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International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 6, Issue 5, May-2015

ISSN 2229-5518

821

Impact of increased Nutrient on the
Variability of Chlorophyll-a in the West
Coast of South Sulawesi, Indonesia
Andriani Nasir1*, Ambo Tuwo2, Muhammad Lukman2,3, Hanapi Usman4
1
Aquaculture Program of State Agricultural Polytechnique College in Pangkep, Indonesia
Marine Science Departement, Faculty of Marine Science and Fisheries, Hasanuddin University, Indonesia;
3
Research and Development Centre for Marine, Coastal, and Small Islands (MaCSI), Hasanuddin University, Indonesia;
d
Chemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Hasanuddin University, Indonesia
2

*andriani_nasir@yahoo.co.id,

Abstract- Increased nutrient runoff from land affect the level of productivity of waters and disrupt the balance of
microalgae community. This study aimed to analyze nutrients (N, P; DIN/DIP; DSi/DIN; DSi/DIP) to the variability of
chlorophyll-a concentrations in coastal waters of the west coast of South Sulawesi are experiencing eutrophication.
Nutrient and chlorophyll-a samples collected in three seasons (transition season, dry season and rainy season), in the
coastal waters of estuaries Tallo, Maros, and Pangkep. Samples were analyzed chlorophyll-a by the trichromatic
method. Results showed the ratio of nutrients DSi/DIN and DIN/DIP parallel to the increase in the concentration of
chlorophyll-a in the transition season and dry season, while the N parallel during the rainy season. Correlation molar
N-P nutrient and ratio of DIN/DIP; DSi/DIN; DSi/DIP to the variability of chlorophyll-a concentration of less than 50%,
unless the ratio DSi/DIP in Tallo estuary during the rainy season and in the Maros estuary during the dry season.

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Index Terms- clorophyl a, coastal, nutrient, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

——————————  ——————————

I. INTRODUCTION

Eutrophication strongly influenced the balance
ratio of N/P and Si/N, as a result of excess N input
relative to P and Si (Yin, et al., 2001; Trommer, et al.,
2013). This nutrient ratio further changes will have an
impact on the size and structure of the phytoplankton
community (such as Smayda, 1990; Riegman et al.,
1993; Yin et al., 2001; Maguer et al., 2009). In addition,
it can also affect the production of biomass higher
trophic levels are largely dependent on the size of the
main producers (Goldman, 1988; Legendre, 1990;
Tremblay et al., 2000; Butron et al., 2009).
The ratio of nutrients and their effects on the
distribution of chlorophyll-a, showed an increase in the
concentration of N will affect the increase in the
concentration of chlorophyll-a, but not affected by the
ratio of N/P (Stelzer and Lamberti, 2001). Trommer et
al. (2013) states that, the ratio of dissolved nutrients are
often not representative of the actual nutrient
limitations that affect natural phytoplankton
populations, where P remains significantly limiting

nutrient when chlorophyll-a supreme value, despite the
scarcity of Si. Si ratios for the N or P has particular
relevance for diatoms, where Si is an essential nutrient,
which limits phytoplankton in an environment
dominated diatoms (Ragueneau et al., 2002). Increased
input N is usually correlated with a decrease in the ratio
of Si/N (Rabalais et al., 1996).
Coastal waters along the west coast of South
Sulawesi classified as productive, in which there are
mangrove, seagrass and coral reef Spermonde.
Spermonde coral reef ecosystem is part of the Coral
Triangle Initiative, which plays a crucial role in
sustaining the economic life of coastal communities and
food security. However, these waters also potentially
experience a decrease in water quality due to the threat
of sewage from the mainland, which is carried by large
rivers. The mainland exiles mainly from (1) municipal
waste or industrial-source material of organic and
inorganic pollutants, and from (2) discharges
agriculture or aquaculture-a source of nutrients and
organic matter. The second major source of this has
great potential to increase the levels of nutrients and
organic matter in the waters of the west coast of South

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International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 6, Issue 5, May-2015
ISSN 2229-5518

Sulawesi. Therefore, an examination of the potential
productivity of the waters with the study of the
variability of the concentration of chlorophyll-a in the
spatial and temporal due to the influence of the
mainland (ie of the major rivers on the west coast of
South Sulawesi), which empties into the coast and the
sea at coral reef Spermonde. Studies on this are needed
to provide basic and comprehensive understanding of
the impact of changes in the water quality of the coastal
and marine environment.

II. MATERIALS AND METHODS
Study Area
Location of the study are in the southern part of the
Makassar Strait or in the southwestern peninsula of
South Sulawesi (Spermonde Shelf), especially the
waters around the mouth of large rivers that Tallo
estuaries 05o57 S, 119o26 E - 05o11 S, 119o25 E, 04o59
S, estuaries Maros 119o28 E, and estuaries Pangkep
04o52 S, 119o30 E - 04o49 S, 119o29 E (Figure 1).
Water sampling is done in three seasons, the transition
season (April 2013), dry season (June 2013), and the
rainy season (February 2014).
Tallo estuaries is the estuary of the river that
divides the city of Makassar, capital of South Sulawesi
province and empties into the Makassar Strait. Tallo
river has a length of 66 km with an area of 417 km2
watershed. Around the mouth of the river there is a very
dense settlement and several large industry. While the
Maros estuary and Pangkep a lot of runoff from
agricultural activities and fishing that also empties into
the Makassar Strait.

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Figure 1. Map of study sites in waters off the west coast of South
Sulawesi, the sampling locations are marked with a box. TL, Tallo
estuary; M, Maros estuary; P, Pangkep estuary.

Sampling and Sample Preparation
Water sampling for chlorophyll-a and nutrients
using a suction pump and bottle niskin with volume of
5 liters at a depth of 1-2 m below the surface of the
river estuary and 5 m below sea level. Preparation of
water samples for analysis of nutrients and chlorophylla done by filtering the water in the filter GF F (0.7 µm)
by using a vacuum pump (pressure of 200 mm Hg),
each filter for analysis of chlorophyll-a input in the
bottle centrifuges then wrapped with aluminum foil and
stored in a cool box. Results filter for nutrients then the
toxification using HgCl 2 (400 mL/100 ml sample).
Water samples are then stored at 4°C for further
analysis. Contamination of the sample with the
environment are concerned with avoiding direct contact
with free air.

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Analysis

The extraction of chlorophyll-a done using acetone
(90% pa) and stored in a dark room for 24 hours at 4°C
(Welschmeyer, 1994), then centrifuged at 4000 rpm for
10 minutes. Measurements of chlorophyll-a was
conducted trichromatic method by using a
spectrophotometer UV A1800-Simadzu at wavelengths
of 630, 647, 664 and 750 nm (Aminot and Rey, 2001).
Methods and analysis of the levels of nitrate (reducing
cadmium),
nitrite
(sulfanilamide),
ammonia
(amonimum molibat), phosphate (stanous chloride), and
silicates (molybdosilicate) with a
Shimadzu
spectrophotometer UV-A1800, with sample preparation
and measurement based method of Grasshoff et al.
(1983).
Student t-test performed to determine significant
differences (ρ<0.05) between the molar and ratio of
nutrient the temporal with a concentration of
chlorophyll-a, and to determine the correlation at each
location and season observations Person's correlation
analysis was used with the SPSS v. 16.0 software
program.

III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Comparison of the concentration of chlorophyll-a
in the waters of the west coast of South Sulawesi shows
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International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 6, Issue 5, May-2015
ISSN 2229-5518

the spatial and temporal variability (Table 1; Figure 2).
Nutrient supply from the mainland indirectly affect the
variability of the concentration of chlorophyll-a, with
the influence and the molar ratio of nutrients. If you
view the phosphate concentrations in estuarine Tallo
and Maros, including large, indicating phosphate rather
than as limiting the growth of phytoplankton, but after
normalized with nitrogen changed, with the
composition of the enrichment of nitrogen and
phosphate restriction. The maximum concentration of
chlorophyll-a in the coastal Tallo, the transition season
and dry season with a range of 1.86 to 11.93 mg m-3
and 0.38 to 7.68 mg m-3 (Table 1). While the maximum
in Pangkep estuary during the rainy season with the

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range of 0.19 to 6.99 mg m-3, although in estuaries
Pengkap, the value of the ratio DIN/DIP minimum
during the rainy season but the relationship to the
concentration of chlorophyll-a is inversely proportional,
ie an increase in chlorophyll-a was not followed by the
high value of the ratio, indicating that the ratio of
DIN/DIP in the estuaries Pengkep not correlate directly
with the chlorophyll-a (Stelzer and Lamberti, 2001) but
correlated with phytoplankton (Trommer et al., 2013).
The concentration of chlorophyll a minimum is found
in estuaries Maros in all seasons observations ranged
0.21 to 1.58 mg m-3 (transition season), 0.20 to 4.08 mg
m-3 (dry season) and 1.13 to 2.56 mg m-3 (rainy season).

Table 1. Mean (M), standard deviation (SD) N nutrient concentration (NH 3 - -N); P (PO 4 3--P), nutrient ratio of DIN/DIP; DSi/DIN; DSi/DIP and
Chl-a at the west coast of South Sulawesi, Indonesia.

Season

NH3 - -N
[µM]
M

Location

SD

PO4 3--P
[µM]
M

DIN/DIP

DSi/DIN

DSi/DIP

SD

M

M

M

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Chl a
(mg m-3 )
M

SD

Transition
(April 2013)

Tallo estuary
Maros estuary
Pangkep estuary

27.7
19.3
13.3

±8.46
±8.41
±5.50

0.20
0.35
0.25

±0.08
±0.16
±0.14

183.8
82.3
96.2

0.12
0.85
0.20

24.2
67.0
14.6

4.80
0.74
2.84

±3.35
±0.49
±2.85

Dry
(June 2013)

Tallo estuary
Maros estuary
Pangkep estuary

13.6
6.37
6.86

±7.39
±1.74
±2.27

0.35
0.31
0.21

±0.13
±0.09
±0.06

43.3
22.2
37.1

0.40
1.11
0.78

15.4
24.5
32.5

4.64
1.85
2.15

±2.30
±1.58
±1.46

Rain
(February 2014)

Tallo estuary
Maros estuary
Pangkep estuary

63.4
25.9
22.1

±6.71
±4.98
±8.57

0.56
1.00
0.82

±0.14
±0.23
±0.34

114.9
28.1
28.1

0.40
0.90
1.99

23.8
24.5
20.0

2.06
1.60
4.04

±0.44
±0.44
±2.27

12

10

Chl a (mg m-3)

8

6

4

2

0
TL.1

TL.2

TL.3

M.1

M.2

M.3

P.1

P.2

P.3

Figure 2. Comparison of chlorophyll-a concentration at each
sampling location and season of observation in waters of the west
coast of South Sulawesi, Indonesia; TL, Tallo estuary; M, Maros
estuary; P, Pangkep estuary. 1, Transition season; 2, Dry season; 3,
Rainy season.

The influence of the DIN/DIP ratio against the
concentration of chlorophyll-a in estuaries Tallo, the
maximum is found in the transition season (Table 1).
The maximum concentration in the transition season is
similar to the findings of Falco et al., (2010) at the Ebro
estuary, Spain (April 1999), which is 17,59 mg m-3
which is the result of seasonal cycles of phytoplankton.
In general, the concentration of chlorophyll a in the
west coast of South Sulawesi in every season of
observation is still lower than the Ebro estuary.
Although, chlorophyll-a present in all types of
phytoplankton, but also determines the size of
phytoplankton (Goldman, 1988; Legendre, 1990;
Tremblay et al., 2000; Butron et al., 2009) that
contributes to the quantity of chlorophyll-a.

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International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 6, Issue 5, May-2015
ISSN 2229-5518

Results of correlation analysis between chlorophyll
a with a stoichiometry molar nutrients N, P and nutrient
ratio of DIN/DIP; DSi/DIN; DSi/DIP on the west coast
of South Sulawesi shows koefiesien determination (R2)
was very small with a dominant variations or changes
in the concentration of chlorophyll-a < 50% (Table 2),
but has indicated that nutrient contributes to the
concentration of chlorophyll-a (e.g. Stelzer and
Lamberti, 2001). Where, nutrient factors in the estuaries
Tallo and Pangkep in the transition season showed
negative correlation with chlorophyll-a, whereas in the
estuaries Maros, nutrient molar N, P and the DIN/DIP
ratio positively correlated. In the dry season, showed P
is positively correlated with the concentration of
chlorophyll-a was found only in the estuaries Pangkep

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location, otherwise N negatively correlated only in
locations estuaries Maros. Meanwhile, the ratio of
nutrient forms DIN/DIP; DSi/DIN; DSi/DIP correlated
positively except DSi/DIP in estuaries Pangkep. Factors
rainy season also gives effect to the variability of the
concentration of chlorophyll-a, which in the estuaries
Tallo and Maros shows the same correlation that
nutrient N and P were positively correlated to the
concentration of chlorophyll-a, and the nutrient ratio of
DIN/DIP; DSi/DIN; DSi/DIP showed a negative
correlation. Whereas in estuaries Pangkep, nutrient N, P
and the DSi/DIN ratio negatively correlated to the
concentration of chlorophyll-a, otherwise the ratio of
DIN/DIP and DSi/DIP positively correlated.

Table 2. Correlation between chlorophyll-a with a stoichiometry molar nutrients and ratio of nutrients in the waters
of the west coast of South Sulawesi. N (from N-NH 3 - μm); P (from P-PO 4 - μm), R2, coefficient of determination. +,
positive; -, negative.
Location
Season
Tallo estuary
Transition
Dry
Rain
Maros estuary
Transition
Dry
Rain
Pangkep estuary
Transition
Dry
Rain

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Chl-a

(0.059)
+
(2E-06)
+
(0.083)

(0.039)
(0.012)
+
(0.243)

(0.028)
+
(0.002)
(0.225)

(0.000)
+
(0.032)
(0.046)

(0.012)
+
(0.038)
(0.51)

+
(0.314)
(0.197)
+
(0.048)

+
(0.018)
(0.519)
+
(0.244)

+
(0.039)
+
(0.418)
(0.150)

(0.108)
+
(0.182)
(0.000)

(0.096)
+
(0.608)
(0.131)

(0.133)
+
(0.002)
(0.246)

(0.015)
+
(0.008)
(0.072)

(0.269)
+
(0.300)
+
(0.214)

(0.029)
(0.275)
(0.110)

(0.135)
+
(0.005)
+
(0.007)

Effect of nutrients in the form of DIN/DIP ratio
against the concentration of chlorophyll-a in the coastal
also showed varying patterns (Figure 3). In observation
of the transition season, increasing the DIN/DIP ratio
cause a decrease in the concentration of chlorophyll-a
in estuaries Tallo and Pangkep. Whereas in the dry
season tendency ratio change did not affect changes in

the concentration of chlorophyll-a in the estuaries Tallo,
except in the estuaries Maros increase in ratio causes a
decrease in the concentration of chlorophyll-a and vice
versa in estuaries Pangkep. In observation of the rainy
season, increasing the DIN/DIP ratio cause a decrease
in the concentration of chlorophyll-a, except in the
estuaries Pangkep there is a trend increase in the

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International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 6, Issue 5, May-2015
ISSN 2229-5518

concentration of chlorophyll-a.

DIN/DIP ratio was followed by an increase in the

10.00

c)

8.00

6.00

9.00

7.00

8.00

5.00

6.00

7.00
6.00
5.00

4.00

5.00

3.00

4.00

4.00

3.00
2.00

3.00

2.00

2.00

1.00

1.00

1.00
0.00

20.00

40.00

60.00

80.00

100.00

0.00

120.00

1.800

Chl a (mg m-3)

10.00

20.00

30.00

40.00

50.00

0.00

60.00

4.50

1.600

10.00

20.00

30.00

40.00

50.00

60.00

3.00

4.00

1.400

3.50

2.50

1.200

3.00

2.00

1.000

2.50

0.800

2.00

0.600

1.50

0.400

1.00

0.200

0.50

0.000

0.00
0.00

a)

0.00

0.00

0.00

b)

825

50.00

100.00

150.00

200.00

1.50
1.00
0.50
0.00
0.00

14.00

10.00

20.00

30.00

40.00

0.00

9.00

12.00

20.00

40.00

60.00

80.00

3.50

8.00

3.00

7.00
10.00

2.50

P

6.00

P

8.00

N

5.00

N

2.00

N

6.00

DIN/DIP

4.00

DIN/DIP

1.50

DIN/DIP

4.00

DSi/DIN

3.00

DSi/DIN

1.00

DSi/DIN

DSi/DIP

2.00
0.00
0.00

50.00

100.00

2.00

DSi/DIP

1.00

0.50

0.00

0.00

P

DSi/DIP

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150.00

200.00

250.00

0.00

10.00

20.00

30.00

40.00

50.00

60.00

70.00

0.00

50.00

100.00

150.00

200.00

Nutrient

Transition season

Dry season

Rainy season

Figure 3. Stoichiometry molar nutrient N (N-NH 3 -); P (P-PO 4 -) and the ratio DIN/DIP; DSi/DIN; DSi/DIP against chlorophyll-a concentration
variability in the west coast of South Sulawesi, Indonesia in the transition season, dry season and rainy season. a) Tallo estuary; b) Maros estuary;
c) Pangkep estuary.

Factors DSi/DIN ratio has the same pattern with
nutrient N, namely an increase in the concentration of
chlorophyll-a was not followed by an increase in the
value of the ratios and N concentration. DSi/DIN ratio
is significantly affect the variability of chlorophyll-a
concentrations (p<0.05), while, the model graph
DSi/DIP ratio in Figure 3 shows the tendency of the
ratio change is inversely proportional to the increase in
the concentration of chlorophyll-a in the coast in the
transition season and the rainy season. Meanwhile, the
DIN/DIP ratio significant (p<0.05) in the dry season, is
in contrast to the findings of Stelzer and Lamberti
(2001), the changes tend to be proportional to the ratio
of change in the concentration of chlorophyll-a.
Although the value of the DIN/DIP ratio and
chlorophyll-a minimum, but has a positive correlation
(Table 2) which showed also that the concentration of P
in the coastal high (Table 1), so that P is not limiting
nutrient significantly. This positive correlation, due to
the high concentration of ammonia included as a
component of a dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in
the dry season (Table 1), which is a kind of nitrogen

which are generally more easily absorbed by
phytoplankton (Millero and Sohn, 1991; Libels, 1992;
Seeyave et al., 2013). Furthermore, increased N
concentrations of ammonia in the rainy season (Table
1) significantly (p<0.05) influenced the increase in the
concentration of chlorophyll-a (such as Stelzer and
Lamberti, 2001). The high concentration of ammonia in
the rainy season, due to the rainfall factor (Nedwell and
Trimmer, 1996; Grizetti, et al., 2012) which accelerates
runoff coming from the mainland to the coastal
community activities.

IV. CONCLUSION
Nutrient enrichment in the waters of the west coast
of South Sulawesi has led to variability of chlorophyll-a
in the spatial and temporal. The maximum
concentration of chlorophyll-a in the coastal Tallo in
the transition season and dry season, while in the rainy
season in the estuaries Pangkep maximum and
minimum concentrations are found in estuaries Maros

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International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 6, Issue 5, May-2015
ISSN 2229-5518

at all seasons of observation. Correlation nutrient
stoichiometry N-P and nutrient ratios of DIN/DIP;
DSi/DIN; DSi/DIP to the variability or changes in
chlorophyll-a concentration of less than 50%, unless the
ratio DSi/DIP in Tallo estuary during the rainy season
and in the Maros estuary during the dry season.
DSi/DIN ratio significantly affect the concentration of
chlorophyll-a in the transition season, while the
DIN/DIP ratio significant in the dry season and N
significantly during the rainy season.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors would like to thank the team RDC MACSI,
Hasanuddin University, Indonesia for technical
assistance in sampling and water quality laboratory
staff Pangkep State Agricultural Polytechnic, South
Sulawesi, Indonesia. This research was supported by
Grant Project “Penelitian Unggulan Perguruan Tinggi”
Hasanuddin
University
with
Contract
No.
746/UN4.20/TL.09 and 699/UN4.20/PL.09/2014.

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