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The General Planning Process


An urban area is characterized by higher population density and vast human features in
comparison to areas surrounding it. Urban areas may be cities, towns or conurbations,
but the term is not commonly extended to rural settlements such as villages.


On the basis of the elemental factor of space, a region is a geographic or areal unit with
certain limits and bounds. The unit may consist of a few villages or a number of
countries. A region may, therefore, be thought of as an area or spatial organization of
varying dimensions.
Any portion of earths surface where physical conditions are homogenous can be
considered as a Region in geographic sense, ranging from a single feature region to
comp age, depending on the criteria used for delineation.
Introduction to Planning

All the daily activities of human beings are carried out on land. Proper
organization of these activities i.e. planning will help the human being in leading
a richer and fuller life in livable surroundings or environment.
Planning a continuous, time oriented and cyclic process of identification and
achievement of goals.
Cyclic Process of Planning: a process that includes

Identification of goals and objectives,

Assessment of problems, potential, and priorities,
Preparation of plan based on related concept and its approval,
Feedback, and
Review of Plan.
Field of Planning

Transport and

Urban Planning is a technique and method of development that contributes to the

organization, development and evolution of urban areas and their urbanizing environs, based

Economic, social, legal, aesthetic concepts and conditions in order to

Promote the welfare of public and quality of environment.

Regional Planning it is a specific type of planning, based on a specific planning

structure(regional system), for inducing public action aimed at societal well-being. It implies that
regional planning is concerned fundamentally with the society in the context of space.
Environmental Planning is a tool for environmental protection and sustainable development
of any area from environmental point of view.
Transport Planning the process of analysis of travel demand in a city or region having regard
to socio-economic, land-use, and other factors and formulation of policies, programmers, plans
and projects for its efficient management.
Infrastructure the basic components of a human settlement that make it functional and
improve its quality of life and include network of water supply, sewerage, drainage, electricity,
communication, transportation and facilities and services.

Facility in urban planning premises where health-care, educational, socio-cultural and

recreational activities take place.
Services include transportation by rail, road, air, waterways, telecommunication, police
protection, firefighting, postal etc.
Utilities basic public services like water supply, sewerage, drainage and electricity
Definitions and Bases of Planning
Objective (Urban and Regional Planning)
To provide healthy environment and conveniences to the people of the area by physical
arrangement of land-use pattern and structure.
Town and Country Planning
To channelize various types of forces such as physical, social, economic and
administrative in a planned manner to create the total environment, which is healthy,
efficient and satisfying for working, living, recreation and other activities of human
Social and economic aims town planning
Socially successful planning tends to make peoples life happier, because it results in
physical environment which is conductive to health; facilities social interaction and gives
visual attractiveness.
Characteristics of successful Town Planning:
Promotion of accessibility
Employment of resources as economically as possible
Carrying out of all developments in a visually pleasant and practical manner

Goal of Planning

To guide the development of a city or town so that it furthers the welfare of its current
and future residents by creating convenient, equitable, healthful, efficient and attractive
Three key aspects of Urban/Regional Planning
a. Physical environment
b. Social environment
c. Economic environment
Physical environment
- A citys physical environment includes its location, its climate and its proximity to
sources of food and water
Social environment

The social environment includes the groups to which a citys residents belong, the
neighborhoods in which they live, the organization of its workplaces. One of the
biggest issues in most cities is the inequitable distribution of resources.

Economic environment

Primary employers, such as manufacturing as well as research and development

companies, retail business, universities, federal labs, local government, cultural
institutions, and departments of tourism all play strong roles in a citys economy.

Planners work with local authorities to make sure residents are not excluded from
the benefits of urbanization as a result of physical, social or economic barriers.
Urban and Regional Planning Basics

All the daily activities of human beings are carried out on land.
Land is the basic platform of all human activities
Proper organization of these activities i.e. planning will help the human being in leading a
richer and fuller life in livable surroundings or environment.
A comprehensive understanding of the process through which land uses get allocated in a
city at a particular point of time and change over a period of time (not rigid but flexible)
is necessary.


Accessibility available means of communication i.e. roads, rail etc.

Base map map serving as the foundation for subsequent planning showing all physical
features and existing land use/built-up area of the area or city.
Density of Population population divided by the areas occupied by houses.
Gross density population divided by the area layout including roads and open spaces.
Net density population divided by the plots, excluding roads and open spaces.
Recreation areas an area designated for recreational activities - open spaces, play
grounds, parks, botanical gardens, golf course etc.
Water bodies River, lakes, ponds, nallah (open drain)
Ring road a circular road on all side of the proposed development/settlement
Bye pass a road designed to carry heavy vehicular traffic to operate without entering
the built up area of the city.
O D Survey Origin and Destination survey conducted to count vehicles coming from
and going to another area/city.
Public land the land vested with the government.
Residential land-use the land category in a development or layout plan devoted to
residential activity which may be further sub-divided into zones/clusters by nature (e.g.
Primary residential, mixed residential, informal residential), intensity (e.g. high, medium
or low density), type (plotted or flatted), ownership (individual or group housing).
Topo-sheet map prepared by Survey of India for entire country, indicating every detail,
e.g. road, rail, forest, river, canal, build-up area etc.
Catchment area or drainage basin area drained by a stream/river or other body of
water (the area and population from which a facility or region attracts visitors or
Urban Agglomeration (UA) the out growths of urban areas have also been
incorporated in larger urban areas and are designated as urban agglomeration which
a) An urban area with continuous urban outgrowth which is outside the statutory
urban limits but falling within the boundaries of the adjoining village or villages;
b) Two or more adjoining urban areas with their outgrowths, so as to form a
continuous urban spread;
c) Two or more adjoining areas without outgrowths, but which form a continuous
urban spread.