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International Journal of Computer Application (2250-1797

Volume 5– No. 4, June2015

Modeling and Simulation of Slot loaded Rectangular
microstrip Patch Antenna
Mukesh Kumar Dubey ,Rajeev Paulus ,A.K Jaiswal and Aditi Agrawal
Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences,
Department of Electronics & Communication, SSET, SHIATS, Allahabad
Formerly Allahabad Agricultural Institute Allahabad, India

Abstract:A slots loaded microstrip patch antenna is proposed for S-band frequencies applications.
Resonance frequency is found to be 3.5 GHz and and -10 dB bandwidth of resonance frequencies
7.14%. The gain of the antenna is 4.8 dBi. The results are present in the terms of return loss,
voltage standing wave ratio, radiation pattern and gain for the proposed microstrip patch antenna.

Keywords: - Microstrip Patch Antenna, Single Band, Slots loaded, Radiation Pattern, Return

Introduction:Wireless interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) and Wireless local area network
(WLAN) technology are widely used in commercial, industrial and medical applications. Many
reported antenna designs for wireless system operations [1–3]. Generally, the microstrip
antennas can be placed into two categories, namely, multi-resonator antennas and reactive
loading antennas. In the first type structures, the frequency operation can be procured by
applying multiple radiating elements, each supports strong currents and radiation at its
resonance, the multi-layer stacked-patch antennas having annular, circular, rectangular, and
triangular patches have also been covered in this type [4, 5]. The multi-resonator antenna
structures having higher cost usually comprise multiple substrate layers. Connection of coaxial
[6] or microstrip stubs [7] at the radiating edges of a rectangular patch gives rise to the resonant
behavior for the reactive loading microstrip patch antenna comprising a single radiating element.
The other type of reactive loading can be obtained by notching slots on a patch and the resonant
mode of a rectangular patch is improved [8, 9]. In proposed work, two narrow slots are notched
in the rectangular patch close to its radiating edges to obtain single resonating frequency patch
antenna structure for S-band applications. The results have been analyzed and investigated using
HFSS Simulation software.


International Journal of Computer Application (2250-1797)
Volume 5– No. 4, June2015

Design Specification:The proposed coaxial probe feed rectangular microstrip patch antennas shown in figure 1, is
developed on Teflon based substrate having dielectric constant (ɛr) of 2.08 and dimensions of
40×30×3.2 mm3.

Fig. 1. Antenna structure (Top View) (a) proposed antenna.

The dimensions of rectangular conducting patch are 26×18 mm2 and lengths and widths of
rectangular slots notched out perpendicular to the radiating edges of patch antenna are 6 mm and
1 mm each respectively which produced the proposed resonating structure. The feed position of
the coaxial probe is (X, Y) of the patch structure. The labels used to define the antenna structure
dimensions and their corresponding dimensions have been shown in Table 1
TABLE I. Design specification of the proposed microstrip patch antenna.

Substrate dielectric


(Teflon) constant (ɛr)
Substrate height (H)


Substrate length L1

40 mm

Substrate width W1

30 mm

Patch length L2

26 mm

Patch width W2

18 mm

Slot length L3=L4

6 mm

Slot thickness t

1 mm

Feed position from

(15,10) mm

origin (X,Y)

International Journal of Computer Application (2250-1797)
Volume 5– No. 4, June2015

Results and discussion:The model shown in Fig. 1 have been simulated and analyzed for proposed dimensions. The
rectangular antenna shown in Fig. 1 is single band microstrip patch antenna resonate at 3.5 GHz
which is obtained by providing the reactive loading along non-radiating edges to the patch
antenna by removing the double slots from patch make it the resonating antenna structure. The
results in terms of return loss (dB), gain (dB), radiation pattern, radiation efficiency and voltage
standing wave ratio (VSWR) have been displayed in Fig. 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 respectively. The return
losses and VSWR of proposed patch antenna at 3.5 GHz has been observed to be -16 dB and
1.49 respectively which make this antenna structure suitable for S-band applications. The gains
of 4.80 dBi and the radiation efficiencies of 95.48% has been achieved at 3.5 GHz resonant
frequency, respectively. The impedance bandwidth for resonant and upper resonant frequency is
found to be 250 MHz (3.37 GHz to 3.62 GHz).

Fig. 2. Return Loss for Proposed antenna structure.

Fig. 3. Peak Gain for proposed antenna structure at 3.5 GHz.


International Journal of Computer Application (2250-1797)
Volume 5– No. 4, June2015

Fig.4. Field Radiation Pattern for proposed antenna structure at 3.5 GHz.

Fig. 5. Radiation efficiency for proposed antenna structure at 3.5 GHz.

Fig. 6. VSWR for proposed antenna structure.


International Journal of Computer Application (2250-1797)
Volume 5– No. 4, June2015

Conclusion:Conclusion can be drawn that the patch antenna resonating at single resonant frequency of 3.5
GHz has been obtained by loading the double slots on the reference microstrip patch antenna.
The proposed antenna is suitable for S-band and applications.

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