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challenge of BMAT physics questions

Practice questions

Why physics?

Why physics?

Topics

1. Electricity

electrostatics, current, energy, power, transformers, electricity generation

kinematics, forces, momentum, energy & conservation

conduction, convection, radiation, states of matter

4. Waves

nature of waves, erflection, refraction, Doppler effect, optics, sound

5. EM spectrum

nature of EM waves, properties, applications, dangers

6. Radioactivity

atomic structure, decay, ionising radiation, half-life, fission, fusion

Topic 1: Electricity

Four questions

1.1 1.4

Complete in four minutes

19 Which graph correctly shows how the resistance (R) varies with applied voltage (V) for a resistor

1.1

at constant temperature?

they obey ohms law if

their temperature is

constant.

0

V

V changes

0

V

0

V

V / I = constant (R)

1.27

A

V=IxR

Volt = amps x ohms

P=IxV &W=Pxt

so W = I x t x V

watt per amp

E

so V = W /(I x t)

amp = coulomb per second

I x t = coulomb per second x

second

= coulomb

A cube has unit length sides. What is the length of a line joining a vertex to the midpoint of one

volt = Joule per coulomb

of the opposite faces (the dashed line in the diagram below)?

P=W/t

watt = joule per second

P = I x V so V = P / I

Volt = watts per amp

1.3

P is in series ammeter

Q is in parallel voltmeter

R is in parallel voltmeter

Closing the switch short circuits the righthand resistor, all of the current passes

through the closed switch (assume wires

have negligible resistance).

V = IR so p.d. measure by R decreases.

Batterys terminal p.d. now mainly sits

across the left-hand resistor, so Q

increases

Effective resistance of circuit has fallen so

the current in the circuit measured at

point P increases

1.4

General formula: P = I x V

= I2 x R

= V2 / R

the current passing through R1 to calculate power

dissipated.

Current is easier: emf, V = I x Rtotal

Rtotal = R1 + R2

So

I

= V/(R1+ R2)

Substitute for I:

P1 = I2 x R1 = V2 x R1 / (R1+ R2)2

Four questions

2.1 2.4

Complete in four minutes

Shortly after opening her parachute, a free-fall parachutist of mass 60kg experiences the forces

shown in the diagram.

= 300 N upwards

F=mxa

300 N = 60 kg x a

a = 300 / 60

= 5 m/s2

2.1

acceleration is upwards

weight = 600N

Which line in the table gives the size and direction of the acceleration of the parachutist at this

instance?

size of acceleration (m/s2)

direction of acceleration

5.0

downwards

10.0

downwards

5.0

upwards

10.0

upwards

0.0

22

2.2 27

A car of mass 800kg moves up an incline of 1 in 20 (1 in 20 means for every 20m along the road

the car gains 1m in height) at a constant speed of 20m/s. The frictional force opposing motion is

500N.

How much work has been done by the engine after the car has moved 50m?

A

20kJ

25kJ

27kJ

45kJ

65kJ

160kJ

50 m

2.5 m

ENDthrough

OF TEST a height of 2.5 m, so increasing its

1. Work is done to raise the car

GPE:

GPE = m x g x h = 800 kg x 10 N/kg x 2.5m = 20 000 J = 20 kJ

W =Fxd

= 500 N x 50 m = 25 000 J

Work done = 45 kJ

= 25 kJ

2.3

F=mxa

100 N = 5kg x a

a = 100 / 5 = 20 m/s2

V=IxR

100 V = I x 5W

I = 100 / 5 = 20 A

Ek = x m x v2

Ek = x0.4kgx100m2/s2

Ek = 20 J

v=fxl

0.2 m/s = 100 Hz x l

l = 0.2 / 100 = 0.002m

W =F x d

W = 0.2N x 100m

W = 20 J

23

5kg of water pass through the nozzle each second, and the water reaches a height of 5m after

leaving the nozzle.

2.4

What is the power of the pump (assuming 100% efficiency), and at what speed does the water

leave the nozzle?

Conservation of energy

(Take g to be 10N/kg)

power of pump / W

50

25

10

25

100

50

50

50

250

10

250

100

UCLES 2010

Consider 5kg of water (pumped in 1 second)

GPE = m x g x h

= 5kg x 10 N/kg x 5m

= 250 J

KE = 250 J = x 5 kg x v2

v2 = 500 / 5 = 100

v = 10 m/s

Each 5kg water has to have 250 J to reach the

observed height

So each second the pump output 250J

So power is 250 J/s, which is 250 W.

Four questions

3.1 3.4

Complete in four minutes

3.1

3.2

Which of the following properties of a fluid moving through a pipe would need to

change in order to alter the flow rate of the fluid?

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

Charge

Mass

Viscosity

Mass & viscosity

None of the above

Use logic:

Think of two fluids that have different flow rates,

e.g. water and custard.

Neither is charged so it is definitely not A

It is hard to know what mass means unless we are

given a specific volume, so it cannot be B or D.

Water has a low viscosity and flows quickly and

custard has a high viscosity and flows slowly, like

treacle, honey and other viscous substances.

The answer is C

3.3

Which of the following graphs shows the rate of heat transfer (with respect to

time) from boiling water in a saucepan to an egg dropped in having been

taken straight from the fridge?

temperature difference.

The temperature difference will be high at the start

and will fall as the egg heats up to eventually

become zero.

Time

Rate of transfer

D

Time

Rate of transfer

Time

Rate of transfer

Rate of transfer

Use logic:

Time

3.4

A solid block is able to float in a bucket of liquid X.

The same block will fall to the bottom of a bucket of liquid Y

The volume of liquid Z is 0.5 times that of liquid X, by the mass of liquid Z is

0.6 times that of liquid X.

If a cylinder is filled with liquids X, Y and Z and left to separate, which of the

following describes the order of substances working from bottom to top?

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

X, Y, Z

X, Z, Y

Y, X, Z

Y, Z, X

Z, X, Y

top.

If the block float in X, then X is denser than the block

If the block sinks in Y, then Y is less dense than the block

So X is denser than Y.

If Z has 0.6 of the mass of X in 0.5 of the volume, r=m/V

r = (0.6 x m) / (0.5 x V) = 1.2 x m / V

i.e. Z is denser than X.

Z>X>Y

Topic 4: Waves

Four questions

4.1 4.4

Complete in four minutes

of a stationary car she has just passed goes off. How fast is she

running if she hears the sound at 97.5% of the frequency

heard by someone standing still?

(Assume the speed of sound is 340 m/s)

Speed of sound, 340 m/s

Speed of runner, v

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

2.5 m/s

8.5 m/s

15 m/s

None of the above

Standing: 340 = f x l

Runner: 340 - v = 0.975f x l

l =

340/f = (340-v)/0.975f

340

340 x 0.975

v

= (340-v)/0.975

= 340 v

= 340(1 0.975)

= 8.5 m/s

displacement (mm)

27 The first graph shows the variation of the displacement of particles with distance along a wave at a

particular instant in time:

4.2

18

60

distance (m)

2l

l

= 60 m

= 30 m

-18

displacement (mm)

The second graph shows the variation with time of the displacement of a particular particle in this

wave:

18

0.6

time (s)

-18

A

30m/s

50m/s

90m/s

100m/s

150m/s

300m/s

3T

= 0.6 s

T

= 0.2s

f = 1/T = 1/0.2

= 5 Hz

v =fxl

= 5 Hz x 30 m

= 150 m/s

The depth of water in a particular tidal harbour varies with time as shown in the graph:

4.3

20

18

16

14

depth / metres

Tidal range = 6m

12

10

8

6

Period:

12 hours =

Period = 12 hours

4

2

0

0

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

26

time / hours

If the variation in depth caused by the effect of the tide is considered as a wave, what are the

amplitude and frequency of this wave?

amplitude / metres

frequency / hertz

1/(12 x 3600)

3600/12

1/(24 x 3600)

3600/24

1/(12 x 3600)

3600/12

16

1/(24 x 3600)

16

3600/24

12 hr

x 60 min/hr

x 60 s/min

= 12 x 3600 s

Frequency, f = 1 /T

= 1 / 12 x 3600

19

4.4

27 At the front of a long column of soldiers is a man regularly hitting a drum 50 times a minute. The

soldiers are told to place their left foot down on the ground when they hear the drum beat. The

column is so long that the soldiers at the back put down their left feet at the same time as the

soldiers in the front put down their right feet.

What is the minimum length of the column of soldiers?

[Speed of sound in air is 330m/s]

A

165m

198m

330m

396m

660m

792m

Left

Right

Left

Right

t = 0 min

t = 0.01 min

t = 0.02 min

t = 0.03 min

END OF TEST

column is 0.01 minutes = 0.01 x 60 = 0.6 s

Distance covered, s

=vxt

= 330 m/s x 0.6 s

= 198 m

50 bpm

so period, T = 1/50 = 0.02min

Left

Right

Left

Right

t=0

t = 0.01 min

t = 0.02 min

t = 0.03 min

t = 0.04 min

Topic 5: EM spectrum

Four questions

5.1 5.4

Complete in four minutes

5.1

waves than humans. Consequently, which of the

following colours are bees more likely to be

attracted to?

Highest frequency corresponds to shortest wavelength

A. Red

Red has longest wavelength,

B. Yellow

violet has shortest wavelength.

So

C. Green

Red has lowest frequency

violet has highest frequency

D. Blue

E. Violet

15 The microwaves generated in a microwave oven travel through air at a speed of 3.0 x 108m/s,

with a wavelength of 12cm. They pass through plastic food containers, but at a reduced speed

of 2.0 x 108m/s.

5.2

What are the wavelength and frequency of these microwaves as they pass through a plastic

food container?

Wavelength (cm)

Frequency (Hz)

1.7 x 109

2.5 x 109

3.8 x 109

12

1.7 x 109

12

3.8 x 109

18

1.7 x 109

18

2.5 x 109

18

3.8 x 109

UCLES 2012

shortens.

In air:

v

=fxl

3.0 x 108 m/s = f x 0.12 m

f

= 2.5 x 109 Hz

In plastic:

v

=fxl

2.0 x 108 m/s = 2.5 x 109 Hz x l

l = 0.08 m

= 8 cm

5.3

17

23 A ray of orange light travelling through air has a speed of 3.0 x 108m/s and a wavelength of

600nm. (1nm = 10-9m)

What could be the speed, frequency and wavelength of this orange light when travelling through

glass?

Speed/ms-1

Frequency/Hz

Wavelength/nm

2.0 x 108

3.3 x 1014

400

2.0 x 108

3.3 x 1014

600

2.0 x 108

5.0 x 1014

400

2.0 x 108

5.0 x 1014

600

3.0 x 108

3.3 x 1014

400

3.0 x 108

3.3 x 1014

600

3.0 x 108

5.0 x 1014

400

3.0 x 108

5.0 x 1014

600

Speed of light through glass is SLOWER than through air/vacuum, so 2.0 x 108 m/s

Frequency of light doesnt change in glass, but wavelength does.

Frequency of light in air v = f x l

8 /numbered

-91 to 6. One of=the

14but

24 I haveso

two six-sided

faces

from

dicexis10

fair,

f = v /dice,

l each

= 3with

x 10

600 x 10

5.0

Hzthe

other is not it will land on numbers 1 to 5 with equal probability, but lands on 6 with a different

probability.

So

in glass, l = v / f = 2.0 x 108 / 5.0 x 1014 = 4.0 x 10-7 = 400.0 x 10-9 = 400 nm

When I roll the dice the probability that I get a total of 12 is

1

.

18

What is the probability that I get a total of 2 when I roll the dice?

5.4

Topic 6: Radioactivity

Four questions

6.1 6.4

Complete in four minutes

6.1

7

The process of emission of a gamma ray from a nucleus is called nuclear fission.

The half life of a radioactive substance is half the time taken for its nuclei to decay.

The number of neutrons in a nucleus is its atomic number (proton number) minus its

mass number.

When a nucleus emits a beta particle, there is no change in the number of particles it

contains.

When a nucleus emits an alpha particle, one of its neutrons becomes a proton plus an

electron.

If you look at a clock and the time is 9.45, what is the angle between the hour and the minute

hands?

A

6.2

Source X:

Count

Source Y:

= 320 x x x x x

= 320 x (1/2)5

= 10

Count

= 480 x ( )3

= 60

Total count = 10 + 60 = 70

It is known that a radioactive source emits a single type of radiation. Detectors are placed in

the two positions shown. The graph shows how the readings change over time.

30cm

source

detector 1

detector 2

1m

240

220

detector 1

200

11

6.3

180

160

140

120

100

source = 100

80

60

40

detector 2

Background count = 20

20

0

0

10 11 12 13 14 15 16

time (hours)

Which type of radiation does the source emit, and what is its half-life?

type of radiation

half-life (hours)

alpha

2.40

alpha

2.76

beta

2.40

beta

2.76

gamma

2.40

gamma

2.76

before reaching detector 1 at 30cm

Gamma rays would be detected at

detector 2 at 100 cm

Therefore beta radiation

uranium-234.

6.4

The table below describes how the mass of uranium-234 present in the sample varies with time

from the start of the experiment:

time / min

0.0

1.2

2.4

3.6

4.8

6.0

7.2

8.4

9.6

10.8

12.0

mass of u-234 / mg

0.0

8.0

12.0

14.0

15.0

15.5

15.7

15.9

15.9

16.0

16.0

16.0g

Using the information in the table, approximately what is the half-life of protactinium-234?

1.2 minutes

2.4 minutes

6.0 minutes

9.6 minutes

10.8 minutes

12.0 minutes

so almost all of the 234Pa has decayed into

234U. So there were originally 16g of 234Pa.

In one half-life the amount of 234Pa will have

halved, from 16g to 8g meaning the amount

of 234U will have risen from 0g to 8g.

i.e. after 1.2 minutes

I have two containers with different capacities. Initially, the larger one is full of water and the

smaller one is empty. I pour water from the larger container into the smaller container until they

Bonus questions

speed (m/s)

30

20

10

0

0

time (min)

What is the best estimate of the distance travelled during the part of the journey shown?

A

100.00m

107.50m

115.00m

6.00km

6.45km

6.90km

speed (m/s)

30

20

10

0

0

time (min)

What is the best estimate of the distance travelled during the part of the journey shown?

A

100.00m

107.50m

115.00m

6.00km

6.45km

6.90km

19 An object of mass 5kg falls from rest and hits the ground at a speed of 20m/s. Air resistance is

negligible.

From what height has the object fallen?

Take g to be 10m/s2

A

10m

20m

50m

100m

200m

1000m

19 An object of mass 5kg falls from rest and hits the ground at a speed of 20m/s. Air resistance is

negligible.

From what height has the object fallen?

Take g to be 10m/s2

A

10m

20m

50m

100m

200m

1000m

9

11 When radioactive isotopes decay, they sometimes have to go through a succession of

disintegrations to reach a stable isotope. These are called decay chains, and involve the

successive emission of numerous and/or particles.

One such isotope is radon-219 ( 219

86 Rn), which goes through a chain in which three particles

and two particles are emitted before reaching a stable isotope.

What are the atomic and mass numbers of the resulting stable isotope?

atomic number

mass number

80

207

80

211

82

207

82

215

85

211

85

219

86

215

86

219

9

11 When radioactive isotopes decay, they sometimes have to go through a succession of

disintegrations to reach a stable isotope. These are called decay chains, and involve the

successive emission of numerous and/or particles.

One such isotope is radon-219 ( 219

86 Rn), which goes through a chain in which three particles

and two particles are emitted before reaching a stable isotope.

What are the atomic and mass numbers of the resulting stable isotope?

atomic number

mass number

80

207

80

211

82

207

82

215

85

211

85

219

86

215

86

219

15 The circuit shows five identical filament bulbs designed to work at 12V connected in a circuit

with two switches. Switch P is initially open and switch Q is initially closed.

12V

switch P

bulb X

bulb Y

switch Q

Switch P is then closed and switch Q is opened.

Compared with their brightness before these changes were made, how has the brightness of

bulbs X and Y changed?

bulb X

bulb Y

brighter

brighter

brighter

dimmer

dimmer

brighter

dimmer

dimmer

unchanged

brighter

brighter

unchanged

15 The circuit shows five identical filament bulbs designed to work at 12V connected in a circuit

with two switches. Switch P is initially open and switch Q is initially closed.

12V

switch P

bulb X

bulb Y

switch Q

Switch P is then closed and switch Q is opened.

Compared with their brightness before these changes were made, how has the brightness of

bulbs X and Y changed?

bulb X

bulb Y

brighter

brighter

brighter

dimmer

dimmer

brighter

dimmer

dimmer

unchanged

brighter

brighter

unchanged

19 The diagrams below show velocity-time or distance-time graphs for 4 different objects, P, Q, R

and S.

velocity / m/s

velocity / m/s

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

4

8 12 16 20 24 28 32

P only

Q only

R only

S only

P and Q

Q and R

P and S

12

16

20

24

175

150

125

100

75

50

25

0

60

120

180

time / s

time / s

A

time / s

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

0

time / s

distance / m

distance / m

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

240

19 The diagrams below show velocity-time or distance-time graphs for 4 different objects, P, Q, R

and S.

velocity / m/s

velocity / m/s

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

4

8 12 16 20 24 28 32

P only

Q only

R only

S only

P and Q

Q and R

P and S

12

16

20

24

175

150

125

100

75

50

25

0

60

120

180

time / s

time / s

A

time / s

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

0

time / s

distance / m

distance / m

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

240

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