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Predicates and Special Sentences

Part I

Different Predicates ......................................................................... 3

Unit 1

A verb as the predicate ................................................................ 3

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

I go.. .......................................................................................................................................3
I watch TV................................................................................................................................4
Im going to Central at 4:00 ...................................................................................................5
I work in Central .....................................................................................................................7
Im going to Central to buy this book ...................................................................................8
I always go to Central ............................................................................................................9
He gives me ten dollars........................................................................................................10

Unit 2

An adjective as the predicate..................................................... 11

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Unit 3
13.
14.

Unit 4
15.
16.

Unit 5
17.
18.

Unit 6
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.

She is very pretty ..................................................................................................................12


This clothing is quite expensive..........................................................................................12
She is not pretty ....................................................................................................................14
She is not very pretty............................................................................................................14
He is tall, I am short .............................................................................................................15

An adjective + the aspect particle j ..................................... 16


I am getting fatter................................................................................................................16
I am getting a lot heavier ....................................................................................................17

A noun as the predicate ............................................................. 18


I am 25....................................................................................................................................18
I am 25 this year ...................................................................................................................20

A S-P phrase as the predicate.................................................... 20


My health is very poor..........................................................................................................20
My studying is very poor......................................................................................................23

Subjectless................................................................................... 24

Part III

Special sentences ........................................................................... 34

Unit 10

jung sentences ........................................................................ 34

30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.

He made the toy broken .......................................................................................................34


He didnt make the toy break ..............................................................................................36
He always puts the money on the table .............................................................................37
She put the flower into the vase..........................................................................................38
They send the child to the hospital.....................................................................................39
He carries the bag to him ....................................................................................................40
The magician changes the paper into a flower................................................................42

Unit 11

bi - by ......................................................................................... 43

37.
38.
39.

He was beaten by the robbers.............................................................................................43


My wallet was stolen............................................................................................................44
My wallet wasnt stolen .......................................................................................................45

Unit 12

Serial verbs ................................................................................. 46

40.
41.
42.
43.

I want to buy some food.......................................................................................................46


She writes with her left hand ..............................................................................................47
He pours the water to drink.................................................................................................48
She has money to spend.......................................................................................................49

Unit 13

Pivotal Sentences ........................................................................ 50

44.
45.
46.

I want him to come ...............................................................................................................50


I have some friends who live in Hong Kong.......................................................................51
Its him who helps me...........................................................................................................52

Part IV

Others........................................................................................... 54

Unit 14

Reference: Elements of a sentence ............................................ 54

Unit 15

Glossary English to Cantonese ............................................... 55

The end of the book........................................................................................ 64

Its raining .............................................................................................................................25


finished the homework.........................................................................................................25
should not tell lies.................................................................................................................27
Be careful!..............................................................................................................................27
lawless and godless .............................................................................................................28
It starts! .................................................................................................................................28

Part II Sentences with special verbs ............................................................. 29


Unit 7
25.
26.

Unit 8
27.
28.

Unit 9
29.

Be ......................................................................................... 29
I am a foreigner ....................................................................................................................29
one plus one is two ...............................................................................................................29

Have............................................................................................. 30
I have a dog ...........................................................................................................................30
There is a dog........................................................................................................................31

at .......................................................................................... 32
She is at home .......................................................................................................................32

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Page 1

Predicates and Special Sentences

Page 2

Part I

8.

Unit 1 A verb as the predicate


1.

kuih btbt-yihp

Different Predicates

She dont like

jng yi _____________________________________
_____________________________________
kuih h jngjng-yi

I go..
subject + verb

1.

2.

I go

subject + verb + object

ngh heui
I

go

1.
2.

Im sorry , I forgot
sorry,

not remember

He cough s /kt/

kuih kt

3.

TV

I eat

Jng Wahn

go

Central

apples

I am not going

sihk / phng
phng gw _________________________________

__________________________________________

kuih sihk phngphng-gw

ngh h heui
He is not coming

4.

We will not buy those books

maih / g d sy_____________________________

/lih/

nghngh-deih h maih g d sy

____________________________________________
kuih h lih
6.

dihn sih

I am not going to Central

ngh heui

__________________________________________

5.

ti
watch

ed

2.

4.

I watch TV

ngh

hh-hu yiyi-si, ngh hh-geigei-dk j


3.

I watch TV

5.

He drinks coke

They go out

ym / H Lohk ___________________________________

chut heui __________________________________

kuih ym HH-Lohk

kuihkuih-deih chutchut-heui
7.

6.

He graduate s

ym / ju _____________________________________

bt yihp___________________________________
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She doesnt drink wine

Page 3

Predicates and Special Sentences

Page 4

kuih h ym ju ge
5.

I did not arrive at 12:15

____________________________________________

3.

ngh h haih sahpsahp-yih dm sam dou

Im going to Central at 4:00


subject + time + verb

6.

I am going go to the USA next month

hah go yuht _______________________________

In Cantonese, the modifier always comes before the one it

next

modifies. Therefore, adverbials must come before the verb that it

MW month

ngh hahhah-gogo-yuht heui MihMih-Gwok

modifies.
If you want to change it into negative form, put the modifier

7.

I am not going to the USA next month (Im going some other
time)

h-haih just before what you want to negate.

____________________________________________
1.

ngh hh-haih hahhah-gogo-yuht heui MihMih-Gwok

I am going to Central at 4:00

ngh sei dm
I

4:00

heui

Jng Wahn

go

8.

Central

I am not going to the USA next month (Im going to somewhere


else)

2.

I am going to Central not at 4:00 (I go to Central at another time)

____________________________________________

ngh h haih sei dm

ngh hahhah-gogo-yuht hh-haih heui MihMih-Gwok

3.

not be

heui

4:00

go

Jng Wahn
Central

Im not going to Central at 4:00. (I am going to another place at

9.

(I have to 2:00 leave

4:00)

ngh sei dm
I

4:00

h haih heui
not be

go

have to

Central

go.
In Cantonese not be go: h haih heui, its only a fact he

10.

I
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10:00

bun

__________________________________________

half

ngh nn-go sysy-ga heui luih hhng


11.

dou

I go to travel this summer holiday

luih hhng / sy ga

You can compare this with I am not going: ngh h heui


I arrived at 10:30

leave

ngh yiu luhngluhng-dm ju / ngh luhngluhng-dm yiu ju

doesnt go.

ngh sahp dm

/ I 2:00 have to leave)

yiu / ju _______________________________

Jng Wahn

In Cantonese, not go: h heui, means that one does not want to

4.

I have to leave at 2:00

I go to travel not in this summer holiday

__________________________________________
__________________________________________

arrive
Page 5

Predicates and Special Sentences

Page 6

ngh hh-haih nn-go sysy-ga heui luih hhng


12.

kuih hi daaihdaaih-luhk jouh sangsang-yi

I am not going to travel this summer holiday

5.

ti hei_________________________________________

ngh nn-go sysy-ga hh-haih heui luih hhng

ngh hi JngJng-Wahn titi-hei

7.

Central

He works in Mongkok

Wohng Gok _________________________________

ngh hi Jng Wahn fan gng


in

play s in the playground

nghngh-gogo-ji hi gnggng-yn wan

I work in Central
I

My son

wan / gng
gng yn _______________________________

I work in Central
subject + place + verb

1.

in Central

__________________________________________

6.

4.

I will watch a movie

kuih hi WohngWohng-Gok fanfan-gng

back to work

Adverb of place in Central is also an adverbial and has to come

8.

She studies at Hong Kong University

before the verb which modifiers.

Hung Gng Daaih Hohk __________________________

The Central in I am going to Central is the object of the verb

kuih
kuih hi HungHung-GngGng-DaaihDaaih-Hohk duhkduhk-sy

go but not the adverbial. An object has to put after the verb.
therefore people say I go to Central: ngh heui Jng Wahn
where Jng Wahn is put at the end.

2.

They fight

3.

in

ban fng
class

d gau

room

fight

1.

ngh hi chyhchyh-fng sihk phngphng-gw

2.

big land/continent

Central

buy

this MW

book

I am going to Admiralty /Gm Jng/ to have dinner /sihk faahn/

ngh heui GmGm-Jng sihksihk-faahn

/ business
sang yi

______________________________________________
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go

______________________________________________

He does business in the mainland

daaih luhk

I am going to Central to buy this book

ngh heui JngJng-Wahn maih n bn sy

I eat apples in the kitchen (no need to translate the)

chyhchyh-fng ___________________________________

4.

Im going to Central to buy this book


sub + v1 + obj1 + v2 + obj2

in the classroom

kuih deih hi
they

5.

Page 7

3.

I am going to McDonald s to eat French fries

______________________________________________
Predicates and Special Sentences

Page 8

forever

ngh heui MahkMahk-DngDng-Luh sihk syhsyh-tu


4.

I am going to your home to visit

not

(never)

ngh chhngchhng-lihlih-h ti dihndihn-sih

you

taam__________________________________________

6.

I usually take bus to go to work


(I usually take bus back work

ngh heui nih kk-ki taam nih

d sou /

/ Usually I take bus back work )

daap

usually

/ b s

take a transport

bus

______________________________________

6.

ngh dd-sou (du haih) daap bb-s fanfan-gng

I always go to Central
subject + adverbial + object

7.

daaih wah _______________________________

Again, always is an adverb and it comes before the verb.

1.

I always

big

go to Central

ngh shng yaht heui


I

2.

always

go

Central

I seldom go to Central

7.

He gives me ten dollars


subject + verb + d.o. + i. o.

ngh huhu-su heui JngJng-Wahn

d.o.: direct object

Sometimes , I go swimming
(sometimes, I go swim /

sayings

kuih shngshng-yaht gng daaihdaaih-wah

Jng Wahn

hu su ______________________________________

3.

He always tell lies

i.o.: indirect object

I sometimes go swim)

yuh sh / yuh sui


___________________________________________

1.

He gives me ten dollar s

kuih bi sahp mn ngh


he

yuh sh, ngh heui yuhyuh-sui / ngh yuhyuh-sh heui


yuhyuh-sui.

2.

Please

give

give

10

dollar

me

me a bag

di__________________________________________
4.

I always eat ice-cream

hh-gi bi gogo-di ngh

syut gu_____________________________________
ngh shngshng-yaht sihk syutsyut-gu
5.

I never

3.

watch TV

chhng lih h _______________________________


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He gives me the pen

bt ___________________________________________
j--bt ngh
kuih bi j
Predicates and Special Sentences

Page 10

4.

She teaches me Cantonese

8.

kuih gaau ngh Gwng Dng W


she

5.

teach

me

She is very pretty


subject + very + adjective

Cantonese

Here, the indirect object me comes first and the direct object

The adverb very: hu often precedes the adjective in the

Cantonese comes after.

positive form
There is no need to put is: haih before the adjectives.

I teach him English

Yng Mn ______________________________________

1.

ngh gaau kuih YngYng-Mn

She is very pretty

kuih hu leng
she

6.

he

doesn't

2.

bi sahp mn ngh
give

10

dollar

he

not have

kuihkuih-deih hu chun

bi sahp mn ngh
give

10

dollar

They are very stupid

chun _____________________________________
_____________________________________

me

He hasnt given me ten dollars (just he hasnt gave me)

kuih muh
8.

beautiful

He wont give me ten dollars (he doesnt want to)

kuih h
7.

very

3.

me

We are very late

chh _____________________________________
nghngh-deih hu chh

She doesnt teach me French

____________________________________________
kuih h gaau ngh FaatFaat-Mn
9.

9.

He gives some money to the beggar

This clothing is quite expensive


subject + modifier + adjective

ht y ________________________________________
kuih bi dd-chn go htht-y

If there is another modifier before the adjective, there is no need


to use the modifier very: hu.

10.

She doesnt teach me Cantonese

____________________________________________
kuih muh gaau ngh GwngGwng-DngDng-W

1.

This clothing is quite

n gihn sam gi
this MW clothing

quite

expensive

gwai
expensive

Where sam is a general term for top clothing. eg. T-shirt,


shirts, overcoat etc.

Unit 2 An adjective as the predicate


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Page 11

Predicates and Special Sentences

Page 12

2.

3.

This clothing is too expensive

10.

____________________________________________

nn-gihngihn-sam taai gwai

jyunjyun-sehk jnjn-haih gwai

This clothing is so expensive

nn-gihngihn-sam gam gwai

10. She is not pretty


subject + is not + adjective

This clothing is really expensive

When there is an adverb not: h,


h there is no need to add very:

jn haih _____________________________________
_____________________________________

hu
hu before the adjective

nn-gihngihn-sam jnjn-haih gwai


5.

1.

This clothing is the most expensive

she

2.

not

beautiful

They are not tall

This clothing is extremely expensive

gu ________________________________________

fi suhng j____________________________________

kuihkuih-deih hh-haih huhu-gu

nn-gihngihn-sam fifi-suhngsuhng-j gwai


7.

She is not pretty

kuih h leng

jui _____________________________________
n--gihn
gihn--sam jeui gwai
n
6.

are really expensive

taai ________________________________________

gam ________________________________________

4.

Diamonds

3.

I am not happy

This clothing is quite nice

hi sm _____________________________________

____________________________________________

ngh h hihi-sm

nn-gihngihn-sam gi hu
8.

This pencil case is too expensive

bt hp (M: go)________________________________

11. She is not very pretty


subject + is not + modifier + adjective

nn-go btbt-hp taai gwai


9.

When very or another modifier is used in a negative form,

This red wine is so expensive

haih
haih
haih has to be used as well.

____________________________________________
____________________________________________
d hhnghhng-ju gam gwai

1.

She is not very pretty

kuih h haih hu
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Page 13

Predicates and Special Sentences

leng
Page 14

she

2.

not

be

very

beautiful

kuihkuih-deih yuhyuh-chn, nghngh-deih khng

They are not really greedy

tam sm _____________________________________

3.

khn lihk / lahn

kuihkuih-deih hh-haih jnjn-haih tamtam-sm


3.

He is hardworking , you are lazy

____________________________________________
kuih khnkhn-lihk, nih lahn

He is very stern , Im not so stern

ok_________________________________________
stern

4.

This pen is long , that is short

____________________________________________
____________________________________________

kuih hu ok, ngh hh-haih gam ok

nn-jj-bt chuhng, gg-jj-bt dyn


4.

He doesnt understand very much

mhng________________________________________

5.

Im fat, you are thin

____________________________________________

kuih hh-haih hu mhng

ngh fih, nih sau


5.

This watch is not too expensive

su bu_______________________________________
nn-jek susu-bu hh-haih taai gwai

Unit 3 An adjective + the aspect particle j


13. I am getting fatter

12. He is tall, I am short

subject + adjective + j

subject + adjective (contrast)

In Cantonese, the function of a verb and an adjective is very

1.

It implies a contrast if very is absent. However, its also okay

similar, adjective is called stative verb in Chinese grammar,

to keep to say very: hu here.

and it can take the aspect particle (verbal particle) j.


j

He is tall, I am short

1.

kuih gu,
gu, ngh i
he

2.

tall,

I am getting fatter

ngh fih j

short

They are rich , we are poor

2.

yuh chn / khng

fat

ed

You are getting prettier

leng _____________________________________
_____________________________________

___________________________________________
___________________________________________
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Page 15

Predicates and Special Sentences

Page 16

nih lengleng-j

3.

She is getting heavier by 3 pound s

sam bohng_________________________________
3.

I am not getting fatter

ngh bhbh-b chhngchhng-j samsam-bohng

ngh h haih fih j


I

4.

5.

not

be

fat

ed

4.

He is not 2 inches taller, he is 1 inch taller

You are not getting thinner

___________________________________________

______________________________________
h--haih sau
sau--j
nih h

kuih hh-haih gugu-j luhngluhng-chyun, haih gu


guu-j ytyt- chyun
5.

My daughter is 5 inches taller

Your son is getting taller

chyun______________________________________

nih go ji__________________________________
ji__________________________________

nghngh-gogo-nui gugu-j ghgh-chyun

nihnih-gogo-ji gugu-j
6.
6.

You are much more pretty

She is not getting prettier, she has to put on make up

__________________________________________

kuih_____________________, haih fafa-j

nih lengleng-j huhu-d

she

, be

make ed

jng
make up

kuih hh-haih lengleng-j, haih fafa-j jng

7.

You are a little bit thinner

__________________________________________
__________________________________________
ngh sausau-j susu-su

14. I am getting a lot heavier


Unit 4 A noun as the predicate

subject + adjective + j +
1.

I am getting a lot heavier

15. I am 25

ngh chhng j hu d
I

heavy

ed

subject + noun

a lot

It is mainly used in casual sayings, because in more formal

2.

My baby is getting a little bit heavier

speech, people add be: haih


haih before the noun. If be: haih is

su su ___________________________________

used, the predicate will then the verb: haih.

ngh bhbh-b chhngchhng-j susu-su


1.

I am 25 (years old )

ngh yah gh seui


I
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Page 17

25

Predicates and Special Sentences

years old
Page 18

yah is the short form of yih-sahp

2.

9.

___________________________________________

Now its 4:00

yhyh-g hh-haih seisei-dm, haih seisei-dmdm-yih

yh g sei dm
now

Now its not 4:00, its 4:10

4 oclock

One can also say yh g haih sei dm

3.

16. I am 25 this year

Today is Friday

subject + time + noun

gm yaht _____________________________________
_____________________________________
gmgm-yaht (haih) lihlih-baaibaai-h / sngsng-kihkih-h
4.

1.

ngh gm nn

Now its winter

I am not 30.
I

not

be

30

this year,

7.

25

years old

yah gh seui

25

years old

I was 24 last year

gauh nn (seuhng nn) ___________________________

years old

ngh gauhgauh-nn yahyah-sei seui

However in negative, the verb haih must be used.

6.

yah gh seui

this year can be put before the noun or before the subject.

2.

ngh h haih sam sahp seui

this year

gm nn , ngh

dng tn_______________________________________
yh--g (haih) dng
dng--tn
yh
5.

I am 25 this year

3.

Yesterday was not Monday

I will be 26 next year

__________________________________________

chut nn (hah nn) ______________________________

khmkhm-yaht hh-haih lihlih-baaibaai-yt

ngh chutchut-nn yahyah-luhk seui

Now its 10:30

sahp dm bun ________________________________

Unit 5 A S-P phrase as the predicate

yhyh-g (haih) sahpsahp-dmdm-bun

17. My health is very poor


8.

My younger brother is 12

subject of the SS-P phrase is a noun

sai lu _____________________________________
S-P means subject-predicate

ngh saisai-lu sahpsahp-yih seui

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Predicates and Special Sentences

Page 20

1.

My health is very poor

5.

ngh sn ti hu ch
I

body

very

fn hhng sk _________________________________

poor

fnfn-hhnghhng-sk ngh hu jngjng-yi

-ngh
ngh
ngh is the main subject here.
-sn
sn--ti hu ch is the predicate here.
sn

6.

-sn-ti is the subject of the s-p phrase here

adjective as the predicate and the main subject is ngh ge sn

7.

ti.
ti
is very pretty

poor

/ sui __________________________________
bad

The original tone of person is yhn

gg-go yn hh-sui

star

_____________________________________________
8.

gg-go mhngmhng-sng huhu-leng

Blue

shirts, I have two

lahm sk (ge) sut sam (M: gihn)

My mother is very nice

______________________________________________

hu hu yhn______________________________

lahmlahm-sk (ge) sut


sutut-sam, ngh yuh luhngluhng-gihn

very good

person (here is not very very nice person)

ngh mm-mh hu hu yhn


4.

not

That person is not bad


person

mhng sng / leng

3.

body

yn

That movie star


bright

His health is not poor

kuih sn ti h ch

-One can also say ngh ge sn ti hu ch. It become using an

2.

Pink , she likes very much

This color , I like

Again, the common way to say this is:


I have two blue T-shirts

very much

ngh yuh luhng gihn lahm sk (ge) sutsut-sam

n jek sk ngh hu jng yi


this MW colour

very

like

People seldom say it in this way.

9.

I like this colour very much

10.

ngh hu jng yi n jek sk


like

blue

color LP

shirt

This dictionary, he doesnt have

This character , your write wrongly

jih (M: go) / cho______________________________

this MW color

character

The predicate here is the verb like: jng yi instead.


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MW

jih dn (M: bn)________________________________


n--bn jih
jih--dn kuih muh
n

Instead, people say in the following way:

very

The predicate here is the verb have: yuh instead.

Here is just an illustration of the structure of the S-P phrase.

have

wrong

nn-gogo-jih nih ss-cho (j) la


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Predicates and Special Sentences

Page 22

kuihkuih-deih d mh
mhngng-kuh hu lk
7.

18. My studying is very poor

gai sou / hu ch

subject of the SS-P phrase is a verb


1.

2.

__________________________________________
__________________________________________
ngh gaigai-sou hu ch

My studying is very poor

ngh duhk sy

hu ch

study book

She studies

very

8.

poor

she

duhk sy / khn lihk

9.

hardworking

_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________

He can drive

very fast

4.

drive car

fast

feather

ball

ngh snsn-sang d yhyh-muhmuh-kuh hh-haih hu lk


sn sang in Cantonese can mean husband, teacher or Sir,
Mr..

very fast

When there is a description of the degree of the result of the

Therefore, when someone says the above sentence in Cantonese,

action, one can put in the linking particle LP: dk.

people may misunderstand that the speaker talks about her


husband not being very good at playing badminton.

The child can only eat very slowly

go

sai mn ji / maahn

MW(the)

child

10.

slow

kuih waahkwaahk-w huhu-leng/huleng/hu-lk

go sisi-mnmn-ji sihksihk-yh hu maahn


11.

She speak s very fast


speak stuff

speak

LP

The student is not very good at cooking

hohk sang / jy faahn

kuih gng yh (gng dk) hu


hu faai
she

She is very good at drawing

waahk w__________________________________

__________________________________________

5.

very

__________________________________________

(He drives very fast)

drive LP

not be

My teacher is not very good at playing badminton


teacher

kuih j ch (j dk) hu faai


he

speak stuff

sn sang / yh muh kuh

kuih duhkduhk-sy hu khnkhn-lihk


3.

She doesnt speak very fast

kuih gng yh h haih hu faai

very hard

study

I am very poor at calculation

student

very fast

cook

rice

go hohkhohk-sang jyjy-faahn hh-haih hu lk


6.

They are very good at playing tennis

d mhng kuh / hu lk
__________________________________________
http://www.clc.com.hk

Unit 6 Subjectless
Page 23

Predicates and Special Sentences

Page 24

The doer of the action is unclear or unnecessary to tell

1.

jouh yhn

19. Its raining

do

Indicating weather conditions


1.

2.

meih

lohk yh la / a

not yet

fall

ring

PRT

3.

homework

jouh yhn
do

finish

gng fo
homework

eaten

sihk j faahn

If particle a is used: sign of exclamation of the speaker

4.

Its a storm
beat wind

5.

dd-fng la / a

not yet

eaten

meih sihk faahn

d fng_______________________________________

3.

gng fo

finish

havent finish the homework

Its raining

If particle la is used: changed of the current situation

2.

finished the homework

bought

maih ______________________________________
______________________________________

Its dark , we have to leave

maih j

tn hak_______________________________________
hak_______________________________________
sky

6.

dark

tn hak la, nghngh-deih yiu ju la


4.

___________________________________________
meih maih

Its not raining

h haih lohk yh
not

5.

be

fall

7.

rain

driving

j gn ch

Its not a storm

_______________________________________________

8.

not driving

_______________________________________________

hh-haih dd-fng

hh-haih jj-gn ch
9.

20. finished the homework

going to Tsim Sha Tsui

Jm S Jui___________________________________
Jui___________________________________

Make a general
general statement

http://www.clc.com.hk

not yet bought

heuiheui-gn JmJm-SS-Jui

Page 25

Predicates and Special Sentences

Page 26

10.

not going back home

3.

fan k ki_____________________________________

Please wait

hh-gi dngdng-dng

hh-haih fanfan-gn kk-ki

23. lawless and godless


21. should not tell lies

Idioms, maxims & slogans etc

General reference
1.

should not tell

1.

muh faat muh tn

lies

not have

h yngyng-gi gng daaihdaaih-wah


not

2.

should

tell

law

not have heaven

lie

should be hardworking

____________________________________________

24. It starts!
Difficult to tell who or what the subject is

yngyng-gi khn lihk


3.

lawless and godless

1.

should not be late

It start s!(now, it starts)

hi ch la

chh dou ____________________________________

start

PRT

Particle la here gives a sign of change of current situation

hh-yngyng-gi chhchh-dou
2.

The lesson starts! (now the lesson starts)

suhng thng la

22. Be careful!

attend

lessons

PRT

A command & etc


1.

Be careful !

su sm a!
small heart

2.

PRT(sign of warning)

Be quick !

faaifaai-d l!
quick

er

http://www.clc.com.hk

PRT (sign of request or urging)

Page 27

Predicates and Special Sentences

Page 28

Part II Sentences with special verbs

1.

one plus

one is two

yt g yt haih yih
1

plus

be

Unit 7 Be
2.

________________________________________

25. I am a foreigner

yih g sam haih h

be
1.

3.

I am a foreigner
am

foreign

forty minus seventeen is twenty-three

gam ________________________________________

ngh haih ngoih gwok yhn


I

two plus three is five

deduct

person

seisei-sahp gam sahpsahp-cht haih yahyah-sam


2.

This is Hong Kong

n douh ______________________________________
nn-douh haih HungHung-Gng
Gng
3.

4.

ten plus ten is not fifteen but twenty


(translate but as be: haih here)

________________________________________
sahp g sahp hh-haih sahpsahp-h, haih yih sahp

I am not a dentist /ngh y/

_____________________________________________

4.

ngh hh-haih nghngh-y

Unit 8 Have

There is the USA

27. I have a dog

g douh ______________________________________

yuh - have possession

gg-douh haih MihMih-Gwok

In negative sentences, muh is used instead of yuh

5.

She is not a lawyer

leuht s ______________________________________
______________________________________

1.

a dog

ngh yuh yt jek gu

kuih hh-haih leuhtleuht-s

2.

have

a MW dog

I dont have time

____________________________________________

26. one plus one is two

ngh muh shsh-gaan

equal to
http://www.clc.com.hk

I have

Page 29

Predicates and Special Sentences

Page 30

3.

He has lots of money, I dont have

6.

________________________________________

g douh muh gu
there

kuih yuh huhu-d chn, ngh muh


7.
4.

She has lots

There isnt any dog

of very beautiful dresses

not have

dog

There is no water here

sui ________________________________________

kwhn_____________________________________

nn-douh muh sui

kuih yuh huhu-d huhu-leng ge kwhn


8.

There are many people at the bus stops

waiting for the bus

dng gn / bb-s
__________________________________________

28. There is a dog

bb-ss-jaahm yuh huhu-d yhn dngdng-gn bb-s

yuh - be - existence
1.

There is a dog

9.

g douh yuh yt jek gu


there

2.

has

gng s_______________________________________

one MW dog

company

ngh gnggng-s yuh huhu-d thng sih

There are many cockroaches

gaaht jat __________________________________

10.

gg-douh yuh huhu-d gaahtgaaht-jat


3.

There are many colleague in my company

There is no tea

at my home

chh ________________________________________
________________________________________
ngh kk-ki muh chh

There are lots of people here

n douh _____________________________________
_____________________________________
nn-douh yuh huhu-d yhn
4.

Unit 9 at

There are many people in Hong Kong

__________________________________________
Hung--Gng yuh hu
hu--d yhn
Hung
5.

29. She is at home


at/ in/ on - hi

There are many student s in the school

hohk haauh (M: gan) __________________________


gan hohkhohk-haauh yuh huhu-d hohkhohk-sang
http://www.clc.com.hk

In Cantonese, when hi: at, in or on is used alone to show


where an object is located, its a main verb.
However if the hi is in the sentence:

Page 31

Predicates and Special Sentences

Page 32

kuih hi k-ki duhk-sy: She studies at home, the hi is a

Part III Special sentences

preposition. duhk sy: study is the main verb.

1.

Unit 10 jung sentences

She is at home

kuih hi k ki
she

2.

at

The function of preposition jung helps to bring the object in

home

My elder brother is in Canada

ngh
my

h
PREFIX

front of the verb.

now

/ G Nh Daaih

elder brother

The jung-sentences indicates that an action is applied to

Canada

(my brother can also be : ngh gh g which is more formal

somebody or something with the emphasis that the action will

and not as colloquial as ngh h g)

bring about a result or influence.

____________________________________________

Moreover, the verb predicate of the jung-sentences is usually

nghngh-a-g yhyh-g hi GG-NhNh-Daaih


3.

4.

followed by some other elements aspect particles (j, jyuh) or

He is not in the office

complements (laahn, yhn, hi etc) to indicate the result or effect

Its more common to say He in not in the company

of the action. These elements are underlined in the following

____________________________________________
h--hi gng
gng--s
kuih h

examples.

Emphasis on the result

They are in the sitting room

haak tng_____________________________________
guest room

1.
a)

kuihkuih-deih hi haakhaak-tng
5.

30. He made the toy broken

He broke

kuih
he

the toy
jng laahn j
make

go wuhn geuih

broken ed

MW

toy

They are not on the 3rd floor

In (a) , the sentence is in a normal order subject + verb + object,

lu___________________________________________
lu___________________________________________

the intonation is more neutral.

floor

kuihkuih-deih hh-hi samsam-lu

b)

He made the toy broken

kuih jung
he

~make

go
MW

wuhn geuih jng laahn j


toy

make

broken ed

In (b) the jung-sentences is used . The object is brought before


the verb and it can emphasize the result.

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Page 33

Predicates and Special Sentences

Page 34

31. He didnt make the toy break

2.
a)

He finished all the food


kuih sihk saai
he

eat

all

negative - muh
muh

yh

MW

stuff

1.

d is the MW for all uncountable nouns.


b)

kuih muh jung go wuhn geuih jng laahn


he

He made all the food finished

kuih jung d
he

~make

MW

yh

He didnt make the toy break

sihk

stuff

saai

eat

not have

~make

a)

3.

they

b)

do

b)

gng fo

finish

kuihkuih-deih jung d gnggng-fo jouhjouh-yhn

a)

b)

My friend spent

friend

use

jek

jyuh
CONT(ing)

gu

MW(the)

dog

3.

4.

my

tie

I didnt make the dog tied

He didnt place the money well


kuih muh ji hu d
he

ngh

have not

ngh muh jung jekjek-gu bngbng-jyuh

They made the homework finished

all the money


phng yuh yuhng saai

break

_____________________________________________

homework

______________________________________________

a)

make

I didnt tie the dog


I

They finished the homework


kuih deih jouh yhn (d)

toy

2.

all

ngh muh bng


a)

MW

d chn

all

the

didnt

place

well

the

chn
money

He didnt make the money placed well

_____________________________________________

money

kuih muh jung dd-chn jiji-hu


b)

My friend made all the money spent

_____________________________________________

4.

ngh phngphng-yuh jung dd-chn yuhngyuhng-saai

5.

He didnt finish all the food

sihk saai_____________________________________
d--yh sihk
sihk--saai
kuih muh jung d

She threw away all the old clothes

dm / gauh sam_________________________________
kuih jung d gauhgauh-sam dmdm-saai

http://www.clc.com.hk

Page 35

5.

she didnt wash all the clothes

si saai_____________________________________
saai_____________________________________
d--sam si
si--saai
kuih muh jung d
Predicates and Special Sentences

Page 36

33. She put the flower into the vase

32. He always puts the money on the table

on, in, into - hi or yahp

Position of the adverbial

Jung-sentences are common in structures using in: hi.


It can take an adverbial before the jung

1.

Try to rewrite the following sentences into the jung-sentences

He always puts the money on the table

hi or yahp are interchangeable here. hi is more similar to

kuih shng yaht jung d chn ji hi ti mn


he

2.

always

~put

the money

The child always made the things

d
MW

place on

in while yaht is more similar to into

table top

broken

1.

yh _____________________________________

kuih

things/stuff

she

go saisai-mnmn-ji muh shngshng-yaht jung dd-yh jngjng-laahn


3.

chaap

d f

thrust

go f jun douh

hi

MW flower

in

MW flower bottle

place

______________________________________________
kuih jung dd-f chaapchaap-hi go ff-jung douh

He sometimes places the books on the chair

yuh sh / dang seuhng mihn (bihn)

Whys that place: douh is used here ?

sometimes

If the noun itself is not a geographical region, people have to add

chair

top

side

______________________________________

place: douh after the noun to make it function like a

kuih yuhyuh-sh jung dd-sy jiji-hi dang seuhngseuhng-mihn


4.

She put the flower into the vase

geographical region.

You always puts the newspaper everywhere (randomly)

In Cantonese:

bou j / ju wih / ji
________________________________

 I go to China (its a geographical region, like a place


already)

nih shngshng-yaht jung d boubou-j juju-wih ji

 I go to China place
 I buy a vase (its a object)

5.

You never take my words seriously !

 I go to the vase (its not a place by itself)

chhng lih h / gng ge yh / sm douh

 I go to the vases place (it can function like a place now)

never

saying s stuff

heart s place

 I put the flower into the vase (its not a place by itself)

________________________________
________________________________

 I put the flower into the vases place

nih chhngchhng-lihlih-h jung ngh gnggng-gege-yh fngfng-hi sm


2.

She put the clothes into the wardrobe

kuih fong d sam hi


http://www.clc.com.hk

Page 37

Predicates and Special Sentences

go y gwaih douh
Page 38

she

3.

place

the

clothes

in

the

wardrobes

place

will

send

the

letter

to

your

company

______________________________________________

______________________________________________

kuih jung dd-sam fongfong-hi go yy-gwaih douh

ngh wih jung


jung nn-fngfng-seun sungsung-heui nih gnggng-s

The student put the books on the floor

3.

go hohk sang fong d sy hi deih h


the

student

place

the books

on

(douh)

floor

My father sent me to study in England

ngh d dh sung ngh heui Yng Gwok duhk sy

place

My

daddy

send

me

to

England

study

______________________________________________

______________________________________________

go hohkhohk-sang jung dd-sy fongfong-hi deihdeih-h

ngh dd-dh wih jung ngh sungsung-heui YngYng-Gwok


duhkduhk-sy

When some noun such as ground is like an object and a

Using the Jung-sentences here sounds like the child is in a

place as well, douh is optional.

very passive stage. Just because his father arranged to send him
abroad, he has to follow.

4.

The student put the books into the bookcase

4.

sy gwai ________________________________

They send the suspect to the police station

yh fan / chai gn__________________________

go hohkhohk-sang jung dd-sy fongfong-hi sysy-gwaih (douh)

kuihkuih-deih jung go yhyh-fan sungsung-heui chaichai-gn douh

34. They send the child to the hospital


send to - heui

35. He carries the bag to him


give to - bi

Jung-sentences are also common in structures using send to:


heui. Try to rewrite the following sentences into the

Jung-sentences are also common in structures using give to:

jung-sentences

1.

bi. Try to rewrite the following sentences into the


jung-sentences

They send the child to the hospital

kuih deih sung go sai mn ji heui y yn


they

send

the

child

to

hospital

______________________________________________
kuihkuih-deih
deih jung go saisai-mnmn-ji sungsung-heui yy-yn
2.

1.

He carries the bag to him

kuih lng go di bi kuih


he

carry

the

bag

to

him

______________________________________________
go--di lng
ng--bi kuih
kuih jung go

I will send the letter to your office

ngh wih sung fng seun heui nih gng s


http://www.clc.com.hk

Page 39

Predicates and Special Sentences

Page 40

2.

She gave me the piano

kuih sung
she

give

go

36. The magician changes the paper into a


flower

gong khm bi ngh

MW(the)

piano

to

me

______________________________________________

changed/ put/ make into - jouh

kuih jung go gonggong-khm sungsung-bi ngh

Jung-sentences are also common in structures using change,

The MW go here may means the or the short form of yt

make or put into: jouh.

go which means a.
Just by the sentence itself, the listener will not know the speaker

Try to rewrite the following sentences into the jung-sentences

means She gave me the piano or She gave a piano. In actual

In previous examples, the normal order is also common. However

life, the listener can usually tell by the context.

here, the following normal order is not so common as they are in

However, if this sentence is rewritten into Jung-sentences, it

the jung-sentences.

usually refers to a definite object and most probably it means the


piano but not a piano.

1.
3.

He takes the school bag to me

go m seuht s bin d j

kuih l go sy bau bi ngh


he

4.

take the

books bag

to

the

magician

jouh

change the paper

make

flower

me

______________________________________________

______________________________________________

kuih jung go sysy-bau ll-bi ngh

go mm-seuhtseuht-s jung dd-j binbin-jouh f


2.

She give the old things to charity organizations


charity

they

organization

kuih jung d gauhgauh-yh sung bi chhchh-sihn tyhntyhn-ti


He donates

3.

yhng / gyn / gng yk gm

chair

make

circle

She translates the English into the Chinese

kuih yihk d Yng Mn jouh Jng Mn

community chest

she

_______________________________________________
kuih jung yhngyhng-j ge chn gyn bi gnggng-ykyk-gm

http://www.clc.com.hk

the

kuihkuih-deih jung dd-dang bai jouh yhnyhn-yhng

money which he won gambling, to community

donate

put

______________________________________________

chest
win

They put the seats into a circle

kuih deih bai d dang jouh yhn yhng

chhchh-sihn tyhntyhn-ti_____________________________

5.

The magician changes the paper into a flower

Page 41

translate the

English

to become

Chinese

______________________________________________
kuih jung d YngYng-Mn yihk jouh JngJng-Mn

Predicates and Special Sentences

Page 42

4.

Please help me to translate these minutes into the English.

______________________________________________

wuihwuih-yh geigei-luhk_____________________________

go daahndaahn-gu bi ngh saisai-mi sihksihk-saai

meeting

record

hh-gi bng ngh jung nn-fahn wuihwuih-yh geigei-luhk yihk jouh


YngYng-Mn .

5.

The window was broken by the wind

chung / fng / chui laahn j


window

37. He was beaten by the robbers

2.

38. My wallet was stolen


The doer is unknown
1.

The doer is known

my

MW

robber

2.

3.

by a car
hit

jekjek-gu bi (ga) ch johngjohng-chn


The cake

http://www.clc.com.hk

My father

was framed (by someone)


frame

ngh bhbh-b bi yhn hahmhahm-hoih


4.

Dont speak so loud , you will be warned


(dont so loud speak, will by warn)

was eaten up by my younger sister

gng / daaih sng / wih/ wah

daahn gu / sai mi
cake

Her handbag was stolen

papa

hurt

______________________________________________

4.

stole ed

bh b /hahm hoih_______________________________

gu (M: jek) / ch / johng chn


car

person

kuih go susu-di bi yhn tutu-j

ngh bi mm-mh laauh

dog

by

hand bag

mother

The dog was hit

wallet/purse

su di_______________________________________
di_______________________________________

laauh / m mh _________________________________

3.

MW

yhn
yhn

beaten

I was scolded by my mother (dont translate my here)


scold

was stolen

If the doer of the action is not know, people have to use person:

d chak d

by

My wallet

ngh go nghn bau bi yhn tu j

He was beaten by the robbers


he

ed

gogo-chung bi (d) fng chuichui-laahnlaahn-j

bi is used in passive voice and the subject is not willing to accept an


action from which the subject will suffer.
The original sound of bi is beih. People always say the changed
tone: bi

kuih bi

blow break

______________________________________________

Unit 11 bi - by

1.

wind

speak

big

sound

will

warn/criticize

______________________________________________

younger sister
Page 43

Predicates and Special Sentences

Page 44

hh-hu gng gam daaihdaaih-sng l, wih bi yhn wah ga.

5.

My classmate hasnt been bitten by a dog

thng hohk / ngauh


5.

The matter is already know n

______________________________________________

sih (M: gihn) yh gng jj-dou

ngh thngthng-hohk muh bi gu ngauh

matter

already

known

______________________________________________
gihn--sih yh
yh--gng bi yhn j
j--douh la (j is the short form
gihn

Unit 12 Serial verbs

of jj-dou)

More than two verbs are used as the predicate of the same
subject.

40. I want to buy some food

39. My wallet wasnt stolen

Purposes

negative - muh, h haih


1.

The second verb show the purpose of the 1st verb. Just add h

My wallet wasnt stolen

for negative sentences

ngh go nghn bau h haih bi yhn tu j


my

MW

wallet/purse

have not

by

person

steal ed

1.
2.

My wallet hasnt been stolen

ngh sung maih yh sihk

ngh go nghn bau muh bi yhn tu dou

my

MW

wallet/purse

have not

by

person

stole

2.
3.

I want to buy some food


want

buy

stuff

eat

I am not going to buy some coke

He hasnt been fired (dismissed)

h lohk____________________________________

chau yuh y

ngh heui maih hh-lohk

______________________________________________
3.

kuih muh bi yhn chauchau-yuhyuh-y


he

not have by people

I am going to buy some orange juice

chang jp___________________________________

stir-fry squid (fired)

orange

4.

My classmate wasnt bitten by a dog

juice

ngh heui maih chang


chang jp

thng hohk / ngauh


______________________________________________
______________________________________________
ngh thngthng-hohk hh-haih bi gu ngauh
my

http://www.clc.com.hk

classmate

not be

by dog

4.

I will not go to post the letters

gei seun ____________________________________


post letter

bite

ngh hh-heui geigei-seun


Page 45

Predicates and Special Sentences

Page 46

5.

I want to go to watch a movie

ti hei ____________________________________

4.

He draw the diagram by computer

but not by hands

(he not use hands draw diagram,

ngh sung heui titi-hei

___________________________________________
kuih hh-haih yuhng su waahk tuh, haih yuhng dihndihn-nuh

6.

I dont want to buy any food

waahkwaahk-tuh

__________________________________________
__________________________________________
ngh hh-sung maih yhyh-sihk

5.

She doesnt use her right hand. (she always uses her left hand)

___________________________________________
___________________________________________
kuih hh-haih yuhng yauhyauh-su ge.

41. She writes with her left hand


Means or manner
The 1st V-O construction indicates the means or manner of the

42. He pours the water to drink

second. Because its more defining, in negative sentences, one

Purposes & notional object

has to add h haih

1.

object is notional also that of the 2nd verb. Just add h for

She write s with her left hand

kuih yuhng j su
she

2.

The 2nd verb indicates the purpose of the 1st verb and whose

use

left hand

negative sentences

jih

write characters

1.

kuih jm sui ym

We will go to Peking by air

daap
take

he

fi gi
fly

He pour s the water to drink

machine

2.

______________________________________

pour

water

drink

We buy ticket s to watch the concert

fi / yn cheung wi

ngh deih daap fifi-gi


gi heui BkBk-Gng

ticket

concert

_____________________________________________
3.

We dont chat in English, we chat in Cantonese

nghngh-deih maihmaih-fi ti yngyng-cheungcheung-wi


wi

yuhng / kng gi
use

chat

___________________________________________
ngh deih hh-haih yuhng YngYng-Mn kng gi, ngh deih

3.

They dont buy bread to eat

mihn bau___________________________________
kuihkuih-deih muh maih mihnmihn-bau sihk

haih yuhng GwngGwng-DngDng-W kng gi


http://www.clc.com.hk

Page 47

Predicates and Special Sentences

Page 48

4.

They buy food to eat

_____________________________________________

yh / sihk

nghngh-deih yuh mahnmahn-tih mahn Peter

stuff

eat

_____________________________________________
kuihkuih-deih maih yhyh-sihk
5.

5.

She doesnt have money to spend

_____________________________________________
kuih muh chn si

He didnt pour the water to drink

_____________________________________________
kuih h jm sui ym

Unit 13 Pivotal Sentences


The object of the first verb is at the same time the subject of the

43. She has money to spend

second one.

The first verb is yuh

44. I want him to come

In negatives, muh is used instead

1.

Purpose and results

She has money to spend

kuih yuh chn si


she

2.

has

money

The pivotal predicate indicates the purpose and result of the

spend

action indicated by the first verb in the sentence.

They have books to read

Use h -not for the doer doesnt want

sy / ti
books

Use muh-not have for the doer just havent done that

read

_____________________________________________
kuihkuih-deih yuh sy ti
3.

I dont have time to practice

1.

I want

ngh sung kuih lih


I

violin

susu-tihtih-khm____________________________________
ngh muh shsh-gaan lihnlihn-jaahp susu-tihtih-khm

2.

We have problems

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him

come

ht y / kuh
beg

_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________

to ask Peter

mahn tih / mahn


questions

want

The beggar begs him to give money


beggar

4.

him to come

go htht-y kuh kuih bi chn kuih

ask
Page 49

Predicates and Special Sentences

Page 50

3.

He wont treat

me a meal

(he doesnt want)

2.

(he not invite me eat rice)

4.

_____________________________________________

_____________________________________________

kuih h chng ngh sihksihk-faahn

ngh muh phngphng-yuh sk gng GwngGwng-DngDng-W


3.

He didnt treat me a meal (just he hasnt done that)

_____________________________________________
kuih h chng ngh sihksihk-faahn

4.

have

MW

dress

hu hu ti
very good look

I have an overcoat which is blue

_____________________________________________

I dont want him to come

ngh yuh ytyt-gihn ngoihngoih-tou haih lahmlahm-sk ge

_____________________________________________
ngh h sung kuih lih
6.

I have a dress which is very beautiful

ngh yuh yt tuh kwhn

(he not have invite me eat rice)

5.

I dont have any friends who can /sk/ speak Cantonese

5.

I dont have any friends who lives in Hong Kong

_____________________________________________

I asked him not to come

ngh muh phngphng-yuh jyuhjyuh-hi HungHung-Gng

h hu _______________________________________
_______________________________________
ngh giu kuih hh-hu lih
7.

46. Its him who helps me

I didnt ask him to come

1st verb: haih

______________________________________________
ngh muh giu kuih lih

When the first predicate is the verb: haih, the pivotal predicate
is an explanatory verb.

45. I have some friends who live in Hong Kong

1.

Its him who helps me

haih kuih bng ngh

1st verb: yuh

be

he

help

me

st

The pivotal predicate talks about what or how the object of the 1
predicate. The negative sentences use muh instead.
I have some friends who live

Its him who steal

the money

_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________

1.

2.

haih kuih tu dd-chn ge

in Hong Kong

ngh yuh d phng yuh jyuh hi Hung Gng


I

have

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some

friends

live

in

Hong

Kong
Page 51

Predicates and Special Sentences

Page 52

3.

Its Mary who told Peter.

_____________________________________________
haih Mary thng Peter gng ge / haih Mary gng bi Peter
tng(j) / haih Mary wah bi Peter tng(j)
4.

Its you who make

Others

Unit 14 Reference: Elements of a sentence


There are 6 elements in a sentences:

the mistake

gau cho_____________________________________
make

Part IV

1.

Subject
The subject in a Cantonese sentence is the topic talked about.

mistake

haih nih gaaugaau-cho

2.

Predicate
The predicate tells what is said about the subject

5.

It is not him who helps me this time

_____________________________________________

3.

Object
The sentence element that is governed by a verb and denotes a

hh-haih kuih bng ngh

person, thing or place that receives the actions of verb is called an


object.
An object is usually placed after a verb.

4.

Attribute
The sentence element that modifies a noun or nominal phrase and
expresses the quality, state, quantity or category of the person or
thing modified is called an attribute.

5.

Adverbial
The sentence element that modifies a verb or an adjective by
expressing its time, place, manner, scope, quality, state or degree
is called an adverbial.

6.

Complement
Complement is a supplementary or explanatory element, which is
attached to a verb or an adjective.
It indicates how the action is going on, what its result is, how
many times or how long it is done, or what degree or extent a
quality or state of things reaches.

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Page 53

Predicates and Special Sentences

Page 54

brother

Unit 15 Glossary English to Cantonese

elder brother: gh
g, h g, younger

child

sai mn ji

Chinese

style:
style: jng sk,
language: jng mn,

brother: sai lu. hng


daih

people: jng gwok

Admiralty

Gm Jng

bag

di

bus

b s

air

hng hei

be

haih

business

sang yi

circle

yhn yhng

all

s yuh, chyhn
bouh

beat

but

daahn haih

class

ban (no M)

beautiful

leng

buy

maih

classmate

thng hohk

already

yh gng

become

bin shng

by

sign of passive: bi

classroom

ban fng

always

shng yaht

beggar

ht y

cake

daahn gu

clothes

sam

am

haih

big

daaih

calculation

gai sou

clothing

sam

another

lihng ngoih yt MW

bite

ngauh

can

cockroach

gaaht jat

apple

phng gw

blue

lahm, lahm sk

capable of doing sth:


sk, permitted to: h

coke

h lohk

colleague

thng sih

color

sk

come

lih

community

arrive
as
ask
at
attend

dou

book

similar: hu chh

text books/books
with content printed:
sy, blank books for

mahn

writing: bu, verb:


dehng, book

hi
attend a class etc:
suhng

bookcase

sy gwaih

away

to leave: lih hi

bottle

jun

baby

bh b

bread

mihn bau

back

verb: fan, noun:


bui, behind: hauh

break

to break: jng waaih,

bihn
bad

waaih, inferior: ch

badminton

yh muh kuh

keeping: bouh gei

jng laahn,
functional: waaih,
physical damage:
laahn;
laa
hn; break up -

yh
Canada
Cantonese
car

G Nh Daaih
Gwng Dng W
ch

careful

su sm

gng yk gm,
community chest:

carry

nng

gng yk gm

Central

Jng Wahn

company

gng s

chair

dang

computer

dihn nuh

change

gi

concert

yn cheung wi

character

jih

cook

charity

chhchh-sihn tyhntyhn-ti

jy, jyn faahn, a


cook: chyh s

cough

kt

daddy

d dh

organization
chat

kng gi

disassemble: chaak
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Page 55

yhn

Predicates and Special Sentences

Page 56

dark

hak

fall

dit

gamble

du chn

hit

d, bump: johng

daughter

nui

fast

faai

get

l, nng

holiday

deduct

gam

fat

fih

give

dentist

ngh y

father

bh b / d dh

bi, give back the


change: jau

ga, ga kih, on
holiday: fong ga

home

k ki

diagram

tuh

fight

d gau

homework

gng fo

dinner

mahn faahn
faahn

finished

jouh yhn

heui, go out: chut


heui

Hong Kong

Hung Gng

good

do

jouh

five

gh

hu, good value: di

hospital

y yn

graduate

gu

floor

bt yihp

ngh

greedy

tam sm

ice

bng

half

bun

ice-cream

syut gu

hand

su

in

at: hi, enter: yahp

handbag

su di

inch

chyun

hi sm

inches

chyun

dog
dollar

donate

gyn

draw

waahk, draw money:

drink
drive

flower

fly

verb: fi, insect: w


yng

food

yh sihk

happy

foreigner

ngoih gwok yhn

hardworking khn lihk

into

yahp heui

jeuk

forever

whng yhn

have

it

kuih

ym

forget

h gei dk

juice

jp

just

just before: am
mm / jing wah, just

tih chn
dress

noun: kwhn, verb:

drive car: j ch

eat

sihk

England

Yng Gwok

English

people: Yng Gwok

frame

French

yhn, language:
Yng Mn
every

expensive
extremely

ground: deih h,
level: lu

mn

dont

go

mih, whenever
whenever
every: fhng
gwai
fi suhng j

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false evidence
against sb.: hahm

yuh, have to: yiu,


meal:: sihk
have a meal
faahn

he

kuih

hoih, border:
kwang

health

gihn hng, body: sn


ti

people: Faat Gwok


yhn, language: Faat

heart

Mn
French fries syh tu
Friday

lih baai h

friend

phng yuh

heavy

chhng

kitchen

chyh fng

know

j dou

last

previous: seuhng,

help

bng

her

kuih

late

chh

here

n douh

lawless and

muhmuh-faat muhmuh-tn

kuih

godless

him

Page 57

sm

only: jihng haih

Predicates and Special Sentences

the end:
end: jeui mih

Page 58

lawyer

leuht s

many

lazy

lahn

matter

sih (M: gihn)

ju, lih hi

me

ngh

left

left side: j bihn,

meal

chan

verb: lih hi / ju

minutes

thng

meeting minutes:
wuih--yh gei
gei--luhk,
wuih

lessons

thng (no M)

time: fn (jng)

letter

seun (M: fng)

lie

like
little

false saying: daaih


wah
jng
jng yi
hu su, a little bit:

place(verb)

ji

places

seat: wi

h, not yet: meih,


dont have: muh

play

wan, playing tricks:


jng g

now

yh g

playground

gng yn

oclock

dm

please

h gi

office

plus

police

gng chaat, police


station: chai gn

poor

inferior: ch, no
money: khng

h haih
not

dont: h, be not:

lih baai yt, sng


kih yt

money

chn

baahn gng st, s


jih luh, company:

yuht, this month: n


go yuht, last month:

gng s

month

old

seuhng go yuht, next

long

chuhng

more

d d

look

mohng

most

jeui

lots

mother

m mh

loud

daaih sng

movie

machine

gi hei

make up

gong khm

Monday

jyuh

make

piano

not have: muh,


dont: h, isnt h /

cho

live

mainland

yhn, yn

mistake

su su

magician

person

no

leave

lesson

hu yhn, look nice:


leng

month: hah
hah go yuht

old things: gauh,


age: luh

one

yt

post

gei

only

jihngjihng-haih

pound

bohng

or

dihng, waahk j

pour

jm

orange

fruit: chang, colour:


chang sk, orange

practice

lihn jaahp

pretty

leng

problems

mahn tih

purse

nghn bau
bau

put

take: nng, l, place:

hei, movie star:


mhng sng

juice: chang jp

m seuht s

much

hu d

other

daaih luhk

kih t

my

ngh ge

out

jng, jouh (different

need

yiu, no need: h si

usage), in a slang
way: gau

chut, out of order,


waaih

never

chhng lih h

overcoat

newspaper

bou j

paper

(shocks,

next

gaak lih

pen

bt, pencil case: bt

shoes etc)

a lady make up: fa


jng
jn
g

nice
http://www.clc.com.hk

ngoih tou

fong
put on

jeuk

personality: hu,
Page 59

Predicates and Special Sentences

Page 60

question

mahn tih

seldom

hu su

start

hi ch

that

g + MW

quick

faai

send

sung

station

jaahm

the

MW

quite

gi

she

kuih

steal

tu

there

g douh

rain

verb: lohk yh,

shoes

haih

stern

ok

these

n d

noun: yh

short

in height: a, in
length: dyn

stir-fry

chau

they

kuih deih

stop

thng

thin

sau

read

ti

really

jn haih

should

yng gi

student

hohk sang

thing

yh

hhng sk

side view

jk mihn

studies

duhk sy

this

n + MW

red wine

hhng ju

sister

study

wn sy

those

g d

remember

gei, gei dk

j muih, elder sister:


g j, jh j, younger

stuff

yh

three

sam

stupid

chun

throw

summer

hah tn, summer

pau, dm, throw


away : dm

thrust

insert: chaap, push:


tui

ticket

fi

tie

verb: bng, noun:

red

rice

rich
right

ring
robber
robbers
room
say
school

cooked rice: faahn,


uncooked
un
cooked rice: mih
yuh chn
opposite to left:
yauh, correct: am
gaai j
chak
chak
fng
wah, gng
hohk haauh, school
bag: sy bau,
primary school: su
hohk, secondary
school: jng hohk

scold

laauh

http://www.clc.com.hk

sister: sai mi
sitting room haak tng
slow
small

maahn
sai, small change:
change:
san j

so
some

gam
yt d

someone

yuh yhn

sometimes

yuh sh

son
sorry
sound
speak
spend

ji
hh-hu yiyi-si
sng
gng
spend: si, use:
yuhng

star

holiday: sy ga
suspect

yh fan

swim

yuh sui

table

ti

take

carry: l, transport:
daap

tall

gu

tea

chh

teach

gaau

teacher

sn sang, luh s

tell

gng

ten

sahp, ten thousand:


maahn

sng

tennis
Page 61

mhng kuh

Predicates and Special Sentences

tai
time

sh gaan, freq.: chi

to

heui

too

taai

toy

wuhn geuih

translate

yihk / fan yihk

travel

luih hhng

treat

pay for sb: chng,


the way to treat sb:
deui
Page 62

Tsim Sha

Jm S Jui

Tsui

we

ngh deih

well

noun: jng, adv.:


hu, em: gm

TV

dihn sih

two

yih

which

bn MW

understand

mhng

who

bn go?

up

hi

will

wih

USA

Mih Gwok

win

use

yuhng

wind

fng

usually

tng suhng

window

chung

vase

f jun

wine

ju

very

hu

winter

dng tn

violin

su tih khm

with

thng

visit

friends: taam,
museums: cham

work

back
back to work: fan
gng, do: jouh

write

wrong

cho

year

nhn, this year, gm


nn, last year: gauh

gn, a president visit


another country:
fng mahn

yhng

nghn bau

want

sung

nn, seuhng nn, next


year: chut nn,

wardrobe

y gwaih

years old: seui

watch

verb: ti, noun: su


bu (M: jek)

water

sui

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Cantonese Learning Centre


(852) 2881 0116
info@clc.com.hk
http://www.clc.com.hk
V1.3
2000
June 2000
May 2006

The end of the book

wallet

si

:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:

All rights reserved.


Printed in Hong Kong.

dng

wash

Edited by
Tel
e-mail
URL
Version
First printed in:
Last revised in:
Printed in:

wait

warned(critic wah
ize)

Predicates and Special Sentences

yet

(juhng) meih

you

singular: nih,
plural: nih deih

your

singular: nih ge,


plural: nih deih ge

Page 63

Predicates and Special Sentences

Page 64