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Annotated Bibliography

By: Elizabeth Notini

Mackey, AL, ME Fromouth, and DB Kelly. "The Association of Sibling Relationship and Abuse
with Later Psychological Adjustment." Atkins Library Database, Journal of Interpersonal
Violence, September 4th, 2009, 25.6 (2010): 955-68. Web. October 13, 2016.
This scholarly article tells about a study that is meant to uncover some details on the later
psychological impact caused by sibling abuse. It starts by talking about how sibling abuse is not
considered to be a prevalent problem, that it somewhat flies under the radar. However, even in
the beginning of this article it is stated that sibling abuse gives a higher chance of anxiety and
depression later in life, saying that numerous adults claim that their depression/anxiety is a direct
result of the emotional or physical pain inflicted on them from a sibling. Birth order is also
mentioned, claiming that an older sibling may often resent a younger sibling, being more likely
to inflict abuse. The study included 144 students from a large university southeastern university,
they had to have been at least 18 years old and have at least one sibling. The students were put
through numerous questionnaires, such as being asked to give demographics, an anxiety

assessment, assessment on perception of abuse, as well as a couple of tests developed to ask
about the emotional and physical abuse that went on between the selected student and their
sibling. The students were asked to give their response on the sibling closest in age to them. The
rates of perpetrating and receiving emotional abuse were similar; 97 percent perpetrated minor to
severe harm, while 97 percent received minor to severe harm. As for physical abuse, 82 percent
perpetrated minor to severe harm, about 53 percent of the students admitted to conflicting very
violent acts against their sibling. Moreover, 83 percent of the sample said to have received minor
to severe physical harm. The conclusion was that identifying as having been emotionally or
physically abused by a sibling positively correlated with anxiety and depression scores, as well
as committing emotional and physical abuse scores. The overall quality of this scholarly article is
quite excellent, it states what it is going to prove, and then uses statistics and scores to
successfully prove a valid study. The authors of this article also happen to be a credible group of
people when pertaining to this type of study, the first author, Mackey, is a graduate of the clinical
psychology program at Middle Tennessee State University and is now a behavior therapist.
Fromouth PhD, is a psychology professor at MTSU, her primary area of research is child abuse.
“Kelly, PhD, is a clinical psychologist and coordinator of the clinical psychology program at
Middle Tennessee State University. His research has focused on chronic self-destructive
behaviors, substance abuse, and psychological assessment.” Although they are all well qualified,
they are admittedly biased towards sibling abuse being a huge problem. Compared to other
sources, I would rate this highly, as it speaks exactly about what I am interested in learning
about. This article made me think about my topic in an even more serious light, it made me
realize that the problem in which I am researching is a much larger problem than anticipated, but

even more than I thought, not many people think it is a problem. I will use this writing in my
final project, and I hope to find more like it.
O'Connor, Anahad. "When the Bully Is a Sibling." The New York Times. The New York Times,
June 2013. Web. 13 Oct. 2016.
This is a newspaper article out of the New York Times written by a man named Anahad
O’Conno; Anahad has more than 450 articles published on the New York Times website.
Anahad starts by talking about sibling abuse in general; he states that there is a difference from
when there is a small quarrel over a television remote, to where things cross the line and can
leave scars. Anahad goes on to quote a clinical psychologist named John V. Caffaro, the quote
reads: “while normal rivalries with siblings can encourage healthy competition, the line between
healthy relations and abuse is crossed when one child is consistently the victim of another and
the aggression is intended to cause harm and humiliation.” He then states there was a nationwide
study involving thousands of children and adolescents that ended with results saying that those
who were attacked, threatened or intimidated by a sibling had increased levels of depression,
anger and anxiety. “Parents who fail to intervene, play favorites or give their children labels that
sow divisions — like “the smart one” and “the athlete” — can inadvertently encourage conflict.”
The article goes on to talk about how researchers are saying that it is not just the rough stuff
parents should be looking for, also that sibling abuse generally carries into adulthood. I consider
this a popular new source article, the overall impact of this article is mediocre; it is very to the
point and a short. I believe it has a good amount credibility, due to the contributors that were
mentioned, but it does not have as much information on the topic as a reader would hope. For
example, the author mentions this study that has been put on, but does not say anything about

how the study was conducted. Although I may use this article for references on the study, I most
likely will not use much direct information from it.
"Understanding What Sibling Abuse Is." American Academy of Experts in Traumatic Stress.
The American Academy of Experts in Traumatic Stress, n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2016.
This developed online article gives a clear definition of what sibling abuse is in every
form. It starts by going into detail on every type of sibling abuse: sexual, emotional, and
physical. It states what the problem is, how common it is, how traumatic it can be, and gives
reasoning for why that specific form of abuse may be occurring between siblings. It then adds
specific examples and shares survivor stories from victims of emotional and physical sibling
abuse. Then, the article goes on to give parents methods on how to identify and prevent further
sibling abuse, such as by watching what a child is reading and watching; also, maybe by not
giving an older sibling too much power over a younger one. This article has no stated author,
which made me question the credibility of it as first. However, the writing it is published on is
the website of an academy which has internationally recognized programs for traumatic stress, as
well as having many professional contributions. This article does a great job of clearly defining
the what the problem is, as well as offering helpful tips on how to fix and prevent further trauma,
but that is all that it is. There is not much special about the article and it does not offer a large
amount of information. I will use this article in my own writing, but only for definitions.
Anonymous, C. "A Different Form of Abuse — Sibling Abuse." Child Abuse & Neglect. 2.3
(1978): 203-205. Print.
This article written by an anonymous author is told in the form of the story. The story is
told from a woman who describes what it was like to grow up being abused by her brother. She

begins by saying that there is a long while between when she gets home from school and when
her mother comes home. After school her older brother is given the choice of going out and
doing what he wants or going home with his sister, but the girl is told she must go home every
day after school due to her mother being afraid that she will get raped. However, she receives a
worse fate having to go home with her brother. Every day he would beat his sister up and harass
her, even to the point where she had to get stitches. She would cry and plea but her mother would
never believe her, not even the doctor would believe her; the older brother was too good of a liar,
and he made sure not to leave scars or obvious bruises most of the time. The woman talks about
how her brother eventually grew up to join a gang, then go to reformatory school, eventually to
come home and hurt his sister further. On her 18th birthday, the woman gathered all her things
and moved out, never to be harassed by her brother again. Later in her life, she talks about how
she frequently must go to therapy for what happened between her and her brother. This article is
very fascinating, it gives a very personal feeling about how dramatic sibling abuse can be; not
only on the person getting abused, but the abuser. The author talks about how she knew all along
that her brother’s violence was just a cry for help, and how she tries to remember that when her
own kids are fighting. She does a great job at giving an equal point of view, and brings forward
the conclusion that parents and doctors should be looking for signs of serious abuse between
siblings. I might use this source for a reference to help prove a point.