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Bernoullis Equation

Derivation of Bernoullis equations from Newtons 2nd Law

and the constraints

Understanding of stagnation, static, dynamic, and

hydrostatic pressures

Applications of Bernoullis equations

Flow velocity measurement devices using Bernoullis

equations

total pressure

1

2

p + V + z = PT = constant along a streamline

2

pressure obtainable along a given streamline.

Total pressure remains constant along a streamline.

, is the largest

stagnation point

If elevation effects are neglected, the stagnation

pressure (p+1/2V2) is the largest pressure obtainable

alomg a given streamline. It represents the conversion

of all the kinetic energy into a pressure rise.

Video 3.7

stagnation pressures

(1)(3)

(1)(2)

Pitot tube

Incompressible

V2

p

+z+

=C

2g

g

V2

p

+z+

=C

2g

g

V1

p1 V2

p2

+ z1 +

=

+ z2 +

2g

g 2 g

g

2

V1

p1 p2

+ =

2

V1 =

2( p2 p1 )

2( pstagnation pstatic )

2

Pitot tube

Subsonic compressible flow

0.3<M<1

Assume the flow is decelerate and compressed from the freestream state isentropically

2 pstatic

V=

1 static

cp

pstagnation 1

static

cv

V

2 pstagnation

M= =

c

1 pstatic

pstatic

c=

= RT

static

Pitot tube

Supersonic compressible flow

For supersonice flow (M>1), the streamline terminating at the Pitot

tubes stagnation point crosses the bow shock in front of the Pitot

tube.

Fluid traveling along this streamline is first decelerated

nonisentropically to a subsonic speed and the decelerated

isentropically to zero velocity at the stagnation point.

Re>400

1

2

1

p3 = p + V

2

p

=

3

4

2

2

p4 = p1 = p

i.e.

Applications of Bernoullis

equation

In general, an increase in

velocity is accompanied by a

decrease in pressure

The wing of an airplane

generates a lift.

Cavitation in a flow of liquid,

p<pv (vapor pressure)

Flow velocity measurements

transient pressure variations =>

damage of the surface in the

cavitation

Flowrate measurement

Place restrictions within the pipe

Basic principles: an increase in velocity causes a decrease in

pressure

1

1

p1 + v12 = p2 + v22

2

2

Assuming the velocity profiles are uniform,

Q=A1V1=A2V2, then

Q = A2

2( p1 p2 )

A 2

1 2

A1

( A2<A1)

pipe

are governed by the

Bernoullis and

continuity equations.

Kerosene (SG = 0.85) flows through the Venturi meter shown in

Figure E3.11 with flowrates between 0.005 and 0.050 m3/s.

Determine the range in pressure difference, p1 p2, needed to

measure these flowrates.

For steady, inviscid, and incompressible flow, the relationship

between flowrate and pressure

Q 2 1 ( A2 A1 )

2( p1 p2 )

p1 p2 =

Q = A2

2

2 A2

1 ( A2 A1 )2

= SGH2O = 0.85(1000 kg/m3 ) = 850 kg/m3

The area ratio

A2 /A1 (D2 / D1 )2 (0.006m / 0.10m)2 = 0.36

Eq.3.20

The pressure difference for the smallest flowrate is

)(

p1 p2 = 0.005m / s 850kg / m

(1 0.36 )

2

2 2

2 ( / 4)(0.06m)

The pressure difference for the largest flowrate is

p1 p2 = 0.05 2 (850)

(1 0.36 )

2

2 2

2 ( / 4)(0.06m)

1.16kPa p1 p2 116kPa

Devices to measure

flowrates in open channels

Bernoulli equation

Continuity equation

Since p1=p2=0,

(potential energy change)

Q ( the flowrate of liquid over the top of the weir

plate)=Q(pw, b, H)

The average velocity across the top of the weir

(2gh)1/2

Q = c1Hb 2 gH = c1b 2 g H

2

3

grade line

The energy line represents the total head

available to the fluid

p V2

+

+ z = H for steady,

2g

The elevation of EL is

obtained by measuring the

stagnation pressure with a

pitot tube

grade line

The elevation of the hydraulic grade line (HGL) shows

the piezometric head (p/+z) by the static pressure tap

connected to the piezometer tube

grade line

The distance from the pipe to the HGL indicates the

pressure within the pipe. If the pipe lies below the HGL,

the pressure is positive.

Example 3.14

Energy Line and Hydraulic Grade Line

Water is siphoned from the tank shown in Figure E3.14 through a

hose of constant diameter. A small hole is found in the hose at

location (1) as indicate. When the siphon is used, will water leak out

of the hose, or will air leak into the hose?

Whether air will leak into or water will leak out of the hose depends

on whether the pressure within the hose at (1) is less than or

greater than atmospheric.

With the assumption of steady, incompressible, inviscid flow it follows

that the total head is constant, thus, the energy line is horizontal.

Since the hose diameter is constant, it follows from the continuity

equation (AV=constant) that the water velocity in the hose is constant

throughout.

Thus the hydraulic grade line is constant distance, V2/2g.

Since the pressure at the end of the hose is atmospheric, it follows

that the hydraulic grade line is at the same elevation as the end of

the hose outlet.

The fluid within the hose at any point above the hydraulic grade line

will be at less than atmospheric pressure.

Thus, air will leak into the hose through the hole at point (1).

Equation

Compressibility effects

The assumption of incompressibility is

reasonable for most liquid flows.

In certain instances, the assumption introduce

considerable errors for gases.

To account for compressibility effects

dp

1 2

+ V + gz = c

2

Unsteady effects

Rotational effects

Compressibility effects

For isothermal flow of perfect gas

2

dp 1 2

RT p1 V2

v

1

RT + V + gz = constant

+ z1 +

ln =

+ Z2

p 2

2g

g p2 2 g

For isentropic flow of perfect gas the density and

pressure are related by P / k =Ct, where k

=Specific heat ratio

1

k

1

k

1 2

C P dP + V + gz = constant

2

2

2

k p1 v1

k p2 v2

+ + gz1 =

+ + gz 2

k 1 1 2

k 1 2 2

Compressibility effects

To find the pressure ratio as a function of Mach number

Speed of sound

Compressible flow

Incompressible flow

M a1 = V1 / c1 = V1 / kRT1

1

p2 p1 k + 1 2

= 1 +

M a1 1

p1

2

p2 p1 k 2

= M a1

p1

2

Compressibility effects

k

1

p2 p1 k + 1 2

= 1 +

M a1 1

p1

2

Unsteady Effect

For unsteady flows, V=V(s,t) along a streamline

The streamwise acceleration is deonted by

V

V

as =

+V

t

s

For unsteady, incompressible, inviscid flows

An incompressible, inviscid liquid is

placed in a vertical, constant diameter

U-tube as indicated in Figure E3.16.

When released from the nonequilibrium position shown, the liquid

column will oscillate at a specific

frequency. Determine this frequency.

Let points (1) and (2) be at the air-water interface of

the two columns of the tube and z=0 correspond to

the equilibrium position of the interface.

Hence , p1=p2=0, z1=-z, z2=z, v1=v2=v

s2

s1

V

V

ds =

t

t

s2

s1

dV

ds =l

dt

dV

( z ) = l

+ Z

dt

dz

= g

V=

dt

2

d Z 2g

2 +

z=0

dt

l

Liquid oscillation

= 2g / l

Rotational Effects

In general, the Bernoulli constant varies from streamline to

streamline

A rotational flow: use the Bernoulli equation is restricted to flow

along a streamline

An irrotational flow: Bernoulli equation both along and across a

streamline are valid.

More details in Ch. 6.

Translating Reference Frame

A light plane flies at 150 km/hr in standard air at an

altitude of 1000 m. Determine the stagnation pressure at

the leading edge of the wing. At a certain point close to

the wing, the air speed relative to the wing is 60 m/s.

Compute the pressure at this point.

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