You are on page 1of 12

MULTISTRAND POST-TENSIONING

The VSL multistrand system is characterized by the


following features:
standardized tendon units with up to 55 strands of
13mm (0.5") or 15 mm (0.6") diameter;
wide selection of anchorage types;
ducts of steel or plastic PT-PLUS;
grouting with cement mortar or other materials;
economical tendon manufacture on-site or in the
factory;
no need to determine tendon length in advance;
simultaneous stressing of all strands in a tendon
but individual locking of each strand at the
anchorage;
stressing in any number of steps;
simple and reliable equipment for installation,
stressing and grouting.

VSL Multistrand System Components


Grout tube
Grout tube

Stressing anchorage

Grout tube

Grout tube

Grout tube

Dead end anchorage

MULTISTRAND POST-TENSIONING

Strand Properties

Nominal diameter
Nominal area
Nominal mass
Yield strength
Tensile strength
Min. breaking load
Young's modulus
Relaxation 3)

15 mm (0.6")

13 mm (0.5")
EN138 or
ASTM A416
BS 5896 Super
Grade 270
12.9
12.7
100
98.7
0.785
0.775
1580 1)
1670 2)
1860
1860
186
183.7

Strand type
mm
mm 2
kg/m
MPa
MPa
kN
GPa
%

EN138 or
BS 5896 Super
15.7
150
1.18
1)
1500
1770
265

ASTM A416
Grade 270
15.2
140
1.1
1670 2)
1860
260.7

cicra 195
max 2.5

1) Measured at 0.1% residual strain (0.1% offset method)


2) Measured at 1% extension (1% extension under load method)
3) After 1000 hrs at 20 C (EN & BS, low relaxation to ASTM)

Tendon Properties
STRAND TYPE 13 mm (0.5")
Tendon
unit

5-4

5-7

5-12

5-19

5-22

5-27

5-31

5-37

5-42

5-48

5-55

No. of
strands

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55

Duct ID/OD

4)

Min.
(mm)

Nominal
(mm)

36/39

36/39

51/54

51/54

60/67

65/72

75/82

80/87

80/87

95/102

95/102

100/107

95/102

100/107

110/117

110/117

120/127

120/127

130/137

130/137

130/137

135/142

STRAND TYPE 15 mm (0.6")


Min. Breaking load
(kN)
12.9

12.7

372
558
744
930
1116
1302
1488
1674
1860
2046
2232
2418
2604
2790
2976
3162
3348
3534
3720
3906
4092
4278
4464
4650
4836
5022
5208
5394
5580
5766
5952
6138
6324
6510
6696
6882
7068
7254
7440
7626
7812
7998
8184
8370
8556
8742
8928
9114
9300
9486
9672
9858
10044
10230

367
551
735
919
1102
1286
1470
1653
1837
2021
2204
2388
2572
2756
2939
3123
3307
3490
3674
3858
4041
4225
4409
4593
4776
4960
5144
5327
5511
5695
5878
6062
6246
6430
6613
6797
6981
7164
7348
7532
7715
7899
8083
8267
8450
8634
8818
9001
9185
9369
9552
9736
9920
10104

4) Corrugated plastic PT-Plus ducts are also available, refer to page 11

Tendon
unit

6-3
6-7

6-12

6-19

6-22

6-27

6-31

6-37

6-42

6-48

6-55

No. of
strands

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55

Duct ID/OD

4)

Min.
(mm)

Nominal
(mm)

36/39

36/39

55/62

65/72

75/82

80/87

90/97

100/107

100/107

100/107

110/117

110/117

120/127

120/127

130/137

130/137

135/142

135/142

150/160

160/170

160/170

170/180

Min. Breaking load


(kN)
15.7

15.2

530
795
1060
1325
1590
1855
2120
2385
2650
2915
3180
3445
3710
3975
4240
4505
4770
5035
5300
5565
5830
6095
6360
6625
6890
7155
7420
7685
7950
8215
8480
8745
9010
9275
9540
9805
10070
10335
10600
10865
11130
11395
11660
11925
12190
12455
12720
12985
13250
13515
13780
14045
14310
14575

521
782
1043
1304
1564
1825
2086
2346
2607
2868
3128
3389
3650
3911
4171
4432
4693
4953
5214
5475
5735
5996
6257
6518
6778
7039
7300
7560
7821
8082
8342
8603
8864
9125
9385
9646
9907
10167
10428
10689
10949
11210
11471
11732
11992
12253
12514
12774
13035
13296
13556
13817
14078
14339

MULTISTRAND POST-TENSIONING

Stressing Anchorage VSL Type EC

Grout connection

Duct

Anchor block
Casting
Wedges
Strands

AC

F E

Dimensions
Tendon unit

5-4
5-7
5-12
5-19
5-22
5-27
5-31
5-37
5-42
5-48
5-55
6-3
6-4
6-7
6-12
6-19
6-22
6-27
6-31
6-37
6-42

135
165
215
265
290
315
315
370
390
430
465
135
165
215
265
315
315
370
390
430
465

60
60
60
70
77
92
100
107
112
122
150
60
60
60
75
92
100
112
122
142
145

85
110
150
180
200
220
230
250
290
290
320
90
110
150
180
220
230
250
270
300
320

100
100
160
210
215
300
300
320
340
340
340
100
100
160
210
300
300
320
340
340
340

58
85
120
145
150
175
175
200
217
235
250
58
85
120
145
175
175
200
217
235
250

Dimensions in mm
Dimensions are valid for:
Nominal concrete strength at 28 days: 35 MPa (cube), 28 MPa (cylinder).
Maximum prestressing force may be applied when concrete reaches 25 MPa (cube) or 20 MPa (cylinder).
Max prestressing force is 75% of min. tendon breaking load (temporary overstressing to 80%).

F
Ext. Dia.
39
54
72
87
102
107
107
117
127
137
142
39
54
72
87
107
107
117
127
137
142

G
95
125
150
200
230
250
250
305
325
365
400
95
125
150
200
250
250
305
325
365
400

Subject to modification

MULTISTRAND POST-TENSIONING

Stressing Anchorage VSL Type E

Grout tube

Bearing plate (steel)


Duct
Anchor block
Wedges

Sleeve

Strands

AD

Dimensions
Tendon unit
5-1
5-3
5-4
5-7
5-12
5-19
5-22
5-27
5-31
5-37
5-42
5-48
5-55
6-1
6-2
6-3
6-4
6-7
6-12
6-19
6-22
6-27
6-31
6-37
6-42
6-48
6-55

70
115
130
175
230
290
315
370
370
405
500
500
500
75
110
135
160
205
270
340
370
435
435
480
580
580
580

15
20
20
25
35
40
45
55
55
60
70
70
70
15
15
20
25
35
40
50
55
65
65
70
90
90
90

45
60
60
60
60
75
82
97
105
112
117
127
155
60
60
60
60
70
78
97
107
117
127
147
147
147
187

45
85
85
110
150
180
200
220
230
250
290
290
320
55
90
90
120
135
180
220
230
250
270
300
320
340
360

70
190
190
190
370
470
480
550
550
570
680
680
680
70
190
190
190
290
460
590
690
690
690
830
950
950
950

Dimensions in mm
Dimensions are valid for:
Nominal concrete strength at 28 days: 35 MPa (cube), 28 MPa (cylinder).
Maximum prestressing force may be applied when concrete reaches 25 MPa (cube) or 20 MPa (cylinder).
Max prestressing force is 75% of min. tendon breaking load (temporary overstressing to 80%).

F
Ext. Dia.
36
36
39
54
72
87
102
107
107
117
127
137
142
36
36
39
54
72
87
107
107
117
127
137
160
160
170
Subject to modification

MULTISTRAND POST-TENSIONING

Couplers VSL Type K and V

Sleeve

Grout tube
Coupling block V

Casting type EC or
Bearing plate type E
Coupling
block K

Duct

Sleeve
Omega ring
Wedges

Compression
fittings

Tension ring

Compression fittings with


retainer plates

Tension ring

Couplers Type K

Couplers Type V

Fixed coupler.
For coupling to a tendon which has been placed and stressed.

Movable coupler.
For coupling to a tendon which has already been placed,
but not stressed.

Cast-in casting
type EC

E+1.5
L

Tendon 2

Tendon 1
L=Elongation of tendon 1

Coupler type K
Tendon unit
5-3
5-4
5-7
5-12
5-19
5-22
5-27
5-31
5-37
5-42
5-48
5-55
6-2
6-3
6-4
6-7
6-12
6-19
6-22
6-27
6-31
6-37

A
430
440
440
510
590
660
860
1010
1080
1080
1370
1370
380
490
520
630
730
860
930
1090
1090
1390

Coupler type V
B
110
110
110
110
110
110
110
110
150
150
150
170
128
128
128
128
128
128
128
138
150
170

C
130
150
170
200
240
260
310
350
390
395
420
490
150
150
160
200
240
280
310
330
350
440

Tendon
unit

5-3

290

175

230

130

5-7

410

175

330

170

5-12

510

175

420

200

5-19

600

175

490

240

5-22

690

175

570

260

5-31

1000

175

870

350

6-2

230

200

185

130

6-3

330

205

250

150

6-4

360

205

280

160

6-7

470

205

370

190

6-12

570

205

460

240

6-19

700

205

570

280

Dimensions in mm
Dimensions are valid for:
Nominal concrete strength at 28 days: 35 MPa (cube), 28 MPa (cylinder).
Maximum prestressing force may be applied when concrete reaches 25 MPa (cube) or 20 MPa (cylinder).
Max prestressing force is 75% of min. tendon breaking load (temporary overstressing to 80%).

Subject to modification

MULTISTRAND POST-TENSIONING

Dead End Anchorage VSL Type H


Grout tube

Duct
Tension ring
Bulbs

Seal

Spacer

Type II
Type I

AxB

C
D

Strand type 15 mm (0.6")

Strand type 13 mm (0.5")


Tendon
unit
5-3
5-4
5-7
5-12
5-19
5-22
5-31
5-37
5-42
5-55

Alternative
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
3

Type

I
I
I
II
II
II
I
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II

230
310
150
370
170
350
310
470
310
570
390
670
470
770
470
870
570
1170
870
570

70
70
170
70
190
190
270
190
390
190
390
310
430
310
550
350
550
350
430
670

930
930
930
1130
1130
1130
1130
1130
1130
1130
1130
1330
1330
1530
1530
1530
1530
1830
1830
1830

1280
1280
1280
1280
1280
1280
1280
1480
1480
1680
1680
1680
1680
1980
1980
1980

Tendon
unit
6-3
6-4
6-7
6-12
6-19
6-22
6-31
6-37
6-42

6-55

Alternative
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
3
1
2
3

Type

I
I
I
II
II
II
I
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II

290
390
190
450
210
430
390
570
390
690
470
810
570
1050
690
1050
810
690
1410
1050
690

90
90
210
90
230
230
330
230
470
230
490
260
510
370
510
370
510
650
370
510
790

950
950
950
1150
1150
1150
1150
1150
1150
1150
1150
1550
1550
1850
1850
1850
1850
1850
2150
2150
2150

1330
1330
1330
1330
1330
1330
1330
1700
1700
2000
2000
20000
2000
2000
2300
2300
2300

Dimensions in mm
Dimensions are valid for:
Nominal concrete strength at 28 days: 35 MPa (cube), 28 MPa (cylinder).
Maximum prestressing force may be applied when concrete reaches 25 MPa (cube) or 20 MPa (cylinder).
Max prestressing force is 75% of min. tendon breaking load (temporary overstressing to 80%).

Subject to modification

MULTISTRAND POST-TENSIONING

Intermediate Anchorage VSL Type Z and ZU

Tension ring with anchors

Grout tube

Wedges

Duct

Retainer plate
Anchor block Z
Wedges

Anchor block ZU

Intermediate Anchorage Type Z

Intermediate Anchorage Type ZU

Centre-stressing anchorages are used for ring tendons in circular structures, or for those tendons where the ends cannot be fitted
with normal stressing anchorages.

Stressing jack
Curved stressing chair

F+L

Tendon

F+L

Tendon

1
Tendon

G+L

Tendon

G+L

L = Elongation of tendon 2
C
E = + required cover
2

Intermediate anchorage type Z

Intermediate anchorage type Z

Tendon
unit

5-2 1)
5-4 1)
5-6
5-12
5-18
5-22

130
160
200
280
320
350

60
70
90
140
160
160

80
90
130
140
180
200

60
65
85
90
110
120

400 560 170


500 720 200
700 990 240
1000 1490 320
1300 1910 360
1450 2110 390

6-2 1)
6-4 1)
6-6
6-12
6-18
6-22

140
170
210
300
380
400

70
80
100
160
180
180

90
100
140
160
200
250

65
70
90
100
120
145

450
900
1000
1350
1450
1500

F 2)

G 2)

620
1180
1400
1960
2280
2380

Dimensions in mm
1) Tension ring only on side 2
2) Dependent upon the shape of the concrete surface.
The values stated apply for surfaces which are not curved.

180
210
250
340
420
440

Tendon
unit

F 2)

G 2)

5-2
5-4
5-6

165
165
185

103
103
113

80
88
95

60
65
70

450
560
650

655
815
925

200
200
220

170
170
200

105
105
120

90
92
100

65
65
75

450
560
650

655
815
925

210
210
240

6-2
6-4
6-6

1)
1)

1)
1)

Subject to modification

MULTISTRAND POST-TENSIONING

Selected Design Considerations

Tendon Supports

Spacing and Cover of Ducts

Recommended spacing:
Standard steel ducts
Plastic ducts PT-PLUS:

In determining minimum spacing and concrete cover


requirements, reference should be made to
applicable standards and recommendations.

0.8 to 1.2m
0.8 to 1.0m

Minimum Radii of Tendon Curvatures and Minimum Tangent Length


Minimum radius of
tendon curvature
Minimum tangent length

Minimum breaking load of tendon (MN)

Tendon Force Losses


The effective prestressing force at a specific place
and time differs from the initial prestressing force
for various reasons.

The following values may be assumed for design:

Significant factors include:

= 0.2 (range 0.16~0.22)

friction losses due to curvature of the tendon;


shrinkage and creep of the concrete;
relaxation of the prestressing steel;
draw-in of the wedges during lock-off.

Tendon in plastic ducts PT-PLUS:

The friction losses along the tendon can be


determined with the following formula:
Px = Po e -(+kx) , where
x = Distance from stressing end (in meters)
Px = Prestressing force at x
Po = Prestressing force at stressing end
= Coefficient of friction
= sum of all angular deviations (in radians)
over the distance x
k = Wobble friction coefficient due to minor
unavoidable tendon curvatures
(placing tolerances)
The friction coefficients and k can vary fairly widely
and depend upon various factors, including: the
nature and surface condition of the prestressing
steel; the type, diameter and surface condition of the
duct; and the installation method.

Tendon in standard steel ducts:


k= 0.001 (range 0.0008~0.0012)

= 0.14 (range 0.12~0.15) k= 0.001 (range 0.0008~0.0012)

For calculating the losses due to shrinkage and


creep of the concrete, reference should be made to
the technical literature and to the standards
applicable to each project.
The relaxation of the prestressing steel depends
primarily upon the types of steel (relaxation class),
the magnitude of the prestress and the temperature.
For low relaxation strands commonly used today, the
maximum loss is 2.5% after 1000 hours at 20 C and
an initial stress of 70% of the nominal tensile
strength. Further information can be found in the
relevant prestressing steel standards and
manufacturer's literature.
Independent of the type of jack or tendon, a loss due
to wedge draw-in of approximately 6mm occurs at
lock-off. If necessary, this can be compensated for
by suitable procedures.

MULTISTRAND POST-TENSIONING

Sheathing and Corrosion Protection


For conventional applications, corrugated galvanised
steel ducts are used.
For applications requiring enhanced corrosion
protection and improved fatigue resistance of the
tendons, use of the VSL PT-PLUS System with
corrugated plastic duct is recommended. This fully
encapsulated and watertight system offers superb
corrosion protection, and the plastic duct eliminates
fretting fatigue between the strand and duct. It also

provides reduced duct friction. The PT-PLUS


System may, in conjunction with VSL CS
Anchorages, be configured with special details and
installation techniques to provide Electrically Isolated
Tendons. These tendons may be electrically
monitored at any time throughout the life of the
structure.
All ducts are manufactured in a variety of standard
lengths and are coupled on site.

Dimensions of Plastic Ducts PT-PLUS


Strand Type

Strand Type

Duct

13 mm (0.5")

15 mm (0.6")

Dimensions (mm)

Tendon unit

Tendon unit

5-12
5-19
5-31
5-43
5-55

6-7
6-12
6-19 / 6-22
6-31
6-37

59
76
100
130
130

73
91
116
146
146

s
2
2.5
3
3
3

Other units on request

Steel Duct
Plastic Duct PT-PLUS
Strand bundle

Strand Type 13 mm (0.5")


Steel
Tendon
duct
unit
e (mm)
5-1
4
5-3
7
5-7
8
5-12
11
5-19
13
5-22
12
5-27
13
5-31
14
5-37
23
5-42
26
5-48
17
5-55
23

Plastic
duct
e (mm)
7
9
22
17
14
32
28
24
14

Centre line of duct


Centre of gravity of strands

Strand Type 15 mm (0.6")


Tendon
unit
6-1
6-3
6-4
6-7
6-12
6-19
6-22
6-27
6-31
6-37

Steel
duct
e (mm)
5
6
6
10
14
17
14
13
22
25

Plastic
duct
e (mm)
9
12
18
15
32
28
22

Strand Position at High Point of Tendon

Strand Position at Low Point of Tendon

MULTISTRAND POST-TENSIONING

Dead End Anchorage VSL Type L


Duct B

Hairpin Bar Reinforcement


Hairpin bar
Required cross-sectional area of hairpin bars:
As n
= Po
As
[mm2 ] = Cross-section area of one hairpin bar
n
[-]
= number of hairpin bars
Po
[kN]
= Prestressing force in the tendon
Aext. [mm] = External diameter of duct
T
[mm] = Concrete thickness
X
[mm] = Required anchoring length
according to applicable standard

Duct A

Grout tube
A

Yield strength of hairpin bars: 400 MPa


Concrete cover to ducts shall not be less than the
external duct diameter.

T
B

Layout of L-Anchorages:
a

T3 A ext.

T4 A ext.

T4 A ext.

Hairpin bar reinforcement


T

Strand Type 15 mm (0.6")

Strand Type 13 mm (0.5")


Tendon
unit

A
Internal/external

B
Internal/external

R
min.

Tendon
unit

A
Internal/external

B
Internal/external

R
min.

5-4
5-7
5-12
5-19
5-22
5-31

42/45
60/67
80/87
90/97
95/102
110/117

36/39
51/54
65/72
80/87
85/92
100/107

600
600
900
1100
1200
1400

6-2
6-3
6-4
6-7
6-12
6-19

42/45
42/45
65/72
75/82
90/97
110/117

36/39
36/39
55/62
60/67
80/87
95/102

600
600
600
750
1000
1300

Dimensions in mm
Dimensions are valid for:
Nominal concrete strength at 28 days: 25 MPa (cube), 20 MPa (cylinder).
Maximum prestressing force may be applied when concrete reaches 80% of its nominal strength.
Maximum prestressing force is 75% of min. tendon breaking load (temporary overstressing to 80%).

Dead End Anchorage VSL Type LD


When loops with a smaller radius are required,
special half round ducts are available upon request.
VSL Type LD Loops are available with a 590 mm
radius. The tendon sizes available are the same as
Type L - the difference is in duct configuration as
indicated. A tight radius is good for nailing of precast
box segments to piers.

Duct sized such that


only two (2) layers of
strand occur in the
loop.

Subject to modification

MULTISTRAND POST-TENSIONING

Stressing
The unique feature of the VSL Post-Tensioning
system lies in its special procedure for locking the
wedges. The wedges always remain in contact with
the strands during the stressing operation. As the
pressure in the jack is released, the wedges
automatically lock in the conical holes of the anchor
head.

Placing of anchor block

Placing of anchor block and wedges

Positioning of the jack


Positioning of jack

Stressing

Seating of wedges

Stressing, measuring, seating of wedges

Grouting
VSL grouting equipment includes mixer and pump in
one unit. Grouting is usually carried out as soon as
possible after stressing.

Grouting equipment

Grouting of tendon

MULTISTRAND POST-TENSIONING

Push Through Machine

Hydraulic Pump

Jack type
60

ZPE-23FJ
ZPE-30
ZPE-3
ZPE-60
ZPE-7/A
ZPE-12/St2
ZPE-200
ZPE-19
ZPE-460/31
ZPE-500
ZPE-750
ZPE-1000
ZPE-1250

Concrete cover according


to applicable standard

A min.

30
30
30
30
50
50
50
60
80
80
80
90

300
600
550
650
800
700
1100
850
700
1150
1350
1300
1350

1200
1100
1000
1100
1200
1300
2100
1500
1500
2000
2300
2200
2250

116
140
200
180
300
310
330
390
485
585
570
790
660

90
100
150
140
200
200
210
250
300
330
365
450
375

Dimensions in mm
D

Stressing Jack Data

Type I (ZPE-23 FJ)


Designation
ZPE-23FJ
Type
I
Length
(mm)
790
Diameter (mm)
116
Stroke
(mm)
200
Piston area (cm 2) 47.10
Capacity
(kN)
230
(bar)
488
Weight
(kg)
23
Used for 13 mm
5-1
(0.5") tendon types
Used for 15 mm
6-1
(0.6") tendon types

ZPE-30
III
720
140
250
58.32
320
549
28
5-1
6-1

Type II (ZPE-19)
ZPE-3
III
475
200
160
103.6
500
483
47
5-2
5-3
6-2

ZPE-60
III
615
180
250
126.4
632
500
74
5-2
to 5-4
6-2
6-3

Type III (ZPE-500)

ZPE-7/A ZPE-12/St2 ZPE-200 ZPE-19 ZPE-460/31 ZPE-500


II
III
II
III
III
II
550
960
750
1000
690
580
310
315
390
550
280
485
100
300
100
200
160
100
309.4
325.7
500.3
894.6
203.6
804.0
1850
2000
2900
5000
1064
4660
598
614
580
559
523
580
151
305
294
1064
115
435
5-12
5-12
5-18
5-22
5-6
5-22
5-19
5-31
5-7
5-31
6-6
6-6
6-12
6-18
6-4
6-18
6-7
6-7
to 6-22
6-19

ZPE-750 ZPE-1000 ZPE-1250


II
III
II
1185
1200
1290
520
790
620
150
200
150
1247.0
1809.5
2168.0
7500
10000
12500
601
553
577
1100
2290
1730
5-31
5-37
5-37
5-37
to 5-55
to 5-55
6-31
6-31
6-31
to 6-43
to 6-55
Subject to modification