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Negative resistance VCO

2014/7/19
negative resistance device is novel and powerful, most of Negative resistance VFO/VCO is ultra wide bandwidth,
easy starting oscillation.
Actually negative resistor oscillator is a method of understanding the circuit, not the circuit name. it's identical, loop
Gain>1 identical to gm>1/Rp. (some negative resistance requirement > 2*/Rp)
for any negative resistor, there is 2 basic way to set up a oscillator: (type A, type B)

one of well known BJT negative resistor is one BJT leave the base fly, novel led flasher:

and there is many many interesting circuits like this:


http://members.shaw.ca/roma/twenty-three.html

Long Tail Pair/differential/Negative

popular configuration of such negative resistance is 2 NPN BJT connect as a long tail, i,e: VCO: Ultra Negtive
100kHz-100Mhz. sometime it's called push pull, or differential pair, it's actually identical.

this type of configuration had many many different configuration, as AC point of view, they are essentially same:

2 Port Lambda style Negative resistance device


Lambda diode is typical negative resistance device. i never had one lambda Diode, fortunately, there are several
configuration could be use as Lambda style 2 port negative device.

the 2N3820 is unlikely in the junk box, but right photo is just what you want. negative active device is really fancy,
Oscillator, VK5BR's Dip, Regen. just because it's really easy to go.
Note about this lambda device:
*100k 20k could replace with 33k/6.8k for high frequency, that need more gain and current.
* at VHF, like 100Mhz, parallel a 100pF capacitor ( experimental ) with 100k resistor. i think this capacitor must
be add. refer to 2N3820, which also AC shorted.

UJT/SCR style negative device


i first time see this style oscillator is trying to get a wide range VCO, VCO: Super wide band linearity VCO, which
come from END's article, cle Series LC tank VCO breaks tuning range records.
this UJT configuration very similer with the long tail version, but use PNP+NPN, and different output/input.

Other type negative resistance Oscillator


VA3IUL present several Oscillator, 2 of them is the negative resistance VCO.

* this is a series tank VCO, include the Q1 be Junk as part of tank, as negative resistance.
* the cascode configuration reduce Miller effect.
* output is well decoupled
Another VCO actually not negative resistance style, it internal capacitance, Cbe, Cbc form a Clap oscillator.

ALL BJT negative resistor


flow the rule " connect one transistor's base to another's collector", change the long tail configuration to one PNP
one NPN, we get two more negative resistor. there are actually a Common Collector Amplifier cascade with a
'semi' common base PNP buffer(which base not totally been bypassed). different to the long tail, this is a real TWO
PORT device, then easy to deploy as a negative resistor.

Fist new configuration all BJT negistor:

* 2 couple capacitor 3pF to 330pF, choose based on frequency, generally, few pf is enough.
* i setup up a type B oscillator to testing this negistor, use 2N2222/2N3906 it easy start oscillation at 100Mhz.
* type B oscillator had around 2:1 tune ratio.
Selenium

simple.

from theradioboard post a comments utilize this little circuit as a regen receiver, and get DC bias a little bit

Second new configuration all BJT negistor:

before construct the real HW, this sch could be simplify :

you can not directly connect this to a tank there need a resistor setup the proper bias:

Let's check the real HW:

@ 2V and few mA, oscillator work well, when increase voltage, waveform will severely distortion, you can
increase 330R resistor to get perfect sine. (by eye)
this oscillator had a very stable amplitude vs frequncy response, detailed information refer to: VFO:New negative
'zoom' oscillator

Reference:
http://litetec.hubpages.com/hub/Negative-Dynamic-Resistance-Circuit
http://www.zen22142.zen.co.uk/Theory/neg_resistance/Oscillations%20and%20Regenerative%20Amplification
%20using%20Negative%20Resistance%20Devices.pdf
http://users.tpg.com.au/users/ldbutler/NegResDipMeter.htm

http://www.epanorama.net/sff/Components/The%20Lambda%20Diode%20-%20A%20negative%20resistance
%20device.pdf
http://electronbunker.ca/NegativeResistance.html
http://www.qsl.net/va3iul/High_Frequency_VCO_Design_and_Schematics/High_Frequency_VCO_Design_and_Sc
hematics.htm
UJT:
http://www.rfcafe.com/references/popular-electronics/getting-know-ujt-april-1970-popular-electronics.htm
http://www.allaboutcircuits.com/vol_3/chpt_7/5.html
http://theradioboard.com/rb/viewtopic.php?f=4&t=5332&start=15
http://electronics.stackexchange.com/questions/28864/how-to-build-a-2n6027-put