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Public Health Engineering

Water Demand and Sources

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a colourless, transparent, odourless, liquid which forms the seas, lakes,
rivers, and rain and is the basis of the fluids of living organisms.
The fulfilment of basic human needs, our environment, socio-economic
development and poverty reduction are all heavily dependent on water.

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Good management of water is especially challenging due to the following
unique characteristics:
- It is unevenly distributed in time and space.
- The hydrological cycle is highly complex and perturbations have
multiple effects.
- Rapid urbanization, pollution and climate change threaten the
- Demands for water are increasing in order to satisfy the needs of a
growing world population.

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Factors Affecting Water Usage
- Economic considerations
- Cost of water
- Meterage
- Climate
-Type of water usage
-System management

-Conservation practices

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Why Population Estimation?
Large population consumes more water as compared with smaller one.
The future water demand calculations are done by keeping in mind the
present consumptions.
Any scheme should be designed for at least 3 decades.
Depending on the water demand continuous source of water has to be
selected .

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Population Estimation
Population is one of the most important factors for design of the
water systems, so it should be estimated, so as to know the
increasing demand and ensure continuous supply to them.
Population data is obtained by previous records and the rate of
increase is found out by using the methods described below:

- Arithmetic growth method

- Geometric growth method
- Curvilinear method
- Logistic method
- Decline growth method
- Ratio growth

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Types of Water Demand
Domestic Demand
The amount of water necessary in the residences for drinking,
bathing, washing etc is known as domestic water demand and
primarily depends on the habits, social status, weather and
traditions of the people.
As per India standard = 135 litres/capita/day
Commercial Demand

This type of water demand includes the water requirement for

the public buildings other than residences. E.g. Hotels, Malls,
As per India standard = 20 litres/capita/day

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Industrial Demand
he water needed in the industries mostly relies on the kind of industries that
are established within the town. Normally, 50 litres/capita/day
Usually, 20-25% of the total water demand
Public Demand
Volume of water necessary for public utility needs like parks, gardens,
fountains etc. Normally, 20 litres/capita/day
Usually, 5% of the total water demand
Fire Demand

(Normally, 15 litres/capita/day)

Water requirement for fire fighting purpose fall under this head. The volume
of water necessary for fire fighting is usually computed by making use of
various empirical formula. E.g. Freemans ,Bustons or Kuichlings formula

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To estimate water demand, following parameters must be determined or
Average daily water demand (per capita demand)
It is based on complete one year supply of water. It is the total demand
during one year, divided by the population.
Per capita demand = (yearly water demand / Population x 365) liters per
capita per day
Maximum daily consumption

It is the maximum amount of water used during one day in a year. This
amount is 180% of the average daily demand.
It is usually a working day (Monday) of summer season.

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Maximum weekly demand:
The amount of water used by a population during a whole single week in a
study span of 1 year or The greatest 7-day average demand that occurs in a
Maximum daily demand = 1.8 x Avg. Daily Demand

Maximum weekly demand = 1.48 x Avg. Daily Demand

Maximum monthly demand = 1.28 x Avg. Daily Demand
Maximum hourly demand = 1.5 x Avg. Daily Demand

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Factors Affecting Water Demand
- Climate conditions
- Cost of water
- Habits of people
- Population density
- Sewerage system
- Industrialization
- Distribution pressure
- Quality of water
- System of supply

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Water Resources
Water resources are defined as the sources of water that are useful or
potentially useful to humans. Many uses of water include agricultural,
industrial, household, recreational and environmental activities.

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Fresh Water
Fresh water is naturally occurring water on Earth's surface in ice sheets, ice
caps, glaciers, icebergs, bogs, ponds, lakes, rivers and streams, and
underground as groundwater in aquifers and underground streams.
Surface water is water on the surface of the planet such as in a stream, river,
lake, wetland, or ocean. Surface water is naturally replenished through
precipitation and naturally lost through ocean discharge and evaporation.
Groundwater is the water found underground in the cracks and spaces in soil,
sand and rock. It is stored in and moves slowly through geologic formations of
soil, sand and rocks called aquifers.

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Sources of Surface Water in PAKISTAN
Glaciers and Snow Melt
About 80% of water is received in Indus system through glaciers and snow
PAKISTAN is one of the worlds most arid countries over 75% of PAKISTAN
receives rainfall less than 250mm and 20% of it less than 125mm.

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Water Stress Index
Water availability below 1000 m3/c/yr (chronic water
related problems impeding development and harming
human health)

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Pakistans Water Availability
Year 2000
Year 2005
Year 2035

1700 cubic meter per capita

1500 cubic meter per capita
< 1000 cubic meter

Trans boundary Water Conflicts

Climate Change leading to 3Ds i-e Destructive, Dry or Dirty Water

Resulting: Jobless, Poor and Hungry Population

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Maplecrofts Global Risks Portfolio and services, 2010

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Domestic Water Usage

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Global Water Usage by Sectors

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Economic growth and individual wealth are shifting diets from predominantly
starch-based to meat and dairy, which require more water. Producing 1 kg of
rice, for example, requires ~3,500 L of water, 1 kg of beef ~15,000 L, and a
cup of coffee ~140 L (Hoekstra and Chapagain, 2008).
Water availability is expected to decrease in many regions. Yet future global
agricultural water consumption alone is estimated to increase by ~19% by
With expected increases in population, by 2030, food demand is predicted to
increase by 50% (70% by 2050) (Bruinsma, 2009).

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Water Challenges and Pakistans Response
Whats the problem?

Lack of capacity

Competing interests

Coordination and information sharing


Its not all about water


Its also about: political will, governance, globalization

Pakistan recognizes importance of water and ratified to the

internationally agreed goals (Millennium Development Goals - MDGs)

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Ensure environmental sustainability
Target 10 : Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without
sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation
UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development
Thematic Programme 8: Education for Sustainable Water
UN International Decade Water for Life
Develop the means to assure water for drinking, water for
sanitation, water for biodiversity and water for food production
and to contribute to the MDGs

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National Water Policy (2005)
The National Water Policy (NWP) 2005 gives top priority to the:

- provision of safe drinking water for all

- hygienic sanitation for urban and rural populations

The NWP establishes important basic principle including

protection of sources, monitoring and maintenance of drinking
water quality, and progressive upgrading of facilities for the
provision of water and sanitation, on a sustainable basis.

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Water scarcity can be divided broadly into two categories:

Physical Water Scarcity

Economic Water Scarcity

Physical water scarcity is where there is not enough water to

meet all demands, including that needed for ecosystems to
function effectively.
Arid regions frequently suffer from physical water scarcity.

Symptoms of physical water scarcity include environmental

degradation and declining groundwater.

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Economic water scarcity
Symptoms of economic water scarcity include a lack of
infrastructure, with people often having to fetch water from
rivers for domestic and agricultural uses.
Large parts of Africa suffer from economic water scarcity;
developing water infrastructure there could therefore help to
reduce poverty.
Critical conditions often arise for economically poor and
politically weak communities living in already dry
Some 2.8 billion people currently live in water-scarce areas.

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Declining Water Availability (m3/capita/year) in Pakistan

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Sr. Item


Storage Reservoirs:
Live Capacity

19.3 BCM (15.7 MAF)



Inter-river Link Canals


Main Irrigation Canals:

Command Area
Length Including Distribution

14.2 Mha (35 Ma)
60,800 km (38,000 miles)

Water Courses
Number (Approximate)
Length (Approximate)

1.6 million km (1 million miles)

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Water required in future




Surface +














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Pakistan Water Challenges
Trans boundary Management of Water Extremes
Frequent Floods Triggered by Climate Shifts

Water Scarcity and High Stress

Growing Population and Accelerated Demand
Inefficiencies in Water allocation

Spatial and Temporal Variability

Climate Change Impacts on Supply and Demand
Problems of Governance and Institutional arrangement

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