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Kinematics of Fluid

Motion
Flow Patterns: Streamline, Streakline,
Pathline, Timeline
Reynolds Transport Theorem

Kinematics vs. Dynamics

Fluid kinematics
the velocity and
acceleration of the
fluid, and the
description and
visualization of its
motion.
Fluid dynamics the
analysis of the
specific forces
necessary to produce
the motion.

The velocity field


We employ the continuum hypothesis
and consider fluids to be made up of
fluid particles which contain numerous
molecules.
We can describe the flow of a fluid in
terms of the motion of fluid particles
rather than individual molecules.
Any fluid property can be described
as
X=X(x, y, z, t)

The velocity field

! !
V = V ( x, y, z , t ) = u ( x, y, z , t )i + v( x, y, z , t ) j + w( x, y, z , t )k
! dr!
!
V=
and V = V = (u 2 + v 2 + w2 )1/ 2
dt

Eulerian and Lagrangian flow


descriptions
The Eulerian method:
prescribing the fluid
properties as functions of
space and time (the field
concept)
Observers at fixed points in
space as the fluid flows past
these points

The Lagrangian method:


Following individual fluid
particles as they move
about
Determining how the fluid
properties associated with
these particles change as a
function of time.

Eulerian vs. Lagrangian methods


Eulerian:
T(x0,y0,z0,t), measured by a temperature measuring
device at point 0.
T(x,y,z,t), determined by numerous temperature
measuring devices at various locations.

Lagrangian:
TA(t), recorded by attaching the temperature
measuring device to a particular fluid particle
(particle A)
The temperature would not be known as a function of
position unless the location of each particle were
known as a function of time.

Examples of Lagrangian
descriptions
Oceanographic measurements
Tracing blood flow in arteries by using x-ray opaque dyes

One-, two-, and threedimensional


flows
Flow past a wing
Three
dimensional in
nature
Can be simplified
to 2-D or 1-D if
one or two
velocity
components are
small (in some
sense) relative to
the other
component(s).

Steady and unsteady flows


The definition of steady or unsteady flow pertains to the
behavior of a fluid property as observed at a fixed point in
space.
For steady flow, all fluid properties at any fixed point are
independent of time.
Those properties for a given fluid particle may change with time
as the particle flows along, even in steady flow, e.g., the
exhaust at the exit of a cars exhaust pipe.

Types of unsteady flows


A non-periodic flow: turning off a faucet to stop the flow of water.
A periodic flow: the periodic injection of the air-gasoline mixture
into an automobile engine.
A truly random flow: irregular splashing of water from a faucet
onto the sink.

Streamline
A streamline is a line that
is everywhere tangent to
the velocity field at a given
instant.
Useful concept in
analytical work
Streamline

dx dy dz ds
=
=
=
u
v
w V

If the velocity field is


known as a function of x
and y (and t if the flow is
unsteady), the equation
can be integrated to give
the equation of the
streamline.

For 2-D flow

dy v
=
dx u
dy v
=
dx u

Streamline

NO flow across a
streamline
the flow is steady, nothing
at a fixed point changes
with time, so the
streamlines are fixed lines
in space
unsteady flows the
streamlines may change
shape with time.

Example 4.2 Streamlines for a Given


Velocity Field
Determine the streamlines for the two-dimensional
steady flow discussed in Example 4.1,

!
! !
V = (V0 / ")(xi yj )

Figure E4.2

Example 4.2 Solution


Sinc u = (V0 / ! )x and v = (V0 / ! )y
e
The streamlines are given by solution of the
equation

dy v (V0 / ! )y
y
= =
=
(V0 / ! )x
dx u
x

Integrating.

dy
dx
y = x

or

ln y = ln x + constant

The streamline is xy=C, where C is a constant

Streakline
A streakline consists of all particles in a flow that have
previously passed through a common point (a laboratory
tool).
Such a line can be produced by continuously injecting
marked fluid (neutrally buoyant smoke in air, or dye in water)
at a given location.
For unsteady flows, particles injected at the same point at
different times need not follow the same path.
Sreaklines can be obtained by taking instantaneous
photographs of marked particles that all passed through a
given location in the flow field at some earlier time.

Timeline and pathline


Timeline: Line formed by a number of adjacent fluid particles in
a flow field marked at a given instant.
Pathline:
A pathline is the line traced out by a given particle as it flows from one
point to another.
Such a line can be produced by dying a small fluid element and taking
a long exposure photograph of its motion.

Timeline

movie

Streakline

If the flow is
unsteady, the
surrounding
velocity field
changes, and we
cannot expect the
resulting
streakline to
resemble a
streamline or
pathline at any
given instant in
time.
However, if the
flow is steady,
streamlines,
pathlines, and
streaklines are
identical

Time integrative property of


streakline

The time-integrative property of streaklines is vividly illustrated in an


experiment by Cimbala et al. (1988), reproduced here as Fig. 425.
The authors used a smoke wire for flow visualization in a wind tunnel.

When multiple streaklines


are introduced along a line,
as in Fig. 425, we refer to
this as a rake of streaklines.
Because of unsteady
vortices shed in an
alternating pattern from the
cylinder, the smoke collects
into a clearly defined pattern
called a Krmn vortex
street.
The patterns of Fig. 425a
near x/D=150 are merely
remnants of the vortex street
that existed upstream.

Pathline

Streakline vs. pathline

A streakline is an
instantaneous
snapshot of a time
integrated flow pattern
(consists of many fluid
particles but from the
same origin).
A pathline, on the
other hand, is the
time-exposed flow
path of an individual
particle over some
time period.

Pathline
A modern experimental
technique called particle
image velocimetry (PIV)
utilizes particle pathlines to
measure the velocity field
over an entire plane in a
flow (Adrian, 1991).

If the velocity field is steady,


individual fluid particles will
follow streamlines.
Thus, for steady flow,
pathlines are identical to
streamlines.

http://www.phys.sinica.edu.tw/~softlab/index.php?id=7&fid=7

Streamline, streakline, timeline, and


pathlines
Timeline: The line that formed by a number of adjacent fluid
particles in a flow field marked at a given instant.
Pathline: The path or trajectory traced out by a moving fluid
particle.
Streakline: The line drawn by a number of identifiable fluid
particles in the flow, all of which had, at some time, pass
through one fixed location in space.
Streamline: Lines drawn in the flow field so that at a given
instant they are tangent to the direction of flow at every point
in the flow field.
Steady flow: pathlines, streaklines, and streamlines are
identical lines
Unsteady flow: pathlines, streaklines, and streamlines are
not coincide, the shape of the streamlines may vary from
instant to instant.

Example 4.3 Comparison of


Streamlines, Pathlines, and Streaklines
Water flowing from the oscillating slit
shown in Figure E4.3 (a) produces a
velocity field given by V=u0sin[(ty/v0)]i+v0j, where u0, v0, and are
constants. Thus, the y component of
velocity remains constant (v=v0) and the
x component of velocity at y=0 coincides
with the velocity of the oscillating
sprinkler head [u=u0sin(t) at y=0]. (a)
Determine the streamline that passes
through the origin at t=0; at t=/2. (b)
Determine the pathline of the particle
that was at the origin at t=0; at t=/2. (c)
Discuss the shape of the streakline that
passes through the origin.

Example 4.3 Solution1/8


(a) Since u=u0sin[(t-y/v0)] and v=v0, the streamlines are
given by the solution of
v0
dy v
= =
dx u u0 sin[ (t y v0 )]

Integrating.

y
u0 sin t dy = v0 dx,
v0


y
u0 (v0 )cos t = v0 x + C
v0
where C is a constant.

(1)

Example 4.3 Solution2/8


For the streamline at t=0 that passes
through the origin (x=y=0), Eq. 1 gives
the value of C=u0v0/. The equation for
this streamline is
u0 y
1
x = cos
v0

(2)

Similarly, for the streamline at t=/2


that passes through the origin, Eq. 1
gives C=0. The equation for this
streamline
u0


y
y u0

x = cos
= cos

2 v0
2 v0

u0

y (3)

x = sin
v0

Example 4.3 Solution3/8


(b) The pathline of a particle can be obtained from the
velocity field and definition of the velocity.
Since u=dx/dt and v=dy/dt

dy
dx
y
= v0
= u0 sin (t ) and
dt
v0
dt

Integrated to give the y coordinate of the pathline

y = v 0 t + C1

(4)

Where C1 is a constant.

Example 4.3 Solution4/8


With this known y=y(t) dependence, the x equation for the
pathline becomes

C1
v0t + C1
dx

= u0 sin (t
) = u0 sin
dt
v0

v0

Integrated to give the x component of the


pathline

C
x = u0 sin 1 t + C2 (5) where C2 is a constant.

v0

For the particle that was at the origin (x=y=0) at time


t=0, Eqs. 4 and 5 give C1=C2=0. Thus, the pathline is

x=0

and

y = v0 t

(6)

Example 4.3 Solution5/8


Similarly, for the particle that was at the origin at t=/2,
Eqs. 4 and 5 give C1=-v0/2and C2=-u0/2. Thus,
the pathline for this particle is

x = u0 t

andy = v 0 t
2
2
The pathline can be drawn by plotting the locus of x(t),
y(t) value for t0 or by eliminating the parameter t from
Eq.7 to give
v0
y= x
u0

(8)

Example 4.3 Solution6/8

The pathlines given by


Eqs. 6 and 8, shown in
Figure E4.3 (c), are
straight lines from the
origin (rays). The
pathlines and
streamlines do not
coincide because the
flow is unsteady.

Example 4.3 Solution7/8


(c)
The streakline through the origin at time t=0 is the locus
of particles at t=0 that previously (t<0) passed through
the origin. The general shape of the streaklines can be
seen as follows.
Each particle that flows through the origin travels in a
straight line (pathlines are rays from the origin), the slope
of which lies between v0/u0 as shown in Figure E4.3 (d).
Particles passing through the origin at different times are
located on different rays from the origin and at different
distances from the origin.
The net result is that a stream of dye continually injected
at the origin (a streakline) would have the shape shown
in Figure E4.3(d).

Example 4.3 Solution8/8


Because of the unsteadiness, the
streakline will vary with time,
although it will always have the
oscillating, sinuous character
shown.
Similar streaklines are given by
the stream of water from a garden
hose nozzle that oscillates back
and forth in a direction normal to
the axis of the nozzle.
In this example neither the
streamlines, pathlines, nor
streaklines coincide. If the flow
were steady all of these lines
would be the same.