

Chujjulu

Mimosaceae

4.

Albizia lebbeck

Baage

Mimosaceae

5.

Azadirachta indica

Bevu

Meliaceae

6.

Cassia fistula

Kakke

Caesalpiniaceae

7.

Dalbergia latifolia

Beete mara

Fabaceae

8.

Ficus benghalensis

Aaladamara

Moraceae

9.

Ficus religiosa

Aralimara

Moraceae

10.

Hardwickia binata

Asanagurgi

Caesalpiniaceae

11.

Holoptelea integrifolia

Tapasimara

Ulmaceae

12.

Lagerstroemia parviflora Holedasawala

13.

Phyllanthus emblica

Bettada nellikai Euphorbiaceae

14.

Pongamia pinnata

Hongemara

Fabaceae

15.

Morinda pubescens

Haladi paavate

Rubiaceae

16.

Prosopis spicigera

Perumbe

Mimosaceae

Lythraceae

5.7 BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION PLAN


The zone in which the present mine under study has comparatively very poor in
vegetation especially in the zones adjoining the mine lease area.
5.7.1 Flora
Considering the importance of the forest ecosystem in terms of its environmental services
suitable floral species have been recommended for restoration of the mined out areas for
timber, fodder, fuel wood and medicinal plant to meet the community requirement and
overall ecosystem development
5.7.2 Fauna
Following suggestions are made in this plan to improve the faunal population:

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5.7.3 Habitat protection


The diversity of animal species and their abundance is largely dependent on the
availability of suitable habitats. All measures as suggested in Biological measures must be
followed to achieve success in Biodiversity Conservation plan. No natural materials (Both
physical and biological) should be displakhed from the natural habitat. The natural
habitat area outside the mining lease area should be declared as non human interference
area.

5.7.4 Providing a corridor for the dwelling and movement of Herpetofauna


A corridor must be created among the fragmented habitat by planting trees, shrubs,
herbs and grasses to allow the movement of Herpetofauna.

5.7.5 Creation of Habitat for Avifauna


Fruit, fodder and shelter providing tree species like Aegle marmelos, Annona squamosa,
Alangium

salvifolium,

racemosa,Limonia

Azadirachta

indica,,Ficus

acidissima,Madhuca

benghalensis,

Ficus

longifolia,Pithecellobium

religiosa,

Ficus

dulce,Phyllanthus

emblica,Syzigium cumini Tamarindus indica, Ziziphus mauritiana etc.should

be planted to

attract birds and other wildlife..


5.7.6 Reducing anthropogenic pressure

No mining activity should be allowed after 6 pm to 6am

Bright lights should not be used after 6 pm.

Vehicular traffic should be banned 6pm and 6am.

5.7.7 Aquatic Fauna


Two major nallas exist in the mine lease area. One on the North- eastern side and another
on South-western side. Both the nallas join together on the north-eastern side and get
drained into Kuduthini tank which considered as a big tank catering the needs of
Kudithini villagers. The watercourses within and adjoining areas are formed during
monsoon to drain off as surface water. Such precipitation water originating from the
mine areas may contaminate the freshwater sources and increased flow of suspended
mine solids and sediments into the streams and nallas. Hence, this water is proposed to

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be let out through a series of biological and engineering measures as suggested in the
earlier chapters of the present report.
The bio-engineering measures such as plantation of grasses along slopes, contour drains,
mine boundaries and back fill areas and gabion structure; check dams, rock fill dams as
recommended in section 5.1 should be adopted to regulate sediment flow and water runoff. Further, it is also suggested that during mining operations, localized pits should be
created to collect mine water, which should be pumped out through peripheral drains of
the mine. All the existing drains arising from the mine area should be well connected to
natural streams/nallas only after passing through bio-engineering structures. Garland
trenches should be provided all along the OB dumps, Ore and sub grade ore dumps of
mine area to prevent soil erosion which may result in siltation of the streams. By
adopting the above measures, the aquatic faunal diversity may not get affected from the
mining activity.

5.8 SOIL MANAGEMENT PLAN


Development projects in any region must learn to respect the ecological integrity and the
priority of conserving biodiversity of the region for long-term sustainability of the
mineral extraction initiatives, for economic development and dependent human wellbeings. It is therefore important to reclaim and rehabilitate the mining areas, conservation
of flora and fauna including beneficial microbes. The microbes play an important role in
maintaining the biological equilibrium of the ecosystem. Among different microbes, there
is a symbiotic group of fungi called mycorrhizae. They are extremely important as they
help in transport of phosphorous and other essential elements to the plant system from
the soil. These mycorrhizal fungi also protect the plants against soil borne and root borne
diseases. Other than mycorrhizal fungi, the beneficial microbes such as Plant Growth
Promoting

Rhizobcteria

(PGPR)

viz.,

Azotobacter,

Azospirillum,

Rhizobium

and

Phosphobactreria (species of Bacillus and Pseudomonas) involved in breakdown of organic


matter, N2 fixation, secretion of plant growth hormones and increase of available mineral
nutrients in soil. They are also helpful to build up other beneficial micro-flora and in turn
improve soil health (Mohan and Karthkeyan, 2011). These beneficial microbes are
considered as bio-inoculants or bio-fertilizers and they improve the growth and quality
of the seedlings in nursery and also help the plants for better survival and establishment

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in problematic areas like mined areas and maintain soil structure. The type of biofertilizers and the application rate will vary according to the site, soil type and postmining land use.
Furthermore, most of the restoration programme will include application of organic
fertilizers like farmyard manure (FYM), green/leaf manure and vermi compost. Initial
applications of these organic fertilizers have been shown to increase species numbers, plant
density and growth rates. Various organic wastes can also have value as both fertilizers
and soil amendments based on the availability.
The most practical way to increase the nitrogen capital of ecosystems is to establish
nitrogen-fixing plants, usually legumes, which can quickly increase the nitrogen levels in
the system. The easiest method is to broadcast large quantity of seeds of Horse gram
(Macrotyloma uniflorum) immediately after first showers. Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal
(VAM) fungi and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) can be applied along
with fully composted farmyard manure and vermi compost to increase the growth of the
plants as well as fertility of the soil. The appropriate cost of soil amendment will be Rs.
3.00 lakh.
The following measures in respect of soil management can be adopted in reclamation and
rehabilitation of mined areas:

Beneficial microbes are present in the top soil of mining areas. Hence, the top soil
must be removed at the time of mining and dumped separately at a
predetermined area as per the mine land use plan and be used for reclamation
and rehabilitation of mined areas.

Necessary precautions has to be taken to preserve the fertility and shelf life of the
micro flora in the top soil by adopting suitable height of the top soil dumps and
preventing losses due to erosion during the phase of temporary storage.

The top soil containing beneficial micro flora of the site must be spread over the
mined out areas including OB dumps and back filled areas during the process of
mined land rehabilitation.

In addition, adopting the following management techniques with the use and application
of beneficial microorganisms as bio-inoculants (bio-fertilizers) along with organic
fertilizers will be very effective during the mine spoil reclamation and rehabilitation
programme:

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The beneficial microorganisms can be introduced as bio-fertilizers during


afforestation in the overburden dumps and other mined out areas through
planting of suitable fast growing native plant species (inoculated with biofertilizers and organic fertilizers) like grasses, herbs, shrubs and trees.
The seedlings can be inoculated with Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (VAM)
fungi and other beneficial microorganisms like PGPRs (Azotobacter, Azospirillum,
Phosphobacterium, Rhizobium) along with the bio-manures/ organic manures like
fully composted farmyard manure, vermi-compost, leaf compost in the nursery.
The bio-fertilizer inoculated seedlings/saplings should be planted during the
process of rehabilitation of mined areas.
The pits dug out for planting of saplings for afforetation should be filled with the
mixture of biofertilizers and organic manures (preferably 15 gm biofertilizers +
750gm to 1kg organic manure per pit).

5.9 PRODUCTION CAPACITY BASED ON RESERVE, DUMP AND ROAD


CAPACITY
5.9.1

Permissible production capacity based on reserves

Annual capacity of the mine has been estimated considering total reserves under proved
(111) & probable (121/122) categories of reserves. As per the decision taken in CEC
meeting dated 26.04.2012 the 50% of proved and probable reserves or the actual possible
reserves whichever is less are also considered as possible reserves, in this case category
wise reserves has not been estimated in the approved scheme of mining 2006-07 to 201011. The reserves estimated in the earlier approved scheme of mining have been
considered and the category as well as grade wise reserves are furnished bellow in the
table.
Table No. 5.14: Details of the category wise mineable reserves
Ore (Quantity in Million Tonnes)
Iron Ore
Sub Grade (BHQ) Yellow Oxide Red Oxide
Total
9.51
Geological
1.71
5.97
1.31
0.52
5.53
Mineable
0.94
3.52
0.75
0.32
(Source: Draft scheme of mining submitted on 23.09.2011 for the period 2011-12 to 2015-16;
Category

Page no. 9)

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After the approval of previous scheme a total production of 0.23 Million Tonnes was
obtained from 2007-08 to 2010-11 and which has been depleted from the reserves of 5.53
Million Tonnes. The updated and the balanced geological and minable reserves are given
below in the Table 5.15.
Table No. 5.15: Details of the updated reserves (Quantity in Million Tonnes)
As per the previous
Updated
approved scheme
9.12
Geological
9.51
5.30
Mineable
5.53
Based on these reserves, the production of about 0.265 or say 0.27 (of iron ore red/Yellow
Category

Ochre and BHQ) Million Tonnes per annum could be permissible during the next 20
years.
5.9.2

Permissible Production capacity based on Dump

The additional volume of the waste material that could be accommodated in the active
dump during next plan period has been estimated approximately at 2.75 lakh cum
(Figure no. 5.3) The details of production based on this dump capacity are as per
following.
Total additional waste that would be accommodated in the defined area for dump
D1 during next plan period = 2.75 lakh cum. =0.28 MCM
Given average ore to waste material ration (Stripping ratio) = 1: 3.6 (Table- 2.7)
Therefore, quantum of waste material corresponding to this volume = 0.28 X 2
(bulk density of waste) = 0.56 MT.
Therefore, the quantity of ore that can be produced corresponding to 0.56 Million
Tonnes of waste at stripping ratio of ore to waste of 1: 3.61 of waste material =
0.56/ 3.61 = 0.155 or say 0.16 Million Tonnes
Hence, the annual production capacity = 0.16/5 = 0.032 MT/annum.

5.9.3 Permissible Production Capacity based on Road


The total ore mined moves towards NH-63 for domestic users, traversing through 2
different stretches & State Higway-19. Computation is annexed at HIM-3. The capacity
assignable to Hariginadona Mine M.L No 2352 of Allum Prashant is 0.315 MTPA based
on the limit from Road Section R9. The summary of various sections of Road Capacity
and Hariginadona mine production capacity is provided below

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Road
Sectio
n No.

Road Section
Type of Road
(% distribution of (%
distribution
mine traffic)
assigned to mine
corresponding to
road capacity)

Road
Capacit
y
(MTPA)

Road
Capacity
assigned to
mine ML.
No. 2352

Production
Capacity
corresponding
to
road
capacity

R1

HARIGINADONA Private Road


Mine
head
to
Stockyard

0.336

0.336

0.336

R2

Mines to PWD road

Private road

0.378

0.378

0.378

Public road (80%)

0.375

0.300

0.500

NH (10%)

5.17

0.517

0.862

Public road (20%)

3.6

0.720

3.6

Public road (70% 1.8


to mines) & from
that 70% (90 %
TBAPL ML2293 &
10% ML 2352

0.126

0.315

1.8

0.18

0.45

1.44

0.288

0.72

R3

PWD road to NH63 joining (60 %)


R4, 5, National highway
6, 7
63(60 %)
R8
Cantonment
to
Cant
Railway
siding (20%)
R9
PWD
road
to
Belagallu
cross
(40%)

R10
R11

Belagallu cross to NH-63


NH63
SH-19 (40%)
SH (20%)

Thus, the road capacity is not a constraint for this mines production level.
Considering the currently available information or facilities, the annual
production limit of 0.032 Million Tonnes based on dumps may be considered, which is
minimum among the three criteria. Detail of capacity for all criteria is given in the Table5.16.
Table-5.16: Criteria for Estimation of Permissible Production limit for, ML- 2352
Sl. No.
Criteria
Permissible Production Limit
(Million Tonnes)
1
Reserves
0.27
0.032
2
Dump Capacity
3
Road Capacity
0.315

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5.9.4

Additional measures if any


Following additional measures are proposed as listed below: -

A. Dust Control Measures


a. Water sprinkling to be carried out to wet the ore / waste before loading into trucks /
dumpers
b. Trucks carrying finished product outside the lease area should be kept in good
condition at all times to prevent spillages on the roads, should be covered with good
quality tarpaulins to avoid spillages and prevent entry of water, and should not be
overloaded beyond the registered capacity of trucks
B.

Mining technology and exploration -

a. Detailed exploration should be carried out in the lease area for proper assessment of
reserves & resources and to plan scientific mining, grade segregation and
beneficiation, dumping/backfilling etc.

b. Mining should be carried out in a systematic manner and by farming of systematic


benches as per MMR61.

c. Worked our area of float ore should be backfilled and reclaimed unless it is within the
Ultimate Pit Limit.
C.

General Conditions:

a. All the conditions stipulated by various statutory agencies, viz., MoEF, SPCB, IBM,
DGMS, DMG, etc. in their various approvals except to the extent modified as
mentioned in (I) and (II) above, should be strictly complied with.

5.10

OBSERVATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS.


Inactive dump not stabilized (towards western side) with plantation, Over all
height of the dump is 25 m, no benches or terraces on the slope of the dump, no
retaining wall, dump angle is about 55o

Inactive dump height is 15 m and angle more than 55o

No garland drain and green belt

Mining is unscientific and the mine benches are not systematic. The whole mine
pit is like a trench.

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5.11 IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING


Rehabilitation is the principal process used to mitigate the long-term impacts of mining on
the environment. The main objective of the proposed rehabilitation plan is to restore the
pre-mining conditions as closely as possible in order to ensure the future sustainability of
the site. The proposed Reclamation and Rehabilitation plan has been aimed for
topographic reconstruction with engineering and biological measures for erosion control
and re-vegetation with adequate soil amendments including application of beneficial
microbes (bio-fertilizers) such as mycorrhizal fungi, PGPRs etc for re-establishment of
nutrient cycle for sustainability of restoration. Also, encouraging the native fauna to return
to areas cleared for mining is the integrated aim of this restoration programme which aims
to restore a natural ecosystem. The recommended provisions are to be implemented by the
mine owner in consonance with the macro-level EIA report of ICFRE submitted to Honble
Supreme Court of India.
Therefore, the findings of macro-level EIA report and recommendations made in the
chapter nine of the report Scientific Mining in Bellary District, Karnataka - The Way
Ahead and the direction on it by the Honble Supreme Court of India to protect further
environmental degradation may be corroborated with the current Reclamation and
Rehabilitation plan and common infrastructure proposed.
Another important aspect is the regular monitoring of the implementation of the proposed
measures of the current Reclamation and Rehabilitation Plan in order to ensure
rehabilitation of the mine affected areas as envisaged in the plan. Monitoring provides a
method of measuring progress against an objective. In addition, site surveillance may be
necessary to demonstrate that the mine site remains safe and poses no environmental or
health risks. Regular monitoring also allows for a proactive response where the
rehabilitation process is found to be lakhking in the desired results. Therefore, it would be
essential that the monitoring is done by a body having competent and composite scientific
expertise as it would need to be conducted using transparent and scientifically rigorous
procedures. These programs need to combine cost-effectiveness with credibility to
regulators, local communities and other interested parties. The objective assessment of the
mine site should be consistent with the adaptive management technique (do-monitorevaluate-revise).

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Monitoring a landscapes health over time in response to environmental, management or


regulatory drivers is important for land managers, ranging from individuals to
governments, especially when the monitoring output has direct relevance for management
decision-making. Monitoring may be seeking to look for evidence of landscape
degradation or of rehabilitation progress and the procedure needs to have equal facility in
dealing with these scenarios. Therefore, it is also essential that the skills of both, the mine
owners and the managers, should be upgraded through professionally designed refresher
courses. This training would equip them to:
Respond to environmental impacts
Develop plans to address impacts
To implement the plans and evaluate the results, and
Report and record on results
In order to achieve these objectives, it is recommended that suitable refresher courses
should be designed and conducted by some competent organization which has the
scientific expertise and experience in the field of mine rehabilitation.

5.12 COST SUMMARY OF THE PROPOSED PLAN


The cost estimated for the engineering and biological measure for Reclamation and
Rehabilitation Plan is approx. Rs.248.17 lakhs (Rupees Two Crores forty eight Lakhs and
seventeen Thousand only). The cost for implementation of Social Management Plan
(SMP), Biodiversity Management Plan, Monitoring and implementation of Reclamation
and Rehabilitation Plan, capacity building of the personal involved, infrastructure etc.,
shall be met from allocating of 10% of the annual sale proceeds from the mines, in respect
of Category: A mine, may be transferred to SPV for the purpose of taking up various
ameliorative and mitigative measures in district Chitradurga or as decided by task force
to be constituted as per the recommendation of Macro-level EIA report and the direction
of Honble Supreme Court of India for implementation of R&R plan and EMP. The
breakup of the cost estimate is given below in Table 5.14.

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Table-5.17: Cost Summary of the Proposed Plan


Sl.
No.
1

Item of work

Amount in Lakh Rs.

Reclamation and rehabilitation for


encroached area
Estimate for dump management
plan
Surface

water

14.85

30.53

management

through Construction of Gully


3

Plug, Check Dam and Settling

84.79

tanks.

Green belt

3.06

Soil amendments

3.00

Afforestation

111.94
10% of the annual sale proceeds
from the mines, in respect of
Category:A

mine,

may

be

transferred to SPV for the purpose

Social Management Plan (SMP),

of taking up various ameliorative

Biodiversity

Plan,

and mitigative majors in district

Monitoring and implementation of

Bellary or as decided by task force

R&R

to

plan,

Management

capacity

building,

be

constituted

recommendation

infrastructure etc.

of

as

per

the

Macro-level

EIA report and the direction of


honorable Supreme Court of India
for implementation of R&R plan
and EMP
Rs. 248.17 lakh excluding the cost
of items as proposed at Sl.No. 7

Total

above.

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5.13 TIME SCHEDULE


IMPLEMENTATION SCHEDULE OF MITIGATION / ENGINEERING MEASURES FOR ALLUM PRASHANT, M.L.No. 2352,
Descriptio
n

Qty.

Work
to be
done

1st

2nd

3rd

4th

5th

6th

7th

8th

9th

10th

11th

12th

13th

R AND R PLAN FOR THE ENCROACHED AREAS


1782
m3

Rs.520
rate/m3

Garland

600

Rs.520
rate/m3

Drain

m3

R-R dry
stone
masonary

Providing
and fixing
geo textile
on outer

0.21
ha

Rs.10
lakh/h
a

surface of
slope of

100

14th

15th

16th

17th

18th

19th

20th

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waste
dump
Plantation
over waste
dump area

0.21
ha

Rs.1074
lakh/h
a

DUMP MANAGEMNET PLAN


RETAINING WALLS AT TOE OG WASTE DUMP
R-R dry
stone

1920

masonary

m3

Rs.520/
m3

(RW-1)
R-R dry
stone
masonary

1782
m3

Rs.520/
m3

(RW-1)
Garland
drain
(GD-1)

640
m3

Rs.520/
m3

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(GD-2)

600
m3

Rs.520/
m3

Providing
and fixing
geo-textile
on outer

0.09

surface of

ha

Rs. 10
lakh/h
a

slope of
waste
dump
Plantation
over waste
dump area

2.27
ha

Rs.1.74
lakh/h
a

SURFACE WATER MANAGEMNET PLAN


Gully

900

plugs(10)

m3

Masonary

80

Rs.520/
m3

40,000/

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Check

runni

runnin

Dam (4)

ng m

gm

Rock fill

1560

Rs.520/
m3

check dam

m3

Green Belt
developm
ent on
safety

2.57 ha

zone area

Afforested
Area

Plantation
on Dumps

Strentheni

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ng & Gap
Plantation

Environm
ental
Monitorin
g & watch
- Ward
after
closure

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5.14 BIBLIOGRAPHY
Champion, H.G. and Seth, S.K. 1968. A revised Survey of the Forest types of India. Govt.
of India Publications. New Delhi.
Legris and Pascal, 1982. Explanatory booklet on the map of South India. French Institute
Pondicherry.
Kundu, N.K. and Ghose, M.K. 1998. Studies on the Exisiting Plant Communities in
Easterns Coal Field Areas with a view to Reclamation of Mined Outlands. Journal
of Environmental Biology. 19 (1): 83-89.
V. Mohan and A. Karthikeyan. 2011. Biofertilizers and Biomanures (Techniques for
Production, Maintenance and Application). Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree
Breeding, Coimbatore - 641 002., Tamil Nadu, India pp.1-44.
Padmavathiamma,

P.K.

and

Li,

L.Y.

2007.

Phytoremediation

Technology:

Hyperaccumulation Metals in Plants. Water Air Soil Pollution 184(1-4): 105-126.


Sheoran, V., Sheoran, A.S. and Poonia, P. 2009. Phytomining: A Review. Minerals
Engineering. 22(12): 10071019.
Sheoran, V., Sheoran, A.S. and Poonia, P. 2010. Soil Reclamation of Abandoned Mine
Land by Revegetation: A Review. International Journal of Soil, Sediment and Water:
3(2): Article 13.
Singh, A.N. and Singh, J.S. 2006. Experiments on Ecological Restoration of Coal Mine
Spoil using Native Trees in a Dry Tropical Environment, India: A Synthesis ,"
New Forests, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 25-39.

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PLATES
PLATE 1

UNSCIENTIFIC MINE BENCHES


PLATE-2

AGRICULTURAL LAND NEAR THE BOUNDARY OF MINE LEASE

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PLATE-3

BROKEN CHECK DAM


PLATE-4

OB DUMP ADJACENT TO THE AGRICULTURAL LAND

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PLATE-5

SUNGRADE ORE DUMP ON THE PATTA LAND


PLATE-6

UNSCIENTIFIC MINE PIT

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PLATE-7

UNSCIENTIFIC OB DUMP

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ANNEXURES:
ANNEXURE-I

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ANNEXURE-2

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ANNEXURE-3

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ANNEXURE-4

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ANNEXURE-5

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ANNEXURE-6

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