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Motion

Flow Patterns: Streamline, Streakline,

Pathline, Timeline

Reynolds Transport Theorem

Fluid kinematics

the velocity and

acceleration of the

fluid, and the

description and

visualization of its

motion.

Fluid dynamics the

analysis of the

specific forces

necessary to produce

the motion.

We employ the continuum hypothesis

and consider fluids to be made up of

fluid particles which contain numerous

molecules.

We can describe the flow of a fluid in

terms of the motion of fluid particles

rather than individual molecules.

Any fluid property can be described

as

X=X(x, y, z, t)

! !

V = V ( x, y, z , t ) = u ( x, y, z , t )i + v( x, y, z , t ) j + w( x, y, z , t )k

! dr!

!

V=

and V = V = (u 2 + v 2 + w2 )1/ 2

dt

descriptions

The Eulerian method:

prescribing the fluid

properties as functions of

space and time (the field

concept)

Observers at fixed points in

space as the fluid flows past

these points

Following individual fluid

particles as they move

about

Determining how the fluid

properties associated with

these particles change as a

function of time.

Eulerian:

T(x0,y0,z0,t), measured by a temperature measuring

device at point 0.

T(x,y,z,t), determined by numerous temperature

measuring devices at various locations.

Lagrangian:

TA(t), recorded by attaching the temperature

measuring device to a particular fluid particle

(particle A)

The temperature would not be known as a function of

position unless the location of each particle were

known as a function of time.

Examples of Lagrangian

descriptions

Oceanographic measurements

Tracing blood flow in arteries by using x-ray opaque dyes

flows

Flow past a wing

Three

dimensional in

nature

Can be simplified

to 2-D or 1-D if

one or two

velocity

components are

small (in some

sense) relative to

the other

component(s).

The definition of steady or unsteady flow pertains to the

behavior of a fluid property as observed at a fixed point in

space.

For steady flow, all fluid properties at any fixed point are

independent of time.

Those properties for a given fluid particle may change with time

as the particle flows along, even in steady flow, e.g., the

exhaust at the exit of a cars exhaust pipe.

A non-periodic flow: turning off a faucet to stop the flow of water.

A periodic flow: the periodic injection of the air-gasoline mixture

into an automobile engine.

A truly random flow: irregular splashing of water from a faucet

onto the sink.

Streamline

A streamline is a line that

is everywhere tangent to

the velocity field at a given

instant.

Useful concept in

analytical work

Streamline

dx dy dz ds

=

=

=

u

v

w V

known as a function of x

and y (and t if the flow is

unsteady), the equation

can be integrated to give

the equation of the

streamline.

dy v

=

dx u

dy v

=

dx u

Streamline

NO flow across a

streamline

the flow is steady, nothing

at a fixed point changes

with time, so the

streamlines are fixed lines

in space

unsteady flows the

streamlines may change

shape with time.

Velocity Field

Determine the streamlines for the two-dimensional

steady flow discussed in Example 4.1,

!

! !

V = (V0 / ")(xi yj )

Figure E4.2

Sinc u = (V0 / ! )x and v = (V0 / ! )y

e

The streamlines are given by solution of the

equation

dy v (V0 / ! )y

y

= =

=

(V0 / ! )x

dx u

x

Integrating.

dy

dx

y = x

or

ln y = ln x + constant

Streakline

A streakline consists of all particles in a flow that have

previously passed through a common point (a laboratory

tool).

Such a line can be produced by continuously injecting

marked fluid (neutrally buoyant smoke in air, or dye in water)

at a given location.

For unsteady flows, particles injected at the same point at

different times need not follow the same path.

Sreaklines can be obtained by taking instantaneous

photographs of marked particles that all passed through a

given location in the flow field at some earlier time.

Timeline: Line formed by a number of adjacent fluid particles in

a flow field marked at a given instant.

Pathline:

A pathline is the line traced out by a given particle as it flows from one

point to another.

Such a line can be produced by dying a small fluid element and taking

a long exposure photograph of its motion.

Timeline

movie

Streakline

If the flow is

unsteady, the

surrounding

velocity field

changes, and we

cannot expect the

resulting

streakline to

resemble a

streamline or

pathline at any

given instant in

time.

However, if the

flow is steady,

streamlines,

pathlines, and

streaklines are

identical

streakline

experiment by Cimbala et al. (1988), reproduced here as Fig. 425.

The authors used a smoke wire for flow visualization in a wind tunnel.

are introduced along a line,

as in Fig. 425, we refer to

this as a rake of streaklines.

Because of unsteady

vortices shed in an

alternating pattern from the

cylinder, the smoke collects

into a clearly defined pattern

called a Krmn vortex

street.

The patterns of Fig. 425a

near x/D=150 are merely

remnants of the vortex street

that existed upstream.

Pathline

A streakline is an

instantaneous

snapshot of a time

integrated flow pattern

(consists of many fluid

particles but from the

same origin).

A pathline, on the

other hand, is the

time-exposed flow

path of an individual

particle over some

time period.

Pathline

A modern experimental

technique called particle

image velocimetry (PIV)

utilizes particle pathlines to

measure the velocity field

over an entire plane in a

flow (Adrian, 1991).

individual fluid particles will

follow streamlines.

Thus, for steady flow,

pathlines are identical to

streamlines.

http://www.phys.sinica.edu.tw/~softlab/index.php?id=7&fid=7

pathlines

Timeline: The line that formed by a number of adjacent fluid

particles in a flow field marked at a given instant.

Pathline: The path or trajectory traced out by a moving fluid

particle.

Streakline: The line drawn by a number of identifiable fluid

particles in the flow, all of which had, at some time, pass

through one fixed location in space.

Streamline: Lines drawn in the flow field so that at a given

instant they are tangent to the direction of flow at every point

in the flow field.

Steady flow: pathlines, streaklines, and streamlines are

identical lines

Unsteady flow: pathlines, streaklines, and streamlines are

not coincide, the shape of the streamlines may vary from

instant to instant.

Streamlines, Pathlines, and Streaklines

Water flowing from the oscillating slit

shown in Figure E4.3 (a) produces a

velocity field given by V=u0sin[(ty/v0)]i+v0j, where u0, v0, and are

constants. Thus, the y component of

velocity remains constant (v=v0) and the

x component of velocity at y=0 coincides

with the velocity of the oscillating

sprinkler head [u=u0sin(t) at y=0]. (a)

Determine the streamline that passes

through the origin at t=0; at t=/2. (b)

Determine the pathline of the particle

that was at the origin at t=0; at t=/2. (c)

Discuss the shape of the streakline that

passes through the origin.

(a) Since u=u0sin[(t-y/v0)] and v=v0, the streamlines are

given by the solution of

v0

dy v

= =

dx u u0 sin[ (t y v0 )]

Integrating.

y

u0 sin t dy = v0 dx,

v0

y

u0 (v0 )cos t = v0 x + C

v0

where C is a constant.

(1)

For the streamline at t=0 that passes

through the origin (x=y=0), Eq. 1 gives

the value of C=u0v0/. The equation for

this streamline is

u0 y

1

x = cos

v0

(2)

that passes through the origin, Eq. 1

gives C=0. The equation for this

streamline

u0

y

y u0

x = cos

= cos

2 v0

2 v0

u0

y (3)

x = sin

v0

(b) The pathline of a particle can be obtained from the

velocity field and definition of the velocity.

Since u=dx/dt and v=dy/dt

dy

dx

y

= v0

= u0 sin (t ) and

dt

v0

dt

y = v 0 t + C1

(4)

Where C1 is a constant.

With this known y=y(t) dependence, the x equation for the

pathline becomes

C1

v0t + C1

dx

= u0 sin (t

) = u0 sin

dt

v0

v0

pathline

C

x = u0 sin 1 t + C2 (5) where C2 is a constant.

v0

t=0, Eqs. 4 and 5 give C1=C2=0. Thus, the pathline is

x=0

and

y = v0 t

(6)

Similarly, for the particle that was at the origin at t=/2,

Eqs. 4 and 5 give C1=-v0/2and C2=-u0/2. Thus,

the pathline for this particle is

x = u0 t

andy = v 0 t

2

2

The pathline can be drawn by plotting the locus of x(t),

y(t) value for t0 or by eliminating the parameter t from

Eq.7 to give

v0

y= x

u0

(8)

Eqs. 6 and 8, shown in

Figure E4.3 (c), are

straight lines from the

origin (rays). The

pathlines and

streamlines do not

coincide because the

flow is unsteady.

(c)

The streakline through the origin at time t=0 is the locus

of particles at t=0 that previously (t<0) passed through

the origin. The general shape of the streaklines can be

seen as follows.

Each particle that flows through the origin travels in a

straight line (pathlines are rays from the origin), the slope

of which lies between v0/u0 as shown in Figure E4.3 (d).

Particles passing through the origin at different times are

located on different rays from the origin and at different

distances from the origin.

The net result is that a stream of dye continually injected

at the origin (a streakline) would have the shape shown

in Figure E4.3(d).

Because of the unsteadiness, the

streakline will vary with time,

although it will always have the

oscillating, sinuous character

shown.

Similar streaklines are given by

the stream of water from a garden

hose nozzle that oscillates back

and forth in a direction normal to

the axis of the nozzle.

In this example neither the

streamlines, pathlines, nor

streaklines coincide. If the flow

were steady all of these lines

would be the same.

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