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Quality Planning and Analysis


Chapter 1

QUALITY DEFINITIONS

Chapter contents

Defining Quality
History of quality
Quality paradigm

Pioneers of quality
Quality in Australian context

Chapter contents

Defining Quality

Defining Quality
Macquarie Dictionary defines quality as:
1.

A characteristic, property, or attribute.

2.

Character or nature, as belonging to or distinguishing a thing.

3.

Character with respect to excellence, fineness, etc., or grade of excellence:

4.

High grade; superior excellence.

5.

Native excellence or superiority.

6.

An accomplishment or attainment.

7.

Good or high social position: a person of quality.

8.

The superiority or distinction associated with high social position.

9.

Acoustics the texture of a note

10.

Phonetics the timbre or tonal colour of a speech sound.

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Logic the character of a proposition as affirmative or negative.

Note: Quality definitions in a dictionary seem rather too generic.


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Defining Quality
The six quality characteristics of a software (ISO 9126)
Characteristics

Sub-characteristics

Characteristics

Sub-characteristics

Functionality

Interoperability
Compliance
Security
Maturity
Suitability
Accurateness

Efficiency

Time behaviour
Resource behavior
Analyzability

Maintainability

Changeability
Stability
Testability
Adaptability

Portability

Installability
Conformance
Replaceability

Reliability

Usability

Fault tolerance
Recoverability
Understandability
Learnability
Operability

Note: This type of quality definition is rather too specific and may not be applicable to other fields.
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Defining Quality
Quality-related terminology as per the ISO 8402-1994 include:
Quality Assurance:
All the planned and systematic activities implemented within the quality system, and
demonstrated as needed, to provide adequate confidence that an entity will fulfil requirements
for quality.
Quality Management:
All activities of the overall management function that determine the quality policy, objectives
and responsibilities, and implement them by means such as quality planning, quality control,
quality assurance and quality improvement, within the quality system.
Total Quality Management:
A management approach of an organisation, centred on quality, based on the participation of
all its members and aiming at long term success through customer satisfaction.
Note: ISO 8402 definitions are specific and applicable to the field of quality management. In each
definition, key words have been highlighted in bold and red colour.

Defining Quality
Quality-related terminology as per the ISO 8402-1994 include:
Quality Policy:
The overall intentions and direction of an organisation with regard to quality, as formally
expressed by top management.
Quality System:
The organisational structure. responsibilities,
resources needed to implement quality management.

procedures,

processes

and

Quality Control:

The operational techniques and activities that are used to fulfil requirements for quality.
Quality Planning:
The activities that establish the objectives and requirements for quality and for the
application of quality system elements.
Note: ISO 8402 definitions are specific and applicable to the field of quality management. In each
definition, key words have been highlighted in bold and red colour.

Defining Quality

Which car is better?


Although these two products are extremely different, try to discuss the following:
How can we determine their quality level?
Can a single quality definition be applied to both cars?

How does your definition compare to the previously provided definitions?

Bugatti Veyron, $1,700,000.00


Worlds fastest and most-expensive car?

Tata Nano, $2,500.00 (Luxury Version!!!)


Worlds slowest and cheapest car?

Note: Here we try to define quality by comparing products with extreme different characteristics.
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Defining Quality

Which one is better?


Although these products seem to be quite similar,
many people still think that one or the other is of
better quality.

Or

Again, discuss the following:


How can we determine their quality level?
Can a single quality definition be applied to
both products?

Or

How does your definition compare to the


previously provided definitions?

Note: Here we compare products with very similar characteristics.


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Defining Quality

Edward Deming:

Good quality does not necessarily


mean high quality.
It means a predictable degree of uniformity
and dependability at low cost
with a quality suited to the market.

Note: Deming defines quality differently. His definition of quality gives consideration to philosophical
as well as statistical meaning of quality.
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Defining Quality
Note: As a result of the discussions from previous slides, we will use the following quality definition
in this subject.

Quality is:

Achieving a SATISFACTORY OUTCOME for the CUSTOMER

This definition of quality has three


main characteristics:
a) It is customer-focused,
b) It is process-driven, and
c) It is metrics-oriented.

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Defining Quality
Note: The quality definition we will use contains both the process view and customer view

Achieving a SATISFACTORY OUTCOME for the CUSTOMER


Process view

Input

Process

Materials
Equipment
Methods
People
etc.

Assembly
Inspection
Selling
Check-In
etc.

Customer view

Output

Customer

Outcome

Goods
Services
Information
etc.

End user
Retailer
Government
Internal Dept.
etc.

Satisfaction
Revenue
Market share
Motivation
etc.

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Chapter contents

Defining Quality
History of quality
Quality paradigm

Pioneers of quality
Quality in Australian context

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History of quality
Note: Changes to the world market conditions in the past five decades may be summarised
as follows.

YESTERDAY

TODAY

USA only

Many countries

Make it, it sells

Competition

Reasonable

Lowest possible

Budgets

Large

Optimising

Technology

Stable

Rapidly changing

Supplier-driven

Customer-driven

Reasonable

Accelerated

Economic power
Conditions
Costs

Quality

Time-to-market

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History of quality
Note: In the past five decades, the views of quality has changed as well.

Conventional View

Modern View

Comparison of product to specification

Comparison of product to competition

Prevention of plant and field defects

Meeting customer needs

Concentration on manufacturing

Including all functions

Internal quality measures

Customer-based quality measures

Quality is a technical issue

Quality is a business issue

Co-ordination by Quality Manager

Co-ordination by upper management


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History of quality
Note: The following timeline provides some of the main innovations occurred in the field of quality.
These innovations (concepts, models, programs, practices, etc.) have greatly influenced how quality
was managed in the past century.

Scientific
Management

1900s

Total Quality
Control

1920s

1940s

Statistic Process
Control

1960s

Six Sigma / Lean


Quality Awards

1980s

2000s

TQM /
ISO 9000

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History of quality
Note: The following slides (p.17-21) depict some of the main events occurred over the past two
centuries. Main focus was put on the car industry as an example for technological progress.

1800
Industrial Revolution (1800-1880)

1850

Progressive Era (1880-1930)

1900

Frederick Taylor

Ford Assembly-Line

1950
Henry Ford

Toyota Production System (1945-1980)

2000
Adapted from: http://www.strategosinc.com/lean_manufacturing_history.htm

Ohno

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History of quality
Industrial Revolution (1800-1880)

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History of quality
Progressive Era (1880-1930)
Scientific Management
Taylor believed that laborers were uneducated and lazy,
reflecting the prevailing thinking of the time.
To increase productivity, he proposed the science of decomposing tasks
into their smallest components, timing and planning each micro-task, and
telling the worker exactly how to do each task.
Frederick W. Taylor
(1856-1915)

http://www.biz.colostate.edu/faculty/dennism/Management-Evolution_files/image015.gif

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History of quality
Progressive Era (1880-1930)

1896: Henry Ford completes his first automobile, the Quadricycle


Ford Quadricycle

1910: Assembly-line mass production starts

1921: Ford Motor Co. dominates the US car industry


with 55% of total industry output

Source: http://e3.uci.edu/clients

Ford Assembly-line

Henry Ford (1863 -1947)

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History of quality
Toyota Production System (1945-1970)

1937:

Toyota Motor Company established

1957:

First Toyota model (Crown) exported to the U.S.


Toyota Crown

1969:

Toyotas export reached 1million units

2007:

Toyota is a US$243.5 billion business with


over 260,000 employees and 170 subsidiaries
worldwide that produce over 7.5 million
vehicles per year

Source: http://www.toyota.co.jp

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Chapter contents

Defining Quality
History of quality
Quality paradigm

Pioneers of quality
Quality in Australian context

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Quality Paradigm
Note: The following three main eras can be used to define quality paradigm changes in the last century.

Time

Era

Emphasis

Result

Early 1900s

Quality
Inspection

Product

Defect
Detection

1950-1980s

Quality
Assurance

Process

Defect
Prevention

1990s - present

Quality
management

People

Continuous
Improvement

Process Variation

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Chapter contents

Defining Quality
History of quality
Quality paradigm

Pioneers of quality
Quality in Australian context

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Pioneers of quality
W. Edwards Deming

The first American quality expert who


visited Japan.
In 1947, General Douglas McArthur,
invites Deming to prepare for a census.
In 1950, The Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers
(JUSE) invites Deming to teach the industrial leaders in
statistical quality control techniques.

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Pioneers of quality
Joseph M. Juran

His biggest contribution was to take


quality beyond the technical aspects of
quality control which were well developed
in the 1940s in the management area.
Juran says: 15% of variation is due to
special causes (workers involved),
85 % is due to system (management involved).

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Pioneers of quality

Philip B. Crosby

As a popularizer of TQM, Philip B. Crosby


is less academic in his approach to total
quality but just as effective as Deming,
Juran and Ishikawa.

Crosby lists four new essentials of


quality management which he calls the absolutes

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Chapter contents

Defining Quality
History of quality
Quality paradigm

Pioneers of quality
Quality in Australian context

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Quality in Australian context


% of Australian firms who dont use these business practices
Manufacturing

Other firms

Business Plan

76%

80%

Total Quality Management

80%

87%

Budget forecasting

68%

64%

Networking

86%

83%

Benchmarking

87%

82%

Export

86%

98%

R&D

91%

98%

Source: ABS, unpublished data

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Quality in Australian context


Typical reasons cited for poor business practices

Management not involved on shop floor


Inadequate skills and training at all levels
Lack of industrial engineering expertise
Focus on profit only
Inadequate planning
Demarcation lines
Blaming workers
Poor communication
Source: John Blakemore The Quality Solution

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Conclusions and Summary

Quality definition depends on the type of customers


and their expectations.
Perception and importance of quality has changed as
a result of industrial development.
There are three Quality eras: Quality Inspection,
Quality Assurance, and Quality Management.
Quality does not happen by accident. It has to be
understood, planned and carefully produced.
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End of Chapter 1

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