Quality Controle Lecture

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Quality Controle Lecture

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 26

(MANE 4045)

Instructor: Dr. Sayyed Ali Hosseini

Winter 2015

Lecture #3

With many figures and definitions from Introduction To Statistical Quality Control ,7th Edition by Douglas C. Montgomery

Copyright (c) 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

The DMAIC Process

Lecture #3

Today, we will cover Part 2 Statistical Methods Useful In Quality Control

And Improvement:

Modeling Process Quality

Learning Objectives

Simple tools of descriptive statistics to express variation

quantitatively in a quality characteristic when a sample of

data on this characteristic is available.

Introduce probability distributions and show how they

provide a tool for modeling or describing the quality

characteristics of a process.

Lecture #3

Statistics

Statistics help us understand everything by collecting,

tabulating, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of

numerical data, provide a viable method of supporting or

clarifying a topic under discussion.

Lecture #3

A histogram is a more compact summary of data.

Group values of the variable into bins, then count the number of

observations that fall into each bin.

Plot frequency (or relative frequency) versus the values of the variable.

Histograms can be relatively sensitive to the choice of the number and

width of the bins.

For small data sets, histograms may change dramatically in appearance

if the number and/or width of the bins changes.

Histogram can be considered as a technique best suited for larger data

sets containing, say, 75 to 100 or more observations.

Lecture #3

Lecture #3

Lecture #3

Suppose that , , . . . , are the observations in a sample.

The most important measure of central tendency in the sample

is the sample average.

=

+ +

The sample average is the point at which the histogram exactly balances.

Thus, the sample average represents the center of mass of the sample data.

Lecture #3

The variability in the sample data is measured by the sample

variance.

=

1

The units of the sample variance is the square of the original units of the

data which is often inconvenient and awkward to interpret.

Hence, normally the square root of

which is called the sample standard

deviation s is being used as a measure of variability..

=

MANE4045 Quality Control

1

Lecture #3

By using statistical methods, we may be able to analyze the

data (e.g. sample layer thickness of the wafers) and draw

certain conclusions about the process that generates that data

(e.g. process to manufacture the wafers).

A probability distribution is a mathematical model that relates

the value of the variable with the probability of occurrence of

that value in the population.

There are two types of probability distributions:

Continuous distributions

Discrete distributions

Lecture #3

10

Continuous distributions

When the variable being measured is expressed on a

continuous scale, its probability distribution is called a

continuous distribution.

Discrete distributions

When the parameter being measured can only take on certain

values, such as the integers 0, 1, 2, ..., the probability

distribution is called a discrete distribution.

=

MANE4045 Quality Control

= ( )

Lecture #3

11

Sometimes called a

probability mass function

Sometimes called a

probability density function

Lecture #3

12

The Binomial Distribution

Reminder:

!

"

is the

Bernoulli trials with constant

probability of success on each trial.

MANE4045 Quality Control

Lecture #3

13

Example #1

A manufacturing process produces thousands of semiconductor

chips per day. On the average, 1% of these chips do not conform

to specifications. Every hour, an inspector selects a random

sample of 25 chips and classifies each chip in the sample as

conforming or nonconforming. calculate the probability of finding

one or fewer nonconforming parts in the sample.

Lecture #3

14

Example #1 Solution

If we let be the random variable representing the number of nonconforming

chips in the sample, then the probability distribution of is

=

25

1 =

0.01

0.99

'"

=0 +

25!

0.01

0! 25 0 !

0.99

=1 =

'")

0 +

1 =(

25!

0.01

1! 25 1 !

25

0.99

Lecture #3

0.01

'"

0.99

'"

15

The Poisson Distribution

is as a model of the number of defects or nonconformities that

occur in a unit of product.

MANE4045 Quality Control

Lecture #3

16

Example #2

Assume that the number of wire-bonding defects per unit that

occur in a semiconductor device is Poisson distributed with

parameter . = 4. Calculate the probability that a randomly

selected semiconductor device will contain two or fewer wirebonding defects.

Lecture #3

17

Example #2 Solution

2 =

=0 +

=1 +

=2 =

/ "0 4

= 0.018316 + 0.073263 + 0.146525 = 0.238104

(

!

)

Lecture #3

18

The Normal Distribution

employ a special notation, 2(3, 4 ), to imply that

is

normally distributed with mean 3 and variance 4 . The visual

appearance of the normal distribution is a symmetric, unimodal

or bell-shaped curve.

MANE4045 Quality Control

Lecture #3

19

The Normal Distribution

Lecture #3

20

The Normal Distribution (An Important Reminder from Statistics)

The cumulative normal distribution is defined as the probability that

the normal random variable is less than or equal to some value , or

=5

": 4

26

"

"7 9

8

change of variable (which is called standardization):

;=

3

4

3

=

4

3

4

distribution (mean = 0, standard deviation = 1). (See table II in text book Appendix)

MANE4045 Quality Control

Lecture #3

21

Example #3

The tensile strength of paper used to make grocery bags is an

important quality characteristic. It is known that the strength ( )

is normally distributed with mean 3 = 40 = /? and standard

deviation 4 = 2 = /? , which denoted 2(3, 4 ) or

2(40, 2 ). The purchaser of the bags requires them to have a

strength of at least 35 lb/in2. Calculate the probability that bags

produced from this paper will meet or exceed the specification.

Lecture #3

22

Example #3 Solution

The probability that a bag produced from this paper will meet or exceed the

specification is:

35 = 1 { 35}

appendix because that table is prepared for a normal distribution with

mean 3 = 0 and standard deviation 4 = 1.

3

=

4

35 40

=

2

; 2.5 = 2.5

data is available only for positive magnitudes; so,

2.5 = 1 +2.5 = 1 0.99379 = 0.00621

35 = 1 0.0062 = 0.9938

MANE4045 Quality Control

Lecture #3

23

The Exponential Distribution

engineering as a model of the time to failure of a component or

system. In these applications, the parameter . is called the failure rate

of the system, and the mean of the distribution 3 = is called the

C

mean time to failure.

MANE4045 Quality Control

Lecture #3

24

Example #4

An electronic component in an airborne radar system has a useful

life described by an exponential distribution with failure rate of

10"0 /. What is the mean time to failure for this components?

Determine the probability that this component would fail before

its expected life.

Lecture #3

25

Example #4 Solution

10"0

?EFG/ G H/ ?

. = 10"0 J/

1

=

.

C

)

H?J/ HK

?EFG/ 3 =

1

1

= "0 = 100 = 10000 G .

. 10

Lecture #3

26

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