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Memoryscapes:experimentsindeepeningoursenseofplace

TobyButler

83

HistoryandFilm:AnAudiovisualDatabaseforPostwarArchitecture
andtheCityinGreece

StavrosAlifragkis&GeorgePapakonstantinou

97

Trails/narrativeandthetrailsofnarrative

DafniTragaki&GeorgePapakonstantinou

111

Lookingcriticallyatdifferentmodesofcollecting,archivingandpresenting
oralhistoryattheBritishLibrary

RobPerks

123

II

Seva:,,

[7]

137

:
Chepang

DianaRiboli

153

Oralhistorycrossingnationalboundaries:astudyofbeliefandnonbelief
inthreeEuropeancountries

JoannaBornat&DanielaKoleva

165

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.brahimEdhemPaa()
MustaphaKhaznadar()

183

(19371949)

205

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Greekeconomiccrisisandimmigrants:agencyandstrategiesofPakistanimigrants
inAthens

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[12]

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, European Doctorate in Social History.



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Thompson. Paul. 2002. . . .
...:.
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Abrams.Lynn.2010.OralHistoryTheory.Routledge.
Frisch,Michael.1990.ASharedAuthority.EssaysontheCraftandMeaning
of Oral and Public History. New York: State University of New York
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Perks, Robert & Alistair Thomson. 2006. Critical Developments.
R.Perks & A.Thomson (eds), The Oral History Reader, 2nd ed.
Routledge,113.
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Selection in Generation Stories for Narrative Biographical
Interviews. In R.Josselson, A Lieblich (eds) The Narrative Study of
Lives.vol.1.London:Sage,5991.

[20]

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[24]

ORAL HISTORY AND MUSEUMS

Abstract

Museumsandvisitorsinthememoryindustryera

The last two decades have witnessed a memory boom which has
manifested itself in a variety of activities such as commemoration
ceremonies, the foundation of monuments and museums, the publication
ofcountlessarticles,books,films,etc.Thismemoryindustry,ithasbeen
argued,maybeseenasareactiontothelackofmemory.AsPierreNora
has put it, we talk so much about memory because is does not exist
anymore. Thus, he argues, there are today many lieux de mmoire,
becausetherearenomilieuxdemmoireanymore.Whatisthepositionof
museumswithinthisframe?Whatkindofmemorydotheyrepresent?Who
gives shape to it? Who is it addressed to? Starting with the assumption
that the museum is one of the sites of memory par excellence, a site of
inscriptionandreproductionofcollectivememoryinparticular,thischapter
setsouttoexaminehowmuseumsaddressthevariousaspectsofmemory
andwhatvisitorsmakeoutofthis.


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,,,agazi@otenet.gr.
. Fogu Kansteiner (2006: 285), Huyssen (1995: 36), Lee Klein (2000:
127).
3
Huyssen(1995:36).
4
(1998).
5
.Olicketal(2011).
.RoedigerandWertsch(2008).
2

[27]

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Nora (1989:7),
(lieuxdemmoire),
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(milieux de
mmoire).
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MauriceHalbwachs(1952,1997),
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2001, Assmann 2004). , Hirsch
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Enola Gay
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[39]

, . 2010. .
N M,
(.),
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:

,345361.
, . 2012. . .
:.
,.2010.,.:.
, & , . 2007. ,
:
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, ,
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,,:CDRom.
Sontag, Susan. 2003. . :
Scripta.
, . 1998. .
(.) . : ,
149198.

Andermann, Jens and Arnoldde Simine, Silke. 2012. Introduction:


Memory, Community and the New Museum, Theory, Culture &
Society29/1:313.
Arnoldde Simine, Silke. 2012. Memory Museum and Museum Text.
IntermedialityinDaielLibeskindsJewishMuseumandW.G.Sebalds
Austerlitz,Theory,Culture&Society29/1:1435.
Assmann, Aleida. 2004. Four Formats f Memory: From Individual o
Collective Constructions f The Past. Christian Emden & David
Midgley (eds) Cultural Memory and Historical Consciousness in the
GermanSpeakingWorldsince1500.Vol.1,Bern:PeterLang,1938.
Assmann, Jan. 1995. Collective Memory and Cultural Identity, New
GermanCritique65:125133.
Assmann,Jan.2008.CommunicativeandCulturalMemory.AstridErll
&AnsgardNnning(eds)ACompaniontoCulturalMemoryStudies.
Berlin:deGruyter,109118.
Crane,Susan.2006.TheConundrumofEphemerality:Time,Memoryand
Museums. Sharon MacDonald (ed) A Companion to Museum
Studies,BlackwellPublisher,98108.
[40]

Fogu,ClaudioandKansteiner,Wulf.2006.ThePoliticsofMemoryandthe
PoeticsofHistory.R.NedLebow,WulfKansteinerandClaudio
Fogu (eds), The Politics of Memory in Postwar Europe, Duke
UniversityPress,284310.
Halbwachs, Maurice. 1952. Les Cadres Sociaux de la Mmoire. Paris:
PressesUniversitairesdeFrance.
Halbwachs,Maurice.1997.LaMmoireCollective.Editioncritiquetablie
parGrardNamer.Paris:AlbinMichel.
Hirsch,Marianne.2001.SurvivingImages:HolocaustPhotographyandthe
WorkofPostmemory,TheYaleJournalofCriticism14:537.
Hobsbawm, Eric Ranger, Terence. (.) 2004.
.:.
Huyssen,Andreas.1995.PresentPasts.UrbanPalimpsestsandthePolitics
ofMemory.Stanford:StanfordUniversityPress.
Kansteiner, Wulf. 2002. Finding Meaning in Memory: a Methodological
Critique of Collective Memory Studies, History and Theory 41:179
197.
Kavanagh, Gaynor. 2000. Dream Spaces, Memory and the Museum,
Leicester:LeicesterUniversityPress
Lee Klein, Kerwin. 2000. On the Emergence of Memory in Historical
Discourse,Representations69:127150.
Landsberg, Alison. 2004. Prosthetic Memory: the Transformation of
American Remembrance in the Age of Mass Culture. New York:
ColumbiaUniversityPress.
Law,JaneM.2006.Introduction:CulturalMemory,thePastandtheStatic
ofthePresent,ActaOrientaliaVilnensia7/12:712.
Lipsitz, George. 1990. Time Passages: Collective Memory and American
PopularCulture.Minneapolis:UniversityofMinnesotaPress.
Marstine,Janet.2006.IntroductioninJanetMarstine(ed.)NewMuseum
TheoryandPractice.Malden,MA:Blackwell,135.
McEachern,Charmaine.2007.MappingtheMemories.Politics,Placeand
IdentityintheDistrictSixMuseum,CapeTown.SheilaWatson
Sh.(ed),MuseumsandtheirCommunities,London:Routledge,457
478.
Misztal, Barbara. 2003. Theories of Social Remembering. Maidenhead &
Philadelphia:OpenUniversityPress.
Nora, Pierre. 1978. Mmoire collective. Jacques Le Goff, Roger
Chartier & Jacques Revel (eds) L Histoire Nouvelle. Paris: Retz, 73
106.
Nora,Pierre.1989.BetweenMemoryandHistory:leslieuxdemmoire,
Representations26:725.
Nora, Pierre. 2004. Reasons for the Current Upsurge in Memory, an
articlefromwww.eurozine.com.
[41]

Olick, Jeffrey. 1999. Collective Memory: The Two Cultures, Sociological


Theory17/3:333348.
Olick,Jeffrey,etal2011.Introduction.JeffreyOlick,VeredVinitzky
Seroussi&DanielLevy(eds)TheCollectiveMemoryReader.Oxford:
OxfordUniversityPress361.
Roediger, Henry L. and Wertsch, James. 2008. Creating a New Discipline
ofMemoryStudies,MemoryStudies1/1:922.
Simon,RogerS.2011.AShocktoThought:CuratorialJudgmentandThe
PublicExhibitionofDifficultKnowledge,MemoryStudies4/4:432
449.
Shanken, Andrew. 2004, Research on Memorials and Monuments,
AnalesdelInstitutodeInvestigacionesEsteticas,XXVI/84:163172.
Sturken,Marita.1997.TangledMemories.California:CaliforniaUniversity
Press.
Young,James.1993.TheTextureofMemory,YaleUniversityPress.
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MonumentinGermany,HarvardDesignMagazine9,
http://www.gsd.harvard.edu/research/publications/hdm/back/9you
ng.html.
Wertsch, James. 2002. Voices of Collective Remembering. Cambridge,
CambridgeUniversityPress.
Wertsch, James. 2008. Collective Memory and Narrative Templates,
SocialResearch75/1:133156.
Williams, Paul H. 2007. Memorial Museums: The Global Rush to
CommemorateAtrocities.Oxford:BergPublishers.
Zerubavel, Eviatar. 1997. Social Mindscapes: An Invitation to Cognitive
Sociology.Cambridge,Mass.:HarvardUniversityPress.

[42]

mariavlachaki@yahoo.gr

bstract

Cocreating a museum exhibition on migration: students and parents


explorewaystopresentimmigrantslifestoriesinamuseum

The shift of oral history research interest toward different ethnocultural


communities history lines in time with the opening of the museum
organizations to broader audiences, the promoting of dialogue processes
and the socalled "community" museology. This paper presents
aspects/perspectives of primary school children and their parents,
immigrants and natives, who participated in organizing museum
exhibitions on migration. The research subjects acting persons in action
research programmes with a reflective mood suggest ways to use
immigrantslifestoriesatthemuseumandcontributetoshapeadynamic,
transformative educational framework, which promotes equal
participation,interculturalinteractionandculturalempathy.



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[43]



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1990
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1999:55),
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O

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(Heller Fehr 1989:5).



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,
(HooperGreenhill2007:368).


,
1


1972
(ICOM) (Santiago)

.(1974)()
,

(ICOM,1974).

[44]


(Walsh 1992:160). H
, (social
regeneration), .2

.3
,

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,



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,

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(Sandell
2007:24).



(Stger Stannett 2001).


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(Potter
Leone1986:98).
(Hein 2000), ,
,
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(processesofreception)

(processes f construction) (HooperGreenhill 1995).


,
2

( ew useology)
Quebec 1984
(Mayrand 1985). O
(socialregeneration).
3
...
(state care) (community
care)(Crooke2007:33).

[45]

,
,.,

(openended),

.

,
,

(Carey
1989:23).

, ,
(
2001:220).

,
,
(Usher et al 1997).



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(community museology)
(Crooke2007:10):



.


(social integration).



,
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[46]




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(contactzone).,


.,

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(Martin 1999).


(HooperGreenhill 1997:7),
(Crooke 2007:136),

(Sandell2002:3).

,
,
(ackechnie 2001:117).
,

.

,
(Hallam & Street 2000:151).

.
,

(acdonald2002:241&Sandell2007:27).

DistrictSixMuseum.
1994 Cape Town,
.http://www.districtsix.co.za/(10/7/2011).

[47]

,
,

. ,
(VermaandBagley1984).,


.
,,
.RaymondWilliams(1981:10)

,

(Bauman
1995).
,
,
.

,
(Glick Schiller et al 1992, annerz 2007)
(1998,2006).

,
(Sandahl 2005:8).

.,,,
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,
, , (
1998).

:
[48]

)

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(Green2004:45).,


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)
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(migration history) .

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,
.,
Goodnow (2008b),
,
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District Six Museum (N ), Museum of


Tolerance (H..), Museum of Religious Life and Art (), Museum of Human
Rights(K)MuseumofWorldCulture().

[50]

.6
,

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.

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(James
andProut1990,Mayall1994).


,


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60 19 .7




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50%
(52%) (United
Nations2006).
7
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[51]

:
(Whincop1986:47).



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Ong (1997:99)
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Dierking & Falk (1998:63)

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[52]


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(Day1999:94).


(Pes2004:43).



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[53]

:
.,.


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,
(unsurprisingnostalgia)(Perks2004:44).
M
.

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(1960)
( 19 ).

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.
(intercultural communication uncertainty: Berger 1992)

(intercultural communication apprehension) (Neuliep &
McCroskey1997).


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[55]

,
.






,
.

, . 1998. , .. ,
:.
,&,.1999..
,
&,73:5358.
,.2006.:
:
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,,,28102006.
, . 2001.
. . (.).
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B.&KimY.Y.(eds.) ReadingsonCommunicatingwithStrangers.New
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Society.UniwinHyman.Boston,1336.
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OralHistory,27/1:9196.
[56]

Dierking, Lynn & Falk John. 1998. Audience and Accessibility.


Thomas, S & Mintz, A., 1998, The Virtual and the Real: Media in the
Museum,Washington:AmericanAssociationofMuseums.
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a Transnational Perspective on Migration: Race, Class, Ethnicity, and
NationalismReconsidered.NY:NewYorkAcademyofSciences.
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Sharpless, R. (eds.), History of Oral History. Foundations and
Methodology.Plymouth:AltaMiraPress,932.
Green,ancy.2004..
.:.
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Circumstances. Goodnow K. & Akman H. (eds). Scandinavian
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Books,230245.
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RepresentingOtherness.London&NewYork:Routledge.
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CompaniontotheAnthropologyofPolitics,Oxford:Blackwell,6985.
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[58]

Abstract

Museumsandoralhistories:empoweringmemoriesandsocialrelations

Inthecontextoftherecentriseoforalhistoryinmuseumsandexhibitions,
the paper explores some interesting attempts to negotiate the
representationofthesocalleddifficultculturalheritage,i.e.objectsand
topics that may cause traumas, ideological conflicts and social ruptures.
How do museums contribute through the use of oral history to the
strengtheningoftiesbetweensocietyandthosegroupswhicharenormally
excluded from official history and, therefore, from most museum
narratives?Howcanmuseumsmakethemostoftheiroralhistoryarchives
in order to empower peoples sense of belonging to a place and a
community,torepairtraumaticmemoriesand/ortoreconcile?


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http://www.museumsassociation.org/museumpractice/oralhistory,

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2010.:22/11/2012:

http://www.dhm.de/ausstellungen/hitlerunddiedeutschen/en/ausstellung.html,
http://www.impunitywatch.org/upload/UserFiles/file/Report_mini_conference_Memorialisation.pdf,

22/11/2012. .
The involvement and representation of victims and
perpetrators in memorialisation processes

.

[64]

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[66]

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1987).


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memory communities,
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[70]

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: Janus Pannonius


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[71]

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http://www.nma.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0019/19081/Museums_represent_full_colour.pdf
http://nma.gov.au/schools_bellsfalls/main.html(:3/12/2012).

[72]

.7.,
Wiradjuri o 1824.
, , ,

.
http://www.ryebuck.com.au/elearningresources/bellsfalls/main.html,(:
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[75]

:
. 2009. .
:
.
,.2006.,
22:110115.
Butler, everley & Rowlands, ike. 2012. .
(), .
.:,125150.
, . 2012.
,8:7276.
,.2005..

,2:4350.
, . 2002.
.
. &
(),,3
T.I.C.C.I.H. (,
20222000),,191200.
, . 2003. .

,
1213:119131.
, . 2011.
,http://cretaadulteduc.gr/blog/?p=377.
& (). 2010. .

.:&
.
, . 2012. .
. (),
. , :
,75124.
,.().MuseumsandDifficult
Heritage(16182011),Ilissia,:
.
, . 2006. ICMEICOM.
.(,1823
2005),3:6769.
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[79]

[80]

ORAL HISTORY, AUDIOVISUAL ARCHIVES AND


DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES

emoryscapes:experimentsindeepeningoursenseofplace
TobyButler1

:


,.Toby
Butler

.


.

The story of how I found myself in a rowing boat, intensely


followingapieceofrubbishfloatingintheriverThamesforfifteenmiles,is
going to take some telling. It begins at the Museum of London, where I
worked as an advisor on a sound art installation, called Linked, by the
artistGraemeMiller.ThiswasatrailwhichranalongsidetheM11linkroad
inHackney,thesiteofthebiggestantiroadprotestBritainhadeverseen.
The trail was made up of oral testimony from people who had lost their
homesintheprocessofthemotorwayconstruction,broadcastfromlamp
postsinthestreetsalongsidethenewroad.Atcertainpointsonthewalk
youlistentotracksatspecificlocationsusingaudioequipmentborrowed
fromlocallibraries,alittlelikethemuseumaudioguidesthatmostpeople
arefamiliarwith,butusedintheoutsidelandscape.
This was my first experience of a sound walk a trail that you
followusingsomekindofaudioequipment,usuallyaCDwalkman,anMP3
player or a receiver of some sort. I later dubbed walks that involve oral
history recordings memoryscapes landscape interpreted and imagined
usingthememoriesofothers.
I arrived at the museum when this programme was in full swing
and I was set to work advising on the interviewgathering process from
residentsandprotestorsandlaterevaluatingMillerswork(Butler2005).I
then decided to develop the idea of the audio walk conceptually, as an
activeandimmersivewaytounderstandandmaptheculturallandscape,
1

TobyButlerisseniorlecturerinhistoryattheRaphaelSamuelHistoryCentre,University
ofEastLondon.t.butler@uel.ac.uk.

[83]

TobyButler

and more practically as a potential medium for oral historians to use for
presentingworktothepublic.Isetouttoconstructtwooralhistorytrails
or memoryscapes of my own near my home which at the time was a
houseboatmooredoffasmallislandintheRiverThamesinWestLondon.
One of the first hurdles to constructing a trail is to decide on a
methodofchoosingaroutethroughthelandscapeaswellasthesubject
matter. After working on Graeme Millers Linked project I was heavily
influencedbyhisapproachofusingaroutewayinhiscaseamotorway
asawayoflinkingaseriesofostensiblyunrelatedplaces;anideathathas
also been adopted in literature. Authors have made many creative
attemptstotreattransportroutesasdestinationsinthemselves,worthyof
commentandstudy.Thusthekaleidoscopic,evenchaoticaccumulationof
impressionsinPlattsLeadville:ABiographyoftheA40givesusmanytakes
onreality;cumulativelywefeelthatwesomehowknowtheroadbythe
time we reach the end of the book (Platt 2001). Iain Sinclairs London
Orbital: A Walk Around the M25 (Sinclair 2003) and Patrick Wrights The
River;theThamesinourTime(Wright1999)bothusearoutetoorganise
reflections.Usingtheconceitofajourneyisaquicklyunderstandableway
oforganisingnarrative;ithasanaestheticofitsownthatcanembracethe
unusualandtheunexpectedinacreativeway.
Having lived on the Thames in a houseboat for ten years, I was
acutelyawarethattheriverinLondonwasanentityinitselfwithaculture
ofitsown,yetmanyLondonersseemedtospatiallycomprehendtheriver
more as a border, an administrative and cultural dividing line between
north and south. Maps of conservation areas and local government
boundaries often ended up in the middle of the river. I happened to live
there,thisledtoabsurditiesforexampleIvotedandpaidmylocaltaxes
toalocalauthorityonthenorthsideoftheriver,yetallmyservices,such
asrubbishcollectionwereprovidedbyanotherauthorityonthesouthside
of the river. A report by the London Rivers Association summed up this
fracturedapproachtoLondonsriver:
Theoppositesthatstructurethemindsetsoftheplanningandbuiltenvironment
sectors, local/strategic, natural/urban, brownfield/greenfield and even
water/landseriouslyhandicapourabilitytothinkabouturbanwaterspacesand
their relationship with the city and beyond. The zones, hierarchies (of policy,
plansandstrategies),sectoralboxesandcheckliststhatresultfrom,andreinforce
this approach effectively undermines the spatial configurations and naturalness
ofriverswhichrefusetoconformtothesociallyconstructedlinesonplansandin
strategies (as many of the annually flooded towns and cities now contend).
(Munt&Jaijee2002:75)

Withthisinmind,Iwantedtofindawayofacknowledgingthespatialand
naturaldimensionsoftheriverbydevelopingamoreartisticandintuitive
approachtostructuringmyfieldwork.Idevelopedamethodofusingthe
[84]

Memoryscapes:experimentsindeepeningoursenseofplace

currentoftherivertofindmysampleofriverintervieweesandphysically
link their lives up. A float was made out of driftwood and other river
carriedmaterial,usingadesignborrowedfromhydrologiststhatusefloats
totrackcurrentsinriversandoceans(fig.1).Ifollowedthefloatformany
days,trackingitsroutethroughLondon,andnotingwhereitcollidedwith
the bank (or any other interesting thing). In this way I wanted to
experience London from the river, feeling its flow and using a natural
phenomenonasamemorypaththroughthemoderncity.

Fig.1.ThedriftingfloatusedtofindintervieweesinWestLondon
Many of these collision points became sound points on the walk,
asmoreoftenthannotapotentialintervieweewouldbecomeapparent
thefloatwouldhitaboatorapropertythatwasownedbysomeone,ora
place where an individual was working or resting, and people were
generallywillingtoberecorded.Usuallythismeantanindepthinterview
at their home or place of work at a convenient time. The method
presentedsomeseverechallenges.Movingatthepaceoftheriver,often
inarowingboat,tookagreatdealofpatience(insomestretchesitmoved
at less than 1/10th of mile an hour, or even flowed backwards with the
tide). Some places the float hit seemed so barren that it became a real
challenge to find a connection with human culture, but I found that if I
waitedlongenoughandlookedhardenoughaconnectioncouldoftenbe
made.Anoldoutfallpipeofadisusedwaterworksledtoaninterviewwith
a retired water engineer, for example. The flow of the river suggested
quietandnoisypoints.Turnsintheriverusuallypresentedmewithmore
[85]

TobyButler

collisions, different vistas and encounters with whole families of other


floating objects, each with its own unknowable source, story and
trajectory.
ThelandscapeofthebanksoftheThamesinLondonalsocontains
some of the most imposing architecture in Britain, as successive political
and economic powerhouses were built along the prestigious waterfront
(palaces,bridges,parliamentsandcorporateheadquarters).Manyofthese
buildings have such strong historical and visual centres of gravity on the
riverscapethattheyareallbutimpossibletoignore.Yetthefloatmanaged
to do so. On long, straight stretches the float would move fast,
disregarding royal palaces, whole industries, entire localities. The flow
gave me a strange, unfamiliar structure to my beachcombing of river
relatedmemories.ItforcedmetoconsidertalkingtopeoplethatIwould
not have thought of ordinarily and it gave me a fresh set of memory
places.
This was the latest in a long line of practices that in some way
challenge dominant cultural practices associated with national places of
memory by providing an alternative. You may well be familiar with or
involved in many such practices: neighbourhood tours, parish mappings,
publicart,gardeningprojects(Till2003:294296).
The result was a carefully constructed three mile walk with 12
different sound points along the route, containing a total of an hour of
memories from 14 different people (fig. 2). The sound tracks were also
layeredwithbinauralrecordingsoftheriverbankrecordingsmadewith
a stereo twopart microphone that is placed in each ear of the recorder,
which picks up sound in the exactly the same way as the human head.
Whenthebinauralrecordingislistenedtowithheadphones,theresultisa
startling surround sound if footsteps are recorded behind you, it will
soundasifsomeoneisbehindyouwhenyoulisten.Thisgivesthewalkan
addedtemporaldimension,asthelistenerishearingthepastofthesound
recording along the route (complete with rowers, ducks, swans and
pushchairs)alongwiththepastofthememoriesthattheyarehearing.The
ideawastosensitisepeopletoeverydaysoundsandremindthelistener
that their drift along the river would necessarily be different for each
personthatdoesit.Walkingspeedandpaceplayaveryimportantpartin
thewalktoo.Thenumberandcruciallythelocationofthedriftingsound
pointscorrespondedtotheflowpatternoftheriver,soitisaveryunusual
trajectory.Thewholedesignofthewalkwasmeanttoslowpeopledown,
totakemorenoticeofwhatsurroundsusandthereforemakeplacemore
meaningful.Idecidedagainstcontinuousaudiotoallowpeopletoreflect,
process and have their own adventure between sound points. Of course,
themediumalsoallowsthewalkertoskiporlistenattheirownpace,and
some people enjoyed the walk in a very different way, for example by
[86]

Memoryscapes:experimentsindeepeningoursenseofplace

walking and listening nonstop. The overall effect has been described by
onereviewerasbeingalittlelike aZen koan; a fluid pattern of multiple
agendas, effecting and being effected by the Thames and its social,
political historical and economic sectors. Each location and narrator is
accompanied by the rivers own music, its aural ebbs and flows, the
creaking of wooden boat joints, the wash, a tugboat toot, bodying the
worldofamajorurbanriverway(Friedman2006).

Fig.2.PosteradvertisingtheDriftingtrail
The drifting float method used to find interviewees became
unworkable in the eastern part of London. The author Patrick Wright
roughly divided up river culture into two sections upriver people who
believe that the Thames starts in a field in the Cotswolds and makes its
way between tea rooms and thatched pubs down to London, and
downriverpeoplewhobelievethattheLondonThamestrulystartsatthe
sea and works its way up the estuary. My downriver float fought bravely
on from the first/last tidal lock at Teddington and got about as far as
KelmscottHouse,WilliamMorrisshomeinHammersmith.Fromtherethe
floatbecameimpossibletofollow;theriverwastoowide,tidalandstrong
flowing for there to be enough points of impact with the bank. The float
eithershotalongthemidflowoftheriverorwaspropelledbackwardsfor
hours as the tide came in. To see this strange effect, walk along the
ThamesinEastLondoninMarchandwatchtheChristmastreesfloatingup
[87]

TobyButler

anddown,trappedinastrange,slowtidaldanceafterbeingtossedintwo
monthsearlierinthevainhopethattheriverwouldtakethemaway.
To have continued with my earlier method would have taken
months.FortheDockerstrailIusedthesamestyleofariverculturebased
walk,usingbinauralrecordingsoftheroute,butthistimeIdrewonarare
collection of 200 interviews with dock workers, now archived at the
Museum in Docklands but recorded over 20 years ago when the London
Dockswereshutdown.
The route runs from picturepostcard Greenwich, starting at the
remainsoftheCuttySarkteaclipper,andrunsalongthequaysidesofthe
Greenwich peninsula to end up at the extraordinary Millennium Motel,
partgreasyspooncafe,partgypsycampsite,intheshadowsoftheDome.
The memories used encompass dramatic events, such as when the
GreenwichfoottunnelwasusedashelteragainsttheZeppelinraids,butis
mostlyconcernedwithlifeinthedocksidecommunitiesfromchildhoodto
working on the barges, cranes and warehouses near the river. The
experienceofstandinginfrontoftheruinsofanoldcrane,andhearingthe
prideinthevoiceofacranedriverwhotellsushecouldpickupanything
fromanelephanttoapacketofpinsgivesastrangesensationofbringing
the past present in a very direct way that no memorial or information
board can touch if you visit this website you can hear his words
(www.memoryscape.org.uk/Dockers05.htm)(fig.3).

Fig.3.Lovellswharfcranebasein2007
(nowdestroyedandreplacedbyapartments)

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Memoryscapes:experimentsindeepeningoursenseofplace

Fig.4.LovellsWharfasthecranelookedinthe1950s
Since making the trail, Lovells Wharf (fig. 4) and the Millennium
Motel have both been demolished to make way for apartment blocks. I
hope that walkers are given the chance to make meaning of a confusing
postindustriallandscape;understandalittleoftheculturethatwasonce
there, and reflect on the fact that the last remains of this industrial
landscapearelikelytodisappearforever.Theexperienceisnotnecessarily
nostalgic;thepresentindustryontheriverandtheexisting(andchanging)
lifealongtheroute,bothnaturalandhuman,temperthepullofthepast
tosomeextent;andarecentinterviewwiththeowneroftheMillennium
Motel at the end of the walk gives a positive view of the residential
developmentofsomeveryderelictareas.Ihopethevarietyofvoicesand
stories give a nuanced and complex impression of the area rather than a
whollynostalgicordeveloperhappyimpressionofnothingbutviewsand
progress.
Oneofthetrickiestelementsofdesigningthewalkswasdeciding
howmuchnarrationtoinclude.Thefirstversionofthewalkdidnothave
any narration, because I wanted to get as far away as possible from the
authorial/tourguidestyle.Peoplejusthadtousethemapsandworkout
whattodo.Inthepilotstudyitwasclearthatsomepeoplelikedit,buta
lot of people were not sure what was going on. The whole drifting
experiment got lost; people wanted to know who/why people were
includedandtheywantedtofeelthattheywereintherightplace.Artists
likeGraemeMillercelebratetheideaofgettingabitlostbecausethatis
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TobyButler

when you start to have a bit of an adventure. It is the opposite of most


peoplesinstinct,particularlyofcuratorsinmuseumswhotakegreateffort
tomakethingsasaccessibleaspossible.Basicallysomepeoplewillhavea
great time, but a lot of people just do not get it or feel very insecure
without being guided. I wanted the walk to appeal as widely as possible,
andthewholepointwastolocatethememories,sointheendweputin
thenarration.Ithinkitworksparticularlywellonthedriftingwork,which
wasahighlypersonalpieceitgavemethechancetogetthatacrossand
laybaresomeofthemechanicsofthedriftingexperiment.Insomeways
the process of using archive recordings for this walk was more difficult;
there were some wonderful stories that were impossible to locate, not
least because many people worked in different docks; brief catalogue
summaries made hunting for relevant material very time consuming and
the quality of the recording became more important than usual for use
with a walkman in a noisy environment. This meant that some nice
recordings had to be rejected purely on sound quality grounds.
Nevertheless,manyvoicesthatwouldhaveremainedsilentinthearchives
cannowbeheardatorneartheplaceswherethememorieswereborn.
Whatdidpeoplemakeofit?
I made a particular effort to get my sound walks into the public domain,
making sure that they were available on a website, in local bookshops,
museums, libraries and tourist information centres, and publicising the
walks in the local press and on local radio. In five months at least 3000
peoplelookedatthewebsiteinameaningfulway,600downloadedawalk
or bought the CDs and at least 350 people actually walked the two hour
walks (as opposed to listening at home or online). These may not be
enormous figures, but with no marketing budget and a small amount of
promotional effort the circulation has grown far beyond the expected
readershipofmanyjournalsorlocalhistorybooks;andayearonatleast
7000peoplehaveencounteredthememoryscapesinonewayoranother.
I have conducted audience evaluation using questionnaires and
interviews with nearly 150 adults. Almost everyone was very positive
abouttheexperience,whichbodeswellforfutureworkthatisaimedata
wide public audience. The evaluation process revealed some interesting
benefitstothememoryscapeconcept.Severalpeopleremarkedthatthey
feltempathytowardsthepeoplethattheylistenedtodespitethefactthat
theywerefromadifferentage,classorculture.Thisnormalisationeffect
seemedtocomefromacombinationfactorsincludingthecontentofthe
recordings, the style of speaking, and the fact that the listener could not
seetheinterviewee.Listenersseemedtorespondparticularlywelltothe
variety of voices used: most people seemed to enjoy hearing from real
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Memoryscapes:experimentsindeepeningoursenseofplace

peopleasopposedtoamonovocalguide,andtoprefershortertracksthat
usedmorethanoneinterviewee.
For me the most exciting finding was that the walks seemed to
engender a feeling of identity with the landscape. Respondents reported
that using a variety of senses, imagination, and references in the
landscape, all helped to make the experience more meaningful and
therefore memorable. Creating these connections, or links to place seem
tohavehadledtoafeelingofcloseness,orrootednessforsomepeople.
One newcomer to London wrote now I know a sense of a beginning
attachment. Another walker described the process beautifully as
deepening my attachment to the river. Like roots shooting off into the
soil.Severalpeopletalkedabouttheexperienceaddinganewreality,ora
new dimension of reality to the existing landscape. Furthermore, anyone
whovisitsthelandscapeagaincanusethoselinkstoremembersomething
ofthestoriesthattheyheard.Thus:
Memoryscape has made me consider the part the river has played in so many
peoples lives. I think about this whenever I visit the river since listening to the
recordingdrifting.

Perhapsthisaspectoftheexperiencecouldbeofinteresttothosewishing
toencouragefeelingsofbelongingandidentityinaparticularcommunity
orlocation.
On the other hand, the intimacy of some of the recordings
combinedwithhearingthemoutsidesomeoneshouseorworkplacemade
some people feel uncomfortable, particularly if the memories involved
referred to recent circumstances. For example, one track featured a
number of neighbours talking about a new house in the area the
footpath was located opposite the house that had enormous plate glass
windows and you could see inside. Hearing details of the house and
peoplesviewsofitseemedtobecomemorepowerfulwhenstoodoutside
the house itself, and there is a danger that using oral history in this way
could verge on the voyeuristic. However, as the memoryscape process
involved listening, understanding, consent and empathy I think it ran
contrary to an act of voyeurism, which is based on the powerlessness of
thesubjectbutIthinkitisworthpointingoutasapotentialconcernwith
locationbasedoralhistory.
Another interesting issue that came up was how conversational
recordingcanbecomequiteadifferentbeastwhenlistenedtoinspecific
locations. For example, one couple had described to me how their idyllic
riverside bungalow suffered from sewerage flooding, due to the sewers
being overrun by the sheer number of properties built in the area. The
intervieweesobjectedtotheinclusionoftheseweragestory,becausethey
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TobyButler

feltthatitmightaffectthepriceoftheirpropertyifapotentialbuyertried
the walk. In the end the clip was kept in with the agreement that their
namesandtheexactlocationoftheirhousewouldnotbementioned,but
thiswasaninterestingexampleofhowthenewcontextfortherecording
canintroduceawholenewsetofethicaldilemmas.
Thefutureofthememoryscape
Locationbased technology is becoming widespread. Incar satellite
navigation and MP3 players are now almost ubiquitous. Now new
generationsoflocationawaretabletcomputersandphoneswithgpschips
suchastheiphonearesellingintheirmillions,andwearealreadyseeing
local, national and even worldwide grids of information. A long awaited
EuropeanGPSsystemwilleventuallymakenavigationmoreaccuratethan
everbefore;newlocationbasedgamesandentertainmentswillbecoming
that make use of these location aware systems; mobile internet services
arebecomingcheaperandinsomecitiestheywillbefree;andthesound
walk, memoryscape or its multimedia equivalent will be rapidly evolving
asdifferentdisciplinesandsectorsexploreitspotential.
Memoryscapesarealreadybeingjumpedoncompaniesinterested
in promoting brand awareness through new technology. Adidas have
sponsored sound walks of graffiti walls in the Bronx in New York and in
Glasgow Tennents Lager commissioned a freely downloadable MP3
walking tour of Glasgows music venues; more recently several local
authorities and heritage organisations have commissioned similar app
based trails delivered by mobile phone. Computer manufacturers and
software developers such as Hewlett Packard have long invested in
research and development work for outdoor, mobile computing which
includes locationbased computer games that can geographically locate
players in real time using gps. Content will be varied according to other
realworld sensors, such as heart rate, direction and light using bio
mappingtechniques(Nold2006).InBritainaBAFTA(ourequivalentofthe
Oscars)wasawardedtoaBBCproducerforcreatingaseriesofaudiowalks
(linkedtotheCoastdocumentaryseries),andtherearevariouswebbased
portals for local groups or organisations to podcast their own walks
territory already being rapidly dominated by Google Earth and Google
Maps.
The medium should certainly not left solely for the market and
large institutions to dominate. At best, this cultural, historical and
geographicalinformationsystemcanbeusedtointroducemultiplevoices
andconflictingreadingsofthelandscape(andthosethatmoveandlivein
it).Itcanalsobeanempoweringandexpressiveuseoftechnologyforthe
gazed at (or listened to). Just as simple websites can be constructed by
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Memoryscapes:experimentsindeepeningoursenseofplace

individuals or small groups, sound walks can be made with minimal


training and gain easy exposure on the internet (for examples of student
work see www.raphaelsamuel.org.uk). A walk has none of the practical
problems associated with exhibiting landscaperelated conventional art
work or sculpture, because no exhibition space or planning permission is
necessary. In the past this has proved to be a serious impediment to
communitybased initiatives that do not stem from local government or
theartsestablishmentandthemediumhasthepotential toberelatively
inclusive.
Forexample,IhavebeenworkingonPortsofCall,acommunity
projectneartheOlympics2012siteinEastLondon.UnbelievablyNewham,
theboroughwithcontrolofStratford,doesnotevenhaveamuseumand
the Royal Docks and its surrounding communities are almost completely
devoid of any heritage interpretation in public areas. The Royal Docks,
oncethebusiestintheworldbutnowinastrangephaseofderelictionand
redevelopment,areinseveredangerofbeingthevictimofthesplintered
urbanismthatcharacterisedmuchofthedevelopmentoftheIsleofDogs
andCanaryWharf.PremiumsitessuchastheExcelconferencecentreand
LondonCityAirportdevelopexcellentconnectionsandfacilities,butarein
danger of becoming effectively gated communities, leaving a poor,
fractured communities physically or psychologically excluded from
supposedly publicly accessible spaces. The trails that we have been
creating with local people will hopefully encourage connections between
the different parts of the docks and psychologically ungate these
premium sites by incorporating them as trail locations, and in turn
encourageinternationalvisitorstoventurebeyondthetaxirank.

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TobyButler

Fig.5.WalkersexperiencingamemoryscapeattheRoyalDocks
Hopefully the process of creating and walking the trails will also
provideopportunitiesforpeopletobuildidentityandempathywiththeir
surroundings that feeling of rootedness , particularly for substantial
proportions of the local population that are very new to the area (new
dockside development residents; school children; newly arrived ethnic
groups;studentscomingtotheUniversityofEastLondon).Inchartingthe
areas cultural, industrial, maritime and natural history before it is gone
forever, we are also setting out to invent the traditions of a sustainable
future which builds on rather than disregards local resources, both
environmentalandhuman.Ouraimistodothisinanactive,participatory
way which gives local people new skills whilst at the same time giving
some kind of context to the wider process of regeneration which for the
firsttimeisbringinglargenumbersofmiddleclassprofessionalstoliveand
workaroundthedocks.Theprojectreallydoeshavethepotentialtogive
past and present residents a voice in one of the most rapidly developing
urbanareasintheworld.
Weshouldallbekeepingacloseeyeonthelocediaphenomenon,
whichcouldhaveanimpactasbigastheinventionoftheprintingpress.
Whatever technologies evolve, they will all need one thing interesting,
located(local)content.InthefutureIcanforeseegreatdemandforpeople
with existing skills in local and oral history, particularly for people who
[94]

Memoryscapes:experimentsindeepeningoursenseofplace

have experience of recording and editing and can manage the technical
and ethical challenges that creating public oral history entails. New
producers will also come into the field, and they will need guiding and
traininginthepracticalitiesandethicalaspectsofrecordinglocalpeople.
Archivistsmayalsofindthatthereismuchmoredemandforlocalandoral
history archive recordings. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, this
medium will give communities, groups and disciplines an alternative
outputthatcanbeimmersive,complex,multivocal,accessibleandwith
realpublicappeal.
The two memoryscape walks, drifting and dockers can be
downloaded(orexperiencedonline)atwww.memoryscape.org.ukandthe
latest Ports of Call trails are available from www.portsofcall.org.uk; trails
created by staff and students on the MA in Heritage Studies: Place,
Memory and History, that I lead, can also be found at www.raphael
samuel.org.uk

Bibliography
Butler, T. 2005. Linked: a Landmark in Sound, a Public Walk of Art.
CulturalGeographies,12/1:7788.
Friedman, J. 2006. Media Review: Drifting, from Memoryscape Audio
Walks. Produced by Toby Butler. Oral History Review, 33/1:107
109.
Miller,G.(Artist).2003.Linked:aLandmarkinSound,anInvisibleArtwork,
aWalk[Soundinstallation].
Munt,I.,&Jaijee,R.2002.Postscript.InRiverCalling:theNeedforUrban
WaterSpaceStrategies.London:LondonRiversAssociation.
Nold, C. 2006. Bio Mapping. http://biomapping.net/ Retrieved 24 March,
2006
Platt,E.2001.Leadville:ABiographyoftheA40.London:Picador.
Sinclair,I.2003.LondonOrbital.London:Penguin.
Till, K. 2003. Places of Memory. In K. M. J. Agnew, G. O'Tuathail (Ed.),
Companion to Political Geography, Oxford and Cambridge:
Blackwell,289301.
Wright,P.1999.TheRiver:theThamesinOurTime.London:BBCBooks.

[95]

[96]

HistoryandFilm:AnAudiovisualDatabaseforPostwarArchitectureand
theCityinGreece

StavrosAlifragkis1&GeorgePapakonstantinou2


.
,
,

.
1950
1960 ...
.

Introduction
This paper readdresses the concept of the archive with reference to the
representation of architecture and the city via the moving image. Here,
some initial remarks from ongoing research conducted at LECAD,
Department of Architecture, University of Thessaly will be presented in
brief.TheprojectisfundedbytheResearchCommitteeoftheUniversityof
Thessaly. Using Lev Manovich and Umberto Ecos seminal work on the
database and the list respectively as a point of departure, this research
examines how our understanding of the city and its architecture can be
shapedusingthemovingimageasourprimaryresource.Forthispurpose,
the project involves the setting up of an online multimedia database.
Initially, the pilot prototype will be using archival material from the
collectionsoftheHellenicNationalAudiovisualArchivefromthe1950sand
1960s, when the Greek urban landscape experienced unprecedented
construction activity. This entails handling approximately 250 newsreels
thatdepictdailylife,socialeventsandofficialstateceremoniesinAthens
1

PostdocResearchAssociate,LECAD,DepartmentofArchitecture,UniversityofThessaly,
email:sa346@otenet.gr
2
AssociateProfessor,LECAD,DepartmentofArchitecture,UniversityofThessaly,
email:gpapakon@arch.uth.gr

[97]

StavrosAlifragkis&GeorgePapakonstantinou

andothermajorGreekcities.Effortswillbemadetoenrichthedatabase
with complementary material from private collections that narrate the
informalhistoryofthecity.Thepaperdiscussestheconceptualframework
for setting up the project, compiling the database, and annotating the
mediafileswithmetadata.

HistoryandCinema

Historyisthatcertaintyproducedatthepointwheretheimperfections
ofmemorymeettheinadequaciesofdocumentation.(Barnes2011:30)

AdrianFinnsoneofJulianBarnessmaincharactersfromTheSenseofan
Ending (2011) aphorism attributed in the novel to Patrick Lagrange, a
fictional character of French descent (Sexton 2011:3031) deems
historical research possible solely by virtue of our integral inability to
record, recall and communicate the past even the recent past with a
certaindegreeofdetail.Temporaldistancefromtheactualeventsonthe
onehandandtheinherentsubjectivityofinterpretationontheotherhand
areboundtochallengeonesabilitytodocumenthistoryasaccuratelyas
possible. This does not necessarily constitute a shortcoming as far as
recordingandrecountinghistoryisconcerned.Rather,Barnesappearsto
questionexisting,widelyheldviewsabouthistoricaltruth,byundermining
suchabsolutetermsasthehistoricalfactandbyconsideringnarrationasa
crucialaspectandintegralelementofeveryhistoricalrecord.Indicatively,
Barnesprotagonistnotes:IfIcan'tbesureoftheactualeventsanymore,
Icanatleastbetruetotheimpressionsthosefactsleft(Barnes2011:12).
Barnes is neither the first nor the only author to undermine both the
predominance of the official narrative and the credibility of the
protagonistnarrator.3 Fermentations that took place over a long span of
time both within and across the scientific fields of history and
historiography facilitated what can be described as the transition from
History to histories and from official, formal sources to the life stories of
oralhistory.Furthermore,thesedevelopmentsrendertheactofresorting
toimpressionswithreferencetothenarrationofhistoricaleventsasa
generally accepted practice. Hence, according to Barnes, human
imperfection a failing memory and the multiplicity of interpretations
allows for the fascinating narrations that characterise contemporary
histories, even beyond the literary, fictional renderings of reality, well
withintherealmofscientificendeavour.
3

In Exit Ghost (2007), Nathan Zuckerman, Philip Roths elderly protagonist from the
Zuckerman series, is betrayed by his failing memory and resorts to fiction to compensate
forthelackofconcretefactsinhisdailylife.

[98]

HistoryandFilm

Cinemaandhistoryhavebeenfollowingintertwiningpathseversince
cinema was conceived as a vehicle for telling coherent stories about life.
On occasion, however, their crossing trajectories trigger interesting
debates about their statuses as apparatuses for capturing and
representing, or rather reconstructing, reality. One such instance is
ChristianZimmers1974critiqueoncinemathatfocusesonthemediums
ability to convey an illusion, an impression of reality, a quality inherited
from photography. This constitutes, according to Zimmer, both a great
virtue and an intrinsic flaw. Zimmer attributes the persistence of
illusions/impressionsincinematothebourgeoisideologyofthoseinvolved
infilmmakinganditspervasivenesstothematchingideologyofthosefor
whomthemoviesareintended(Zimmer1976:92).D.I.Grossvogel,inhis
illuminating review of Zimmers study, notes that for the latter: [t]he
motion picture is involved in a definition of history inasmuch as it is a
record, whether that record be documentary or artistic (Grossvogel
1975:52). Grossvogels comment bears particular weight as this study
wishes to emphasise the bilateral osmosis between cinema and history,
bothintermsoftheirsubjectmatterandintermsoftheirmethodologies.
In 1976, Marc Ferro publishes his pioneering work on cinema and
history (Ferro 1976; Ferro 1993). This, according to Ferro, marks a
significantmilestoneforcinematheoryandinterpretationasitisthefirst
timehistorybecomesinterestedinnarrativecinema,thatis,thefirsttime
a film is being considered both as a historical agent and as a historical
document (de Baecque & Delage 1998; Toplin 2002; Delage & Guigueno
2004; de Baecque 2008; Burgoyne 2008). Here, Ferro acknowledges the
aforementioned aspect of cinemas ideological function and establishes
the fact that the reality of every film constitutes an ideological construct
worth revisiting, even if only to study how societies perceive themselves
onscreen.Ideally,ourstudywillexploretheextentandthevariousways
cinemainformsourhistoricalconscienceandwouldcontributegreatlyto
theongoingdiscussiononasubjectthatFerrotermsthefilmicwritingof
history (Ferro 1993:197205). Some thirty years later, in 2003, Ferro
returns to his favourite subjectmatter with updated reflections on the
representation of the past, the present and the future in cinema and its
roleincomprehendinghistory(Ferro2003).
A decade after the publication of Zimmers polemic on cinematic
exegesesbyvirtueofpurelyaestheticAndrBazinsapproachorpurely
technological Jean Mitrys approach means (Zimmer 1976:93), French
theoristPaulVirilioproduceshisseminalworkoncinemaandwar(Virilio
1984).Here,Viriliodiscussesthemovingimagenotasarecordbutrather
as a catalyst of reality. He stresses that the work produced by military
photographic and film companies such as the US Army Pictorial Service,
establishedin1942byGeneralGeorgeC.Marshall(18801959)withaview
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StavrosAlifragkis&GeorgePapakonstantinou

to producing educational and propaganda films for the army and the
general public differs significantly from the use of the moving image as
anindirectsightingdevicecomplementingthoseattachedtotheweapons
ofmassdestruction(Virilio2000:1):amediumforenablinghistoryinthe
making. Indeed, the misuse of cinematic techniques in this case could
significantlyalterthecourseofahistoricalevent.
CanadianAmerican historian Natalie Zemon Davis, in her ground
breakingstudyonslaveryincinema,embarksfromsimilarstartingpoints
toFerro; she challengeshistorians preference for explanations and strict
accounts over engaging narrations a practice established as early as
Herodotus and Thucydides times and questions what contemporary
literature on historiography accepts as valid historical document. Her
valuablecontributiontothetopicofhistoryandcinemacanbepinpointed
toherabilitytoaddressthefilmspotentialfortellingaboutthepastina
meaningful and accurate way on several overlapping levels: the films
subjectmatter, its story and plot and its narratological mechanisms.
Furthermore, Davis successfully examines how all of the above facilitate
the construction of cinematic representations of historic events. These
often entail employing research and representational strategies typically
associated with the contemporary practices of microhistory (Davis
2000:115).Moreover,sheseekstoimplementherinnovativeapproachto
narrative,fictionfilmsandnotdocumentaries,which,bydefinition,make
differentclaimsonreality.Inthisrespect,Davisworkbecomesasourceof
inspirationandsetsthebenchmarkforsimilarfutureendeavours.
Davis approach signposts the way towards revisiting cinematic texts
withaviewtoreappraisingtheircontributiontofillingcomplementingor
contradictingthegapsofhistoricalnarrative.Hermethodologicaltoolkit
maybeputtoeffectiveuseinacriticalreconsiderationoftheworkofthe
renowned Greek filmmaker Theo Angelopoulos (19352012), who had
systematically addressed the representation of historical events on the
canvas of the screen (Jameson 1997:7895; Demopoulos & Liappas
2001:1622; Horton 1999:5572&102126). Angelopoulos screen
vocabulary,grammarandsyntaxhaveparticularbearingonthecinematic
reconstruction of history for two main reasons. First, he had been
experimenting systematically with formal structures that resemble the
narrative formats of microhistory. Second and most important, he
consistently used alternative sources of historical information for
inspirationoraltestimoniesinparticularrecordedbythedirectorhimself
or press clippingswhich worked their way into the final script and,
eventually, the movie (Angelopoulos 2006:5665). One is bound to make
special mention Angelopoulos first feature film Reconstruction (Greece,
1970). Here, interviews with local villagers on the subject of immigration
conducted by the film crew sadly counterpoint images of a picturesque
[100]

HistoryandFilm

but, nevertheless, neglected Greek mountainous hinterland. Our formal


training on Angelopoulos work, revisited via the theoretical toolkit
provided by Davis, shapes the discussion in the following section on
fictionalfilmornarrativecinemaandoralhistory.

OralHistoryandtheMovingImage

OliverFieldsMikeMillsprotagonistfromtheBeginners(2010)playedby
Ewan McGregor inherits Arthur, his fathers dog, after the death of the
latter,playedbyChristopherPlummer.AsheintroducesArthurtohisnew
environs, Oliver embarks on a poetic, highly idiosyncratic and elliptical
descriptionofhisandhisparentslifeandtimes:

[OliverFields]Arthur,youarecomingtolivewithmenow.OK?Thisismycar.Thisis
the dinningroom where people come and eat sometimes. This is the livingroom.
Thatsthebathroom.[internalmonologue]Thisis2003.Thisiswhatthesunlookslike
andthestars,nature,thisisthePresidentandthisisthesunin1955andthestarsand
nature and cars and phones and movies and the President. This is what pets looked
like. These are fireworks. This was smoking. This is what it looked like when people
4
kissed,whentheywerehappy,whentheyweresad.

Fieldsinternalmonologueiscounterpointedwithhighlyevocativeimagery
consistingofstillshotsdepictingrandomfragmentsofdailylifefrommovie
publicityandpromotionalmaterial,printedadvertisement,postcardsand
family memorabilia. Could Mills cinematic experiment with memory,
historyandthemovingimagebeinterpretedasapotentstatementabout
our societys growing reliance on the various products of popular culture
fortheeffectivereconstructionofourrecentpast?Ifthisisthecase,then
onehastoacknowledgethecomparativeadvantageofthemovingimage
asanexpressivemediumforcapturing,preservingandcommunicatingthe
spirit of our times. Currently, the proliferation of the use of various
recording apparatuses is bound to lead to the critical reappraisal of the
mediums role in documenting life. Nonetheless, the fact that, by and
large, contemporary audiences are moving image media literate justifies
theenduringappealofthissemanticallyrichresource.5
Ferro appears to be rather firm about this; the moving image has
prevailed. It is mainly the AngloSaxons and chiefly the anthropological
4

Mill in complete accordance with current trends that call for certain ambiguity when
recalling past events and even events of the recent past has his protagonist add: Six
monthslatermyfathertoldmehe wasgay.Hedjustturned75.Ialwaysrememberhim
wearingapurplesweaterwhenhetoldmethisbutactuallyheworearobe.
5
Various organisations around the world research how people, especially children,
understand and analyse moving images and explore the potential for exploiting their
expressiveness: http://www.movingimageeducation.org/ or http://mediaed.org.uk/ [last
accessed:23/04/12].

[101]

StavrosAlifragkis&GeorgePapakonstantinou

studies that have embraced the use of film as a heuristic research tool,
however, these practices begin to grow geometrically. Nowadays, digital
camcorders that have replaced the video cameras and the video
recordersofthe1980senablemyriadsofcinematicprojectsthatcallforth
memoriesandoraltestimoniesinordertonarratethehistoryofourtimes.
These contribute to the production of a counterhistory, an unofficial
history, freed from the limitations dictated by the formal handling of
traditional archival documents. Thus, this kind of cinema a cinema that
counterpoints official history with heavy dosages of subjectivity and
relativeness can function as a potent historical agent insofar as it
contributes to the formulation of our historical consciousness (Ferro
2002:2425).
Recent attempts by research institutions in Europe and across the
Atlantic demonstrate that the academic community has taken on, rather
enthusiastically, the responsibility of developing a framework for dealing
withsoundandthemovingimageasavitalresource.Thisinvolvestackling
both practical aspects publishing common sets of guidelines for
professional practices, technical requirements and legal issues and
regulating the conceptualisation process. This involves a wideraging
discussion that thematises, among other aspects, cinemas various truth
statuses.OnesuchexampleistheEUfundedcollaborativeprojectentitled
TAPE: Training for Audiovisual Preservation in Europe (20052008).6 The
projectpublishedanumberofreportsavailableonlinethatdocumentin
detailboththeprocessesinvolvedindealingwiththemovingimageasa
historical agent and the potential outcome.7 Similarly, organisations such
as the International Oral History Association and the International
Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives are contributing to the
establishmentofbroadlyacceptedstandardsfortheethicsandthecodes
of oral history.8 In accordance with these developments, the British Oral
History Society9 disseminates reports on the collection, preservation,
digitisation and effective exploitation of audiovisual material for the
reconstruction of the recent past. The work produced by the South East
6

TAPETrainingforAudiovisualPreservationinEurope:http://www.tapeonline.net/[last
accessed:23/04/12].
7

For
relevant
information
please
refer
to:
Available
Online:
http://availableonline.wordpress.com/; Alliance of Digital Humanities Organizations:
http://www.digitalhumanities.org/; The Arts and Humanities Data Service:
http://www.ahds.ac.uk/index.htm; JISC Digital Preservation & Records Management
Programme:
http://www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/programmes/preservation.aspx
[last
accessed:29/04/2012].
8
International Oral History Association: http://iohanet.org/index.php; International
Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives: http://www.iasaweb.org/ [last accessed:
01/05/12].
9
(British)OralHistorySociety:http://www.ohs.org.uk/[lastaccessed:29/04/12].

[102]

HistoryandFilm

Audiovisual Mapping & Strategy Project (SEMLAC) functions as a pilot


prototypeforthecompilation,preservationandaccessibilityofsoundand
moving image resources, for the description of funding and legislative
frameworks and for the outline of potential strategies for future
developmentandfurtherintegration.
In Greece, the network of various state and private foundations that
preserve the countrys audiovisual culture constitutes a rather uncharted
areawithvaryingacquisitionanddocumentationpoliciesandaccessibility
protocols.TheHellenicNationalAudiovisualArchive,nowoperatingunder
theaegisoftheStateTelevisionandRadioBroadcastingCompanyArchive
(ERT),10holdsthebulkofthecountrysnewsreelsandasubstantialnumber
ofdocumentaries.ERTconstitutesGreecesmainrepositoryforaudiovisual
projectsproducedbythevariousStateruntelevisionandradiochannels.
This includes both inhouse productions and coproductions with various
productioncompaniesinGreeceandabroad.Thelatteraredifficulttoget
hold of because of copyright limitations. The online search engine
maintainedbyERTisahugestepforwardinthedirectionofdocumenting
and sharing moving image resources with the academic community and
thegeneralpublic.However,retrievingrelevantcontentcanbefrustrating
at times. Other, private broadcasting companies maintain archives with
their own productions, which are not publicly available. The Greek Film
ArchiveFoundation11isattemptingtocompileacollectionofGreekmoving
image productions feature films, documentaries, short movies,
animation but is nowhere near completing it or making it available on
line.TheFilmArchiveandSubsidiaryDepartments(PhotographicArchive
Digitisation Laboratory) of the Diplomatic and Historical Archives of the
Ministry of Foreign Affairs12 has a relatively small collection of cinematic
documentsfrom1890to1974onavarietyofinternationalanddomestic
topics. Gaining access to the archive is relatively difficult, however, two
publicationsonthecollection(Tomai2011;Konstantopoulou2000)anda
numberofpublishedconferenceproceedingsoncinemaandhistoryheld
between 2001 and 2005 demonstrate the range and wealth of the
Departments activities. The War Museum of the Ministry of National
Defence13 is home to a limited but invaluable collection of moving image
piecesdepictingmilitaryandhistoricevents,accessibleonlylocally.Finally,
10

Hellenic National Audiovisual Archive: http://mam.avarchive.gr/portal/; Greek Radio


TelevisionArchive:http://www.ertarchives.gr/[lastaccessed:01/05/12].
11
TheGreekFilmArchiveFoundation:
http://www.tainiothiki.gr/v2/lang_en/index/index/[lastaccessed:01/05/12].
12
Diplomatic and Historical Archives, Ministry of Foreign Affairs:
http://www.mfa.gr/en/diplomaticandhistoricalarchives/[lastaccessed:01/05/12].
13
WarMuseum,MinistryofNationalDefence:
http://www.warmuseum.gr/english/[lastaccessed:01/05/12].

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StavrosAlifragkis&GeorgePapakonstantinou

various state agencies and bodies and other cultural institutions, such as
the General State Archives, the Konstantinos G. Karamanlis Foundation,
the Melina Mercouri Foundation, the Michael Cacoyannis Foundation14
and the Greek National Tourism Organisation (GNTO),15 maintain more
specialised collections of moving image resources. In June 2011,
Archiotaxio, the journal of the Contemporary Social History Archives
(ASKI),16publishedanissueonthethemeofcinemaandhistory.Theissue
showcased suggestive research conducted with audiovisual archival
materialinGreecetoday.Thequalityandtherangeofthepresentedwork
marks a growing interest in exploring the historical value of the moving
image archive. Moreover, ASKI hosts a significant collection of oral
testimoniesaspartoftheireverexpandingaudiovisualarchives.
AspartofourresearchatLECAD,wearecurrentlyreviewingrelevant
literature on locating, digitising, storing, annotating with metadata and
recyclingaudioandmovingimageresourcesfortheusewiththegeneral
public and researchers with a special interest in the representation of
architecture and the city via the moving image. In doing so, the project
also aims to map the network of relevant private and public audiovisual
archives and collections in Greece and revitalise existing or open new
channels of communication between the various institutions involved in
thesafeguardingofthecountrysaudiovisualheritage.Itisnotexpectedto
diverge significantly from current, established international practices and
normsasfarasobtaining,documenting,digitisingandstoringmultimedia
filesareconcerned.Nonetheless,determiningwhichmovingimageassets
mightberelevanttothetaskathanddescribesapotentandoriginalarea
of research that requires further clarification and documentation. Yet
another point of departure from the relevant literature on managing
archives is the projects proposed endproduct. The Department of
ArchitectureattheUniversityofThessalyintendstosetup,populateand
maintain an online database comprising multimedia assets on the Greek
cityanditsarchitecture.Aprojectspecific,userfriendlygraphicinterface
will enable the remote interactor to discover different ways of exploring
the database and generate multiple narrations across the multimedia
14

GeneralStateArchives:
http://www.gak.gr/frontoffice/portal.asp?cpage=NODE&cnode=1&clang=1; Konstantinos
G. Karamanlis Foundation: http://www.karamanlisfoundation.gr/; Melina Mercouri
Foundation:
http://www.melinamercourifoundation.org.gr/;
Michael
Cacoyannis
Foundation:http://www.mcf.gr/en/[lastaccessed:01/05/12].
15
ThestudyofGNTOsarchiveoftouristdocumentarieshasbeenoneofthesubjectsofthe
ongoing research project entitled Postwar Modernism conducted by the School of
Architecture, National Technical University of Athens, under the supervision of Professor
PanayotisTournikiotis(Alifragkis2011).
16
ContemporarySocialHistoryArchives:
http://askiweb.eu/index.php?lang=en&Itemid=513[lastaccessed:01/05/12].

[104]

HistoryandFilm

assets of the database. Therefore, existing footage, sourced from a wide


rangeofcontentproviders,willbereconfiguredcreativelyandplacedina
new narrative context. This will be made possible by coining a set of
parameters for the rigorous annotation of the pool of media with
descriptive metadata. These are described in details in a forthcoming
publication, as they exceed the scope of this paper. A different set of
parameters will integrate spatial information (shooting locations, GPS
readings)andshapethearchitecturalframeworkforthenavigationofthe
database. The premises for these are briefly discussed in the following
sectionofthispaperentitleddatabasenarrative.

DatabaseNarrative

Eco argues that a list is much more than a compilation of items bound
together by certain attributes, shared in common under the pretext of a
mutual denominator. The list is a powerful art form with immense
storytellingpotentiality(Eco2009:217221).Britishfilmdirectoranddigital
media artist Peter Greenaway has been experimenting with the list as a
storytelling mechanism ever since his first featurelength movie entitled
TheFalls(UK,1980).Greenawayuseslinearnarrativesasasteppingstone
for his multifocal cinematic narrations, which transcend the expressive
confinesoffilmandspillovertoneighbouringartisticfieldssuchasopera,
art exhibitions, happenings and artbooks (Greenaway 1998). His moving
image experiments illustrate what Manovich terms two competing
imaginations in new media cultures: database and narrative (Manovich
2001:233).Manovichsuggeststhatsequential,causeandeffect,singleor
multiple storyline trajectories (narrative threads) and unstructured, non
hierarchical collections of items (databases) take on different statuses as
farascontemporarycomputercultureisconcerned.Naturally,heprefers
the latter over the former, as database narratives put into effective use
functionalities afforded by current technological advances with computer
softwareandelectronicappliances.
Databasesmayconsistofunstructuredmediafilesi.e.assetsthatdo
not conform to strict hierarchical structures but the navigation of the
database relies heavily on complex sets of predefined rules described by
the author and manipulated to a certain extent by the potential user.
Manovich, commenting on his multimedia interactive production entitled
SoftCinema,notesthat:

[t]heDVDwasdesignedandprogrammedsothatthereisnosingleversionofanyof
thefilms.Alltheelementsincludingscreenlayout,thevisualsandtheircombination,
themusic,thenarrative,andthelengtharesubjecttochangeeverytimethefilmis
viewed.(Manovichetal.20023)

[105]

StavrosAlifragkis&GeorgePapakonstantinou

Marsha Kinder attempts to provide the following working definition for


databasenarratives:

Database narratives refers to narratives whose structure exposes or thematizes the


dualprocessesofselectionandcombinationthatlieattheheartofallstoriesandthat
arecrucialtolanguage:theselectionofparticulardata[]fromaseriesofdatabases
orparadigms,whicharethencombinedtogeneratespecifictales.(Kinder2002:215)

Our projects aims is to generate multiple itineraries across the database


assets by developing a projectspecific selection of particular data
transcribing and modifying existing spatial categories from relevant
literature on urban theory and/or devising new classes that pertains to
the creative reconsideration of aspects of urban form. Utilising software
for the manual and automated annotation of our database items with
descriptivemetadataaboutthecityisexpectedtoenableamorecreative
evenartisticuseofthearchiveandresultinabetterunderstandingand
exploitationofitsvaluablecontents.Thisaspectoftheprojectisreferred
toasmediarecyclinganddescribesanextremelypotentandcurrentarea
ofartisticendeavour.Thepracticeofusingandreusingfootageindifferent
storytelling frameworks is fairly common, especially with particular types
of production (newsreels, documentaries, experimental movies, music
videos, advertisements). In the 1920s, soviet filmmaker Dziga Vertov
(18961954), for example, used to recycle his own material and even
footagecapturedbycolleaguesintonewproductions,mainlyduetothe
scarcity of raw materials and the tight time constraints set by ongoing
warfare(Vertov1984).However,apracticethatwasbornoutofnecessity
soon became a matter of aesthetic choice.17 In this context, retrieving,
ordering sequentially and previewing database items that meet specific
criteria i.e. shots, sequences and/or scenes that address Kevin Lynchs
notion of the edge (Lynch 1960) or render visually what architect and
theoristBernardTschumidescribesasanevent(Tschumi1994)froma
muchlargerpoolofmediafiles,couldillustratenewwaysofworkingwith
digital, moving image archives. The juxtaposition of media files from
diverse sources, dictated by a specific set of montage rules, might bring
forthotherwiseunattainedanalogiesorcontradictionsbetweentheassets
ofthedatabase.

17

SeeforexampleSfikasMetropolisesorShubsTheFalloftheRomanovDynasty.

[106]

HistoryandFilm

ConcludingRemarks

Evidently,thefinaldeliverableofthisprojectwillbeauserfriendly,web
basedplatform,wherepotentialusersbothresearchersandthegeneral
publicwillbeabletolocate,configureontheflyandpreviewasuccession
of shots that have been sourced from different narratological contexts
(documentaries,fictionfilms,newsreels,familyvideos).Theirorderingwill
bedictatedbyuserdefined,projectspecificspatialcategories.Ideally,the
platformwouldserveasaplacewherepeoplecanuploadamateurfilmsor
homevideosandcontributetotheloggingofbasicdescriptivemetadata.
The technology for something like this already exists. In 2007, the
American electronic media artist Perry Bard initiated a participatory
reworkingofVertovsTheManwiththeMovieCamera(USSR,1929)over
the internet. She developed a webbased application where individual
userscan:

[i]nterpretVertovandupload[]footageto[the]sitetobecomepart
of the database. [They] can contribute an entire scene or a shot or
multiple shots from different scenes. [] Every day a new version of
thefilmiscompiledfromshotsuploadedtothesite.18
Bards project is particularly relevant to our research as it manages to
successfullycombinetheanalysisandinterpretationofanexistingmoving
imageworkontheonehandandinnovativeandartisticexperimentation
withvisualcommunicationontheotherhand.Similarly,LECADsproposed
webbasedapplicationwillenablethepotentialusertorevisitandreassess
thecitysrecentpastviathecreativereconfigurationitsimageonfilm.The
process described here allows the users to become part of the citys
history by contributing to the multiple urban narrations with their own
content. Hopefully, our pilot, proofofconcept prototype will stimulate
andprompttheusertoimaginepotentialfuturesfortheGreekcity.

18

Man with a Movie Camera The


http://dziga.perrybard.net/[lastaccessed:08/05/12].

[107]

Participatory

Global

Remake:

StavrosAlifragkis&GeorgePapakonstantinou

Bibliography

Alifragkis,Stavros&Penz,Franois,2006.SpatialDialectics:Montageand
Spatially: Organised Narrative in Stories without Human Leads,
DigitalCreativity17/4:221233.
Alifragkis, Stavros & Penz, Franois. 2011. Fragmented Utopias
Architecture, Literature and the Cinematic Image of the Ideal
Socialist City of the Future: Dziga Vertovs Man with a Movie
Camera. In Jonathan Harris & Richard J. Williams (eds),
Regenerating Culture and Society: Architecture, Art and Urban
Style within the Global Politics of CityBranding. Liverpool:
LiverpoolUniversityPress&TateLiverpool,117141.
Alifragkis, Stavros, Penz, Franois & Williams, Doug. 2006. D3.4, Part 2,
Production report: Cambridge City Symphony [project report].
Cambridge:NewMediaNewMillennium.
Alifragkis, Stavros. 2010. City Symphonies Restructuring the Urban
Landscape: Dziga Vertovs Man with the Movie Camera and the
City of the Future [Unpublished PhD Thesis]. Cambridge:
DepartmentofArchitecture,UniversityofCambridge.
Alifragkis,Stavros.2011.BrandingtheWhiteCity:TouristicFilmsandthe
PortrayalofModernAthensinthe1950sand1960s,Tourbanism:
6th Conference of the International Forum on Urbanism (IFoU)
[electronic publication, ISBN: 9788481576207]. Barcelona,
Spain:InternationalForumonUrbanism(IFoU).
Angelopoulos, Theo. 2006. Synthesis in Cinema [interview with Stavros
Alifragkis],Scroope:CambridgeArchitectureJournal18:5665.
Barnes, Julian. 2011. [The Sense of an Ending]. :
.
Burgoyne, Robert. 2008. The Hollywood Historical Film. Malden, MA;
Oxford,UK;Victoria,Australia:BlackwellPublishing.
Davis, Natalie Zemon. 2000. Slaves on Screen: Film and Historical Vision.
Mississauga&Toronto,Ontario:VintageCanada.
de Baecque, Antoine & Delage, Christian (eds). 1998. De lHistoire au
Cinma.Paris:ditionsComplexe.
deBaecque,Antoine.2008.HistoireetCinma.Paris:CahiersduCinma.
Delage, Christian & Guigueno, Vincent. 2004. L'Historien et le Film. Paris:
EditionsGallimard.
Demopoulos, Michel & Liappas, Frida. 2001. A Journey through Greek
Landscape and History: The Travelling Players. In Dan Fainaru
(ed), Theo Angelopoulos: Interviews, Jackson: University Press of
Mississippi,1622.
Eco,Umberto.2009.TheInfinityofLists.NewYork:Rizzoli.
Ferro,Marc.1976.CinmaetHistoire.Paris:Denol.
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Ferro,Marc.1993.CinmaetHistoire.Paris:Gallimard.
Ferro, Marc. 2002 [1993]. [Cinma et
Histoire].:.
Ferro,Marc.2003.Cinma,UneVisiondel'Histoire.Paris:Chne.
Greenaway, Peter. 1998. 100 Objects to Represent the World: A Prop
Opera. :
.
Grossvogel, D.I. 1975. Reappropriating the Political Film: Cinma et
PolitiquebyChristianZimmer,Diacritics5/2:52.
Horton, Andrew. 1999 [1997]. The Films of Theo Angelopoulos: A Cinema
of Contemplation. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University
Press.
Jameson, Frederic. 1997. Theo Angelopoulos: the Past as History, the
FutureasForm.InAndrewHorton(ed),TheLastModernist:The
Films of Theo Angelopoulos, Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood
Press,7895.
Kinder,Marsha.2002.HotSpots,Avatars,andNarrativeFieldsForever,
FilmQuarterly55/4:215.
Konstantopoulou, Photini (ed). 2000. Cinematographic Archive. :
.
Lynch, Kevin. 1960. The Image of the City. Cambridge, Massachusetts:
MassachusettsInstituteofTechnology.
Manovich, Lev et al. 20022003. Soft Cinema: Navigating the Database
[interactiveproduction].Berlin:ZKM.
Manovich, Lev. 2001. The Language of New Media. Cambridge,
Massachusetts;London:TheMITPress.
Roth,Philip.2007.ExitGhost.London:VintageBooks.
Sexton,David.2011.TheRevisedVersion,TheSpectator23July2011.
Tomai, Photini (ed). 2011. Documentary History of Greece: 19431951,
TrumanDoctrineandMarshallPlan.:.
Toplin, Robert Brent. 2002. Reel History: In Defense of Hollywood.
Lawrence:UniversityPressofKansas.
Tschumi,Bernard.1994.EventCities.Cambridge,Massachusetts;London:
TheMITPress.
Vertov,Dziga.1984.KinoEye:TheWritingsofDzigaVertov.Berkeleyand
LosAngeles:UniversityofCaliforniaPress.
Virilio, Paul. 1984. Guerre et Cinma I: Logistique de la Perception. Paris:
Editionsdel'EtoileCahiersduCinema.
Virilio, Paul. 2000 [1984]. War and Cinema: The Logistics of Perception.
London:Verso.
Zimmer,Christian.1976[1974].[Cinmaet
Politique].:.

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Filmography
Angelopoulos,Theo.1970.Reconstruction(Greece,110,b&w)
Greenaway,Peter.1980.TheFalls(UK,195,colour)
Mills,Mike.2010.Beginners(USA,105,colour)
Sfikas, Kostas [ ]. 1975. Metropolises []
(Greece,b&w)
Shub,Esfir.1927.TheFalloftheRomanovDynasty(USSR,90,b&w)
Vertov,Dziga.1929.TheManwiththeMovieCamera(USSR,68,b&w)

[110]

Trails/narrativeandthetrailsofnarrative

DafniTragaki1&GeorgePapakonstantinou2

/
(sound/videowalk) ,
.

()
.

,,,
.
,
.
,
/
.

In the context of our explorations of the interplay between trails, senses


andnarratives,ourgoalhereistopresentthesound/videowalkmethod
whichisusedfortheprojectentitledDe.Mu.Ci.V.:DesigningtheMuseum
forthecityofVolos:historicalresearchandthedevelopmentofinnovative
interactiveenvironmentsforthedistributionofscientificknowledge.3The
sound/videowalkisaninterdisciplinarymethodinwhichweweredrawn
throughourbroaderinterestinthevisualandsoundscapestudiesaswell
as in representations of the city space. It involves an experiment in
combining the bynow established method of soundwalk in the fields of
soundethnography,acousticecologyandsoundartwiththatofvideowalk,
amethodthatinthepasthasmostoftenbeenemployedinethnographic
filmmaking and in video art, and most recently in the fields of social
anthropology,culturalhistoryandgeographyandtheurbanstudies.
1

Univ.ofThessaly,Dept.History,ArchaeologyandSocialAnthropology.
Univ.ofThessaly,Dept.ofArchitecture.
3
ThisresearchhasbeencofinancedbytheEuropeanUnion(EuropeanSocialFundESF)
and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong
Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) Research Funding
Program:Thales.InvestinginknowledgesocietythroughtheEuropeanSocialFund.
2

[111]

DafniTragaki&GeorgePapakonstantinou

Themainquestionaddressedbysoundethnographersiswhatis
to know the world through sound (Bull and Back 2003: 3). Sound
ethnographyinvitesustounderstandsoundasamodalityofknowingand
being in the world (Feld 2003: 226) looking at sonic phenomena and
eventsasdomainswhereculturalknowledgecanbemade:wherewecan
listen to, for instance, power relations, social positionings, racial, gender,
ethnic, religious identities, as well as understanding sound as a way of
regulatingspaceandtime,ofexploringdesire,surveillance,orprocessesof
individualization,togethernessandbelonging,mediationinthecontextof
contemporarytechnoculture,waysoflifeinthemodernindustrialized,and
postindustrializedenvironments.Inanattempttoenhancetheexperience
of placemaking through sound and the exploration of sonic sensibilities
suggested by the recordings of soundwalks, we decided to complement
thesonicwiththevisual.Althoughthevideowalkisamethodthatalready
incorporates the aural dimension, our concern here is to film the
narrative/placemaking process by taking into consideration the
theoretical questions also addressed by sound ethnographers. In other
words, the filming process places special emphasis on sound not only as
thesoundofthefilm,butasaconstitutivemediumofthefilmedspace.By
filmingthesoundwalkweaimatmediatingamultisensorialembodiedand
affectiverepresentationofurbanlife.
Inthecontextofthepresentprojectsound/videowalkinvolvesthe
filming of an itinerary, a route in the city streets that is designed by an
inhabitantofthecityofVolos.Theparticipantisaskedtothinkofaroute
that is invested with lived experiences and memories of the worlds
defining his everydayness, which the subject narrates while walking
togetherwiththeresearchers.Thus,thelifestoriesemergeinmovement:
what is said is connected with where it is said. During the shared guided
walkthenarrationisperformedasthesubjectismovingthroughthebuilt
urban environment, passing by street corners, shops, houses, schools,
wanderinginthealleys,lookingback,pausingatcrossroadsandempty
spaces that altogether trigger memories of the everydayness now and in
the past, inextricably mixing the bygone times with the present. Spoken
rememberingwithinthesynchronizedprocessofplacemaking/narrating
becomesavehicleofmappingandinscribingtheselfintheurbantextand
texture.Inthecourseofwalking,thesubjectrecallsanddescribessenses
ofplace(suchassounds,smells,images,tastes)whichareinterweavedin
the narration of instances of life episodes and life events, of hidden or
forgotten histories and counterstories (see Richardson 1997).
Altogether, they form ways of understanding the city space as an ever
changing, malleable and fluid narrative. At the same time, the narration
itself becomes a soundscape, a part of the trails acoustic ecology.
Video/soundwalking thus becomes an exercise in imagining (Pink 2007:
[112]

Trails/Narrativeandthetrailsofnarrative

240) and beingthere, of moving in what someone else has already


defined as a place, a way of deepening our sense of place and placing
senses.Asplaceissensed,followingStevenFeld,sensesareplaced;as
placesmakesense,sensesmakeplace(FeldandBasso1996:91).
Similar ideas have been expressed in the field of contemporary
architectural theory, which moves away from the conception of an
absolute and objectively defined space to a subjective approach, where
human experience is the basic element for attributing sense to space.
Thinkingofspacebymeansofeventsandscenariosseemstoprevailover
thestaticentitiesoftraditionalarchitecturalconception.BernardTschumi
emphasizes the role of the movement of the human body in generating
spacesproducedbyandthroughitsmovement.Heconsidersthathuman
movement constitutes the intrusion of events into architectural spaces.
Atthelimit,theseeventsbecomescenariosorprograms,voidofmoralor
functional implications, independent but inseparable from spaces that
enclose them (Tschumi 1996:111). In the same vein of thought, Antoine
Picon considers a growing preeminence of events and scenarios over
staticentitiesincontemporaryarchitecturaldesign(seePicon2003).
Moreover, taking a walk together involves an embodied,
intersensorial, performative and reflexive process of creating alternative
cartographiesofthecity,orcountermappings.Toaskforamapistosay
tell me a story (Turchi 2004:11). Rather than a panoramic, objectifying
scheme of squares and lines (the dominant modern model of the city
maps) that represent the city as a continuous twodimensional bounded
surface, we come to know the city as a boundless mesh of intersecting
lines as something that is perhaps closer to what Henri Lefebvre
described as a meshwork of the interwoven storied paths (instead of a
network;Lefebvre1991:117)whichiscontinuallyinterwovenaslifegoes
onalongthem(Ingold2007:84).Thosecartographiesfrombelowinvite
us to know the urban space as a multilayered, multivoiced and multi
authored inhabited nexus of changing landscapes that become
storyscapesproducedbythehumanswhoaremovingwithinthem.
The plots of the various storyscapes emerge step by step. The
arrangementbythesubjectofeventsintoanarrativenavigatesusinthe
scenesoftheurbanroutine,itssoperceivedrupturesandregularities.The
leadingforceinthisnavigationisthesubjectsvoice.Storiesaresensedin
thegrainofthevoice,thesenseofthebodyinthevoiceasitnarrates
(Barthes1977:182).Thenarrating,movingvoicemakesanewworldbyits
verypresenceintheurbanmatrix:Thegraingathersitsbearerslifeand
world within itself (Frith 1981:165). From a psychoanalytic perspective,
thevoicebecomestheinterfacebetweenthebodyandthelanguage,the
subject and the researchers, the internal of the body and the external of
urbanrealities.ItiswhatLacandescribedastheobjectvoice,thevoice
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DafniTragaki&GeorgePapakonstantinou

that functions as a surplus exceeding the meaning of the words and


acquiring a force by itself. It is part neither of the language nor of the
body (Dolar 2006:73). The voice of the storyteller is, following Mladen
Dolar,boththefleshofthesoul,itsineradicablemateriality,bywhichthe
soul can never be rid of the body and an object by the virtue of which
thebodycanalsoneverquitesimplybethebody,itisatruncatedbody
(ibid.:71).Thus,oneistooexposedtothevoiceandthevoiceexposestoo
much(ibid.:81).
Recording the walking voice is both a way of sharing the dialogic
placemakingintherhythmsofthemovingbody,aswellasofexperiencing
placemaking through the medium of the camcorder. We acknowledge
thus the filming and editing as processes of placemaking in itself. In the
topos of the film, people, places, objects, stories, voices, reflections, the
physicalandbuiltenvironmentaredrawntogetherinoneplace,theplace
ofthefilm.Thefilmcreatesaplaceevent(seeCasey1996;Pink2007):it
restages and produces the place, which in the creative process of film
makingandeditingbecomesafilmicplace.There,theexperiences,stories,
memories,meaningsentangledintheplacemakingarerenegotiatedboth
inthecourseofthefilmproductionandintheunpredictableafterlivesof
the film taking place in its screening within various contexts, to various
viewers. For the present research project the imaginative context of
screening is a museum environment (virtual and built) where the filmed
material could be developed and elaborated with the support of new
digitaltechnologiesasamediumofempathetic,embodiedandemplaced
understandingofinhabitantsstoriesofandfortheurbanwayoflife(see
Pink 2007). It is part of a museological approach that aspires to create
multimedia interactive environments and applications in order to escape
conventional museum representations of urban history in terms of an
assemblageofobjectsframedinroomsseparatedbywalls.
The method is attached both to the growing concern with an
ethnography of walking next to the resurgent interest in the sensory
ethnography, combining both with the longestablished ethnographic
approach to lifestories. The ethnography of walking has largely been
inspired by Michel de Certeaus theorizing on walking in the city as a
processofappropriationandaspaceofenunciation.FordeCerteau,it
is walking people who bring the city to life, who are the authors of the
urban text writing the city as a story an ever fleeting and dispersing
spatial patchwork of individual viewpoints and interpretations. The
definition of city space is thus similar to walking itself that is foremost
consideredasanactionoflack[ing]aplace(deCerteau1984:103).More
recently, the anthropologists John Lee Vergunst and Tim Ingold have
stressed that a way of walking does not merely express thoughts and
feelings that have already been culturally shaped. It is itself a way of
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Trails/Narrativeandthetrailsofnarrative

thinking and of feeling, through whichcultural forms are continually


generated (Ingold and Vergunst 2008: 934). But could we not also put
this proposition in reverse, they suggest, to argue that thinking and
feelingarewaysofwalking?Notonly,then,dowewalkbecauseweare
socialbeings,arguesIngold,wearealsosocialbeingsbecausewewalk
(ibid.). While anthropologists have studied the body as the topos or a
metaphorforculture,byfocusingonprocessesofembodiment,theytend
toforgetthatthebodyitselfisgroundedinmovement.Walkingisnotjust
what a body does; it is what a body is (ibid.).Thus, Ingold concludes, if
the body is foundational to culture, then walking or thinking in
movementisfoundationaltobeingabody(ibid.).
IngoldandVergunstdrawourattentiontothesocialityofwalking:
walking involves encounters, copresence in the public space. Walking
togethercanbeseenasasensorialactivitythattheresearchersmayshare
withthewalkingnarrator.Asasocialpracticeofmobility,walkingtogether
becomesapromisingsiteforknowingtheselfthatsensesandnarratesin
movement. Rather than separating meaning and perception from the
senses,meaningandthesensesareconsideredasone:tosenseistothink
isto sense.Thus, itis inthe immediacy of the sensory experience where
knowledgeismade.4
Seen in those terms, pathmaking becomes a way of
intersubjectiveselfrepresentation,atechniqueoftheself,wheretheself
constantlyemergesinthedialogicprocessofmoving/narrating.Infrontof
thecameralensthesubjectperformsaselfthatisattachedto,knowsand
thus owns a specific place while facing the researcher who addresses
her/him as a source of knowledge. Through his/her walking narrative we
come to understand the place as her/his place, the subjects very own
lifeworld. Inevitably, our subsequent experiences of the route contain
more or less the meanings, the memories, the feelings, the anecdotal,
personalstorieswithwhichthesubjectinvestedthatspace.
To that extent, walking and storytelling become inseparable
practices. As Katrin Lund has noticed, the narration is continually carried
onwards not just in peoples spoken words but in their pacing feet (see
Lund2008).Theindividualtrailsdonotthereforereenactalreadyexisting
stories; rather the stories emerge from one step to the next, they are
inventedinmotion,unfoldinginsynchwiththeplacemakingprocess.Or,
asJohnBergerhasputitawhileago,storieswalk,likeanimalsandmen.
And their steps are not only between narrated events but between each
4

Thesensesthusaremorethanavehicleforexpressionofextrasensory,culturalvalues,
while the body is more than a locus for writing culture. The sensing body narrates its
relationship with the world producing what in cultural geography has been described as
hapticknowledge(Patterson2009:768).

[115]

DafniTragaki&GeorgePapakonstantinou

sentence,sometimeseachword.Everystepisastrideoversomethingnot
said (Berger 1982: 284285). The performativity of narration is
intertwined with the performativity of walking together. Besides, they
bothinvolvetheimaginativedrawingoflines(followingTimIngoldsideas
on the production and significance of lines); the line of the trail and the
lineofthenarrative.Asoverlappingabstractlinearities,theyareproduced
through improvisation, a concept that invites us to explore the complex
praxisofwalking/storytellingasacreativeproject(seeIngoldandHallam
2007). Here, the analogies with the creative process that defines
composition in the context of artistic production are challenging indeed.
Like the practice of musical improvisation, for instance, improvisation in
walking/narrative involves unforeseen deviations (parentheses that may
perhaps disorientate and reorientate), which are often decided in situ,
returnstothesamepoint,thepossibilityofsteppingbackwardsorstriding
towards a more attractive next point, revising the initial planning,
encounteringcrossroadsthatdemandchoices,findingalternativetrailsto
the desired destination and, why not, changing destination. As
performative, relational and temporal creative processes the trail of the
narration and the narration of the trail are therefore unique; they can
neverbethesameagain.

Pilotapplicationofthemethod

Forourfirstexperimentationwiththeapplicationofthemethodwehave
beenintroducedtoYiannisKoutis,a45yearsoldlocalhistorianwhoworks
for the Municipal Centre for Historical Research and Documentation of
Volos. After briefly explaining to Yiannis the kind of approach we were
interestedin,weaskedhimtothinkofanitinerarythatwasabouttobe
filmed.Yiannispromptlyexpressedhiswilltoparticipateandwearranged
a meeting at the starting point, at the intersection of Glavani and
Analipseos streets. He was going to show us his neighbourhood, the so
calledregionofKaragats.Ofcourse,wehavebeenluckytocooperatewith
someoneextremelyeloquentandanalytical,whowaseagertosharewith
us instances of his life there. And, we had the privilege to be guided by
someone knowledgeable of the local historiography. For now, at a
preliminary stage of the research, let us just notice that this property of
Yiannis local history seems to be of particular interest, since his
narration includes scattered references to archival information and
historical sources with which he is well acquainted. In fact, those
references are becoming an inseparable part of the Karagats fiction
authoredbyYiannis.Theyhavebeenintegratedinthelivedexperienceof
hisemplacedstorytelling/placemakingproducingtogetheracontinuous,
smoothflowofnarrative,hisknowledgeoftheplace.
[116]

Trails/Narrativeandthetrailsofnarrative

In a walk that lasted about an hour, Yiannis guided us to the


streets where he had played as a child, and we rewalked together his
routineroutetoschool.Alivelyandengagingnarrator,hewalkedwithus
totheboundariesofhisregion,demarcatinghisplaceinthecity.Thoseare
the invisible borders of Karagats that exist in the imagination of its
inhabitants.ThroughYianniswecametoknowthelowerlimitofthearea,
Analipseos street, and we reached together what he described as the
upper end of the city, Gianni Dimou street, an area once covered by
vegetable gardens described as the fields or the pear trees (i
ahladhies; because of the presence of a couple of pear trees there, as
mentionedbyYiannis).Inthepast,thisiswherethecityfabricfadedgiving
placetonature,thecountryside.Yiannisinvestedhisnarrationaboutthe
citys upper end based on local knowledge with archival information
gainedthroughhisstudyofVoloshistory.Instantly,hesubtlyswitchedto
the version of himself as a local historian and mentioned that in the
proceedingsoftheassemblyoftheVolosMunicipalityCouncilin1960itis
referred that Gianni Dimou street would be constructed and widened, in
ordertobecometheurbanperipheralroad.Untiltheearly1980s,Yiannis
remembered,theareawasuninhabited;eversincethecityhadgradually
occupiedit.Tocompleteourguidedtourtotheimaginarymappingofthe
region we then turned towards the western boundary of Karagats, along
Kyproustreet.Theageoldlandmarkofthisimaginaryborderlanddefining
thewesternboundaryisan imposing, tall poplar tree, still vivid today on
Ethnikis Antistasis street (close to the crossroad with Kyprou street).
Beyond the tree it is no longer Karagats Yiannis explained to us. By
heading south towards Lordou Vyronos street, our sound/videowalk
almost circumscribed the Karagats area of schools. During the bodily
mappingofthecartographyinmovementwewerealsointroducedtothe
nativenamingofspecificlocationsaratherinformalnamingconceivedby
theinhabitantsthathasbeenerasedfromtheofficialurbancartography
such as the socalled lakka tou Vavoula (Vavoulas pit) or komenna
homata (cut soils; on Ethnikis Antistaseos street, between OGL and
Gamvettastreets).5
Thesharedimaginarycartographyoftheregionwasinvestedwith
Yiannismemoriesofinstancesofhiseverydaynessasachildinthestreets
of Karagats. His narration animates moments of the everyday life in the
neighbourhood featuring senses nostalgically (and perhaps idealistically)
recalling what it meant to live there. Our pathmaking experience was
hauntedbyseveralstoriesunfoldinginplacesnowadaysgoneorchanged,
such as the burning of the food cooked in KyrAlekos bakery (today a
5

The name, according to Yiannis, refers to the digging out of soils that were then
transferredtotheVolosharborconstructionplace.

[117]

DafniTragaki&GeorgePapakonstantinou

private garage; on Glavani street, between L. Vyronos and Achillopoulou


streets,6
see
also
the
video
excerpt
at
7
http://www.arch.uth.gr/uploads/files/koutis1.mp4) or the mens daily
gathering in the cart building workshop (karopoiio, once located at the
intersection of Mavrokordatou and Ethnikis Antistasis streets).8 We
imagine the near past of the region in the noises of the streets the
mechanicalsonorities,forinstance,producedintheblacksmithsworkshop
oncelocatedoppositefromYiannishomethatbecamealmostunnoticed
as they formed a part of the routine soundscape of his place (at the
intersectionofGlavaniandAchillopouloustreets).Wewanderintheroads
once occupied by voices of locals, who become in a way the familiar
phantoms of the Karagats locality, such as Yiannis humorous mimicry of
thechangingdynamicsofSotirisfathervoicecallingforhissontoreturn
home
late
at
night
(see
the
video
excerpt
at
http://www.arch.uth.gr/uploads/files/koutis2.mp4).
The
repetitive
performanceofthiscallusedtosignify,asYiannisnoticed,theendofthe
dayforthechildrenplayingoutinthestreets.Itwasasoundeventrelated
(amongothers,suchasthechurchbells)towaysofmakingsenseoftime
in the routine of the neighbourhoods life. Next to the imaginary
inhabitants of the past, enlivened in the realm of the story, our path
included short introductions to a couple of contemporary inhabitants of
theregionthatweaccidentallyencounteredthere.Theirbodiesandvoices
becamepartofthetrail,too.Throughoutthewalkingnarrativeweimagine
Karagats ensounded by school bells, the lively crowds of children in the
playgrounds, the rhythmic knocking of the basketball playing in the
schoolyards, the robust echoes of the Analipseos church bells spreading
all over the area. We also share his memories of favourite childhood
6

The bakery had an oven where the neighbourhoods housewives used to send their
cookedfoodforbaking.Thesmellsofthehomecookedfoodusedtospreadinthestreet
(accordingtoYiannis)lettingeveryoneknowwhatwasthemealofthedayforthefamily,or
what was the favourite specialty of the housewife. The baker, a bachelor, often kept a
portion of food for himself instead of being paid in cash; he thus enjoyed a share of the
tasteofthehomemadefood.Momentslikethisillustratethemakingofthesocialbonding
oftheneighbourhoodinthepastprimarilythroughthesensesoftasteandsmellandthe
changingculturalmeaningsoftheprivate/publicspaceinteractionsinthearea.
7
ThevideoexcerptshavebeeneditedbyGeorgeKalaouzis.
8
Theworkshopwasaplaceforsociabilitymainlyforoldmen,whereeveryonepossessed
his own chair. Following the death of a member of the company, the owner used to
suspendhischaironthewall,almostasanactofkeepingmemoryofthehonoreddeceased
(accordingtoYiannis).Itisperhapstemptingtoassumethatthevisibilityofthechairandits
very materiality mediated a sense of the body of its holder (its stature and gestures)
creatinganimpressionofpostmortempresence/absenceintheplace.Thesuspendedchair
maybeunderstoodbothasamemorialagainsthisirreversibledepartureandasareminder
thathehasbeenthere.

[118]

Trails/Narrativeandthetrailsofnarrative

tastes,suchasthesweetpleasureoftheEVOLchocolatemilkandsmellsof
freshlybakedbreadcomingfromthethennumerousbakeriesofthearea.9
Thosearesensesfromthesubjectivepastlivedinthepublicspace,which
arehererepresentedasavitalpartofitsurbantextureandlandscape.All
together, the memories of sounds, voices, smells and tastes invite us to
gain senses of Karagats in the 1970s and 1980s in fact, of Yiannis very
ownfictionofhischildhoodKaragats.
The crew of the pilot application of the method consisted of a
sound engineer, Nikos Vamvakas, the director and cameraman, Giorgos
Papakonstantinouandtheethnomusicologist,DafniTragaki.10Inpurpose,
thefieldrecordingsituationmovedawayfromthesofarappliedmethod
ofthelessormorestructuredethnographicinterview.Here,thenarrator
wasencouragedtoimprovisehistrailandstoriesinsitu,soastocreatehis
own chain of spoken memories allowing his imagination to freely flow in
the course of the shared pathmaking. Yiannis narration was scarcely
interrupted by the researcher (who addressed only a few clarifying
questions or reassuring responses and comments in the form of an open
dialogue). Questions that directed the narration towards specific issues
havethereforebeenavoided.
Thesoundwasrecordedwithalapelmicrophoneconnectedtoa
wireless system and attached to the narrator. The audiovisual recording
wasmadewithahandheldcameraandafieldrecorder.Asaprinciple,the
cameraremainedalwaysfocusedonYiannisandhismovement.Theplane
size varied from a medium close shot, emphasizing gestures and facial
expression,toalongshot,recordingYiannismovementofwalkinginthe
urban tissue, the rhythm of his pace, his communication with neighbors,
etc.Atasecondstage,complementaryplanswillberecorded,alongwith
Yiannis itinerary, focusing on specific places, buildings or vistas that
Yiannisreferredto.
ThefilmprovidedthesourcefordesigningYiannisroutemap.Ata
nextstage,thisroutemap(http://goo.gl/maps/l8SBs)willbecomepartof
aninteractivedigitalmapwherethemuseumvisitorcanaccessuploaded
informationaboutthearea,itshistoryandthenarrator(suchasfilmedand
photographedvistas,soundscapes,historicalsources,oldphotos,archival
material). This map could be continually supplied with new material thus
allowingtheconstantupdatingofthemuseumdisplays.Inthecontextof
thevirtualcitymuseum,theeditedrecordingandtheinteractivemapwill
9

EVOL is the local milk industry founded in 1952 by the Volos Association of Agricultural
Unions(EnosiAgrotikonSynetairismonVolou).
10
The film and the map have been edited and developed by Ifigenia Charatsi at the
Laboratory of Environmental Communication and Audiovisual Documentation (LECAD
EPEOT)oftheDepartmentofArchitectureoftheUniversityofThessalydirectedbyGeorge
Papakonstantinou.

[119]

DafniTragaki&GeorgePapakonstantinou

be transformed to digital cultural objects new cultural objects made


possible through technology. They are going to gain new lives and
meanings in the context of the total digital and natural material
(databases,objects,ethnographicinterviews,photos,maps,etc.)gathered
and produced by the current research project. In this way, through the
sound/videowalkmethodtheinhabitantsareinvitedtoactivelyparticipate
inthemuseumrepresentationoftheircity,inthewaysknowledgeabout
thecityiscommunicatedandmade,andthecreationofwhatintheend
will be defined as Volos cultural heritage. Finally, the method may
provide useful material for applications related to museological
representations of the city outside the museum building, such as audio
guides, downloadable applications for mobile phones and various
multimedia and webbased exhibitions. The digital material may also be
used for educative programs and as a raw material for various artists
interestedinworkingonthemediationofthecityknowledgeinsymbolic
forms.Suchinitiativesandactivitiesfacilitatetheopeningofthemuseum
totheoutsideworldanditstransformationtoalively,attractiveplacethat
accommodates creativity and recreation. They are connected to the idea
of the museum in movement through the employment of new
technologies and the potential of the community engagement that may
question, challenge, reaffirm or subvert established master narratives
about Volos history and culture. Taking advantage of the flexibility, the
transferabilityandthemalleabilityofthedigitalsoftresearchdata,the
idea of the moving museum departs from institutionalised, static and
locationfixed representations of the city. It allows both the mobility of
knowledge about the city outside the city and the mobile multisensory
knowledgeofthecitymadepossiblebeyondthemuseumbuilding.

[120]

Trails/Narrativeandthetrailsofnarrative

References

Barthes,Roland.1977.MusicImage,Text.London:FontanaPress.
Berger, John. 1982. Stories. In John Berger and J. Mohr (eds), Another
WayofTelling,NY:VintageBooks.
Bull,MichaelandLesBackeds.2003.Introduction:IntoSound.InM.Bull
andLesBack(eds),TheAuditoryCultureReader,Oxford,NY:Berg,
118.
Casey, Edward 1996. How to Get from Space to Place in a Fairly Short
StretchofTime:PhenomenologicalProlegomena.InS.FeldandK.
Basso (eds), Senses of Place, Santa Fe, New Mexico: School of
AmericanResearchPress,1352.
de Certeau, Michel. 1984. The Practice of Everyday Life. Los Angeles,
California:UniversityofCaliforniaPress.
Dolar, Mladen. 2006. A Voice and Nothing More. Cambridge, MA: MIT
Press.
Feld,StevenandKeithBasso,eds.1996.SensesofPlace.SantaFe:School
ofAmericanResearchPress.
Feld,Steven.2003.ARainforestAcoustemology.InMichaelBullandLes
Back (eds), The Auditory Culture Reader, Oxford, NY: Berg, 223
239.
Frith,Simon.1981.SoundEffects.Youth,Leisure,andthePoliticsofRock'n'
Roll.NewYork:PantheonBooks.
Ingold,Tim.2007.Lines.ABriefHistory.London,NY:Routledge.
IngoldTimandJoLeeVergunst,eds.2008.WaysofWalking.Ethnography
andPracticeonFoot.Aldershot:Ashgate.
Ingold Tim and Elizabeth Hallam, eds. 2007. Creativity and Cultural
Improvisation.NY:Berg.
Lefebvre,Henry.1991.TheProductionofSpace.Oxford:Blackwell.
Lund,Katrin.2008.ListentotheSoundofTime.WalkingwithSaintsinan
Andalusian Village. In J. L. Vergunst and T. Ingold (eds) Ways of
Walking. Ethnography and Practice on Foot. Aldershot: Ashgate,
93104.
Patterson, Mark. 2009. Haptic Geographies. Progress in Human
Geography33(6):766788.
Picon, Antoine: 2003. Architecture, Science, Technology and the Virtual
Realm. In A. Picon and A. Ponte (eds), Architecture and the
SciencesExchangingMetaphors,NewYork:PrincetonArchitectural
Press,292313.
Pink,Sarah.2007.WalkingwithVideo.VisualStudies22(3):240252.
_________2009.DoingSensoryEthnography.London:Sage.
Richardson, Laurel. 1997. Fields of Play: Constructing an Academic Life.
NewBrunswick,NJ:RutgersUniversityPress.
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Tschumi, Bernard. 1996. Architecture and Disjunction. Cambridge Mass:


MITPress.
Turchi,Peter.2004.MapsoftheImagination:TheWriterasCartographer.
SanAntonio:TrinityUniversityPress.

[122]

Looking critically at different modes of collecting, archiving and


presentingoralhistoryattheBritishLibrary

RobPerks1

Thisisaneditedtranscriptofapresentationmadeon27May2012atthe
ConferenceBridginggenerations:interdisciplinarityandlifestoriesinthe
21stcentury.Oralhistoryandlifehistoryapproachesinthesocialsciences.

25

,
, .
,
BBC,
.,
,
.


.

ThankyouforinvitingmetoVolos.Itisagreatprivilegetobehere.Ihave
agreataffectionforGreece,Icomeherealotanditisanaddedbenefitfor
metocomeforworkaswellasforpleasure.Ithinkthisisaveryimportant
momentforGreekoralhistoryandIamverypleasedtobepartofit.
I am going to talk about the work I do at the British Library (BL).
Over the last twentyfive years we have created one of the largest oral
historycollectionsintheworld,inthecourseofwhichwehavefacedlots
ofproblemsandchallengeswhichIwanttosharewithyou.Ialsowantto
share with you some recommendations, perhaps to apply to your own
work,whichhascomeoutoftheworkwehavedoneattheBL. I do not
1

LeadCuratorofOralHistoryandDirectorofNationalLifeStories,BritishLibrary,London

[123]

RobPerks

know how many of you know the British Library, which is the national
librarybasedincentralLondon.Itwasopenedaboutfifteenyearsagoand
tookthirtyyearstobuild.WehaveintheBLmanymanydifferentkindsof
material.Itisavastcollection:some150millionitemswhichgrowatarate
of 12 km of shelf space every year. Within this huge collection, sound
representsoverthreemillionitems.Andwithinthatoralhistoryisasmall
proportion,perhaps34,000interviews.Thevastmajorityismusic,theatre,
andwildliferecordings.
I am responsible for oral history, but also for historic sound
recordingswhichmayormaynotbeconsideredoralhistory.Theoldest
recordingswehavearefromthe1890s.ThomasEdisoninventedrecorded
sound in 1877, but the oldest spoken word we have are only from the
1890sincludingFlorenceNightingale,thefamousCrimeanWarnurse,and
somepoliticalfigures.Veryfewvoicerecordingshavesurvivedfrombefore
WorldWarOne.Fromearlywaxcylinderrecordersasameansofcapturing
sound we moved to directcut instantaneous disc recorders of the kind
that were used by anthropologists and oral historians in the interwar
period, particularly in America. Early 'oral historians' in America in the
1930s working under the New Deal WPA projects recording native
Americansandformerslaveswereusingthesediscstomakeoriginaloral
historyrecordings.Theyareveryfragilenow,andfragmentsarebeginning
todisappearfromthediscs.Theyrequirelotsofconservation.
By the time I started doing oral history in the late 1970s, early
1980s, I was using a Uher openreel machine and many oral historians
used them. They were heavy and unwieldy to use but very good quality
machines, and the recordings are still very reliable. But very quickly, for
reasons of lightness, cheapness and portability, we were moving in the
1980s to audio cassettes. A small number of oral historians still use
cassettestoday,althoughitisnowanobsoleteformat.Nowadaysweuse
digital'solidstate'recordersalthoughthathascreatedadditionalproblems
Ill come back later on. () So within those three million items I
mentionedwehaveverydifferentformats.Andtherehaveprobablybeen
another 20 or 30 ways and formats of making audio recordings which I
haven'tmentioned,allofwhichrequiredifferentmachineryanddifferent
conservationtechniques.

ThehistoryoforalhistoryattheBritishLibrary

Let me say something about the historical relationship between oral


historyandtheBL.ThoseofyouthatsawPaulThompsonspeakingatthe
conferencelastnightwillknowthattherelationshipbetweentheBL,oral
historyandPaulThompsonhasalwaysbeenveryclose.Wehavetwovery
important collections in the BL from founders of the international oral
[124]

Lookingcriticallyatdifferentmodesofcollecting,archivingandpresenting
oralhistoryattheBritishLibrary

historymovement,particularlythemovementinBritain.Thefirstofthese
is George Ewart Evans. He's not wellknown outside Britain but he was a
folklorist.IfPaulThompsonisregardedasthe'father'oforalhistory,Evans
is thought of as the 'grandfather'. He was doing oral history before Paul
Thompson discovered oral history in the 1970s. George started in the
1950s, interviewing agricultural workers in a small village in East Anglia,
oftenhisownneighbours.Hewasusingoneofthoseopenreelrecorders
that I mentioned and we have his recordings in our collection. He was
virtually the only person that was making what we would now call 'oral
history' recordings at that time. And the first book he produced, Ask the
Fellows that Cut the Hay, is probably still one of the important books of
earlyoralhistoryinBritain.
EvanswasaninfluenceonPaulThompsonwhen,inthelate1960s
early1970s,hewroteTheEdwardiansandTheVoiceofthePast,thatyou
will know, that were based on his oral history research project called
'FamilyLifeandWorkExperiencebefore1918'.Wehavethose500orso
recordings in the BL collection. And it is also interesting to note that the
OralHistorySociety,ofwhichPaulwasafounder,wasactuallyfoundedat
the British Institute of Recorded Sound, which later became the British
LibrarySoundArchive.SotherelationshipbetweenBLoralhistoryandthe
OralHistorySocietyandOralHistoryJournalhasalwaysbeenveryclose.
Frommodestoriginstherewerehugechangeswithinoralhistory,
particularly in the 1970s and 1980s. Under the Thatcher Conservative
governmentalargenumberoftemporaryworkschemesweresetupbyan
organisation called Manpower Services Commission (MSC) to give
unemployedpeoplejobs.Lotsoforalhistoriansofmygenerationbeganon
those early projects in the 1980s. I ran community history projects in
Yorkshire,lookingattextileworkersandethnicminoritygroupscomingto
BradfordinWestYorkshire.ThatswhereIlearnedmyoralhistorybeforeI
joinedtheBLasitsfirstoralhistorycuratorin1988.The1980swasatime
of huge expansion in oral history activity, particularly in community
groups,inmuseums,inlibrariesandarchives.Andshortlyafterthatinthe
1990s the government launched the first national lottery scheme in
Britain.Alltheproceedsfromthelotterygotosportandcultureandthats
meantthatmillionsofpoundshavebeengiventooralhistory.Wevehad
to really lobby government and the Heritage Lottery Fund (HLF) but
something like 82 million pounds have been given to oral history since
1997(April2012figures)whichhashadanamazingimpact.

[125]

RobPerks

CollectingoralhistoryattheBritishLibrary

We have 370 oral history collections at the BL and they grow every day.
They range from a single tape to the largest collection which is 5,500
interviews just in one collection, the Millennium Memory Bank project,
which we partnered with BBC Radio for the year 2000. In total we have
34,000interviewsinthecollectionandweareaddingabout100150hours
ofrecordingseverymonthfromvariousfieldworkers.Noneofthiswould
be really worthwhile if it were not for the people that actually use the
material:about43,000userseverymonthonsiteandonline.Thatsavery
largenumber.AndinBritainitisreallycriticalnowtoshowtheuseofyour
archivedmaterialanditsimpact.Itisnotgoodenoughonlytocollectand
to archive, you have to demonstrate use. And of course these sort of
figures are very useful in encouraging more funding for oral history.
Gradually we are also putting more interviews online. At the moment
therearenearly2,000interviewsonline.Itsstillasmallpercentageofthe
whole, but it is growing all the time. The digitisation of the cassettes is
obviouslyoneofthelargestchallengeswehave.
So how do we collect? Well, we review what were doing all the
time.Obviously,asanationalcollection,wehaveanationalbrief.Wehave
tomakesurethatwecovernationallifeinBritain,sowelookforthegaps
and then we try and create projects that fill the gaps of historical life in
Britain.Andthenwecollectinthreeways:

Depositspeoplegiveusthings,theycometotheBLandsayIve
gottheseinterviews,doyouwantthem?Notalways,sometimeswedo.

Partnershipsaveryimportantwayinwhichweveworkedwith
externalorganisationsuniversities,communitygroups,tocreatematerial
tocomeintothecollection.

Fieldwork projects. I have about 20 interviewers that work with


me and the oral history team on different projects and in different
capacities,manythroughNationalLifeStories.
Iamgoingtotalkaboutthesethreedifferentcollectingareasand
thenI'mgoingtotalkabouthowwedisseminateourmaterial.
So,peoplewanttodepositrecordingswithus.Andtheseareour
criteriaforacceptingmaterialintotheBL:

Firstofall,theyhavetobeofnationalimportance.Ifpeopleoffer
uslocalmaterial,thentherearelocalarchives,museums,libraries,where
thismaterialcango.HoweverwehavehadbigspendingcutsintheUKand
manylocalarchivesarebeingthreatenedwithclosureorarereducingtheir
services.Thatsquiteachallenge.

Weobviouslyalsowanttoarchiveitemsthatwecanhear.Youd
besurprisedhowmanyoralhistoriansmakerecordingsthatarenotvery
easytohearorunderstand!Sowearelookingforgoodqualityrecordings.
[126]

Lookingcriticallyatdifferentmodesofcollecting,archivingandpresenting
oralhistoryattheBritishLibrary

Then we are looking for people to transfer their intellectual


propertyrights(IPR)totheBLsothatinthefuturewecanmakemoreuse
ofthismaterial.
The BL's oral history collections have some particular strengths
including areas where we feel there is interest, but also where there are
good project partnerships. So there is a lot of material related to health
(aboutnurses,aboutscientifichealth,doctors,patientexperiences).Some
oftheseareacademicprojects,thathavegatheredinterviewsonparticular
researchtopicsandthengivenustherecordings.Oneexampleisadataset
ofinterviewsaboutthebeginningsofthecontraceptivepillwhichwasthe
basisofabookbyacademicLaraMarks.
Andthenwehavealotofmaterialrelatedtopolitics.Asyouknow
theoralhistorymovementinBritainoriginatedasaradicalmovement.So
muchoralhistoryhasbeendoneabouttheCommunistParty,theSocialist
Workers Party, and the Labour Party. We have recordings related to
politicalpressuremovements.VerylittlefromtheRight.Virtuallynothing
fromtheConservativeParty.SomefromtheLiberalPartyandquitealot
fromtheUK'svariousfarrightandfascistparties.Iknowthisisanissuein
Greece at the moment, with the rise of Golden Dawn, but as a historian
Ivealwayshadtheviewthattounderstandapoliticalmovementyouhave
to go and collect material and interview people to understand their
motivation:theoriginsoftheFarRightasmuchastheFarLeft.Sothese
areveryinterestingrecordingstohave,noteasytolistento,buttheywere
recorded from the 1950s to the 1980s, with a whole series of different
fascist parties, different meetings, different interviews. They are quite
unusualandquiteimportanttohaveinthecollection.
Two other examples of collection strengths. We have collected
quitealotofmaterialrelatedtothegayandlesbianmovementintheUK.
And also the Holocaust. The Holocaust is an area where oral history has
been especially active over the last 2030 years. Weve got perhaps 600
interviews with Holocaust survivors and also with the younger, second
generation whose parents were Holocaust survivors and they talk about
the experience of their parents transmitted to them as younger people.
ThatwasaprojectthatPaulThompson,BillWilliamsandIledintheearly
1990s.
The second way in which we collect is through partnerships. An
example is a project we did in 2009 in partnership with 'Moroccan
Memories' documenting migration from Morocco to the UK. The way we
work nowadays with community organisations is that we aim to get
involved at a very early stage with the training, in the standards, in the
structures and frameworks in which the project works. We give partners
an Excel data capture spreadsheet, to ensure that all the data that they
createaspartoftheprojectveryquicklycanthencomeintotheBLandbe
[127]

RobPerks

convertedintoourcatalogue,withverylittleextrawork.HavingthisExcel
data sheet standard creates a way in which many different communities
can capture data in the same way, which then does not have to be
rekeyed.Thishasprovedtobeaverysuccessfulwayofoperating.Weget
goodqualitymaterialintothecollection,andfortheprojectitgivesthem
what they need, the tools for documentation. And then we work with
themontraining,andfollowuptrainingandfeedback.
Wevealso workedinthisway with disabled groups. Weve been
involved in a whole series partnership projects on disability. The main
reason for this is when I audited the BL oral history collections ten years
ago,therewasverylittleondisabledpeoplesexperiences.Ithinkthatis
typical of many traditional historical archives. So we deliberately had a
campaignofworkingwithdifferentdisabilityorganisationstogathervoices
fromdisabledpeople.Andwevenowrecentlylaunchedawebsitewhere
these many different voices can be heard, for example from people with
mental health problems and from people with cerebral palsy, which is a
disability that affects people in many different ways. In the case of the
cerebral palsy project there was also a teachers' pack for use in the
classroom,drawnfromtheinterviewsandaimingtochallengestereotypes
aboutdisability.
Most recently weve been working with a group of people who
sufferfromhearingloss.Notpeoplewhowereborndeaf,butpeoplewho
had acquired hearing loss. Some can get a cochlear implant which is an
electronicwayofrestoringsomehearing.Forthisprojectweworkedwith
someonewhotypedupwhatthepeopleweresayingontotwoscreens,so
that two people who are both deaf, can actually interview each other
through the screen. This worked incredibly well, and it also gave us a
transcript. Obviously the typist had to take a regular break, every fifteen
minutes, because it is incredibly intense and requires a lot of
concentration.Butitwasaveryinterestingwayofworking,aninnovative
way of using technology, so that two people without hearing can
communicateandcreateanoralhistory.Isitoralhistory?Theycanthear
it,butwecanreadit,itsaveryinterestingconceptof'aural'.
Another way in which we have worked with external partners is
through academic projects. For example Joanna Bornat from the Open
University deposited a project about medical geriatricians. And with the
University of Brighton we collaborated on a project on haemophilia and
HIV;withSheffieldUniversity, a number of projects related to food; with
WimbledonCollegeofArt,theatredesign.
Letmemovenowtowhatmostofyouwouldconsiderkeytowhat
youaredoing,gatheringmaterialyourselves:fieldworkprojects.Someof
these projects we carry out with funding from the BL as part of a
collectionsacquisitionsfund.Oneexampleistheoralhistoryprojectwith
[128]

Lookingcriticallyatdifferentmodesofcollecting,archivingandpresenting
oralhistoryattheBritishLibrary

British athletes which we started fifteen years ago and which we have
recently made available online in time for the London 2012 Olympics.
There'salsoaprojectaboutthestaffwhoworkattheBL.Andotherswith
photographersandhorticulturalists.Butthemainwayinwhichwegather
oralhistoryisthroughNationalLifeStories,aseparatecharity,whichsits
within the BL, with its own board of directors, as a means of raising
additional funds for BL oral history. At the moment we are raising about
200,000 every year for oral history through National Life Stories. It has
beenabrilliantwayofengagingwithbusiness,withdonors,withdifferent
heritage organizations to bring additional funding for oral history
fieldwork.
Weinterviewbothinpeople'sownhomesandinastudiowehave
at the BL. We are also now doing some video interviewing. We still use
audioforthelonglifestories.Mostoftheseinterviewswillbe1215hours
in length and then we supplement them in some cases with video
interviews,quiteshortandnormallyonlocationorataparticularplaceor
with a particular object which is significant. We find this is a much more
efficient way of working and it is much cheaper than using only video.
Oftenwhenyouhaveaninterview,youdontneedtoseesomeoneshead
andshouldersfor15hours.Sowedoasupplementaryinterviewonvideo
withsomethingwhichisvisual.Ithasworkedreallywell.
Using the long life story methodology we have completed many
projectsoverthelasttwentyyears.Andeachoftheseprojectshasvaried
in length, some hundreds of interviews, some fifteen. We have tried to
focusonkeyindustriessuchassteel,oilandgas.ImentionedtheJewish
community. One of the earliest projects interviewed pioneering women:
the first woman judge, significant women journalists, medical pioneers.
We are looking for a very broad array of different voices including elites.
WeconcludedaprojectontheCityofLondonasacentreoffinanceand
bankingsomeyearsago,beforeallthebigchangesofthelastfewyears,so
IthinkwenowneedtogobacktotheCityandaddsomemorequestions
aboutwhatwentwrong.
WehavealsoovertheyearscoveredBritishfashion,thePostOffice,and
the food sector including a corporate oral history of Tesco supermarket,
which at one time was responsible for 1 in every 7 pounds spent in
Britaininthehighstreet.ThisresultedinaCDofextractsfrominterviews,
andabookisabouttobepublished.
AmongstourcurrentprojectsisAnOralHistoryofBritishScience
whichhastwofulltimeinterviewers,anadminassistantandanacademic
advisor from Leicester University, with 500,000 pounds of funding from
theArcadiaFundforthreeyears.Wevealsojustfinishedanoralhistoryof
Barings Bank, an ancient merchant bank which youll all remember
collapsedduetotheactivitiesofaroguetraderNickLeeson.Wevedonea
[129]

RobPerks

very interesting oral history of that particular bank but many of the
recordingswillbeembargoedforsomeyearsyet.Andwevebeingdoinga
lotofworkontheutilities.Havingcompletedanoralhistoryofthewater
industry, supported by some of the privatised companies, weve just
launched an electricity project that has been funded privately by one
particular person, who has donated enough money to employ a fulltime
interviewerforthreeyears.Ivealwayshadtheviewthattherearepeople
out there with money who are interested in their own history and if you
can connect with them in a way that works, as an oral historian I feel
comfortablewithusingthatmoneytodocumentawholeindustry.Eachof
theseprojectsisacrosssection,Imnotinterestedinaneliteortopheavy
project,theseareprojectsthatcoverthewholesector.Soforexamplefor
the Barings project we interviewed the butler as well as the senior
management.

Archivingandaccess

Letmenowmoveontoarchivingandtheuseofthematerial.AttheBLwe
keep all our borndigital and digitised oral history recordings in a Digital
LibrarySystem(DLS)inLondon,andthisisinturnbackedupandmirrored
oncomputersystemsindifferentpartsofBritain.Soalltheinterviewsare
also held in Yorkshire, Scotland and Wales. We have agreements to
shadow all the data. It has to be very safe, selfduplicating and self
checking. From your own points of view, on a smaller scale, this is what
youhavetodowithyourdata.Youhavetomakesurethatyoubackupon
different drives and keep those drives in different places. Nowadays it is
verycheaptodothis.Aoneterrabytedriveisincrediblycheap.Soforallof
you creating oral history material a) it is important to follow good
standards(forexamplebyrecordingwavfilesat16bit/44.1kHz)butb)itis
importanttobackitupandputitindifferentplaces.
What we do when we collect the material is to describe it in a
catalogue,thisisthesoundarchiveandmovingimagecatalogueandyou
can access this catalogue from anywhere in the world
(www.cadensa.bl.uk).Itincludesinformationabouttherecording,thedate
of the recording, the equipment that has been used, but also there is a
content summary as well. Each of the words in that summary is
searchable, so that researchers can find the details of the content within
thecatalogue.Sothoseofyouwhowanttogiveaccesstoyourrecordings
youneedtocollectdataregardingthoserecordings:notjustthecontent,
butwhodidtherecording,whenandwhere,howcanitbefound.Andthe
only way in which people can access oral history recordings is through
somesortofdescriptivedata.Itisverydifficulttolistento,say,tenhours
hopingyoufindsomething,youneedsomedataconnectedwiththem.
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oralhistoryattheBritishLibrary

Weprovidethisserviceonsite,sopeoplecancometotheBLand
if material is not in digital format we then digitize it on demand. People
come in and they have a playlist on a computer and they can listen with
headphonesinoneofthereadingroomsbutincreasinglyweareproviding
accessonline.Atwww.sounds.bl.ukwearenowprovidingonlineaccessto
the oral history recordings in full. There are already various packages
availableincludingAnOralHistoryofBritishScience.Interviewsarebeing
put online as soon as we get permission from the people we are
interviewing.Noteveryonewantstheirvoicegoingontheweb.Itdepends
ontheproject.Somepeoplefeelthattheirinterviewsareveryconfidential
andtheyclosetherecordingforaperiodoftime,maybetenyears,maybe
twentyyears.Andofcoursethatisfinewithme,Iamnotworried,asan
archivistIamcollectingthingsforthefutureaswellasfornow.Obviously
someresearchersneedtousetheirdataimmediately,butforarchivesitis
perhaps less important. So it is quite common that people request an
embargoorclosedperiodfortheirmaterial.
Apartfromarchivingandprovidingaccesstothewholeinterview,
we have also been creating interpreted websites: selecting, editing and
showcasingparticularcollectionsforparticularaudiences.Thesepackages
areallontheBL'slearningpagesatwww.bl.ukandexamplesinclude'Food
Stories' and 'Voices of the Holocaust'. Each has oral history clips,
information on the interview and information for students to use. They
have a combination of various resources, information, transcripts,
questionsforstudentstouseintheclassroom.
We have also been creating publications, CDs and information
packs. CDs are a fantastic way of getting things out into the community
andsharingcontentwithinterviewees.SomeexamplesincludePassionate
Rationalism, about a modernist architect called Erno Goldfinger; one on
the Royal Mail the postal service which was used by the company as
partofchangemanagementtraining.Andmostrecentlywehavecompiled
doubleCDsonauthorsspeakingabouthowtheywrite,andartiststalking
aboutdrawing.Thissecondonehasgoneouttoartstudentsrightacross
the country. From very long interviews with artists, all we have done is
extract little bits of the interview where they are talking about drawing.
And these are then presented in a way accessible to particular students
whothemselvesarelearninghowtodraw.Indifferentcontexts.

[131]

RobPerks

Someconclusions

Ivetriedtoidentifyfrommyexperienceoverthelasttwentyyearswhat
the key challenges have been and how we have responded to those
challenges. The first challenge remains the technological challenge. The
biggestproblemwehaveisthatmaterialcomingintothecollectionisnot
goodqualityorisonanolderaudioformatorisnotaccessibleinvarious
ways. So these are my recommendations, especially to those of you who
arestartingoutinoralhistory.
Firstly,decideatthebeginningoftheprojectwhetherornotyou
aregoingtopreservetheaudio.Ifyoudo,itneedstobeofgoodquality
and it needs to be in a format that is forwardcompatible, that is not
proprietary. The problem, for example, with many Dictaphone machines
(like the Olympus) is that they are poor quality and use a proprietary
format that will disappear quite quickly. So you need to use an
internationalstandardsuchasPCMwavfileatnotlessthan16bit/44.1kHz
quality.ThisiseffectivelyCDquality.Itdoesnotneedtobeexpensive,but
it is an international standard which has, as much as we can tell, a
guaranteedfuture.Anditcanbeconvertedintodifferentformatsandisa
goodaudiostandard.AsIsaid,backupyourdataontodifferentdrives,and
then have very clear procedures for labelling and naming the particular
datafiles.Allthisisgoodpracticenowfororalhistorians.IntheolddaysI
wouldwriteanumberonthecassetteanditwouldgoonashelfandthat
was it. Nowadays you have to think more carefully about managing the
data.
Secondly the context. The context is very important and it is
something oral historians need to think more about. Lots of collections
cometomeandthereisnoinformationaboutwhothepersonisthatdid
therecordings,whoistheresearcher.Ithinkeveryprojectshouldhavean
interview at the end with the researcher that collected the data so that
historians and users of the future understand the researcher, what were
the research questions, what were the problems during the project, how
didtheprojectchange.Inotherwords,researchersofthefutureneedto
understandthecontextfortheresearch.Sokeepyournotes,keepallthe
questions around the interviews and archive that with the interviews
themselves. And of course you need to describe the content of the
recordings,ifyoucantdotranscriptsandtheyareveryexpensiveyou
need to do content summaries, so that people can quickly do a content
searchandfindoutwhatisthere,preferablythroughanonlinecatalogue.
Thirdly,legalchallenges.MyguessisthatGreeceisasignatoryto
the European Copyright Convention, which means that the copyright
situation is very similar to the one in the UK. So it means that for every
recording you do, you need to have some sort of document which
[132]

Lookingcriticallyatdifferentmodesofcollecting,archivingandpresenting
oralhistoryattheBritishLibrary

indicates who owns the copyright in the recording and gives you
permissionastheresearchertousethematerialinpublicationsandonthe
web. And this is both an ethical and a legal question. And it is very
important that you have a form that people understand and sign
determiningthewayinwhichthematerialwillbeusedinthefuture.And
of course, I guess youll know there is a different culture between
historians and sociologists when it comes to anonymising data. As a
historian I am rather opposed to it and I will only anonymise data if the
intervieweerequestsit.Ithinkitiswrongthatthereisadefaultposition
thatyoushouldalwaysanonymise.Particularly,aspeoplecancometothe
BLandlistentothevoiceoftheperson,iftheyknowthepersontheywill
identifyhimevenifthedatahavebeenanonymised.Sothereisanissue
here. And of course as historians in the future we want to compare oral
historywithotherhistoricalresources,suchascensusdataandhistorical
papers. So we need to know the name of the speakers in most cases. I
thinkitisquiteimportantnottoanonymiseifyoucanavoidit,exceptat
therequestoftheinterviewee.
Thefinalchallengerelatestoethicalissues.Ivealreadymentioned
thatasanarchivistyoucollectthingsthatyoufeelunhappyabout,youfeel
theymightbedifficultpolitically,butIthinkthatitismyroleasanarchivist
to make sure that I represent the breadth of society. Whatever my own
views I think it is important to have a comprehensive collection and a
comprehensivewayofworkingthatrepresentsallthoseviews,sothatwe
understand change within our society. And there are also occasions in
whichyoucollectmaterialwhichpeoplefinddifficulttolistentoforother
reasons. An example might be interviews with prostitutes, with sex
workers.Alotofpeoplefindtheseverydifficulttolistento:theyinvolve
violence, drug use, abuse. But this is what I think we are best at as oral
historians. I think we are brilliant at collecting voices which otherwise
wouldnotbecollected,whichwouldbemarginalised.Andthisisstillthe
thingthatdrivesmeasanoralhistorian.Ithinkwearefantasticallyplaced
to do things which other historians cant do. But equally we have to be
cautious.Wehavetomakesurethatthematerialwecollectisnotgoingto
leadtolegalaction.Andtherearesomeinterviewsthatweputuponthe
webwherepeoplehavecontactedusandthreatenedlegalactionbecause
ofthewayinwhichtheyhavebeendescribedintheinterview.SoIthink
we have to be sensitive to controversial material, we have to assess the
risks,totalktothepeopleinvolved.Andwehavetobereadytotakedown
online material. So we have a takedown policy: someone complains, we
review the complaint, we remove it from the website. These procedures
needtobeinplace.

.Thankyouverymuchforlistening
[133]

[134]

III

ORAL NARRATIVES AND RELIGIOUS COMMUNITIES

Seva: , ,

Abstract

MusicisSeva:tradition,improvisation,collectivememoryandtheroleof
theresearcherinthefield
The following discussion presents an anthropological approach on
issuesofcultureandmusicconcerningtheSikhcommunityinTavros.In
particular, the concept of Seva is revealed through fieldwork as a
crucial idea which affects the communitys musical performance.
Moreover, I examine the importance of interview as a
methodological approach on the concept of Seva. In this matter, I
arguethatinterview,asseva,providesauniquespace,uponwhich
orality, both in verbal and sonic terms, operates as a medium
through which the past is regenerated into the present. Meanwhile,
this dialogue between text and context reveals the importance of
individualnarrativesandtheircontributiontotheformationofasense
ofcommunity.


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[137]

,
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,

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,

:

.2

.
,

,
(Sullivan1997:910).

.
,
,
(Rouget1985).


(Bohlman 1997:6190). Guy L.Beck
(Beck
2006).
Sikh.
2

H(
)

():
.

[138]

Seva

Beck
.
,


.
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,
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,

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Sikh
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Gurudwara, Sikh, .
Seva

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[139]

,,seva.
4Sikh:

Seva,
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seva.5

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.

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.
2001 20096,

(20012009)
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4

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5
AjeetSingh,2011,,.
.
6
: European
Migration Network ,
(2009),BaldwinEdwards2004,2007.

[140]

Seva

,

,

. ,

2011
.
.
7Sikh
.
MandirHareKrishnas8,
Sikh(gurdwaras).
,
,Punjab.
,
Sikh. Sikh ,
, .
()
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.

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Sikh (gurudwara)
.
Sikh
.
gurudwara
(..
7

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8
mandir(mandira)
,
. Hare Krishnas (International Society for Krishna
Knowledge)
1965 Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada.
Krishna
(.Bhagavadgita)..

[141]

).
.

.


.
,
,

.
gurudwara,
tabla harmonium,

shabadkirtan.
shabad kirtan
Sikh.
SikhGuruGrandSahib.
500
Guru Nanak (14691539), 10 Sikh
. ,
kirtan
Sikh.
kirtan

.
kirtan

;

kirtan
rg jath. guruduwara
, rg jath
harmoniumtabla.
kirtan
,

.

[142]

Seva

1 O gurudwara , kirtan
tabl .
..
,2010.

, kirtan
ragatala.
,tala


raga.
,
tala.tala
raga.
talakirtan
Sikh.
,raga,

. O raga
tala
.
kirtan,

.ragatala
.
[143]

. sthai (A), asthai


,
,

,
.sthai
raga. , antra
()raga,
. , antra
sthai.
Gobind Singh Mansukhani,
, raga
sthaiantra(Mansukhani1982).
(alaap)
raga(,)

.
alaapsthai
(harmonium).,
sthai
tabla.
:alaap.
,kirtan,
(. raga,
,)
,

(rasa)Sikh,
,.

,

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, ,

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) ,

.
kirtan

Dusenbery(1992:305
402).Sikh10
[144]

Seva

500.,
(urdu, punjabee,
..)
. kirtan ,
, Mircea Eliade9,
. , ,
rasa(),

.,kirtan

Seva.

,Seva.
Seva gurudwara
o ,

. , Seva,
,


.
gurudwaraSeva.:

,
gurudwara
, Seva. ,
SikhSeva.Sikh
,
,

... .
SevakirtanSeva,
;
()seva.
Seva10.

Eliade

(
).
(.. )

(Eliade2002).
10
Ajeet Singh , 2011, ,
..

[145]

seva
,
Sikh.


, .
, ,
(),
,
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2seva
kirtan. Gurudwara , 2011.
:.


seva.

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seva.I
kirtan
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)

:

[146]

Seva
,
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, Cayenne ...
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11
,

,
seva ,


.
seva

kirtan. Jagpal
Punjab.

tabla. ,
,
kirtan gurudwara. seva
Sikh
gurudwara,
.seva
:

, , seva...
,,
,seva
gurudwara12

kirtan seva ,

(gurudwara)seva
.
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.

11

Ajeet Singh . 2011, ,


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Jagpal Singh , 2010, .
.

[147]

,
.


. ,
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,
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.
(1999:47),auriceBloch(1998)


,
13.
, Walter Benjamin

o,
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(Benjamin1999:6869)

Benjamin,
,

.
,
,

( )
.

.

13

Hobsbawm&Ranger(2004).

[148]

Seva



.

,
seva.

.RandalCollins(2004)
.
Durkheim Goffman
,

(interaction rituals). , ,

. ,


(intellectual rituals),
.
seva


kirtan.


,
,
.
.
(
),

.
, seva
,
.seva
,

.seva
. i

seva. seva,
[149]

seva, seva
o ,
.
,seva,

.
,

seva,

.
.

, .
,
,

[150]

Seva

Beck, Guy L. 2006. Sacred Sound: Experiencing Music in World


Religions,WilfridLaurierUniv.Press.
Benjamin, Walter. 1999, ,
:.
Bohlman, Philip V. 1997. World Musics and World Religions: Whose
World?, In Sullivan Lawrence E. (ed), Enchanting Powers:
Music in the Worlds Religions, Harvard University Press, 61
90.
Bloch, Maurice. 1998. Cognition and Ethnography, in How we Think
TheyThink,Oxford:WestviewPress.
Collins, Randal. 2004. Interaction Ritual Chains, Princeton: Princeton
UniversityPress.
Dusenbery,VerneA.1992.TheWordasGuru:SikhScriptureandthe
Translation Controversy, History of Religions, Vol.31/4: 385
402.
BaldwinEdwards, Martin (ed). 2004.
:
standards
.:
.
Eliade,Mircea.2002..:.
Rouget, Gilbert. 1985. Music and Trance: A Theory of the Relations
BetweenMusicandPossession.Chicago:UniversityofChicago
Press
Hobsbawm, Eric Terence Ranger. 2004.
.:.
Mansukhani, Gobind Singh. 1982. Indian Classical Music and Sikh
Kirtan,Oxford&IBH.
Sullivan, Lawrence E. 1997. Enchanting Powers: An Introduction, in
EnchantingPowers:MusicintheWorldsReligions.InSullivan
Lawrence E. (ed), Enchanting Powers: Music in the Worlds
Religions,HarvardUniversityPress,
. 2007.

.
, .1999. ,
, ().
:
. : ,
,2758.

[151]

[152]

Chepang

DianaRiboli1

Abstract

Betweenthehammerandsickleandthecross.Thecrisisofthepoliticaland
religiousidentityintheoralhistoriesoftheChepangofNepal

In2007NepalwasdeclaredaFederalRepublicundertheleadershipofthe
MaoistCommunistParty.Despitethesecularizationofthestate,religious
freedomisrecognizedandduringthelastfewyearsChristianproselytismis
increasing.Thepaperaimstoprovideananalysisoforalhistoriesofsome
Chepang shamans (pande), related to Christian missionaries predication
on the one hand, and their perceptions of the other. The pande who
became Christians either temporarily or permanently with their stories
express deep doubts and the collective suffering of their group, which
nowadaysfacesunprecedentedconcerns.

(
)

.
,
,
.
,

( ),
,
(
, , .)
.
,

.
,

,,dianariboli@gmail.com.

[153]

DianaRiboli

/
/.

,,,

.
,
(Riboli2008:147,Eliade1978:37).
,
Chepang () (pande),

,
. pande

,
,
.
2007
,
(Lawoti&
Pahari2010).2008,
Visnu,
.
I 30
,
( 50), ,
, ,
.
,
: . 1960, Mahendra
Panchayat,
5
. Panchayat
1990
(
(. 1)


,.
,
( )


[154]

.


. ,
Prachanda(),
Kalai Rokaya,
( )
:

Prachanda ,

,
, . (.
2).


,
.
2012BLITZ,DirghaRajPrasai:

.

. o
Bhattarai
.(.3)


,
,
,,
,
.

.

,
, .
,
20
900.,
80%

.
Chepang ,
[155]

DianaRiboli

,
,
.

1990,
.
Chepang pande .
Chepang,

.

1994(Riboli2008:69).pandeC.B.


,
.C.B.:

,
puja ()
.
2.
.3

4
.

C.B..

.
.
, pande
,
.C.B..
Chepang,
:(akas),
( ) ( patal).T
patal ,
,
.akas,,

Yama raja
(graha)
2

pande.
pande.
4
C.B.(),DianaRiboli(),1994.
3

[156]

(Riboli2008:249277).C.B.

,

,

Chepang.
,
ChepangChepang.
, Chepang

, ,
.
,

2011,
. Chepang
,
, Chepang
,.
,
,
, .


(ChepangNepali).
,Makwanpur,pandeM.B.,
. M.B.
1990,

. ,
.:

pande. ,
,

.
KanchaBaje.()
KanchaBaje.
. ,
:..

. , .
,
,

[157]

DianaRiboli
.
,

.
..
, .
.
16.
(),
5
.mergency6.
7.pandeI.
B.....
.,.
.:
,
. .
mergency, ,
.
, .
.,,
. , .
,
. ,
.,
. pande.
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[158]

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[159]

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[161]

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CBS. 2003. Population onograph of Nepal, I, National Planning


Commission Secretariat, Central Bureau of Statistics. Kathmandu,
Nepal.
Eliade, Mircea. 1978. . : [
Payot:1951].
Kleinman, Arthur; Das, Veena & Lock, Margaret (.). 1997. Social
Suffering.Berkeley:UniversityofCaliforniaPress.
Lawoti,Mahendra&Pahari,AnupK.(.)2010.TheMaoistInsurgencyin
Nepal. Revolution in the Twentyfirst Century.
:Routledge.
PfaffCzarnecka, Johanna. 2003. Differences and Distances. Contested
Ethnic Markers in Local and National Communities. Marie
LecompteTilouine & Pascale Dollfus (), Ethnic Revival and
Religious Turmoil. Identities and Representations in the Himalayas.
:OxfordUniversityPress,137155.
Riboli, Diana. 2004. Extrasensory Trances and Trances of Movement.
Reflections on the Different Types of Shamanic Trances. Art
Leete & Paul Firnhaber (), Shamanism in the Interdisciplinary
Context.BocaRaton,Florida:BrownWalkerPress,120130.
Riboli, Diana. 2008. Tunsuriban.
Chepang . :
.
Riboli,Diana.2011.WePlayintheBlackJungleandintheWhiteJungle.
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Chants of the SemangNegrito (Peninsular Malaysia) and the
Chepang(Nepal),SHAMAN19/12:153168.
Sipe, Dan. 1998. The Future of Oral History and Moving Images.
Robert Perks & Alistair Thomson (), The Oral History Reader.
:Routledge,380388.
Thompson, Paul. 2002. . .
:.
Tonkin, Elizabeth. 1992. Narrating our Pasts. The Social Construction of
OralHistory.Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress.

1.http://www.biblelivingministries.org/nepal_missions

2.http://www.revleft.com/vb/christiansandmaoists
t118972/index.html?s=b7b276e6f7dc42d64a13e486eb427798&amp

3.http://www.weeklyblitz.net/2055/suspiciousactivitiesofhumanrightsactivists

[163]

[164]

Oralhistorycrossingnationalboundaries:astudyofbeliefandnonbelief
inthreeEuropeancountries

JoannaBornat1&DanielaKoleva2


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. ,

.


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.


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,
.

In this paper we offer a brief overview of a research project,


Marking Transitions and Meaning across the Life Course: Older Peoples
Memories of Religious and Secular Ceremonies in Eastern and Western
Europe3(RASC),whichsetouttoexplorethesignificanceofreligiousbelief
in late life through oral history interviews in which people in three
countries,Bulgaria,RomaniaandtheUK,wereinvitedtorecallchangesin
1

OpenUniversity,UK.
UniversityKlimentOhridski,Sofia.
3
Marking Transitions and Meaning across the Life Course: Older Peoples Memories of
Religious and Secular Ceremonies in Eastern and Western Europe, 201011. AHRC/ESRC
ReligionandSocietyProgramme.Awardno:AH/H008845/1.

[165]

JoannaBornat&DanielaKoleva

religious and secular ceremonies, beliefs and practices. The study of


religion has been much neglected, generally and specifically by oral
historians. Adding comparison to this, as well as a focus on late life, the
projectwasinevitablyenteringterritorywhichhasbeenlittleexplored.
Thesethreecountrieshaveexperiencedverydifferenthistoriesof
religious adherence. Whereas in the UK secularism as a movement has
existed since the late nineteenth century and the turn away from church
attendancewaswellestablishedbythe1960s,theexperienceinRomania
and Bulgaria has been very different. In Romania and Bulgaria, the
communist take over in 1944 resulted in policies which initially aimed at
the elimination of religion, however what followed differed in the two
countries. In Bulgaria, Orthodoxy was successfully rebranded as cultural
andhistoricalheritagealongsideeffortstoelaborateandintroducesecular
holidays and rituals, while marginalising religious ones. Contrastingly, in
Romania,communistruleafter1944didnotleadtothesuppressionofthe
OrthodoxChurchwhichhadagreatdegreeofindependencefromthelate
1950sandindeedreligiouspracticewasmaintainedatahighlevel,being
considered an inherent part of the Romanian identity in the Ceausescu
period (1970s1980s). Today, Romania has one of the highest levels of
religious affiliation in Europe (Eurobarometer 2005). Today in Bulgaria,
levelsofformalaffiliationareweak,yetpopularspiritualitylinkedtolocal
cultsandritualpracticespersists.4
Such differences present an opportunity to consider experiences
of changing contexts for religious and secular practices since the mid
twentieth century and to gain insight into meaning in late life as people
makesenseofthemanytransitionswhichtheyhavelivedthrough.Inwhat
follows we begin with an overview of comparative oral history and
consider oral historys neglect of religion before going on to outline the
approach adopted by RASC, ending with some findings with a focus on
ritualpracticesasaformofsocialnormativity.

Comparisoninoralhistory

Despiteoralhistorysinternationalism,expressedthroughdecades
of conferences and meetings, as well as publications in all of which
practitioners and participants have exchanged views on shared themes
drawninthemainfromthelasthundredyearsofEuropeanhistory,there
are very few examples of joint working across national boundaries on
sharedtopics.5
4

Eurobarometer 2005; see Coleman et al, forthcoming, for a more detailed discussion of
theseissues.
5
See for example the archives of Oral History (www.ohs.org.uk) and Oral History Review
(http://ohr.oxfordjournals.org)andtwooralhistoryseriespublishedbyPalgraveMacmillan

[166]

Oralhistorycrossingnationalboundaries

Editedcollections,significantlythoseintheInternationalYearbook
ofOralHistoryandLifeStoriesseries,encouragedthisbroadperspective,
taking in national differences, drawing out themes with studies which
focus on family, migration, totalitarianism and gender (see, for example,
Bertaux & Thompson 1993). However, though they shared much, the
contributors were not working together on a project, nor were they
comparative.Moretypicallytheytendedtoworktowardsthegeneralising
model which Hantrais (1999) identifies, fitting individual national
differencesintohistoricalsweepsandgenerationalmovements.Examples
of a more specific comparative approach include Vilanovas interviews
with illiterate workers in Barcelona, Baltimore and Nazi death camps
(Vilanova 2011) and Van Boeschotens study of wartime massacres in a
GreekandanItalianvillage.(VanBoeschoten2007)evensotheseusedata
collectedfordifferentprojectsatdifferenttimes.RASCwasthusleftwith
very few examples to draw on and indeed the search for examples of
crossnational comparative oral history projects narrows down to only
threeexamplesprevioustoRASC.
Of the three international oral history projects which offer a fit
with what RASC set out to do, two focus on the same topic, the student
movements of 1968. The first, chronologically, is Ronald Frasers 1968 A
StudentGenerationinRevolt(1988).Thisdrewoninterviewscarriedoutin
sixcountries,USA,WestGermany,France,Italy,UKandNorthernIreland
byateamofinterviewerswhocomprisedleadingfiguresintheoralhistory
world (Fraser 1988:6). In his introduction Fraser identifies their point of
departure as a shared view of the internationalism of the 1968 student
movement and that national specificities would take second place
(1988:4). Altogether 230 people were interviewed through a network of
interviewercontacts.
There are a number of obvious differences: for a start, the time
lapsedsincetheeventsof1968lessthantwentyyearsismuchshorter
thanthelifespantheRASCintervieweeswereaskedtorecall,participants
wereunderfiftyinthe1950sandatadifferentlifestagecomparedtothe
75yearoldsinterviewedforourproject.
Sometwentyyearslater,RobertGildeaandcolleaguesreturnedto
the events of 1968 with a similarly international oral history project,
interviewing activists from a hundred groups and networks in fourteen
countries, from Spain to the USSR and from Iceland to Greece (Gildea
and Oxford University Press http://us.macmillan.com/series/PalgraveStudiesinOralHistory.
Accessed19.11.12and
http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/category/academic/series/history/orhis.do#.T8XBgY58vtU.
Accessed
19.11.12

[167]

JoannaBornat&DanielaKoleva

2010:71). They completed 500 life history interviews for a project titled
Around 1968, during 200710 (Gildea, forthoming:3). This approach
enabled a rather different approach to Fraser and his colleagues. Their
projectincludedfourteencountriesbreachingearlierdividesandincluded
EasternEurope,Poland,Czechoslovakia,Hungary,theGermanDemocratic
RepublicandtheSovietUnionaswellasFrancosSpanishdictatorshipand
theGreeceoftheColonels.Inthiswaytheyspreadtheirnetfurtherthan
the epicentre of revolt to a wider geography of action and
interconnections(Gildea,forthcoming:13).
The third example of a crossnational oral history is no less
ambitious, both in terms of scale and historical impact. The International
Forced Labourers Documentation Project led by Alexander Von Plato
completedalmost600interviewsbetween2004and2007intwentyfour
European countries and in Israel, South Africa and the USA. The project
wasfundedbytheGermanFoundationRemembrance,Responsibilityand
Future (Stiftung Erinnerung, Verantwortung und Zukunft) (Thonfeld
2011:33)andfollowedtheFoundationsprogrammeofpaymentstoforced
labourers between 2001 to 2007 which came after a national process of
debate and international negotiation. The interviews were biographical,
drawing on peoples experiences from their earliest childhood memories,
throughtheirexperienceofforcedlabour(VonPlato2008:11).
So far as oral history is concerned, there are various reasons for
thepaucityofcompletedprojects,apartfromtheobviousquestionofcost
andorganisationalcomplexity.Theidentificationofashareablefocuswas
clearly helpful to the three projects described. Without that identified
focus,findinganoperationalmoralandpoliticalperspective,crossnational
comparison maybe problematic. However oral historys defining
characteristic, the recording of voiced memories, could have worked
againsttheveryinternationalismwhichproponentsespouseandforthree
reasons.First,thehistoricaldominanceofEnglishasalinguafrancahasthe
tendency to discourage internationalism given the association of that
languagewithhegemonyandempire.
Thesecondreasonisthatworkingthroughtranslationcanonlybe
averyapproximatewayfororalhistorianstoaccessoriginalmeaningsand
feelings (see for example discussions by Andrews 1995; Burton 2003;
Wheeler 2008) and, though it can reveal unexpected insights, translation
goes against the genres central and defining principles of individual self
expressionandempowerment(Thompson2000;Abrams2010:154161).
English was the lingua franca for the RASC team with translation
fromRomanianandBulgariantakingplaceaftertheinterviewshadtaken
place. Though undoubtedly this gave native English team members an
advantage in some respects, they were relatively disadvantaged in that
nonewasfamiliarwitheitheroftheothertwootherlanguages,incontrast
[168]

Oralhistorycrossingnationalboundaries

with their colleagues from Romania and Bulgaria who all possessed an
excellentstandardofEnglishthoughdidnotspeakeachotherslanguage.
Issues of meaning and understanding are most relevant at the stage of
data analysis and interpretation when working in a crossnational group
andareevidentinthehistorical,linguisticandculturalcomplexitieswhich
occur when memory is used as the way to access the past and this is
perhapsthethirdreasonwhysofewcomparativeprojectshaveemerged
fromoralhistory,despiteacommitmenttoaspiritofinternationalism.If
there are few examples of crossnational oral history projects to consult,
there are even fewer oral historians who have looked at religion and
remembering.6Inthenextsectionweconsiderwhythisisthecasebefore
goingontolookathowRASCsetouttodealwithacomparativestudyof
religionandsecularisminthelivesofthreegroupsofolderEuropeans,in
Bulgaria,RomaniaandtheUK.

Religionasatopicinoralhistory

In the oral history literature religion appears in accounts of


interviews with Native Americans, Nigerians, participants in the US Civil
Rightsmovement,inurbanandinruralsettings,inrelationtocommunity
membership, ethnicity and family history. It is highlighted for the part it
hasplayedinthelivesofpeopleaffectedbyconflict,persecutionandrapid
modernisation over most of the twentieth century (see, for example,
Gudziak&Susak1996;Ilyasoglu1996).Asisevidentfromasearchofthe
two journals, Oral History Review and Oral History, the term religion
commonlyappearsinprojectdesign,indicatingtopicstobecoveredandin
published accounts it certainly appears as an aspect of peoples lives,
sometimesasanindicatorofgenerationalchangeorethnicorcommunity
solidarity(see,forexample,Koleva2009;Ester2008).Thereareexamples
of oral history approaches to specific religious communities and
memberships (see, for example, Angrosino 1991; Gerrard 1996; Johnston
and McFarland 2008). However, as a phenomenon, a set of practices, a
shared experience, religious belief has gained little attention from oral
historians. And secularism or nonreligious belief has by default
experiencedevengreaterneglect.
AnexceptiontoallthisisanarticlebyWilliamsinthethemedissue
of Oral History, Religion and belief (1996), who argues the case for oral
historyasthemostappropriatemethodtoresearchpopularbelief.Sheis
interested in understanding the character and content of the beliefs of
working people who lived their lives on the edges of the institutional
church within the sphere of popular culture (Williams 1996:27).
6

ForamoredetaileddiscussionofalltheseissuesseeBornat,forthcoming.

[169]

JoannaBornat&DanielaKoleva

Significantly, her approach was not to ask interviewees directly about


belief or formal practices but to generate responses which expressed
feelingsandbeliefsinadistinctlanguageinwhichbeliefswereformulated
and conveyed (Williams 1996:29). She shows how in interviews various
beliefscombined,asforexampleMrsIvywhowhenaskediftherewasa
Bibleinherfamilyanswered:Ohyes,youhadtohaveaBible,otherwise
youwouldbeunluckyifyoudidnthaveaBible(Williams1996:30).
This approach is developed more fully by Brown in a monograph
which looks at the secularization of Christian Britain over two centuries
(2001). Using written texts for the nineteenth century, he draws on
archived oral history interviews for the later period to argue for a
discursive Christianity (2001:13) which recognizes a need to understand
belief and nonbelief as spoken expressions, described behaviours and
reflectionsonexpectedChristianactivityandinstitutions.
Williams and Browns work might have been expected to have
been followed up by oral historians interested in community and social
history, but surprisingly this has not been the case. Two recent
publications include religion and belief as aspects of broader discussions,
in each case highlighting the role of emotion and spirituality in recall
(Moodie 2010; Bornat 2010). In both cases, a focus on religion was
secondary to the initial enquiry, suggesting that there is scope for oral
historians who take a more sociocultural approach to include beliefs as
theyinterviewonawiderangeoftopics.
OralhistorysoriginsintheUKwerewithintheseculartraditionof
radicalpoliticswhich,thoughitrecognizedtheaffiliationsandattachments
of key figures in relation to such movements as Christian Socialism, for
example, placed greater emphasis on the significance of institutions and
activitieswhichwereindependentoftheestablishedchurchandreligious
leadersgenerally.Yeo,witharichlyillustratedargumentoffersacorrective
tothistendencyarguingfortherecognitionoffeelingandemotioninthe
commitmentofearlyBritishsocialistsinthe1990s(Yeo1977).
Disregardhasofcoursealsobeenareactiontotheroleofreligion
in supporting damaging communitarianism in Northern Ireland and
Scotland. From this perspective religious belief has been viewed as
historically divisive and the institutions of religious observance as
traditionally diverting attention from the realities of working lives
(Thompson 1963). With all these precedents, how was the RASC study
carriedoutandachieved?

Projectobjectivesandmethods

Whileacknowledgingthesignificanceoftheverydifferentpolitical
histories of the three countries we were interested in, we were keen to
[170]

Oralhistorycrossingnationalboundaries

identifychangingreligiousandnonreligiouspracticesinwaysthatwould
enableandencouragecomparison.Thetopicofritualpresenteditselffora
numberofreasons.Ritualisincreasinglyrecognisedtobeascentraltothe
socialphenomenonofreligionasbeliefitself.Indeeditisprimarilythrough
the shared actions, verbal or nonverbal, that persons express religious
beliefs. It is also ritual that marks persons out as belonging to one
particular religion and not another, and it is often through elaborate
initiation rituals that persons join a religious group. Thus rituals point to
thepracticalandcollectiveaspectsofreligion.

The four research questions were worded in such a way as to


facilitate a comparative approach across the three countries while also
allowing for the very different backgrounds and orientations towards
religionheldbymembersoftheprojectteamandwerethus:
What have been the changes in use of ritual that older people
rememberandhowweretheyexperienced?
What are the consequent benefits as well as losses perceived by
thosewhohavewitnessedthechangingtrendsinritual?
What is the character of alternative secular forms of ritual which
haveproducedasmeaningfulsenseofoccasionforlifetransitions?
What is the remaining attraction of religious ritual for those who
havelittleornoexplicitreligiousbeliefandpractice?
In seeking evidence which might provide responses to these
questions, the RASC team was not interested in the formalities of
institutionalised ceremonies or factual information about church
attendance.Ourfocuswasonrecallofexpressionsofbeliefandnonbelief
andthewaysinwhichchangingceremonyandritualhavebeenembedded
in every day life, over time. Oral history interviews with people over the
age of 75 offered the possibility of gathering testimony which would
reveal,andenabletheexplorationof,personalmeaningandknowledgein
the words of those who could recall changing practices and who would
articulate their feelings and emotions as they spoke of the religious and
thesecularintheirlives.Theattractionoforalhistorymethodologyliesin
the possibilities it offers for such expressions and for memories to be
recorded, shared and interpreted amongst the team members. This is
historythatotherwisemightgounremarkedorignoredbothbecauseofits
veryordinarinessbutalsobecauseinsomecontextsitcouldalsobejudged
asbeingcontroversial(Thompson2000).Theresultnotonlyaddstowhat
weknowofthepast,itmayalsochallengeandrevisewhatwethoughtwe
knew (Frisch 1990). In focusing on individual lives RASC project members
were seeking what was personally expressed, often hidden, perhaps for
politicalreasonsbutmostoftenbecauseitwasunremarkedorconsidered
unremarkable.Theabilityoforalhistoryasamethodtofocusontheless
publicaspectsofalifeisappropriateforastudyofbeliefandnonbelief.
[171]

JoannaBornat&DanielaKoleva

Beingaskedtotalkabouttheeventsofalifenotonlyencouragespeople
to speak with authority, about what they know best, it also frames what
theytellwithingenerationalandhistoricaltemporalitieswhich,foracross
nationalprojectlikeRASCprovidesavaluablebasisforcomparison.
The interviews, while taking a life history approach, included
questionsaboutsignificantritesofpassage,marriage,baptismanddeath,
in order to draw out reflections and evidence as to the public and social
aspectsofreligiousandsecularpractices.Participantswereencouragedto
reflect on changes they had participated in or witnessed, offering
opportunities for life review and considerations of what contributed to
theirwellbeing.Overall,thefocuswastobeonmeaningmakingandthe
subjectiveperspectiveofeachindividualratherthanfactfinding.
RASC was a small, oneyear project with a target sample of 60
interviews.Halfofthetwentymenandwomentobeincludedfromeach
country were from the dominant churches while the other half would
come from other denominations and from nonbelievers. All were to be
over the age of 75 and in each country there were two be two different
urban sites. The interviews worked to a common semistructured
interview guide, interviewing in the respondents own language, then
transcribing and translating into English. Members of the research group
worked together, facetoface and online, developing case studies and
typologiesandwritingupfindings.

Religiousritualassocialnormativity

Of the four research questions listed earlier, it is evidence gathered in


relationtothefourth:Whatistheremainingattractionofreligiousritual
forthosewhohavelittleornoexplicitreligiousbeliefandpractice?which
wegoontodiscussinthefinalpartofthispaper.Wewereawarefromthe
2008EuropeanValuesStudy(EVS)oftheparadoxthatwhilelevelsofbelief
are not high in most European countries and church attendance is low,
eveninthesecularUKthosewhodescribethemselvesasreligiousaccount
for 45 per cent of those interviewed while in Bulgaria and Romania the
proportionsarerespectively55percentand80percent(EVS2008).Davie
explains this as belonging without believing (1994) suggesting that the
majorityhaveavicariousattachmenttoreligiousritual(Davie2006:279).
In this paper we explore the practices which sustain this paradox by
considering in peoples own words the importance of rituals for non
religious people. Drawing on the oral history data we suggest that the
function of religious ritual is to contribute to social normativity in three
ways,intermsofvalue,moralityandbelonging.

[172]

Oralhistorycrossingnationalboundaries

Conformityasvalue

Interviewees do not generally reflect on the reasons why they perform


certainrituals.Thisisalsothecasewhenpersonswhodeclarethemselves
nonbelieversneverthelesssticktoreligiousrituals.Whenaskedaboutit,
theyfinditdifficulttoarticulatethereasons.Mostoften,theanswersare
ofthethisishowitsdonetypesuggestinglackofreflectionontheneed
for performing a certain symbolic act. It seems to have been done by
default,asapreselectedoptionforwhichnoalternativeswereseenasa
readingoftheseresponsessuggests:

itseemedthenaturalthingtodo.7

he liked those things, it was a tradition and he was doing it in a nonreligious


way,butitwassomethingsuperficial,hewasn'tmuchofabeliever.8

WellIthinkitsacommonlaw.9

My childhood was calm, normal, in a patriarchal family, a religious family. My


grandfather, my fathers father was a priest. My mother was very religious too.
The family as a whole was very religious. At that time patriarchal values were
aboveeverythingelse,thiswasthemostimportantthing.10

AnywayIthinkwejustcarriedon.Icantremember.Whenwegotmarriedwehad
a religious ceremony. And when you wanted to get married you had to belong,
you had to join a synagogue. We werent religious, I wouldnt say we were
religious.11

Myfatherwasanatheistbuthelikedtheconventionalthingsdidnthe?12

Conformingwithexpectationsintermsofbehaviourandobservancemight
cropupinrelationtosocialcontext,astheseintervieweessuggest,orthey
might be driven by a need to belong to some notionally prescribed
membershipgroup.Perhapstheonlyintervieweetoexpressawarenessof
herownconformitywasPolly,anEnglishnonbelieverwhoremembered
theimportancetoherofchurchmembershipattheageof12:

Well yes I did actually, no, youve jogged my memory now. When I was about
twelve I think it was, people were getting, some people were getting confirmed
and I didnt understand what this was and what it was about so I insisted upon

Viorel Ionescu, Bucharest, interviewed by Simina Badica, 2 Sept. 2010. All interviewees
namesarepseudonyms.
8
MargaretaCalinescu,Bucharest,interviewedbySiminaBadica,4Sept.2010.
9
DinuBunescu,Bucharest,interviewedbyAnamariaIuga,19Nov.2010.
10
AndonIgov,Sofia,interviewedbyTeodoraKaramelska,3Feb.2010.
11
BarbaraMorris,London,interviewedbyHilaryYoung,9Jan.2011.
12
HaroldStevenson,Southampton,interviewedbyJohnSpreadbury,31Jan.2011.

[173]

JoannaBornat&DanielaKoleva
going to a class and I was [laughing] I was in fact confirmed. I didnt do
anythingwithitbutitwas,somepeople,IseemedtogettheideathatifIwasnt
confirmedIwouldntbeafullyfunctioningmemberofBritishsociety.Ithadthat
sortoffeelingaboutit,buttherewewere.13

She later had her son christened because, I didnt want to disadvantage
mychildbynotdoingtherightthing.Latersheorganisedachurchfuneral
for her mother, as a duty that she had fulfilled. Other interviewees as
they describe rituals summon up a sense of unarticulated consensus,
conformitythusacquiringapositivemeaning,asIonaGeorgescusuggests,
Out of habit, or because it looks good14 and I dont think they give a
damnaboutthewords,theyresingingandtheyrejustbeingpartofit.15.
The default whether it is called natural, the tradition, the
conventionalthings,beingpartofitbecomesassociatedwiththeright
thing and thus acquires moral connotations. Conformity turns out to be
compliance with a moral imperative. This stance is even more salient in
othertypesofattitudeswhichexhibitthesameparadox:anactualchoice
isseenintermsofobligation.

Conformityasobligation

Evidence from the interviews confirms the importance of family for


transmitting religious and secular attitudes and practices. Only in rare
cases did interviewees admit to having questioned models handed down
bytheirparentsandgrandparents.Mostoften,asSylviaJonesputit,you
justpickeditupthroughyourpores:

(baptismathome)Maybeoutoftradition,especially,orthefamilytraditionthey
couldnotforgetthisiswhatIthink.16

Icouldsaythisismoreaquestionoffamilytradition?Forifthisishowitwasin
thefamilyandthemajorityIwasconnectedwith,letssayinthesameagegroup,
they could not Maybe out of tradition, especially, or the family tradition they
couldnotforgetthisiswhatIthink.17

They [parents] always observed traditions. In the past people always observed
traditions.Always.18

13

PollyRutherford,London,interviewedbyHilaryYoung,5and17Oct.2010.
IoanaGeorgescu,Bucharest,interviewedbyAnamariaIuga,23and26Nov.2010.
15
LewisFarrow,Southampton,interviewedbyJohnSpreadbury,1Feb.2011.
16
IonCotescu,Bucharest,interviewedbySiminaBadica,26Jan.2011.
17
IonCotescu,Bucharest,interviewedbySiminaBadica,26Jan.2011.
18
Valentina Vassileva, Shumen, Bulgaria, interviewed by Galina Goncharova and Vanya
Elenkova,12July2010.
14

[174]

Oralhistorycrossingnationalboundaries
So there was nothing imposed on you in any kind of way. It was just lived. And
because of the example that we were given we never saw any other way of
living.19

Florina, interviewed in Romania, talks of traditions, in similar ways,


suggesting that family and family traditions are absorbed and affirmed
throughsharedritualsandthatthishascontinuedinimportancefromher
own childhood into her own old age. Shared rituals might provide an
opportunityforsharedcelebration:

[wedding] All brothers came and they made a beautiful party. My father was
20
doingsomedeliciouspicklesincask.

Likeanyweddingwithguestsandarestaurant.Many,manyguestsattended,
therestaurantwaspacked.21

Theywantedthephotographicopportunityandthereitwasandwestrolledround
thegroundsafterwardsandtookphotographs22

They could also reflect a sense of duty towards other members of the
family:

Onholidays,Ialwaysthinkaboutourdead.ifIdon'tdoit,Ifeelrestless.Imean,
itissomekindofobligationformyconscience.Andatthesametime,aduty.A
signofrespect,thefactthatIdidnotforgetthem,somethinglikethat.23

Religious rites of passage for family members seem to be important in


variousways,someofwhichhavelesstodowithreligiousbeliefbutmore
with calling forth a mutual recognition of ones joys and sorrows,
expressing and reinforcing family solidarity, but also contributing to the
construction of the family as a moral community. Describing how they
havefulfilledtheirdutiesatfamilymemberslifetransitions,interviewees
reconfirm a moral integrity inherited from their ancestors as a source of
stability in the face of change during their lives. This longing for social
continuity is more salient in Romania and Bulgaria where interviewees
belongtothegenerationwhichlivedthoughunprecedentedurbanisation,
modernisation and secularisation with an ensuing impoverishment of
ritual. While ruralurban migration implied a loss of tradition, family as a
moralcommunitywasseenasasiteoftraditionandstability.

19

SylviaJones,Southampton,interviewedbyJohnSpreadbury,19Dec.2010.
MironPopescu,Bucharest,interviewedbyAnamariaIuga,13Dec.2010.
21
AlexandraKoleva,Sofia,interviewedbyGalinaGoncharova,18Feb.2011.
22
Lewis Farrow, Southampton, interviewed by John Spreadbury, 1 Feb. 2011, about
grandsonschurchwedding.
23
FlorinaCampeanu,Bucharest,interviewedbySiminaBadica,5and7July2010.
20

[175]

JoannaBornat&DanielaKoleva

Conformityasbelonging

Some of the interviewees relate their religious rituals not only as family
traditionsbutratherasaformofculturalheritage.Theypresentreligionas
a tradition that is part of their ethnic or national identity. Thus rituals
acquire a sense of relating as much (or less) to God as to ones cultural
background. This form of identification seems more salient amongst
minorityethnicmembers:JewsfromLondonandBucharestandBulgarian
Turks refer to their religious rituals both everyday (prayers, food
restrictions) and rites of passage (circumcision, bar mitzvah24, weddings,
funerals) as part and parcel of their culture. It is interesting, however,
that many Orthodox Bulgarians and Orthodox Romanians, unlike most of
theUKinterviewees,oftenmentiontraditionorcustomwhentheyspeak
aboutreligiousrituals:

I was not a believer. But it [wedding in church] was a custom. I mean I cared for
respecting these customs. We never attached a religious meaning to it. It was a
ritual.25

Iwasn'tareligiousperson,butitwasthecustom,sotospeak.26

Butwaitwhatdoesareligiousholidaymean?GoodLord,tousthisisacustom.This
isatradition.Noonecansayitshisorherown.Neitherpagans,norpriests.27

Wemightgotothesynagogue,whichwedid,theressomethingaboutgoingtothe
synagogue,whetheryourereligiousornotforme.28

The way that nonbelievers account for their participation in religious


rituals appears to allow for a different kind of belonging than Davies
(1994)suggests.Theymaynotbelonginareligioussense,buttakingpart
provideslinkstoothersourcesofidentityandtraditionwhicharenational,
cultural and collective, particularly in situations of insecurity and
instability. This would appear to be particularly the case for members of
ethnic and religious minorities in all three countries, whose interviews
suggest a feeling of belonging to a larger collectivity acquired from
ethnicityorreligion,andenactedinritualsisimportantforthemalsoasa
wayofselfidentificationvisvisothergroups.Whatthisleadsto,were
24

. The Bar Mitzvah ceremony marks the transition from childhood to adulthood typically
whenaJewishboyreachestheageof13.Forgirls,BatMitzvahisasimilarceremony,made
whenagirlis12.SomeorthodoxJewishcongregationsdonotholdtheceremoniesofboys
andgirlsinequalstanding
25
FlorinaCampeanu,Bucharest,interviewedbySiminaBadica,5and7July2010.
26
MargaretaCalinescu,Bucharest,interviewedbySiminaBadica,4Sept.2010.
27
DimanVasilev,Sofia,interviewedbyGalinaGoncharova,20Jan.2011.
28
BarbaraMorris,London,interviewedbyHilaryYoung,9Jan.2011.

[176]

Oralhistorycrossingnationalboundaries

suggesting,isanunderstandingofreligionasculturaltraditionratherthan,
orasmuchas,asystemofbeliefs.

Conclusion

Working with a shared theme, memories of religious and secular


ceremonies, the RASC team has been able to work crossnationally using
an oral history approach, across time and space and through linguistic
barrierstoarriveatacomparisonofmeaningandbeliefinlatelife.Inthis
paperwehavepresentedabriefaccountofaconsiderationofritualsofa
religious type as experienced and practiced by nonbelievers. We have
heardaccountsinallthreecountrieswhichsuggestthatritualsattachedto
certainlifetransitions,birth,marriageanddeath,provideopportunitiesto
express or enact conformity in terms of the social normativity of shared
values, family and community obligations and belonging. All this despite
differinghistoricalandsocioculturalenvironmentsduringaperiodofsixty
yearsandmore.OurfindingsaresupportiveofDaviesnotionofvicarious
religion (2006, a trend towards the severing of ritual practice from
religious meaning and its enactment, and towards situations which are
contextdependentandwhichhavemeaningforparticipants.

[177]

JoannaBornat&DanielaKoleva

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[179]

[180]

IV

IV

WAR AND PERSECUTION: THE STRUCTURING OF


MEMORY

:
.brahimEdhemPaa
() Mustapha Khaznadar (
)

Abstract

Grey Identities: Oral Testimonies and Archive Research on the Islamic


Converts of Chios. The Cases of brahim Edhem Pasha (Pyrikis) and
MustaphaKhaznadar(GeorgiosStephanouStravelakis)

In the research concerning the Massacre of Chios, the case of Christian


forced to convert to Islam has not been thoroughly examined. In the
presentresearchthereportedtestimoniesandachivaldocumentsfillinthe
gapsandclearuptheconfusionintheexistingbibliography.Examplesthat
arebeingexamined:
brahim Edhem Paa (18191893) Ottoman Great Vizier
(Sadrazam).Elementsconcerningbirthandfamilyidentityareascertained
and a different image other than the one acceptable up till now is
presentedabouthisrelationshiptohisfamilyandbirthplaceinChios.
Mustapha Kharnadar (18141878) Great Vizier of Tunisia
(Sadrazam).Aspectsfromhispersonalexperienceincaptivityarepresented
here. Thus, one can comprehend the tactics of power abuse and the
motivesforbenevolentactstoChristianrelativesinChiosandtotheGreek
communityofTunisia.

,

,
,
brahimEdhemPaa,(),HekimsmailPaa,(
),CavidPaa,()MustaphaKhaznadar
().2
1

,,(johiath@gmail.com).
Fustel de Coulanges:
,;.,

.
1855,
, ,
2

[183]


,,

,
.
Dr.EdhemEldem,
( brahim Edhem Pasha),3
,ThestoryofthelittleGreek
boywhobecameapowerfulpasha:mythandrealityinthelifeofIbrahim
Edhem Pasha, c. 18181893
.
,18181893(Eldem2010).
Mustapha Khaznadar
, ,
:MoustaphaKhaznadar.
19 . (18371878).
(HasanelKoki2008).4
brahimEdhemPaa
Mustapha Khaznadar,
,

.

.

. ,
, .
,
.

: (Fustel de Coulanges
1857:161162.FusteldeCoulanges(..)1977:223224).
Hekim smail Pasha, (
),CavidPasha,()MustaphaKhaznadar().
brahimEdhemPaa,,.Hekimsmail
Paa, , . . Cavid Paa,,
. Mustapha Khaznadar,
(
1974:404406,1921:9499,1911:147149).
3
Edhem Eldem, , Ethem
Paa,smailGalipBeyAzizeHanm,
, Sadi Bey. brahim Edhem Paa, ,
OsmanHamdiBey,HalilEthemBeyMustafaBey.
4
Hekim smail Pasha Leyla Neyzi.
,
.(Neyzi1999:1719)

[184]

brahimEdhemPaa

, 1822,
HsrevPaa.,
,
, .5
(18301839). 1839,
ArabiveFarisiveTrkibazulmufnununtahsiline.
1845 1846, (Gmhacky, Keban
Ergani),1847(Eldem
2007). 1856
1876.18761877
. 1877
(5 1877 11
1878).18791882
1883 1885
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibrahim_Edhem_Pasha /9122010/4:35).
20 1893 .
(Kurulu 2008:620
621).
Edhem Eldem,
,
Edhem Pasha, , ,
,,.
, Edhem Eldem,
,
,
, .6
, Edhem Pasha
,,OsmanHamdiBey,

5

E.Eldem,,
Ethem Paa,
,,HalilEdhemBey,1920,
,OsmanErgin,
Istanbulehreminleri
( ), (Osman Nuri Ergin 1927:260261).
,
EdhemPaa.(:Eldem2010).
6
: Hayat. nal, bnlemin Mahmud Kemal,
SonSadrzamlar,Istanbul,1942,p.652.TheNewYorkTimes,27August1877.LeTemps,
26 March 1893. Daubree, Auguste. Daubre, 1893:148 Dorys, Georges (
). L Femme turque, Paris 1900, p. 176. Mavroyeni, A. Notes et souvenirs,
Istanbul1989,p.21.(:Eldem2010).

[185]

, Halil Ethem Bey, ,


,.7
, ,
.
1232 (1816/1817
), 1234/1235 (1818
)1238(1822/1823).8
, ,
,Dr.EdhemEldem,,
9
.
,10
,.
7
, ,
.OsmanHamdi
Bey (18421910), ,
,
. 20 , Halil Ethem
Bey (18611938),
, ,

,
.(Eldem2010).
8
DrEdhemEldem:
, 1232
(1816/1817),coledesMines,,
1818. bnlemin Mahmud Kemal nal, Son Sadrzamlar,
(Istanbul, 19401953, p. 600603) , brahim Edhem Pasha
1818(1234).OsmanNuriErgin,AbdlhamidiSani
veDevriSaltanat.HayatHususiyeveSiyasiyesi,(Istanbul1911,p.162),
brahimEdhemPaa,
1876, 1238 (1822/1823)
, , Hsrev Paa,
, . (: Eldem 2010).
Dr Edhem Eldem: ,
.
1238:
171822,
.

HusrevPasha
. Dr Edhem Eldem,
Edhem Paa,
Halil(:Eldem2010).
9
:TheNewYorkTimes,27August1877.Dorys,Georges,(
), La Femme turque, Paris 1900, p. 176. Mavrogeni, A., Notes et souvenirs,
Istanbul1989,p.21.(:Eldem2010).
10
Dr.EdhemEldem2002:273274.(:Eldem2010).

[186]

,
, .
,,

,1842(1920:101103,
1937:599, [] 1890:522. ,
.1561:1214,17,226v77v,9r,11v).,
,,
24.11
.
,
.,73
.12 ,
.:
.
,,
.
.,
: .
. :
. . ,
: [] ;
, , !... [].
:

11

,,,
.
, , , 8
1942,
,,:/,
/ ,
/ , /
.(,.1697:373920r
21v). , . brahim Edhem Paa,
Matematiki(17851865).(Aydz,Salim2008:620).
12
, , 18122010,
15:30. . . 73 , ,
,
.3,
Dr Edhem Eldem, Sadi Bey.
,.
,
.
,
.

[187]


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, , , , , .
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,180
.
.
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Hsrev Paa
(17691855) ,
,
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,
[188]

,
, ,
.

brahimEdhemPaa.

Hsrev Paa, 1855. ,
,1822
20,185553EdhemPaa
35 . ,
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(
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, (1856)
(1876),
.
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,,
. , 18831885
,
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, ,
,
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,

(18851886),brahimEdhemPaa,
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65 83.

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188418851886.
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.

[189]

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[190]

:(+1833),16(+1832),17
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[191]

,
1832.
, , ,
, 1848 (. 13) ,
, 1866 (. 20).
,
1876(.19).
Edhem Eldem.
.

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[192]

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nal, Son Sadrzamlar, brahim
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,.
25

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.

[193]

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,/182326,.123v

[194]

,/
/ .29
1846,,
, ,
, ,
.30,,
HsrevPaa,
, Osman Nuri Ergin,
EdhemPasha;,


.

MustaphaKhaznadar

MustaphaKhaznadar(1814
26 1878) Ahmed Khaznadar
(18081849),
, ,
,1822.
(+1866),31
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,,
Ahmad1837,(1837
1873)(18621873),
21 1873 .
,
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11).
29
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,577,.204r,.263
/111873.
31
... , 1156, . 109v119r, . 918
/281866.

[195]

, ,
Kbina, Kheireddine Pasha,
,

.261878TurbatalBey,
.32
,
,33,
,34 ,35
32

Buyers 20002010, . http://fr.rodovid.org/wk/Personne:172376


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mustapha_Khaznadar.
33
TunisManouba, Dr Habib Khazdaghli,
,
Mustapha Khaznadar , 1868,
(1868),,
,
.
. Mustapha Khaznadar
,.(Kazdaghli
2000:117118, Kazdaghli 2007:338). , 1878
Iscomacos(;),
Mustapha Khaznadar, ,
. ,
MustaphaKhaznadar,261878(Poulos1924:154.)
34
, Mustapha
Khaznadar, ( , , , .),
, . , . ,
. , . , .
, , . ,
.,,,
, . , .
.,
Mustapha Khaznadar (26 1878),
. ,
. (... , 991, . 6r, . 17565
/29 1878). , Mustapha
Khaznadar, . ,
,,,
(... , 991, . 1r, . 17995 /22
91879).
35
, 1917 Mustapha
Khaznadar . (
19111925, . 173174). :
18981901,.104/31898.4444/
24 1900: 1864 1864 (24 ) /
9905/
/ /
/ ,
..

[196]

( 1921) (Hasan el
Koki 2008, Brown 1974) ,

,.36
,
MustaphaKhaznadar,
, Mohamed Khaznadar, ,
,

Hasan, , 6
2011.37
, Mustapha
Khaznadar,.Naufel,.,
:

Mohamed Khaznadar Mustapha Khaznadar


, .
, Mustapha Khaznadar ,
, .
.
Mustapha Khaznadar .
.
. . .
.
,
,1821
.
Mustapha
Ahmet.
.
.
. , , ,
BenAbdesslem.
MahmoudHusaynbey.38

36

,
, (183928 1939), ,
,18441861(1921:94
99).
37
Hasan,Mustapha,Mounir(,
,) Mustapha
Khaznadar Mounir, Naufel () Ines (
)Diziric().
38
, 6 2011 17
.:
Mustapha Khaznadar
MohamedKhaznadar,
Ahmed:

[197]


brahim Edhem Paa, Mustapha Khasnadar

.
brahimEdhemPaa,,

,
, , ,
.

, ,
,.
MustaphaKhasnadar,
Ahmed,
,
,
. ,
, Mohamed,
.

,
, ,


.
, ,
.
1814.,,
.1821,
, ,
.
.,
.
.,
1821..
MustaphaAhmed,
, .

BenAbdesslem,1823
ahmoud Houcine Bey.
Mounir Khaznadar.
.NaufelKhaznadar,.
.

[198]

,
.

,.1911.,,1:147149.
. 1997. .
,.:..
,.1921..
:.
, . . 2002. . .
18001920.:.
, . 1928. . , .
:...
,.1974...
..1.:
, . 1920.
.:...
, . 1937. .
.:..
[,..]1890.1822.
, , :
()1983,516538.
Aydz, Salim. 2008. brahim Edhem Paa. Yaamlar ve Yaptlaryala
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http://www.ambafrancetr.org/spip.php?article838 / 9122010 /
4:30.
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powerful pasha: Myth and reality in the life of Ibrahim Edhem
Pasha, c. 18181893. (
,
,
2427

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bin/WebObjects/athensdialogues.woa/wa/dist?dis=51
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2010/4:10. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibrahim_Edhem_Pasha
/9122010/4:35.IbrahimEdhemPasha
Buyers, Christopher 20002010. Tunisia. The Husainid Dynasty. Brief
history. (http://www.royalark.net/Tunisia/tunisia.htm /305
2011/10:13). http://fr.rodovid.org/wk/Personne:172376 /315
2011/2:25.MustaphaKhaznadar(KalkiasStravelakis).
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mustapha_Khaznadar
/315
2011/2:25.MustaphaKhaznadar.

: .1697.
/ / /
/../1899.
() : 576, 577, 578,
991,1156.
():
:
/ 4 1885.

[200]

/
188418851886.().
: 19111925.
18981901.().
MounirKhaznadar():
Mohamed Khaznadar, Mustapha Khaznadar.
().

[201]

.brahimEdhemPaaMustaphaKhaznadar.

[202]

Gen.

[203]

Gen.HasanKhaznadar

[204]

:

(19371949)

Abstract

Communitiesofmemoryandoblivion:theconstructionofmemoryinlife
storynarrativesofPonticGreeksaboutthepersecutionsanddeportations
oftheStalinisteraintheUSSR(19371949)

Thepaperanalyzestheformationofcommunitiesofmemoryandoblivion
among the Pontic Greeks of the former Soviet Union. Members of this
community who lived through the persecutions and deportations of the
StalinisteramigratedtoGreece,mostofthemintwowaveseitherbefore
WWII or after 1990. I will explore how these populations remember and
interprettheirexperiencesofpersecutionduringthe1930sand1940s,their
migration to Greece and their political affiliation after their arrival in
Greece.Iwillfocusinparticularontheirmemoriesofdeportationinapost
communist context. How did a narrative about the past become a
commentonthepresentandhowdoexperiencesinthepresentcontribute
totheidealizationofthepast?Whoremembers,whenandwhy?Andwho
preferstoforget?

,
2

.
2003
,
.
,,,

.

1939, .
1

,email:olsevast@uth.gr.
,

,
(2009).
2

[205]


90,
.

, ,
,.

;
;
,
,

.
,
;
;

Gramsci ,
(
2002:156).
.

,
Halbwachs,,

(Halbwachs1992:53).


,
.
HalbwachsConnerton,
/ ,
,

(Connerton2007:22).

,LuisaPasserini,AlessandroPortelli,Anna
Green ..,
(Passerini 2007, Passerini
1998:1617,Portelli1997:57,Green2004:42).

[206]

,
.

Foucault :
,

. (Fucault 1991:81).

.

,

.

,RikiVanBoeschoten,
,
, ,
,

(VanBoeschoten2008:12).

,
,,
,

, .
.3

:

,
, ,
2929,,.
, 1994, .

1990.
,

.
,
,
,
.

[207]

,
4
(2006,2007),
.5
,
,
.

,

, ,


.

.

.

, 19371939
1940,
,
1937,
1939
,
.

.
,
, 1937
.

,
,
( 1997:253260,


.
5
,
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,.

[208]

1998:1320).
,,.

,
,
,1929
1933.
,
,

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,
.
,
,
.
19371939
.

,
(.1977:375391,Rittersporn2001:213).

.,1938
,.
, ,

,
( 1991:226242,
1997:425,Figes2007:238).
.
,
, ,
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[209]


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,29/05/1996,.
,29/05/1996,.

[210]

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1930.


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1930.

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1930
1940.

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: , [
] .8


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90.,9.
8

, 21/06/1998,
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.

[211]

,
,

( 2006:9).10
,
VanBoeschoten,
(VanBoeschoten2008:13).

.

.
,
,
,.

1940.
,11
,

( 1991:250, 1977 .:152) . ,
19411942,194419461949.

,1949.

,
(
1991:248270, 1997:515524). ,
()
(1997:513).12
1940
,

10

,22/06/1998,.
,31/10/07,.
11
Kreindler 1986. The
Soviet Deported Nationalities: A Summary and an Update, Soviet Studies, 38/3:387, 391,
387405.(forcedmigration)
Pollian2004:4348
12
,
,

.

[212]

,,
.

,
,
,

,,
.
, ,

.
,
,
.


.
cocacola


.13

.

,,

.
, .

,
.

,
.
ViedaSkultans

13

,,
.,15/12/07,
.

[213]

(Skultans 2007:213215). (flash bulb


memory), .
,
,
.
(flash back),

.


,
,
,
.

.

.
,
,
.

[214]

,.1991..
.:.
,.1997..

.:.
, , , , ,
,.,().2008..
, :
.,942.
Connerton, Paul. 2007. How Societies Remember. Cambridge: Cambridge
UniversityPress.
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.
, . 2002.
19401950.:.
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Books.
Fucault,Michel.1991..:/
.
, . 2006. .
, .45,
173232.
, . 2007.
.:.
Green, Anna. 2004. Individual remembering and collective memory:
Theoretical presuppositions and contemporary debates, Oral
History32/2:3544.
Halbwachs, Maurice. 1992. On Collective Memory. Chicago: University of
ChicagoPress.
Kreindler, Isabelle. 1986. The Soviet Deported Nationalities: A Summary
andanUpdate,SovietStudies,38/3,Taylor&Francis:387405.
Passerini,Luisa.1998.20.
.:.
Passerini,Luisa.2007.BecomingaSubjectintheimeoftheDeathofthe
Subject. L. Passerini, Memory and Utopia. The Primacy of
Intersubjectivity,London/Oakville:Equinox,3353.
Pollian, Pavel. 2004. Against their Will. The History and Geography of
Forced Migrations in the USSR. Budapest: Central European
UniversityPress.
Portelli,Alessandro.1997.TheBattleofValleGiulia.OralHistoryandthe
ArtofDialogue.Wisconsin:TheUniversityofWisconsinPress.
[215]

Rittersporn,Gabor.2001..DreyfusMichel,Groppo
Bruno,IngerflomClaudio,LewRoland,PennetierClaude,Pudal
Bernard,WolikowSerge(.),,
:,206219.
, . 2009. :
(1937
1949).
,,.
Skultans, Vieda. 2007. :
,&VanBoeschoten
Riki (.), .
,:,199232.
, . 1998. , :
.,.
1932..:
.
,.2006..
.:.
:,.2006..
.:
.(.).1997.
.,.
:UniversityStudioPress

[216]

Abstract

The social dimension of memory in the testimonies of Jewish survivors in


Greece

At the centre of this study are the testimonies of GreekJewish survivors


which were collected by the USC Shoah Foundation Institutes Visual
HistoryArchive.Byplacingthememoryintheframeworkofthesocialand
thebiographicalcontinuum,itattemptstoilluminatethemultiplicityofthe
experienceofthesurvivoraswellasthesocialdimensionoftheformation
ofhis/heridentitythroughmemory.Thearticleaimsatinsertingtheclass
andgenderaspectsoftheexperiencesofthesurvivorsintheinvestigation
of the construction of memory in order to illuminate dimensions of the
memory of the survivors that have been obscured by the contemporary
focus on the ahistorical emphasis on trauma and on the impossibility of
witnessing.

.2
1

,email:hantzaro@sa.aegean.gr.

USC Shoah Foundation


David Boder. Boder
1946.
Paul V. Galvin Library, Illinois Institute of
Technology(http://voices.iit.edu).Boder
, . http://voices.iit.edu/david_boder.

(19301960):
( : ,
),JohnS.
Latsis Public Benefit Foundation.
..
2

[217]

,

, .
Muselmann Giorgio Agamben

.


Agamben, Muselmann, homo sacer
,
,

,,

.

1.


,,
Anette Wieviorka,
(1998: 160).

.

, Boder Miriam Novitch (1967),
,

Shoah
.
1946 David Boder,
.
Boder


.
Boder.
, 1918,
Boder, .

[218]

.3
,
,
Sonderkommando.
,,
,.
Landsberg.:

5 Landsberg, ,
, , ,

,.,14
,..
.,
.4

, .
. ,
,,,
.,
.
.,,
.
,
[].5

[ ]
(Langer 1991)
:
, ,

.6DoriLaub


3

AnnaReading,
, ,

(2002:12).
4
David Lea (. 1918) Paul V. Galvin
Library, Illinois Institute of Technology, . 941B, 942 [
].
5
.
6

(2007:2126).

[219]

(2010: 56).

.

, ,
(2002:199217).

.

,
.7
. 1990

.
.
,

.Wieviorka1968,

, .
, ,
.
(1998: 128).
Fortunoff Video Archives for Holocaust Testimonies
.8
. Fortunoff

,

(Wieviorka 1998: 144).


Visual History Archive Shoah Foundation University Southern
California,
,
.

.
(:157).
Marianne Hirsch Leo Spitzer
.
7

EnrietteRicaBenveniste
(2008http://ehess.dynamiques.fr/).
8
3.6001995.1982Yale
200.

[220]

(2010: 390).
.
ShoahClaudeLanzmann

.

.

Shoah(:392).
,
Muselmann,o KZetnik Abraham Bomba,

. KZetnik , Abraham
Bomba Shoah Lanzmann, ,
. Bomba
, .
lacunacaesura,
, Giorgio Agamben
,Muselmann.9
Abraham Bomba
Lanzmann

.Lanzmann
Bomba . KZetnik
,
,
.
, ,
;
Agamben ,
, Muselmann
.
, ,
9

Muselmann .
,.

(Mesnard Kahan, 2001: 4246).
Muselmann , . Wolfgang
Sofski,(1995:400).

[221]

. Agamben Primo Levi


,

, ,
(LaCapra2004,Marion2006:1012).
Agamben
Muselmann
. Agamben
: 1. Muselmann
,.
2.,
(Agamben1999:150).
RemnantsofAuschwitz
Muselmann,

Muselmann
.

.
.

,

,.
,,,,
.
,

: ,
.
(2000:11).

Agamben

. Muselmann

[222]

.10
Muselmann
..
,
.
Muselmann
,Agamben:
Muselmann:

(Agamben 1999: 156). Muselmann
.
Muselmann volkloser Raum,
,
Staatsangehrige []
, , ,
, ,
Muselmann, ,
(:157).
,
Muselmann .
Muselmann
:
(Agamben 1999: 156).
Agamben
,
,
,.11

Agamben.EsterMarion
Agamben
,
(2006:1019). Dominick La Capra
Agamben Muselmann
10

Agamben,

:,
,
[langue],

,
.

(1992:1445).
11
.:157.

[223]



(2004:162).
,,Shoah

.
Agamben

.
.

,
,
.

,
.

, ,
Muselmann.,

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,
(:157158).


Agamben
.

2.:

, Agamben (

),
,
.
,
.


[224]

.
,

.



(1982:172174).,Agamben,



.
Agamben

(2005: 265).
, homo sacer
,
homo sacer .
:
,
.
,
,
.

.

( 1982: 155157). ,
Agamben
,
,

.
Muselmann,
,
.
(
),
,
,

(),
.
[225]

,

.

Jean Amry,
(2009: 2355).


. Amry,
,
.12
Amry
Muselmann,
;
,
, Agamben

.

:
(
),

, (
,).13
:
, , .
,

,
, ( 272).


, , .

12

JeanAmry,(..).,,
2009,.2355.
13

, ,
, , .

(Agamben2005:272).

[226]

,
.

,

(
) ( : 275).

,.
Agamben
,,


( : 275).


.
,
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.14

.
, ,
,

.
:..,..
,
,:15

,
.
...
. .
, .
, ,
. ,
.

14

JudithButlerAgamben
,
(ButlerSpivak,2007:38).
15
(. 1917). SFI VISUAL HISTORY
ARCHIVE,..45273

[227]

, :
. , .
. .
, ,
,,

.



.


.

,
.

,


.


,

,
.
Sam Askenazi, 1919
,
Sonderkommando
: .16
:.
.
, 1924
1948,
: .
. .17
16

(.1919)SFIVISUALHISTORYARCHIVE,
..7197.
17
(.1924)SFIVISUALHISTORYARCHIVE,
..47849.

[228]


. ,
,,
.

.18



.


.
:.,
.19,,.
,.

,

,
,

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:
,
.20

. ,
,
,
.21

18

,
(Goffman2001:6069).
19
(.1925)SFIVISUALHISTORY
ARCHIVE,..45305.
20
(. 1919) SFI VISUAL
HISTORYARCHIVE,..41815.
21
KatherineFleming
,

(2009:2245).

[229]



.1934
.1940
,,
.
,
,
.,


.22

.

,
.
.

:
.
.,.
.


.

.

.

22

,

1914 ( 1993: 171204).

. ,
1922
(2005:204209).

[230]

. .
..
.[].
. .
.[]

. .
. , , .
.
; [] . ;
. .
..[]23

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; . ,
. .
.[]24

,
;

;
,
;

,
, ,
Muselmann.

,

,
.
Agamben, Muselmann,
23

(. 1924) SFI VISUAL


HISTORYARCHIVE,..47325.
24
(. 1920) SFI VISUAL HISTORY
ARCHIVE,..45239.

[231]

homo sacer ,
,

,
Muselmann,.
, Agamben

,

.

, ,
.


. ,

[232]

Agamben, Giorgio, 1999. Remnants of Auschwitz: The Witness and the


Archive(.DanielHellerRoazen).:ZoneBooks.
Agamben, Giorgio. 2005. Homo Sacer:
(.:.).:Scripta.
Amry, Jean. 2009. (. .
).:.
, . 2007 (2 ).
.:.
. 1993. "": ,

,,10/1819:171204.
Benveniste, HenrietteRica. 2008. The Coming Out of Jewish History in
Greece.http://ehess.dynamiques.fr/
Butler,JudithGayatriChakravortySpivak.2007.WhoSingstheNation
State?Language,Politics,Belonging.NewYork:SeagullBooks.
Fleming, Katherine. 2009. (.
).:.
,.1982..1:
(..).:.
, . 2005.
.:.
Goffman, Erving. 2001. :
(.).:.
Hirsch,MarianneLeoSpitzer.2010.HolocaustStudies.Susannah
Radstone Bill Schwarz (), Memory: Histories, Theories,
Debates,FordhamUniversityPress,390405.
La Capra, Dominick. 2000. History and Memory after Auschwitz. Ithaca:
CornellUniversityPress.
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History in Transit: Experience, Identity, Critical Theory, Ithaca:
CornelUniversityPress,144193.
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Yale:YaleUniversityPress.
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toFuture:ADialoguewithDoriLaubonTraumaandTestimony.
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Future:TransnationalPolitics,EthicsandSociety,London:Palgrave
Macmillan,5065.
, . 2000. . :
.

[233]

Marion,Ester.2006.TheNaziGenocideandtheWritingoftheHolocaust
Aporia: Ethics and Remnants of Auschwitz. MLN 121/ 4: 1009
1022.
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dAuschwitz.Paris:Kim.
, . 2002.
Shoah: ,
,,
107A(:
...):199217.
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delaDportationetdelaRsistancedesJuifsGrec.Nice:Presses
duTempsPrsent.
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385398.

[234]

Abstract
Oralhistoryandfear

Researchers involved in collecting oral witnesses regarding the Greek


1940s are often confronted with an obvious feeling of fear, which stems
eitherfromthenarratorsthemselvesorfromtheirfamilyenvironment.This
fearusuallyconcernsthekindofinformationpeoplefeelcanbeallowedto
be uncovered during the interview or, on the contrary, should not be
revealed for several reasons. How should the researcher evaluate this
obviousfear?Whatdoesitmeanforthewaypeoplemanagetheirmemory
in the present? Moreover, what does this feeling reveal in relation to the
publicmasternarrativeonWorldWarIIandtheCivilWarinGreece?

. .
. .
.
, ,
. ,

,
( 2002: 137).

.
34
,
1940 ,

.


,
.
,
.
, ,
,
,,.
1

,,email:kanagno2003@yahoo.com.

[235]


. , ,

,
, ,
.
, , ,
.

.
,,
.

, ,
,,

. ,
,
,
2.


, ,
,

(
2008:7273).,,,
, ,
,.

, ,
,
3,
,
,
2

,.
,
.
,,,

2002:8485
.
3
,
.Thompson2002:205206.

[236]

,
,(2002:85).

,
,
.
,
.
,,,
. ,
, ,
.

,
. ,
, ,
.
.

,
.

. ,

.
,,

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,,.

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. 1940
,
.
,
.
:

, , ,
,

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,
[237]

,,
,

!.


,
,4.

,
,
, .
,
1940, .

,
:
,

.
,

,
.

,,
.


,
,

/
5.
4

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,
(: , :
, 17/02/2010, ,
).
5
(: , :
, 31/03/2010, ,
)
, ,
,,

.

[238]

,
1940
. ,
. ,
,
40
,

.
40,
,
,
,
.

.
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.

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,.,,

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.1940,
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[239]

, ,
6.

.
, .

.
,
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, ,

;

,
1940;

;
, ,

;
40,

; ,

;
;

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. ,
:
,
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,
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. .
,

,
,PaulThompson(2002:224225).

[240]

.,
, .

,
. ,
:
.
.
, ,
,
,
,
7.


,
,
,.

1940 ,
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,

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1940
,
7


(2002:167168.)

[241]


..

, ,

.,

.
, ,
, ,

1940.

, . 2002. 40:
,
,107:135155.
, . 2002.
: ,
,,107:157181.
, . 2008. 1940
: ,
, , , ,
(.), ,
::6180.
, . 2002. ,
,107:8394.
Thompson, Paul. 2002. . ,
:.

[242]

Abstract

Womenandcrisis:anexchangebetweencontinuityandchange

The present paper is based on a research I have conducted on the


experiences of women from MesogeiaAttika during the Second World
War,andtheconsequencesthoseexperienceshadonthestatusofwomen
within their community and family. he oral testimonies of women from
Mesogeia reveal how during a period of great crisis, women managed,
throughtraditionalvaluesandduties,toexceedtheirroles.Theendofthe
Second World War signalled the return to traditional values and
hierarchies. However, women from Mesogeia had already gained an
awareness of their gender and role and used this knowledge towards
changingtheirchildrenslives.

,.

,
1

90
,
.

,
.


.

.

20 .

. ,
Arthur Marwick (1974) Eric Hobsbawm (1994),
1

,,,32006.

[243]

. ,
, Hobsbawm (1994: 310319)
:
,
.
,ElizabethRoberts(1994:132)
PennySummerfield(1998)


. ,
,


(Vervenioti 2000: 105).
,
( 1994: 1415).

;


,
.

,
,
.,
,
.
, ,
.

,


. ,

.
,
.
[244]


.AnthonyCohen(MorrisandMorton2002:1920),

. , ,
,
.
.

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[251]

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, . 1994.
.:.
Bolton,Tonyetal.1981.IntroductorySociology.London:MacmillanPress.
GefouMadianou,Dimitra.1992.ExclusionandUnityRetsinaandSweet
WineCommensalityandGenderinaGreekAgrotown.Dimitra
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NewYork:Routledge,108136.
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, . 1985. .
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Nation.London:HodderandStoughton.
, . 1994. , 19181940. : . .
.
Roberts, Elizabeth. 1996. Women and Families An Oral History, 1940
1970.OxfordUKandCambridgeUSA:Blackwell.
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Discourse and Subjectivity in Oral Histories of the Second World
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Vervenioti, Tasoula. 2000. Leftwing Women between Politics and
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ReconstructingtheFamily,NationandStateinGreece,19431960,
PrincetonandOxford:PrincetonUniversityPress,105121.

[252]

ASPECTS OF THE PRESENT ECONOMIC CRISIS


THROUGH LIFE STORIES

12

Abstract

Crisis,unemploymentandpolitics:abiographicalapproach

One of the most serious consequences of the deep economic crisis that
affectsGreecesince2009istheunemploymentofalmostamillioncitizens.
Using the tool of the biographical interview, we try to highlight the
reflection of the experience of unemployment on feelings about the
situationofunemploymentitselfandtowardsthepoliticalsystem,aswell
asonpoliticalbehaviour.Viathemethodofgroundedtheorywediscover
perceptions,opinionsandattitudesandwecategorizethem.Withrespect
tofeelings,thedominantonesareapathy,rageanddespair,alongwitha
generalizedcynicismaboutthepoliticalsystemandabsenceofatendency
to organize. However, it seems that the political behaviour of the
unemployedisnotmadeonlyoffeelings,butalsoinvolvesagooddealof
rationality.Wecategorizeourintervieweesaccordingtotheirbehavioural
tendenciestoRepelled,TransformingandUnwavering.

,

20092012,
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(ankafe@kpepanteion.gr).
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(itsirbas@pspa.uoa.gr).

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1993:404, 1989:498),
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(1999,
Mazower2009).

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(Bakke 1933, Lazarsfeld,


Jahoda and Zeisel 2002, Wright 1934, Wunderlich 1934, Zawadzki and
Lazarfeld 1935).


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236).

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[266]


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[267]

&

, . 1999. "
19 ". (.).
(1820 ), :
..
Alheit, P. 1997. " . ." .
, P. Alheit and H. S. Olesen,
, ,
:.
Anderson,C. J. 2001. "Desperate Times Call for Desperate Measures?
UnemploymentandCitizenBehaviorinComparativePerspective."
InN.Bermeo(ed)UnemploymentintheNewEurope,Cambridge:
CambridgeUniversityPress,271290.
Bakke,E.W.1933.TheUnemployedMan.London:Nisbet.
Banks, M. H., and P. Ullah. 1987. "Political Attitudes and Voting Among
Unemployed and Employed Youth." Journal of Adolescence
10/2:201216.
Charmaz, K. 2006. Constructing Grounded Theory. A Practical Guide
ThroughQualitativeAnalysis.London:SagePublications.
Clark, A. W. 1985. "The Effects of Unemployment on Political Attitude."
JournalofSociology21/1:100108.
, . 2008. " :
." :
:
21.,.
De Witte, H. 1992. "Unemployment, Political Attitudes and Voting
Behaviour"PoliticsandtheIndividual2:2941.
Duch,R.MandR.T.Stevenson.2008.TheEconomicVote.HowPoliticaland
Economic Institutions Condition Election Results. Cambridge:
CambridgeUniversityPress.
Fair, R.C. 1978. The Effect of Economic Events on Votes for President.
TheReviewforEconomicsandStatistics60:159173.
Fiorina, Morris, P. 1978. Economic Retrospective Voting in American
NationalElections:AMicroAnalysis.AmericanJournalofPolitical
Science22/2:426443.
Fiske,S.T.,andS.E.Taylor.1984.SocialCognition.Reading,MA:Addison
Wesley
Glaser, B. G. 2001. The Grounded Theory Perspective: Conceptualization
ContrastedwithDescription.MillValley,CA:TheSociologyPress.
Glaser, B. G., and A. L. Strauss. 1967. The Discovery of Grounded Theory.
Chicago:Aldine.
Glaser, G. 1978. Theoretical Sensitivity. Mill Valley , CA: The Sociology
Press.
[268]

Jahoda,M.1982.EmploymentandUnemployment:ASocialPsychological
Analysis. Cambridge: Press Syndicate of the University of
Cambridge.
Kramer, G. H. 1971. ShortTerm Fluctuations in U.S. Voting Behavior,
18961964.TheAmericanPoliticalScienceReview65/1:131143.
Lazarsfeld, P. F., M. Jahoda and H. Zeisel. 2002. Marienthal. The
Sociography of an Unemployed Community. New Brunswick, New
Jersey:TransactionPublishers.
,.1993..

. :
.
Mazower,M.2009..
:.
Morse,J.M.2007."SamplinginGroundedTheory."InTheSageHandbook
of Grounded Theory, by A. Bryant and K. Charmaz, London: Sage
Publications.229244.
NoelleNeumann,E.1984.TheSpiralofSilence.ATheoryofPublicOpinion
OurSocialSkin.Chicago:UniversityofChicagoPress.
Olson, Mancur. 1965. The Logic of Collective Action, Harvard University
Press.
Roberts, B. 2002. Biographical Research. Buckingham: Open University
Press.
Schlozman,K.L.,andS.Verba.1979.InjurytoInsult:Unemployment,Class
andPoliticalBehavior.Massachusetts:HarvardUniversityPress.
Stigler,G.J.1973.GeneralEconomicConditionsandNationalElections.
TheAmericanEconomicReview63/2:160167.
Wright, H. R. 1934. "The Families of the Unemployed in Chicago", Social
ServiceReview8/1:1730.
Wunderlich,F.1934."NewAspectsofUnemploymentinGermany."Social
Research1/1:97110.
,.1989.1929.

. :
.
Zawadzki,B.andP.F.Lazarfeld.1935,"ThePsychologicalConsequencesof
Unemployment."TheJournalofSocialPsychology6/2:224251.

[269]

[270]

Greekeconomiccrisisandimmigrants:agencyandstrategiesofPakistani
migrantsinAthens

EmiliaSalvanou



.

,

,

,,
,
, ()
.

Introduction

he economic crisis triggered the entrance of the Greek society into a


dramatically different chronotope, in the sense of the radical change it
broughttothetropesofinterpreting,experiencingandnarratingreality.1
Captured in the midst of generalized disorientation and fear, brought
about by the contraction of the public sphere and political normality,
immigrants,asthemostvulnerablesocialgroup,becamethefirsttargets
of social intolerance (Liakos 2011). Such targeting is very much in
accordancewiththediscourseofthestateofemergencyandthestate
ofexception:byattributingexceptionalcharacteristicstothesituation
experienced,thesuspensionofsocialandindividualrightsinthenameof
1

Eventhoughreferringtoliterarycriticism,Bachtinsnotionofthechronotopeisuseful
here. By bringing a mathematical concept into cultural studies, he refers to situations
where time becomes denser and space meets the needs of historical reality. In other
words,hesuggeststhatwecanonlyunderstandthewayexperiencedrealityisconstructed
at the point where the notions of time and space meet. In this sense, in Greece, the
economiccrisisdoesnotonlyaffecttheeconomic,socialandpoliticalconditions,butthe
wayitprojectsitsidentitytothetemporalcontinuityaswell.SeeBahtin1981.

[271]

EmiliaSalvanou

safety are more easily tolerated (Agamben 2005). Thus it produces


precariouslives,liveswhichvaluelesscomparedtoothersandwhichare
on the margins of political life in other words, lives less human (Butler
2006).
Thispaper,basedonlifestoriesnarratedbymembersofamigrant
communityinAthens,attemptstoshedlightonthemultiplesubjectivities
that the dominant discourse conceals under the category of precarious
life. Moreover, taking into account that subjectivity is produced in a
dynamic power relation, it will argue that different migrant subjectivities
areobscuredbytheuseofacollectivecategoryoftheimmigrant.Atthe
same time while immigrants are produced in public discourse as a
dangerous social category, immigrants themselves produce new
subjectivities in response.2 In other words, when normality is upset and
thereisnowayofplanningthefuturebasedonthepresent,itisthepast
and the lived experience subjects turn to, seeking to make meaningful
narratives of their lives and to produce new subjectivities based on the
present(Nora2002).

ThenarrativeofthecrisisinGreeceandimmigrants

Tensions and difficulties in the relationship between Greece and


immigrantsarebeenconstantsincethelate20thcentury,i.e.sinceGreece
became a destination country for migrants instead of a country of
emigrants. However, the issue in question was not the immigrants
presenceinthecountry,buttheconditionsthatdeterminedit(Kingetal.
1997, Emke Poulopoulou 2007, Fakiolas & King 1996, Baldwin Edwards
1997,2005,Petronoti1995).Inotherwords,whilemigrantlaborforcewas
welcomedtoboostalocaleconomythatatthetimewasgrowingandin
needofworkinghandsinagricultureandthebuildingindustry(duetothe
rapidmoveofthenativepopulationtowardsmiddleclassoccupations)at
thesametimemigrationpolicieswereaimedatrestrictingthepossibility
of their permanent inclusion into the national body. It was within this
context that special categories of migrants with privileged rights to
nationalitywereestablished(forexamplethosewhoweredeemedtobe
of Greek origin, especially those belonging to the Greek minority of
Southern Albania and the Pontian Greeks of the former Soviet Union)
(Baltsiotis2009,Veremisetal1995,Zachou&Kalerante2009).
Theliteratureonmigrationwasshapedaccordingly.Migrationwas
regardedandstudiedastheproofofthissuccessfulcourseofthenation
untiltheeconomiccrisischangedthenarrativeofGreekhistorydrastically
2

Onthewayindividualandcollectivesubjectivitiesareinterrelatedandthelimitsofsuch
interrelation,seePasserini2007:3353.

[272]

Greekeconomiccrisisandimmigrants

(Hatziprokopiou2003,Kingetal2000,RibasMateos2004,Iosifides&King
1998,Fakiolas2000).Thenarrativeofthesuccessfulstategaveitsplace
to orientalizing and selforientalizing approaches, according to which
deficienciessuchasraceandtheundisciplinedcharacteroftheGreeks
were to blame for the states depression (Liakos 2011). The choices and
the expectations of the period that preceded depression (summarized
symbolically under the notion of reconstitution and meaning the state
thatwasformedaftertheoverturnofthemilitaryjuntainthe1970sand
theformationofawelfarestate)wereheldresponsibleforthecrisisand
for moral corruption. Alongside, everything that implied pleasure and
luxury (a core notion of the years before the economic crisis) was
condemned. In this frame, immigrants, who were the proof of the
wellbeingofthepreviousyears,werenowtargetedasresponsibleforthe
economic crisis, for the Greeks unemployment and poverty and the
disruptionofthesocialnet.

Thecommunity

ThisarticleisbasedonlifestoriesofPakistaniimmigrantswhoaresettled
intheareaoftheAtheniansuburbNeaIonia.ThePakistanicommunityhas
beenconstantlypresentinthedistrictduringthelasttwentyyearsandits
membersenjoythesecurityofferedbytheholdingoflongtermpermitsof
residenceafterthelegalizationactsin1998and2005(oratleastlicenses
that need to be renewed every five or ten years) (Pavlou & Skoulariki
2009).Thus,acoreofpermanentimmigrantshasformeditselfinthearea.
Around this core newcomers move, usually associated with the older
immigrantsthroughrelationshipsofkinshiporproximityofplaceoforigin.
A constant flow of information and solidarity through such networks
providesaccesstothelabormarket,usuallyinthebuildingindustry,atgas
stationsorasmachineoperators.Partlyduetotheculturalcapitalbrought
fromtheircountryoforiginandpartlyduetoexperiencesofeverydaylife
andtheirrenegotiationinthecontextofintimaterelationshipsdeveloped
by regular, face to face contact between members of the local migrant
community, strong local characteristics are attributed to the community,
which lead migrants to regard it as different from the newcomers who
livedowntownAthens3

On the significance that locality has for the migrant communities see: Hatziprokopiou
2003:1045,Sassen1995.Onintimaterelationshipsandtheframeworktheyprovideforthe
renegotiation of memory, see Danforth and Van Boeschoten 2011. On the way migrant
subjectivityisformedbetweenthecountryoforiginandthatofdestination,seeBrah1996,
esp.187192.

[273]

EmiliaSalvanou

The initial phase of research (20082009) was conducted through


participatory field observation and collection of life stories.4 After that,
regularcontactswithcommunitymemberswerecontinued.Repetitivelife
narratives were collected anew, especially (but not exclusively) when
developments in the political and societal situation might have led to
changes in the way migrants perceived their integration into the local
community.Thenarratorswereselectedbythesnowballmethodaround
theoriginalinformantsnetworks.Mostoftheinterviewswereconducted
onaonetoonebasis(withaninterpreterpresentatsomeofthem,who
served a double role, being at the same time a guarantor for obtaining
initialtrust).Onlyinsomeexceptionalcircumstances,wheretheinterview
could benefit from social interaction between community members, the
interviewtookplacewithmorethanoneinformantspresent.Eventhough
thesampleofinformantscannotclaimtoberepresentativeofthewhole
Pakistani community, however, it sheds light on the conditions under
which individual or collective interpretations of the past fall into oblivion
orbecomereactivated,inordertomakelifemeaningful.Inotherwords,
what seems to be the case where participatory observation in the
community during the last five years and the collection of successive life
storiesmeet,isthatnarrativesrelatemuchmoretothepresentthanthe
past and that the informants rather than falling under the collective
category of immigrants, are subjects that constitute the subjectivities
through embodied experiences, within constantly renegotiated networks
ofpower5

Crisisandracism

During the interviews on the impact of the crisis on migrants lives, two
were the main axes around which participants focused their narratives:
racism and insecurity associated with planning a future in the country.
Pakistani experienced racist attitudes against them well before the
economic crisis broke out. Racist attacks against them have reached a
climax since the spring of 2009, even though back then they were rarely
targetedas'dangerous'bythemediatheywererathervictimizedasblind
targets of extreme right wing racist attacks (Kampouri & Salvanou 2009).
Thingsseemtohavechangegraduallyafterthesummerof2009,partially
because of the political visibility migrants claimed for themselves during
the protests for the Koran" and partially due to the discussion of new
legislationconcerningthenaturalizationofimmigrants,thatprovokedthe
4

ThisphaseoftheresearchwasfundedbyaLatsisFoundationscholarship.
Seealso:Andifcontemporarymigrantpopulationsarenottoappear asmute,passive
strawsinthepoliticaleconomicwinds,weneedtolistentoawiderangeoftravelstories
(nottravelliteratureinabourgeoissense)(Clifford1992:110).
5

[274]

Greekeconomiccrisisandimmigrants

reactions of the conservatives and the right wing political parties (2009
2010).6 Triggered by these two events and in the framework of an
economic crisis that became political and led to a dispute, as well as
distrusttowardsthepoliticalsystem,theconstructionofimmigrantsasa
dangerous instead of a victimized social group was easy to happen,
especiallyforthoseimmigrantswhosedifferencewas"visible".7
Inthenarrativesofmigrantsduringtheeconomiccrisis,racismno
longeristracedexclusivelyattheextremerightwingattacksagainstthem.
Racismcannowbetracedatthecenterofeverydayspeechandbehavior,
at least for a large part of the city's resident (Liakos 2012).
Substantializationofskincolor,alongsidewithconnotationsofculturaland
moral inferiority are now a central part of everyday experiences of
Pakistanis in Nea Ionia. Whether in their dealings with public services, or
whenusingpublictransportorsimplywhenpresentinpublicspaces,the
discourseaboutthe"blacks"who"havetakenourjobsandnowevendare
to have claims are on the daily agenda. The strategy migrants prefer in
ordertorespondtosuchobjectionsisbynarratingtheirmoralsuperiority
vs "corruption", which is viewed as an eminent characteristic of Greek
societyincrisis.UsingwhatMaryLouisePratthascalled"selfethnographic
techniques," they reverse the categories assigned to them, by drawing
6

During2009racistsentimentsandattacksatAthensbecamedenser,partiallybecauseof
the upcoming elections for the European Parliament and the conservative governments
attempt to make alliances with the most conservative part of its constituency. Anti
immigrant attacks were tolerated and the police organized sweeping operations
downtown Athens .When four migrants, resembling South Asians and not seeming to
belongtothehandfulofthosesecurelyintegratedintheGreekproductionprocess,were
subjected to a body search, in one of these operations, a policeman found, tore up and
stompedonafoldedpieceofpaperonwhichextractsoftheQuranhadbeenwritten.Asa
result, Muslim immigrants over the next ten days staged protests in downtown Athens,
demandingrespectfortheirculturalidentityandreligiousfreedom.
In 2009 a new legislation law was proposed in Greece, according to which migrants that
had been present in the country for a substantial number of years could, under certain
preconditions,becomeGreekcitizens.Thesamelawprovidedthatchildrenofimmigrants
borninGreececouldbenaturalized.Itwas,inthissense,thefirsttimethatcitizenshipwas
disconnectedfromtherightofbloodandconnectedtopoliticalnaturalizingprocesses.It
therefore provoked great resistance by the most conservative parts of the society. For a
criticalapproachofthenaturalizationactandthenotionofcitizenship,seeChristopoulos
2010.
7
Balibarnotesthatracismshouldbeunderstoodasaconflictualrelationshipwiththestate.
Thisconflictualrelationshipisprojected,inadistortedway,againsttheOther,targeting
him as dangerous. He continues to argue that, in Europes case, the inefficient
characteristicsoftheEU,thatseemstorestrainitselfonlytogivingapoliticalformtothe
marketsunificationwithouttakingcaretocreateconsciousnessofpoliticalunification(an
experiment with no historical precedent), is the basis for the conflictual relationship
between the state and its citizens, and therefor racism is unavoidable unless political
decisions are taken. See Balibar 1991:15. On a discussion of precarious lives and the
constructionofthestereotypeofMuslimdangerousness,seeButler2006,Naber2008.

[275]

EmiliaSalvanou

from the organizational discourse and the values of the society which
targets them.8 The two examples that follow will help to make clear the
way in which migrants deal with the negative stereotypes imposed upon
them:

Years ago, in 2003, I worked for a carpenter. My boss paid me regularly but I
complainedthathedidntgivemethesocialsecuritystamps.Imadeacomplaint
tothesocialsecurityservices.ItwasnotthatIneededthestampsformypermitof
residence, just that it was not right. I was called to the court [Committee] and
explained to them that Ive my money I got, but it was not right for the state. I
loveGreece,thiscountrygavemefood,itisnotrightwhathappened.ButIwas
notallowedtospeak,Iwasmockedwhatsyourproblemsinceyoualreadygot
yourmoney.Onlytheheadofthecommitteesaid:Tellmeboywhatyouhave
tosaythisladtalkscorrectlyandthenhecalledmybossforexplanations.But
henevershowedupheonlyrangmeonthephoneandspoketomeverybadly.
NexttimeIwenttothecommitteeItoldthemthatIwasnotlyingandthatIcould
proveit:wecouldgotogethertoahouseIhaveworkedon,and,withoutentering
the house with them, tell them in details how the cupboards in the kitchen are.
ButIcantgetanotherdayoffworktocometotheCommitteeagain,becauseI
wontgetpaid.ThereasonIcametothecommitteeisforGreecessake,becauseI
donotwantsimilarthingstoPakistantohappenhere.There,thepeopleworking
for the state stole the money (they were not good people) and you know what
happened...DontletGreecebecomethesame.(Mohammad,43,interviewon9
April2012)

Whenwefirstcametothishouse,theladynextdoordidntlikeusatall.Wewere
aliens,andonlymen...shewouldprefertohaveGreekneighbours.So,shekept
onsayingthingsaboutthewayourfoodsmellsandcomplainingabouttheshoes
we left outside the door. We said nothing. Even when she called the police and
accused us of making the wall collapse because we put a nail on it, we said
nothingagain.Wehelpedherbuildthewallagain.Withtimesheunderstoodthat
wearenicepeopleandthatwedontliketrouble.Now,shegaveustheseplates
that she was given at the supermarket [as a gift, because of something she
bought]butshedoesntneed.Sheismorefriendlynow.(Tareque,38,interviewed
on20April2012)

Thepatternthatemergesfromsuchnarrativesisthemisunderstoodmoral
superiority of Pakistani immigrants a moral superiority that is partially
integrated in and interpreted by their religious identity. As Mohammad
stated in the abovementioned story: "a good Pakistani is a good Muslim,
andthegoodMuslimissincere,honestandpeaceful".

MaryLouisePratthascoinedthetermselfethnographicexpressionstorefertotheway
subaltern population used the colonial discourse for their self representations (Pratt
1992:7).

[276]

Greekeconomiccrisisandimmigrants

CrisisandthePakistanisworkinglives

Theeconomiccrisisandthewaymigrantsexperienceitisintegratedinto
theirstoriesintwointerrelatedways.Ontheonehanditisnarratedasa
personal experience accompanied with the strategies chosen by the
subject to deal with it. On the other, their narratives may seem to be
detached from the trivialities of the crisis and articulate an argument on
the reasons that provoked the crisis. In that sense, they keep for
themselves a position on the limits of "belonging" and "not belonging",
claiming that they recall memories from two cultural contexts, not really
belongingfullytoneither(Hassoun1996).
When managing the crisis on a personal level, migrants seek
alternatives through the renegotiation of their migration history. Their
narratives in this phase approach their lives from a different perspective
than before, mainly because they seem to rely more on human agency
thanonstructuralcausality.9Inthenewnarrativesuncertaintyandfluidity
aremuchmorepresent.So,nowforthefirsttimetheyaretalkingnotonly
aboutthedifficultiestheywereexperiencingbeforechoosingtoemigrate
ortoanostalgicimageoftheirhomeland,butfortangiblealternativelife
choicesthatmanyofthemleftbehindchoosingtomigrate.Localrivalries
and corruption of power, personal stories about efforts to overcome
rigidities of local communities and the way they were undermined are
details previously omitted from the narratives as irrelevant, but
neverthelessillustratechoicesinlightofagencyandsubjectivity:

HereIworkatconstructionsasaglazier.Butthisisnotmyjobitwasnotwhen
IwasinPakistan.Iusedtobeateacher.Forlittlechildren.Buteducationisnot
good in the villages. And I wanted something better. I had my own school
private school. And kids used to come there. I was not teaching them only
religious education. More things. But I needed money, a lot of money for the
school(itwasnotmybuildingyousee).Andnobodyhelped.Yousee,theydidnot
like it. They do not like kids to get educated. So I had to go. I work here, make
money,andsendback.IstillhavemyschoolthereIhaveotherteachersthere
working.ButIhavetosupportfromhere.Thingsdonotchangeeasily.(Husain43,
interviewedon12.2.2012)

Moreover, it is the first time migrants refer to migration as a strategy of


enhancing the family income. In this frame, as far as they are unable to
contribute as much to the household in Pakistan, their choice to migrate
becomesdevaluedintheeyesoftheirfamilies.

Whenwelefthome,wesentmoneybackeverymonth.Wesavedforbuildingthe
family house there and supported our parents, our families and younger
9

AboutthewayPakistaniimmigrantsrelatedwiththeirworkinglivestheyearsbeforethe
economicdepressioninGreeceseeSalvanou2012.

[277]

EmiliaSalvanou
siblingsBut now, we dont have enough money to send back. We dont have
enoughmoneytoliveonhere.Manyofusareunemployed.Andourparentsand
wives complain. They want us back. They see no use in us being abroad.
(Mohammad35,interviewedon22.1.2012)

Andfinally,theirnarrativesalsoreflectatransitionprocessthatoccursin
their countries of origin regarding the ambivalence between personal
choices and the demands of tradition. Such ambivalence usually is
provokedbyimagesoftheWest,particularlythoseassociatedwithgender
identitiesandsexualfreedom,transmittedbytheolderimmigrantsduring
their trips images that, regardless of their exaggeration, encourage the
young ones to migrate, even if economic circumstances seem less
favorable.

Ill be honest with you I know you for so many years, so please forgive me,
because you are a woman too, but not like that Young ones that come here
knowthateconomicallyitisnoteasyanymorenomoneyandnojobs.Butthey
get excited from the Pakistanis that return for visiting and want to brag about
themselves. You know our country is conservative no flirting, no sexual
relationshipsbeforemarriage.Andweddingsaredecidedbytheparents.Buthere,
inGreece,inEurope,womenaresodifferentIdontthinkitsright,thewaythey
dress,thewaytheyrelatewithmen,butthisishowitisandyoucanbewitha
women easily. Thats the way the younger ones come please dont get
offended(Ishrat45,interviewedon5.2.2012)

Women are so different here in Greece you think they love you, they create
relationshipswithyou(thatswhatyouthink),buttheyonlycareaboutmoney.If
youcantgivethemmoney,theyleaveyou.Iknow,ithappenedtomeitlasted
sixmonths.Ourwomenaredifferenttheyknowwhathardshipistheyarefor
families.Butyoumustmarrythemitstheonlyway(Tareque41,interviewed
on7.3.2010)

Strategiestowardstheeconomiccrisis

Themigrantsattemptstointerprettheeconomiccrisisarecloselylinked
tothestrategiestheydeveloptodealwithit.Somerefertotheendofa
cycle and their abandoned expectations to permanently settle in the
country, bringing along their families. Their plan now is to return to
Pakistanandinvestinbusinesstherethefundstheyhadgatheredfortheir
new lives in Greece. Others choose to tell their life story through a
narration pattern of ongoing mobility: their next stop will be another
Europeancountry,wheretheywillonceagainbe"undocumented"andwill
keep returning regularly to Greece in order to renew their work permits.
And others, those who have developed stronger ties with the country,
especially those who are settled in Greece with their families or have
already filed applications for naturalization, are ambivalent between the
desire to stay and the fear that they will again experience exclusion. The
[278]

Greekeconomiccrisisandimmigrants

waytheyareexperiencingthemselvesisatthesametimeaspartofandas
outsiderstothelocalsocietyscollectivesubject.
Thedifferencesinthewaythatimmigrantspositionthemselvesin
the crisis framework are due to objective differences in their social,
economic and life conditions of course, but also reflect different ways of
understandingtemporality.Ontheonehandtherearethosethatbelieve
that returning to their country of origin is part of the trip of migration
they left in order to return one day. On the other hand, there are those
who,whendecidingtomigrate,leftwithoutplanningtoreturn.Thesetwo
conceptual frameworks unveil different attitudes towards migration and
therefore different subjectivities are formed, based on these attitudes.
(Hartog2001:1540).Inotherwords,itisobviousthatthechoicebetween
returning to Pakistan, staying in Greece or continuing the trip towards
another European country does nt depend only on available networks.
Preferringonechoiceovertheother(andthususingtherelevantnetwork)
dependslargelyonthewaytheindividualpositionshimselftowardseach
ofthesegroupsatthegivenmoment.Inotherwords,whatemergesfrom
thewayPakistanisofNeaIonianarratetheirlifestoriesisthatthewaysin
which they integrate the experience of the crisis into their narration of
theiroverallmigrationnarrative,dependstoalargeextentnotonlyonthe
economic conditions, but also on the mental canvas through which they
made meaningful the choice to migrate in the first place. In this context,
whenthedecisiontomigratewasmadeasafamilystrategytoempower
the households economy, then the decision to return home because of
the economic downturn is very much visible on the horizon. Oppositely,
whentheinitialchoiceofmigrationisassociatedwithpoliticalhardships,
repatriationdoesnotseemtobeachoiceofpreference,evenifthereare
families and children left behind. In this case moving forward to another
country,seemstobethemostappropriatechoice.Itisonlyincaseswhere
tieswithGreeceseemtobestrong,especiallyafterhavingchildreninthe
country,thattheinitialreasonthatledtomigrationseemstobecomeless
important in deciding the strategies to deal with the economic crisis. In
thesecases,itseemsthatPakistanisgetengagedinexploringthecausesof
the crisis. Moved by their current experiences, they recall comparable
situationsintheirhomecountry,whichrefermainlytothefunctioningof
thestateandwhichtheyfindtohaveastructuralbasisandtobestrikingly
similar. On this basis, they seem to hold for themselves a privileged
position to gain understanding of the crisis, since they are able to
recognize and identify warning signs of the crisis based on their
experiences at home. Nevertheless, they continue to experience
continuously the ambivalence of their alien situation: the ambivalent
alienation of the subject whose subjectivity is constructed as a binary
oppositiontothelawfulcitizenduetotheveryexperienceofmigration:
[279]

EmiliaSalvanou

the "illegal" route of entering the country, the difficult relationship with
theauthorities,thepermitofresidence,livingbetweentwolanguagesand
two cultures, the need for memory in order to preserve a coherent
identity,thedreamofintegration(Chambers1994:6).

Conclusions

Reading these narratives out of the interpretive framework of the


dominantdiscourseprovidesvaluableinsightsonthewaytheybecomea
toolwithwhichthePakistanisneithercomplywithnorresisttheimposed
restrictions, but form alternative subjectivities interrelated both with the
waytheyexperiencetheirpresentandthewaytheyattempttointegrate
these experiences in a meaningful narration of their past. More than its
consequencesontheeconomiclevel,thecrisishasnegativelyaffectedthe
migrantsbyseparatingthemfromthenativeworkforceandclassifythem
into a new, special, conceptual category, that of "invaders dangerous to
society and the nation". Immigrants substituted the concept of the old
bourgeois European travelers, but they were constructed as a negative
image. (Clifford 1992, Kaplan 1996). They were conceptualized as the
internalpariahofneoliberalsocieties.Thevisibility,whichwaspartoftheir
movement from "elsewhere", was balanced by the creation of different
mentalmapsandheterotopiaswithincities(Foucault2008b).Inthisway,
the questioning of their very humanity was added to their economic
exploitation.Inotherwords,theirrighttobeincludedintothesocialbody
was questioned. With the prevalence of a discourse referring to medical
pathology, that regarded the society as diseased, those who were
marginalizedandexcludedfromthesocialbody,werenowusedinorder
to confirm, through their exclusion, the essential purity of the patient
(Makrinioti2011).Withtheexpulsionofmigrants,alongwiththeillness
theybringwiththem,thepatientwouldbesaved.Apartfromimmigrants,
the poor, the unemployed, drug addicts, the sick would also have to be
excluded all categories that are a burden and infect the society and
complicate the cure. What seems to be the case, at least by the way
immigrants are evoked in dominant discourse when dealing with the
economiccrisis,isthatinaprocessthatwillaimtoconstructandmanage
atthesametimemoralpanicinordertomaintainthegovernmentalityof
the social groups that come closer to normality, the dividing lines will
deepen,andothersocialgroupswillbetargeted,excludedandmonitored
(Foucault2007,2008a;Athanasiou2011).
In this sense, the ways in which immigrants are redefining their
subjectivity in the context of the economic crisis, is relevant to much
broader social strata. What is at stake is not their ethnic or cultural
difference (as was the case, for example, when they were claiming the
[280]

Greekeconomiccrisisandimmigrants

righttopracticetheirreligion),butthefactthattheirveryhumanityisvery
muchquestionedandthattheirlivesareregardedasprecarious.Andit
seems that other social groups that are near the margins of society
experience similar controversies. It is interesting that through their
narratives Pakistanis focus exactly on human agency, confirming the
priorityofthesubjectagainstthestructuraldeterminationsofhistory.
The stories of Pakistani immigrants in Nea Ionia offer another
example of the way in which, in situations where social divisions and
exclusions are imposed, subjects, rather than complying or resisting,
produce multiple forms of otherness and redefine the networks within
which power is produced (Fregoso & Chabram 1987; Gilroy 1991). More
thanbeingbasedonthelivedexperienceofthemigrationsituationinthe
hostcountry,therenegotiationreconstructsanarrativethatconnectsthe
pastwiththefuturebasedontheexpectationofsocialintegration(Liakos
&Salvanou2010).Bothnarrativesofthepastandthoseofthepresentare
renegotiateddependingontheversionoftheexpectedfuturethatseems
moreviable.Inthissense,inthesenseoftherenegotiationofanarrative
depending on the possibility of being able to visualize the aspired
remaining in the social network or the feared exclusion, the multiple
dynamics that emerge from the migrants narratives should be
contextualized into an ongoing procedure of renegotiation of power
relations and subjectivities that takes place between and within social
groupswhoexperiencethecrisisofneoliberal'normality'.

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Abstract

The life stories and versions of truth as reliable evidence: the case of
homelesspeopleinmodernGreece

This paper presents the life stories and versions of truth as reliable
evidence through the case of homeless people in modern Greece. When
studysubjectsspeak,wehavetolistentowhattheysay,toseekwhatthey
wanttosay,tryingtounderstand.Theversionsoftruthderivefromthe
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isimposeddefactoonmarginalpeople,whovoluntarilywithdrawinthe
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thelifestoriesrevealbyhiding,provethroughinaccuraciesand,turning
the homeless from invisible people to visible narrators, leave them to
writetheirownhistorybyunveilingit.



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[294]

1,2,3,
4,
,5.

Abstract
Chronicleofalongwinter
We focus on the interdisciplinary methodological approach of creating a
documentary, which records audiovisual narrations on the experience of
thecrisis.Thedocumentarycombinestheobservationdocumentarymode
with the militant and the selfreflexive documentary modes, paying
homagetocinemaverit.Thenarrationsofourcoresearchersaboutthe
crisis are performed through the recording and the analysis of their
narrations of oral history (mostly) and through the recording of their
everyday lives. The analysis suggests a complex relation among the oral
history, the subjectivity and the body language of participants, which
exceeds relations defined by audio recordings of interviews. We also
discuss the position of oral history within the necessary interdisciplinary
process of creating this documentary as well as questions posed by the
principles of militant observation. (The project was funded by the John S.
LatsisPublicBenefitFoundation.Thesoleresponsibilityforthecontentlies
withitsauthors).

1998
1

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email:cadamou@film.auth.gr.
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3
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email:ppantazi@film.auth.gr.
4
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,:.
Breschand, Jean. 2003. : ,
:,:.
Darcy de Oliveira, Rosisca & Darcy de Oliveira, Miguel. 1985.
.
. ,
: ,
:,181205.
Ferrarotti, Franco. On the Autonomy of the Biographical Method.
Daniel Bertaux 1981 (ed). Biography and Society: The Life History
ApproachintheSocialSciences,London:Sage,1927
Gaulejac,Vincent,de.,:1993.[
: Gaulejac, Vincent, de. 1987. La nvrose de classe:
trajectoiresocialeetconflitsd'identit.Paris:Hommesetgroupes.
Kilborn, Richard & Izod, John. 1997. An Introduction to Television
Documentary: Confronting Reality, Manchester: Manchester
UniversityPress.
Piault, Marc Henri. 2008. .
,.:.
, . 2007. 10 . :

[308]

VI

VI

ORAL HISTORY AND EDUCATION

Abstract
Stimulatingempathy.Oralhistoryasatoolforantiracisteducation.
Thepaperpresentsaprojectthatinvolvedaclassof15yearoldstudentsin
201011.Themainaimwastocultivateempathytowardsimmigrantsthat
live in Greece by exploring the phenomenon of Greek immigration to
industrialcountriesduringthe20thcentury.Thepupilsstudiedanetworkof
texts:anovelinwhichtheheroesareGreekimmigrantsinGermany,oral
testimoniesofGreekimmigrantsinBelgium(includedinaacademicbook)
and in the USA (presented in a documentary film), the material of an
exhibitionconcerningGreekimmigrantsinGermany.Basedonknowledge
builtthroughtheabovesources,thepupilselaboratedaquestionnaireand
some of them arranged interviews with Greek eximmigrants and foreign
immigrants living in Greece. The result was a short documentary film.
However,theresistanceofanumberofpupilsduringtheprojectshows
that antiracist education, in order to produce results, must be a
systematic,longprocedure.

(201011)
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.email:k.trimi@pros.gr.

[311]


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[316]

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[319]

Dickinson, Alaric, Peter Lee, & Peter Rogers. 1984. Learning History.
London:HeinemannEducationalBooks.
Kailin,Julie.2002.Antiracisteducation:FromTheorytoPractice,Lanham,
Maryland:Rowman&LittlefieldPublishers.
Lawrence,SandraM.&Tatum,BeverlyDaniel.1998.WhiteRacialIdentity
and AntiRacist Education: A Catalyst for Change. Enid Lee,
Deborah Menkart, & Margo OkazawaRey (.), Beyond Heroes
and Holidays: A Practical Guide to K12 Antiracist, Multicultural
Education, and Staff Development, Washington, DC: Network of
EducatorsontheAmericas,4551.
http://wiki.uiowa.edu/download/attachments/31756797/White+Racial+I
D.pdf.

LviStrauss, Claude. 1971. Race et culture, confrence L'UNESCO le 22


mars1971.

http://politproductions.com/content/%C2%ABraceetculture%C2%BB
conf%C3%A9rencedel%C3%A9vistrauss%C3%A0lunescole22mars
1971audio & http://politproductions.com/sites/default/files/art
%C2%ABrace_et_culture%C2%BB_levistrauss_unesco_22_3_1971.pdf

Prensky, Marc. 2001. Digital Natives, digital Immigrants. On the


Horizon,Vol.9No.5,October2001,MCBUniversityPress,
http://www.marcprensky.com/writing/Prensky%20
%20Digital%20Natives,%20Digital%20Immigrants%20%20Part1.pdf).

,&,(.).2010..

. :
.
Thompson, Paul. 2002. . .
:.
, . 2012. . :
.
,.1999..:(1
1976,).

:
, . 1999. .
,
,11999.(www.rwf.gr)

[320]

1&2

Abstract

OralhistoriesoftheHolocaustandtheirinterpretationinthepresent

Inthispaperwewilldiscussasmallscaleeducationalsurveyinvolving10
15 year old kids and adolescents concerning their reactions to an oral
testimonyabouttheHolocaust.WatchingfirstlyMarkHermansfilmThe
Boyinthestripedpyjamas(2008),secondlytheinvivooraltestimonyand
the dialogue with a survivor of the Holocaust in the Jewish Museum in
Athens and finally the semistructured interviews we conducted, we
explorethefollowingaspectsoftheirexperience:Whatwerethequestions
that the children asked the survivor and how did they produce different
narrativesandinterpretationsasaresultoftheirdialogue?Didtheyoung
people understand the historical context of the the narrative through the
lens of the past or the present? Which factors affected their way of
thinking?WhatdooralhistoryandtheinvivoexperienceoftheHolocaust
meanforthekidsandadolescentsbetweentheageof11and16?


, O,

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[336]

Birks.,MillsJ.2011.GroundedTheory,APracticalGuide.:Sage.
.2011.100.;
,5,
November12,
(:http://cretaadulteduc.gr/blog/?p=381(11/5/2012.
Cohen L., Manion L., Morrison K. 2008.
.:.
GorbinJ.,StraussA.2008.BasicsofQualitativeResearch,Sage.
. 2002. .
(),
,:,4354.
.1998.,HassounJ.,
.,.,.(),
,:,62112.
., ., . ., .,
. 2007.
.:.
Kvale S., Brinkmann S. 2009. Interviews, Learning the Craft of Qualitative
ResearchInterviewing.:Sage.
.2011.,,
.:.
.2009.,.:.
Nakou, I. 2005. Oral History, Museums and History Education, Paper
presented at the Conference Can Oral History Make Objects
Speak?,ICOM,Nafplion,Greece.October1821.
. 2011.
,
,

5,
November
12th,
(
http://cretaadulteduc.gr/blog/?p=377(11/5/2012).
.2004..:.
. 2008. :
.
,34,
(
http://www.academia.edu/904000/_(11/10/12).
ThompsonP.2002..:.

[337]

[338]

Abstract

Oralhistoryineducationasaradicallearningprocedure

The paper discusses issues related to the use of oral history both in formal
andininformaleducation,asinmuseums.Thediscussionisprimarilybased
on a theoretical comparative study of traditional and contemporary
approaches to history education and refers to relevant debates around the
world that shed light to the radical character of the use of oral history in
historyeducation.Thepaperalsopresentsarelevantoralhistoryapproach
to history education that was used as the main learning procedure of the
courseHistoryeducationandMuseumsattheUniversityofThessaly,forsix
academic years, with basic aim to introduce students into the method of
history and the nature of historical narratives, and to enhance students
future teachers understanding of the terms in which oral history can be
usedaseducationalprocedureatdifferentlevelsofhistoryeducation.


,

.
.
,
,
(history teaching),
,
,

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,
,
,
1

,email:inakou@uth.gr.

[339]

, .
, ,
(history learning)
,
,
.



,
.
,

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.
, ,
,

(Piaget 1959),
,
(Vygotsky 1989)
,
(Gardner1983).
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,,

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,

.,
(1996)2,
2

1 1283 (22/1/1996) ,
,
.

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.

[340]


(Rsen
2007),,
, , ,

.
,
,
,
, .
, ,
,
( 2007: 206),
,
.
, ,
,
(Lee
2006:65).




,
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,
Seixas (2010:20), [ ]
:
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,
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.
1998:245246.

[341]

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[342]

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[343]

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(19992001)
, (Naveh 1999)
(Yaakobi 1999). Naveh (2010),


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2010: 148),
,1948,

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]
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[344]

.
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Suh & Yurita (2010)
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. D. Dilek G. Dilek (2010),

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ICOM,Canoralhistorymakeobjectsspeak?,1825
2005.
4

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[346]

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3.
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[348]

,,
, :

;
Lee (2010:xiv),

,
, ,
,
,
. , ,

, . (Wineburg & Porat
1999: B2).

,
,
(Seixas2000).

Kavanagh(1999:xiii):

, ,
,

. , ,
,
,.,,
, , ,
.

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RespectandSympathyForOthers?DebatesonHistoryTextbooksand
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DebatesOverHistoryEducation.(AVolumeinInternationalReviewof
HistoryEducation.)Charlotte,N.C.:InformationAgePublishing,xixvi.
,.2007.;:.
McCully,.2010.WhatRoleforHistoryTeachinginTheTransitionalJustice
Process in Deeply Divided Societies? I. Nakou & I. Barca (.),
Contemporary Public Debates Over History Education. (A Volume in
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Comparative Study of Japanese and South Korean History Textbook
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[351]

[352]

Abstract

From learning to creating history: An oral history programme on the


Bulgarianoccupationwithhighschoolstudents

Based on theoretical discussion over the use of oral history and


ethnographic methods in the teaching of history, the paper presents a
projectcarriedoutwithhighschoolstudentsinXanthi(Thrace),duringthe
school year 201011, in the framework of a cultural program entitled
Learning local history through the eyes of the elderly. Pupils with
different ethnic and local background interviewed elderly individuals who
lived through the Bulgarian Occupation of Thrace. The interviews led
students to gain new insights on the period, but also to be introduced to
issuesconcerningthecredibilityoforalhistoriesandtheparticularvisionof
eachinformant.Inthiswaytheyacquiredabetterunderstandingofboth
the period and the significance of adopting a critical attitude towards
historicalsources.

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[359]

Armstrong, H. 1997. Mapping Migrant Memories: Crossing Cultural


Borders,JournaloftheOralHistoryAssociationofAustralia,19:13
22.
Crocco, M. 2006. Putting the Actors Back on Stage: Oral History in the
Secondary School Classroom. Lanman, B., Wendling, L.,
Preparing the Next Generation of Oral Historians: An Anthology of
OralHistorians,Oxford:AltamiraPress:218231.
Dahnd,H.2008.TechniquesofTeaching.N.Delhi:PublishingCorporation.
,.2009.,O:
. :
O.:.
Kelly, J. 1967. Teaching Strategies for Asian Cultural Studies. New Jersey:
TheBergenCountyCenterforNonWesternStudies.
Kertzer,D.I.2009.SocialAnthropologyandSocialScienceHistory,Social
ScienceHistory33/1:116.
, . 1984. ,
3:3038.
LeviStrauss,C.1987.,:.
, . 2007. . :
.
, . & , . 2000. :
. .,
., . & . (.)
,.:....,
,109118.
Reynolds, G. 1986. Teaching First Nations History as Canadian History,
http://mrc.uccb.ns.ca/firstnationshistory.html.
Sitton,T.,Mehaffy,G.&Davis,O.1983.ralHistory:AGuideforTeachers.
Texas:UniversityofTexasPress.
,.2008.,:.
Snauwaert, D. 2009. The Ethics and Ontology of Cosmopolitanism:
Education for a Shared Humanity, Current Issues in Comparative
Education,12/1:1422.
Taylor, J. A. 2004. Teaching History in American 1 High School, The
HistoryTeacher,37/4:517531.
White, A. 1998. Teaching High School History: The Power of the
Personal,AmericanHistoricalAssociation,3:14.
Whitman,G.2004.DialoguewiththePast:EngagingStudents&Meeting
StandardsthroughOralHistory,Oxford:AltamiraPress.

[360]

Abstract

Thelivesofourgrandparents:aneducationalexperimentoforalhistory
forprimarystudents

The paper presents the findings from an educational experiment for


primaryschoolpupilsentitledThelivesofourgrandparents;throughoral
testimonies, 11 years old students investigate questions concerning
different aspects of childhood (everyday life, education, work, leisure) in
thepostwarworld.Thepaperanalysesthefunctionoforalhistorypractices
intheclass:keepingadiaryasaprocessofreflectionandselfpositioning;
questionmakingasamethodoffamiliarizationwithhistoricalthinkingand
repositioningstudentsasagentsofthelearningprocess;interviewingasan
intergenerationalritual.Itarguesthatoralhistorycanbeusedasavehicle
for the creation of a digital environment of knowledge and learning,
characterized by the keyconcepts of fragmentation (of both data and
experiences), connectivity (of the fragmented data in new systems of
meanings) and interaction (between generations, peers, human and
machine).



:
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(Ong 1988, Kellner 2004, Coiro 2010).
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(subjectmatterknowledge)

[361]

(pedagogical content
knowledge)(Ball&McDiarmid1990:437449,Even1994:94116).

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Ball, D. L. & McDiarmid, G. W. 1990. The Subject Matter Preparation of


Teachers. R. Houston (ed), Handbook of Research on Teacher
Education.NewYork:Macmillan,437449.
Coiro,J.etal.(eds).2010.HandbookofResearchonNewLiteracies.New
York:Taylor&FrancisGroup.
Donovan, M.S. & Bransford, J. 2005. How Students Learn: History in the
Classroom.Washington:TheNationalAcademiesPress.
Erickson, P.A. & Murphy, L. (eds). 2006. Readings for a History of
AnthropologicalTheory.Toronto:UniversityofTorontoPress.
Even,Ruhama.1994.SubjectMatterKnowledgeandPedagogicalContent
Knowledge: Prospective Secondary Teachers and the Function
Concept. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 24: 94
116.
Kellner, Douglas. 2004. New Media and New Literacies: Reconstructing
Education for the New Millennium. Leah Lievrouw & Sonia
Livingstone (eds), Handbook of New Media: Social Shaping and
ConsequencesofICTs.London:SagePublications.
,.2008..:.
Macek,Jakub.2005.DefiningCyberculture(v.2).
http://macek.czechian.net/defining_cyberculture.htm
, . ( ). . ,
(1994
2005).:,6793.
Ong, Walter. 1988. Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word.
London:Routledge.
Paechter,Carrie,etal.(eds).2001.Learning,Space,andIdentity.London:
Sage.
Ritchie,Donald.2003.DoingOralHistory.Oxford:OxfordUniversityPress.
Selwyn, Neil. 2010. Schools and Schooling in the Digital Age. A Critical
Analysis.London:Routledge.
Yow, Valerie. 2005. Recording Oral History: A Guide for The Humanities
andSocialSciences.WalnutCreek,CA:AltaMiraPress.

[375]

[376]

Abstract

Others Stories: The biographic narratives as starting point of


transformativelearninginhighereducation

Many researches have already proved that an academic course could be


the start of a process towards critical reflection and transformative
learning.Thisarticleaimstohighlightthetransformativelearningprocess
observed in the perceptions of preservice kindergarten teachers
participating in an experiential course titled Otherness and Narrative,
thatistaughtattheDepartmentofPreschoolEducationintheUniversity
ofThessalyinGreece.Thecourseaimsatthedevelopmentofreflectionon
handling ethnic and cultural otherness. The main methodological tool
applied in the course is narrative and the reflection on narratives about
otherness.Throughthecontentanalysisofsemistructuredinterviewswith
the preservice teachers as well as the analysis of texts written by them
during the course the article presents the transformation of preservice
kindergartenteachersperceptionsabouttheethnicandculturalother.

1.

Mezirow(1991),
,
,
,

.
,

.,
Freire&Shor(2011),
Giroux (1994) McLaren (1997)

.
1

,magos@uth.gr.

[377]

, , ,
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(Nieto 2004).

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.


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,
(Rossiter 1999).
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,

. Butcher (2006),



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o
(Saavedra
1995, Clandinin & Connelly 1996, Ben Cohen & Piper 2006). A



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(Mezirow2006,VanBoeschoten2008).

2.

2007

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[378]


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[385]

Ben Kohen, J., & Pipper, D. 2006. Transformation in a Residential Adult


Learning. J. Mezirow and Associates (.), Learning as
Transformation.CriticalPerspectivesonaTheoryinProgress,NJ:John
WilleyandSons,Inc.,205228.
Butcher, S. 2006. Narrative as Teaching Strategy. The Journal of
CorrectionalEducation,57/3:195208.
Clandinin,D.J.&Connelly,F.M.1996.TeachersProfessionalKnowledge
Landscapes: Teacher Stories Stories of Teachers School Stories
StoriesofSchools,EducationalResearcher,25/3:2430.
Daloz, P. 2000. Transformative Learning for the Common Good. J.
Mezirow and Associates (.) Learning as Transformation, NJ: John
WilleyandSons,100124.
Freire, P. & Shor, F. 2011. . :
.
Giroux, H. 1994. Border Crossing: Cultural Workers and the Politics of
Education.NY:Routledge.
Mezirow, J. 1991. Transformative Dimensions of Adult Learning. San
Francisco:JosseyBass.
Mezirow, J. 2006. Learning to Think Like an Adult. Core Concepts of
TransformationTheory.J.MezirowandAssociates(.),Learning
asTransformation.CriticalPerspectivesonaTheoryinProgress.NJ:John
WilleyandSons,Inc.,34.
McLaren, P. 1997. Revolutionary Multiculturalism: Pedagogies for Dissent
fortheNewMillennium.Bloomfield:WestviewPress.
Nieto,S.2004.AffirmingDiversity.NewYork:Pearson.
Rossiter,M.1999.AnarrativeApproachtoDevelopmentImplicationsfor
AdultEducation,AdultEducationQuarterly,50/1:5671.
Saavedra, .R. 1995. Teacher Transformation: Creating Text and Contexts
inStudyGroups,Ph.D.Thesis,UniversityofNebraska.
VanBoeschoten,R.2008.PublicMemoryasArenaofContestedMeaning:
AStudentsProjectonMigration.P.HamiltonandL.Shopes(.),
OralHistoryandPublicMemories,Philadelphia:TempleUniversityPress,
211230.

[386]

, :

1&2

Abstract

Anthropology, oral history and education: raining future professionals


throughexperientiallearning
Thispaperdiscussestheuseofethnography,ingeneralandoralhistory,in
particular, across the various levels of the public educational system in
Greece. Its based on ethnographic material collected during 3month
seminars of ethnography that were held annually from 20072010. It
proposesthattheemploymentoftheethnographicmethodisanefficient
meansforthecomprehensionofsocialreality,atoolforobservationofthe
educational process and a teaching method for the training of future
professionalsofeducation.

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2009.
1

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3
,.Comitas&
Dolgin (1978), (2002, 2002), Andrade (2003), (2004),
(2007),,&(2010),Milstein(2010).
2

[387]

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4

. Cunningham (2000),
White .. (2002), Gardner (2003), Putman & RommelEsham (2004), Bischoff & Moore
(2007).
5

Wagner,Garner&Kawulich(2011).
6
Teaching
AnthropologyMills&Spencer(2011).

[388]

7.
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(Mills, Drackle & Edgar 2004:7).


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[395]

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.Bruner(2007)Thompson(2002).

[396]

Andrade, Rosi. 2003. :


,:.
BrunerJerome.2007.,..
...:.
, , (.). 2010.
, .
,:.
,,
.
,.
.2011.:

, ,
,(.),,,
,:UniversityStudioPress,483500.
.2005.,
. (.), .
, :
,1331.
Eriksen Thomas Hylland. 2007. , :
.,..
,..,:.
.. 2001. :
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(),.
,:,8493.
Mauss Marcel. 1999. :
, . ,
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[397]

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,:.
ThompsonPaul.2002..,.
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.:.
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,.
,:,331345.
, . 1997. (.), '
;.:.

Bender Barbara. 2002. Time and Landscape, Current Anthropology


43:103112.
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for Justice and Peace: Teaching Through Oral History, Religious
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102/2:151171.
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Retrospect and Prospect, Anthropology & Education Quarterly,
9/3:165180.
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History as a Resource of Reflection on Teaching, Education 313:
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Teachers' history, History of Education: Journal of the History of
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the Politics of Difference. Gupta Akhil, Ferguson James. (eds.),
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Landscapes.DorleDrackle,IainR.Edgar(eds.),CurrentPolicies
and Practices in European Social Anthropology Education, The EASA
Series:LearningFields,Vol.2,NewYork.Oxford:BerghahnBooks,2
16.
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Pedagogy and Ethnographic Sensibility, Teaching Anthropology,
1/1:12.
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NarrativesinEducation,EthnographyandEducation,5/1:115.
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of Teaching Research Methods in the Social Sciences: Towards a
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Learning from the Past: An Account of an Oral History Project for
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[399]

[400]

graikos@otenet.gr

Abstract

Student practices recording local historical memory. Educational


approachesandquestionsaboutthemethodandthemeaning

Attempting to relate the concepts of historical understanding, memory,


narrative and locality in the educational process, we suggest some
methodological patterns, which are based on integrated educational
practices, and which stimulate students interest towards a definite
educational goal. Important role in the process of students practices is
attributedtochildrensintuitiveknowledgeandmultimodalexpression,to
the parallel processing of oral sources with other evidence, and the
emergenceofhistoricalandculturalmeanings.

,

,:
;

;
;
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,

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1

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Thompson2002:238255Husbands2004:121..Kuhn&Mclellan2006.
, (2002:18) :
.

, (. 2004 Nakou 2005 &
2010).

[401]

,

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[402]


.
project (Frey 1986),
, (action research)3
(art based
methodologies).4
(Lave&Wenger1991Baynham
2002:230232),
,
.

,
(Lave&Wenger1991).

. ,


.5

,
.

( 2006). ,
,

.
,
.
,

( 2006),

(2006)
,
, ). . Anderson 1989 Hymes 1996 EganRobertson &
Bloome2001Baynham,2002Christensen&James2008.
3

Atweb,Kemmis&Weeks1998.
4

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[419]

[420]

VII

VII

FROM PERSONAL TO COMMUNITY MEMORY

Abstract
Photo stories: The narration of the photographs of Asia Minor
Refugees

The digital collection of the Archive of Testimonies of Asia Minor


RefugeesoftheFoundationoftheHellenicWorld,givesusavarietyof
autobiographical stories and personal experiences through interviews
and family photos. The communicative memory of our narrators
transferred to a new digitalized environment that creates a new
community, open to all. All these autobiographical photo stories give
the opportunity to the narrators that were split apart, because of
historicalupheaval,tocometogether,communicateandreconstructa
newcommunity.

1997
,
,
,
.
,
.
,



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1

,
,athinadsk8@gmail.com.
2
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( ).

.

http://www.genealogies.gr.

[423]



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1924
.4
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3

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http://www.genealogies.gr/IME_genealogy/pep/pages/program_main.php?pageTitle=g_th
e_programme&domain=e&image1=null&image2=null&banner1=null&link1=null&banner2=
null&link2=null&banner3=null&link3=null&lang=greek
4
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[424]

.

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.SusanSontag:

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. (Sontag
2003:29)


( 2003:148).

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[425]

(Thompson 2002:172).
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[426]

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(Sontag2003:39).
(Assmann 1995:126127)
,
.


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17/03/2006
.

[430]

.

,
(2007).

,

/
,
.

Assmann, Jan. 1995. Collective Memory and Cultural Identity, New


GermanCritique,SpringSummer:125133.
, . 2003. .

, :
:148174.
,.2007.,

22,,22
.
,.2002.,
,.
Sontag,Susan.2003.,:
Scripta.
Thompson,Paul.2002.,:.

[431]

[432]

Abstract

Photographic traditions and Aegean modernities. An ethnographic


biographyapproach

Sincethebeginningofthetwentiethcenturyphotographshavebecomean
integral part of the social life of Aegean islanders. Photographic images
have been incorporated and often associated with tradition,
authenticity,ritualpracticesandlocalidentity.Awayofapproachingthis
traditionalizationofphotographyisthebiographyoftheselftaughtisland
photographerGiannisVenardiswhokepttheonlyphotographyshoponthe
island of Skyros for over thirty years. The story of the photographers life
and his widely circulating photographs are vehicles of varying notions of
tradition and modernity that are of central importance in contemporary
ethnographyandanthropology.


.
,
,
.
Herzfeld(1997),

,.
,

1

(UVA).trifonb@yahoo.com.

[433]

(Oakley 1986).
,

,
.

. ,

, ,
.



,
.


(ComaroffandComaroff2009,Geschiere2009,
Gupta and Ferguson 1997).


, ,
.
, ,
( 2006).
,


,,.

[434]



30,
( 2011).

,
.

2 1930.
.


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1946.
,
.
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[435]



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Delft
(anakkale).


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[436]

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2.
,

.,

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25,
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,
.

.

.
, ,

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,

.
.
, 1967,
.
,.

. , , 1960
,

(Zarkia1996).

.

,
. 1960
1970

.
2

, 5, 22
2012.

[437]


, ,
.
,
5.000
, .


.
1992 ,
,
.


.

.
2007

.
.
.
,.

,
.
.

.
,
.

.

.,,

.
Christopher
Pinney (2005) (deceptive evidence).


.

[438]

,
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.

,
19 ,
.

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,
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1930
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[439]


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1930,
,
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,

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.

[440]

Comaroff,J.andComaroff,J.2009.Ethnicity,inc.ChicagoandLondon:The
UniversityofChicagoPress.
Geschiere,P.2009.ThePerilsofBelonging:Autochthony,Citizenship,and
ExclusioninAfricaandEurope.ChicagoandLondon:TheUniversity
ofChicagoPress.
Gupta,A.andFerguson,J.1997.Culture,Power,Place:Explorationsin
CriticalAnthropology.DukeUniversityPress.
Herzfeld,M.1997.PortraitofaGreekImagination:AnEthnographic
BiographyofAndreasNenedakis.ChicagoandLondon:The
UniversityofChicagoPress.
Oakley,J.1986.SimonedeBeauvoir.NewYork:Pantheon.
.2006.
(),:
,:,
.138.
Pinney,C.2005.ThingsHappen:Orfromwhichomentdoesthatbject
Come?InDannyMiller(ed.),Materiality,256272.Durham&
London:DukeUniversityPress.
Spyer,P.2001.Photography'sFramingsandUnframings:AReview
Article.ComparativeStudiesinSocietyandHistory,43/1:181192.
,.2011..,
.,.
Zarkia, C. (1996) Philoxenia Receiving Tourists but not Guests on a
GreekIsland,InJ.Boissevain(eds.),CopingwithTourists:European
ReactionstoMassTourism.Providence,Oxford:BerghahnBooks.

[441]

[442]

:
20

Abstract

Contestedworldsintheoutskirtsofcities.Themusicalbiographyofa
rebetisoverthecourseofthe20thcentury

Drawingfromarangeofbiographicalaccounts,musicalperformancesand
ethnographictestimonies,thepaperexploresthemusicalbiographyofan
amateur singer (19072001) and traces the cultural memory of a non
commercialprerebeticomusicalsceneinHeraklionofCrete.Memoriesof
and about music within the particular context of everyday life of the city
outskirt around the Lakkos brothels district, hashish dens and portside
haunts carry their own histories that are intertwined with nostalgic
reflection,actsofauthentication,meaningandambivalence.Biographical
accountsfunctionasaformofculturalresistancetothemodernizationof
urban life and commercialized music which led to the marginalization of
thesubjectsmusicalidentityinachangingsocialworld.

o
(Bithell2006).




. ,




, ,
.


(19072001),
1

[443]

,
( 1987)
(1986)
.,

1992199325,
,
.


.


1988
.2

199293.


,
( 1999, Painter 2002, Pekacz 2004).



28
. , 48
,

[444]


,
,
.

, ,


.

,

.

,



. ,
, ,
,
,

,
,
(1999:343).
,

. ,
,

, ,
(Shelemay2006:33).


.

,
.

[445]

3


(Shull 2006:88).
,,

.
,

.


.

.
Even Ruud,



.

.
,

,,,
(Ruud1997:10,12).

. ,
, .

,
,
.


.Shelemay(2006:28)
(episodic memory)

, (semantic memory)
3

. ,
2008:104110,148154.

[446]

,
(procedural memory)

.


:
.
.

1900


(2008:99101).
,
20

.

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.,
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,
[447]



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192325

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(199799,
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( 2008:16566)
,

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[449]

1932

.
,


.


.

.
, 1935
4 ,
,
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(
)

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:

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[450]

. ,

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,
19591962.
1980 1990

.
.
,
,

,
.

,
,

.
,
,
, ,

.
,
,

.
[451]




.
,
(
),
Allan Moore,

(2002:214).




.4

,


(Taylor
1997:23).



,

.,
, ,
,

.

,

: / /
/ :
//
.

[452]

.

,
.


,

.,
,

.


.



, , ,
.

(Hassoun 1996)
,

[453]

BithellC.2006.ThePastinMusic:Introduction,EthnomusicologyForum
15/1:316.
.1987.,:
.
.19971999.:

, Modern Greek Studies (Australia and New Zealand), 5
7:133162.
. 2008 [1999]. :
, , (1900
1940),:.
aimakis . 2011. Musicmaking in the Social World of a Cretan Town
(Heraklion 19001960): A Contribution to the Study of Non
CommercialOralRebetika,PopularMusic,30/1:124.
Hassoun J. 1996. (. . ), :
,.
. 1999. :
, ,
,
: , :
,341450.
MooreA.2002.AuthenticityasAuthentication,PopularMusic,21/2:209
223.
Painter K. 2002. Mozart at Work: Biography and a Musical Aesthetic for
theEmergingGermanBourgeoisie,TheMusicalQuarterly86/1:186
235.
PekaczJ.2004.Memory,HistoryandMeaning:MusicalBiographyandits
Discontents,JournalofMusicologicalResearch,23:3980.
RuudE.1997,Musicandidentity,NordicJournalofMusicTherapy6/1:3
13.
Shelemay Kay K. 2006. Music Memory and History, Ethnomusicology
Forum15/1:1737.
Shull J. 2006. Locating the Past in the Present: Living Traditions and the
PerformanceofEarlyMusic,EthnomusicologyForum15/1:87111.
Taylor T. 1997. Global Pop: World Music, World Market, N
:Routledge.
. 1986. :
,
:.

[454]

M:

Abstract

WomenMotorcyclists:GenderMigrantsontheMarginsofNonCommunity

The lifestories of women motorcyclists indicate that their love for


motorcycling is attributed by them to their unnatural nature (tomboys).
Moreover,theyovercomeageneralfeelingofsuspicion,whileatthesame
time they face doubt, derogatory admiration and discarding equality by
men,losingintheprocessmanyoftheprerogativesusuallyconnectedto
femininity.Individualisedandalone,theycannotrelateandbelongtoany
us.Motorcyclistshavetraditionallybeenaspecialgroup(amodelofthe
distinctgenderattributes,sensitivitiesandactivities),whichinthiscase
stretches to its limits in the form of an unconventional femininity
(contrastinga fragmentedmasculinity) and an academically constructed
noncommunitythatwouldbeinterestingtocontemplateon

1.



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[455]

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[465]

At El Kadi, H., 2003, Au fminin, David Le Breton (Ed.),


Ladolescencerisque(pp.200215),Paris:Hachette,200215.
Edley, Nicolas. 2010.
. (.).
. , : ,
157176.
Gergen, Kenneth, Gergen, Mary. J., 2010. A :
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(.)..
,,177190.
,.2008..
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):205228.
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.

[466]

Abstract

Thelongjourneyoflanguagethroughthebody

In this paper we focus on groups of parents of drug addicts, where the


narrationofstoriesoflossandgrief,commontothefamiliesofaddicted,
createsbondsofcounterunderstandingandsolidarity,inthecontextofa
group.ThehistoryoftheHellenicdiasporaduringthetwentiethcenturyis
often mentioned in these narratives and meets the personal stories.
Graduallythesidestoriescompletethepuzzleofhistoricalrepresentation.
The metaphors, the metonymies and the pictures full of meaning, that
participants use, contribute to the cultural vision of the narration. Such
narrativesinasafetherapeuticcontextserveasbridgesbetweendifferent
agesandgenerations.

lapsus
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email:aeongr@otenet.gr.

[467]

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Birdwhistell

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[470]

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[472]

Altieri,C.1990.Storytellingandoralgency,TheJournalofAesthetics
andArtCriticism48/2:124.
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UniversityPress.
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Education,ThamesPolytechnic.
Bauman, R. 1975. Story, Performance, and Event: Contextual Studies of
OralNarrative.Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress.
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.:.
Bower, G. H. and Morrow D.G. 1990. Mental Models in Narrative
Comprehension,Science247:4448.
Bruner, J. 1991. The Narrative Construction of Reality, Critical Enquiry
18:121.
Gersie,A.1997.ReflectionsonTherapeuticStorymaking.TheUseofStories
in Groups. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. London and Bristol,
Pennsylvania.
Jacobs, M. 1971. The Content and Style of an Oral Literature. Chicago:
UniversityofChicagoPress.
Lahad, M. 1992. Story making in Assessment Method for Coping with
Stress.InS.Jennings.Dramatherapy.London:Rutledge.
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Experience,Psychotherapy31/2:234243.
Ricoeur,P.1984.TimeandNarrative.Chicago:UniversityofChicagoPress.
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Shedlock, M. 1951. The Art of the Storyteller. New York: Dover
Publications.
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andArtCriticism48/2:115126.
Wittgenstein, L. 1990. , , .
...
Zipes, J. 1995. Creative Storytelling. New York: Routledge.

[473]

[474]

Abstract
OralHistoryinthecommunity

TheypseliOralHistoryGroup(ingreek)isalocalcommunitygroup
collecting oral testimonies. Its members are all volunteers and, most of
them,liveinKypselionce,atypicalmiddleclassneighbourhoodofAthens.
Over the last thirty years Kypseli has undergone enormous change,
degrading from an affluent, highly coveted Athens neighborhood to one
often slandered by the media due to its great number of immigrants,
increasing poverty and racist violence. The members of have been
conducting interviews among the residents of this controversial and
densely populated area for nearly two years now. This presentation
attempts to address four issues: a. Challenges and opportunities arising
from the action of a voluntary oral history group, b. The memory of the
40sinthecommunity,c.Livingandworkingintheareafromthe20tothe
presentandd.ImmigrationinKypselioverthelastdecades.

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[488]

VIII

VIII

ORAL HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH:


METHODS AND REFLEXIVITY

Abstract

Roleandpositionofthereceiversoforaltestimonies

Initially, we approach the "agreement" of giving oral testimony as an


intersubjectiveframeworkforcollaborationandcreationofa"thirdspace,"
which is defined by the request of the informant and the position of the
researcher, within their transmissive /antitransmissive relationship. Next,
weanalyzetheroleofthereceiverofthetestimonyasaguarantorofthe
subject's narrative continuity who is capable of receiving, symbolically
representing and rendering to the wider public the mnemonic
reconstructions of the past. Finally, we approach certain difficulties that
the receiver of the testimony comes up against in the execution,
management and processing of the interviews in relation to the dual
natureofanendeavorconcerningvacillatingmentalandhistoricalorsocial
forces.

.

.(Levi1958:185).

,
,
.


1

INALCO(),alexopoulos_8@hotmail.com.
tmoignaire,.Waintrater1999.

[491]

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Renaud Dulong (1998) Jean
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(Chiantaretto 2002b:10).
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[492]

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(Zaltzman1999:5).
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PaulRicur.

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,(idem).,

,
(Waintrater2004:72).

Paul Ricur, 3,

,
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.Sophie
de Mijolla, ,
(Mijolla1988:111).

.
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,

. Jean
Franois Chiantaretto,
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(Chiantaretto2004:135).

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.Ricur(1990),mmet
ipsit.

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[494]

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(Kas 1989a: 176177).
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Winnicott holding,

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2011:37).
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Heinz Kohut ,
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.(Chiantaretto2004:104)

,

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(Dayan1995:34).

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6

.Waintrater(1996:123126:78).
.Oppenheimer(1996).

[496]

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[497]

Ferenczi(1934),,
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9,
10,
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. Michel de Certeau,
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(de Certeau
1975:118).


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.Zarka(1996:149).
. Kas (1980, 1989b, 1993).

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11

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12
Alain Rabatel Homo Narrans,
(Rabatel2008).
10

[498]

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[501]

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.PrimoLevi(1986:82):

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,.

,.

[502]

Altounian, J. 2004. De quoi tmoignent les mains des survivants? De


lanantissement des vivants, de laffirmation de la vie.
Tmoignages et trauma, implications psychanalytiques, :
Dunod,2763.
Antelme, R. 1947. Lespce humaine. : Cit Universelle, .
:Gallimard,1978.
Aulagnier,P.1975.Laviolencedelinterprtation.:PUF,Lefil
rouge.
Beckett,S.1952.EnattendantGodot.:EditionsdeMinuit.
Bion,W.R.1979.Auxsourcesdelexprience.:PUF.
Certeau,M.de.1975.Lcrituredelhistoire.:Gallimard.
Chiantaretto J.F. (). 1996. Ecriture de soi et psychanalyse. :
LHarmattan.
ChiantarettoJ.F.().1997.Ecrituredesoietcrituredelhistoire.:
InPress.
ChiantarettoJ.F.().1998.Ecrituredesoiettrauma.:Anthropos.
ChiantarettoJ.F.().1999.Ecrituredesoietsincrit.:InPress.
ChiantarettoJ.F.().2002a.Ecrituredesoietnarcissisme.:Ers.
Chiantaretto J.F. (). 2002b. Lcriture de soi, peutelle dire lhistoire?,
Actes du colloque organis par la BIP, les 23 et 24 mars 2001 au
CentreGeorgesPompidou,.
Chiantaretto,J.F.2004.Letmoininterne.Tmoignageettrauma,
implicationspsychanalytiques,:Dunod.
Chiantaretto, J.F. 2005. Le tmoin interne. Trouver en soi la force de
rsister.:EditionsFlammarion/Aubier,Lapsychanalyse
priseaumot.
Dayan,M.1995.Economietraumatique.M.Dayan(),Traumaet
devenirpsychique,:PUF.
Dulong,R.1998.LeTmoinOculaire:lesconditionssocialesdelattestation
personnelle.:EditionsdelEHESS(Recherchesdhistoireetde
sciencessociales).
Ferenczi, S. 1934. Rflexions sur le traumatisme. Psychanalyse IV,
:Payot,.1982.
Freud, S. 1938. Le clivage du moi dans les processus de dfense.
Rsultats,ides,problmesII,.:PUF,1985.
Kas,R.1980.Lidologie,tudespsychanalytiques.:Dunod.
Kas,R.1989a.Rupturescatastrophiquesettravaildelammoire.J.
Puget(),Violencedtatetpsychanalyse,:Dunod.
Kas, R. 1989b. Le pacte dngatif dans les ensembles transsubjectifs.
Missenard et al. (), Le ngatif, figures et modalits, :
Dunod.
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Kas, R. 1993a. Le sujet de lhritage. Transmissions de la vie


psychiqueentregnrations,:Dunod.
Kas,R.1993b.Legroupeetlesujetdugroupe.:Dunod.
Kohn, M. 1991. Mot desprit, inconscient et vnement. :
LHarmattan.
Kohn,M.2008.Vitsn.Motsdesprityiddishetinconscient.:Lambert
Lucas.
Kohn, M. 2011. Le travail clinique en centre maternel. Les entretiens
daccueil la Maison de la Mre et de lEnfant. : MJW
Fdition.
Levi,P.1958.Sicestunhomme.:JulliardPressesPocket,.
1988.
Levi, P. 1986. Les naufrags et les rescaps. : Gallimard, .
1989.
Mijolla,S.de.1988.Survivresonpass.LAutobiographie,:
LesBellesLettres.
Oppenheimer,A.1996.Kohutetlapsychologieduself.:PUF.
Rabatel, A. 2008. Homo Narrans, pour une analyse nonciative et
interactionnelledurcit.:LambertLucas,Linguistique.
Ricur,P.1990.Soimmecommeunautre.:Seuil.
Waintrater, R. 1996. Le pacte testimonial. Actes du Colloque
international sur Histoire et mmoire des crimes et gnocides
nazis, Bulletin de la Fondation Auschwitz, . 52,
1996,.
Waintrater,R.1999.Ouvrirlesimages.Lesdangersdutmoignage.
J.Mnchaletcoll.(),Lerisquedeltranger,:Dunod,35
68.
Waintrater, R. 2000. Le pacte testimonial, une idologie qui fait lien?,
RevueFranaisedePsychanalyse,Devoirdemmoire:entrepassion
etoubli,LXIV,2000:201210.
Waintrater, R. 2004. Le pacte testimonial. Tmoignage et trauma,
implicationspsychanalytiques,:Dunod.
Zaltzman,N.1999.Homosacer:lhommetuable,NathalieZaltzman
(), La rsistance et lhumain, : PUF, Petite
bibliothquedepsychanalyse,524.
Zarka, J. 1996. Tmoignages et crans Mmoire et tmoignages:
dnormalisation, normalisation, normativit. Actes de la 2e
rencontreinternationalesurletmoignagedessurvivantsdescamps
de concentration et dextermination nazis, Bulletin de la fondation
Auschwitz,.53,.

[504]

Abstract

Secondarynarrativeanalysisofbiographicalinterviews:Aworkshop

Inthispaper,Iattempttodevelopatheoreticalframeworkconcerningthe
secondary narrative analysis employed in the interpretation of structured
interfamilial biographical interviews. The latter focused on childhood
experiencesofGreeknarratorsinthe1930's.Theissuewasinvestigatedin
two workshops on Interpretative and Reflective Narrative Analysis of
Biographical Interviews that took place in the context of History and
Teaching of History / Folklore Studies and Culture Postgraduate
Programme of the Department of Primary Education of the University of
Athens.Theinterpretiveanalysisoftheinterviewsismeanttohighlightthe
obvious and hidden meanings of the narrators' discourses regarding their
childhood,thusrevealingattitudesandvaluesrelatedeithertothepastor
thepresenttimeoftheirnarrations.

,


/ 1930.

.
(workshops)
20092010
20112012 / ( / 2009
201020112012)
/ (:
)
(....)
.
(secondary narrative
analysis)2
1

....,....email:rkakamp@primedu.uoa.gr.

. . , Glaser 1962. Glaser 1963. Dale et al. 1988. Hakim
2

[505]


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project(2010:215223).


3.
,
.

,.

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,
(Excel)
4.


.
5

1982.Heaton2004.2011:129159.,
,.,Glass1976:38.
3
.,Thompson2002:299319.
4

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5
Ives (1995:7485) ,
,
,.

[506]

(,
,/),

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(20112:127128).

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(1950:33), ,
.6
1930
,
/
, (

)
.7

.
6
1999:2758.

7
:
1993. 1980. 1987. 1990. 1996. 2012.
196364:52227. 1956:21444. 2000.

[507]

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.


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20.

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1920
1930,2)(11,5),3)
.



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( 2011:225231).

() 2008. 1956:3774. 1995:1143. GuilbotBenoit


.. 1998. 2002. 1987. Fabieti 1986:11523.
1986.Halletal.2003:463470.Handman1993:193215.1993.,20112.
2011:463470. 19832. 19988. 1988:225
342.19291932:44958.1997.1926:11652.
1989: 4155. 1993: 227232. 1993:251257.
1993:258270. 1993:3952.
1953:4423.1975:2842166189.1986.195859:124
68. 1976:24563. Mauger 1984:13146. MaurirasBousquet 1993:2933.
1992:2835. 1993:181187. 1993:257264. 2011.
1991: 277318. 1987. 1985.
1993. 1993:7381. 1987. 1996.
1991. 1962:446542. 2004. 1986.
1916:626634. 19111912: 68691.
(), 1992. 1999:2758. 1952:2844.
1918:299346. 1931:206221. 1989. Rushton 1992:15170. 1911
1912:491494.1992.1993.
2006.2011:129159.1988.

[508]

(1939:139142),
, P.
Thompson The Voice of the Past (1978:296306)


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, :
,13146.
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,
9,2933.
, . 1939. ,
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, . 1993.
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:
(,10121979),1983,181187].
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,

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, . 2011. .
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1940 ( ).
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[517]

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, (). 1992.
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. , (),
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, :
,15170.
, . 19111912. ,
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18201900.:
.
. 1993. ,
9,.
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, : . . .
, : . . . , ,
2002].
, . 2006. .
.
:Prof.DrDrPeterAlheit,:.
, . 2011.
:
;. . , . , . (),

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19 , . .
:

[519]

[520]

M1&2

Abstract

Between Oral History and oral histories: The management of collective


memoryandtheroleofthesocialresearcher

The collection of oral testimonies by a social researcher constitutes an


intrusion into the life of the community, which possesses its own
mechanisms of preservation and reproduction of the collective memory.
Since whatever is collected by the oral historian reflects the projects
research focus; it constitutes only a partial transmission of the groups
collective memory (oral histories) at a given time. Moreover, the
transcription into written text raises important issues, such as the
consolidation and legitimation of memory or the internal external
definitions of collective identity. Thus, any research on collective memory
invites questions such as: How and by whom is collective memory
managed?Whatistheresearchersroleinthisprocess?Reflectingonthese
issues, our paper focuses on the social meaning of the researchers
presenceinacommunity,aswellasitsbasisoflegitimation.


3,
1

(mthano@ekke.gr)
AmericanCollegeofGreeceDeree(czachou@acg.edu)
3


.
,1997
/
.

.
,
1999.
:
.


(&2002).

2

[521]

&

,,
. ,
(Halbwachs 1968, Halbwachs 1975,
Durkheim 2001),
, , ,
(Connerton 1989,
Connerton2008).
,

.


,

.
,
,


.
,
,

:

.
(Denzin & Lincoln 2003, Berg &
Lune 2012) .

.



,
,.
, , , ,
..

[522]

,
, ,
,
.



.
.
(Zachou2003)

19982001.

:
4.
,

,
.
H
.
, ,


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(),
.
, ,

(nderson
1983).
,
/ ,

. , ,


4


,
.

[523]

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.

, .
,
,
(),
, (Cohen
1985) ,
,
,
.
,


. , ,
,
. ,
.
,

.
,
.

, ,

, .

,


,
.
,,
(Anderson 1971, Pollock 1982, Berger &
Neuhaus 2000, Zachou 2003, Zachou 2006),


. ,


.
[524]


. , ,

.

.

.

(2000)

19801981.


40 ,

.
.

,

.

.
.,


,
. ,

,
.
, (,
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.
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.
[525]

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.


.

.
,

.
,

,
.
,

,
.
,,

,
.,

,,
(Thompson2000:45,Plummer
2001:41, Becker 2002:8384, 2009:231)
. ,

, ,

.

,
, ,
.
, ,

.
(Plummer 2001:206)
.
[526]

,
,

.,,

,
. , ,


. ,

,

.




(Lincoln & Denzin 2003, Flick 2009:422). Lincoln &
Denzin,

(Lincoln&Denzin2003:615),
, Bruner
,
. (Bruner Lincoln & Denzin
2003:615). ,

. , ,

.
, ,

,

,
.
[527]

&



.



. (Plummer
2001, Flick 2009), ,

(Plummer 2001:2) ,
,
.

[528]

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).
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. :
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[529]

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, & , (.). 2002.


. E
,107.
, . 2009.
: . &
(),.:
,215236.
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UniversityPress.

[530]

Abstract

Theoretical and methodological controversies in biographical sociological


research

The paper will initially focus on the transition from the "biographical
method", in which the biographical narratives are perceived primarily as
"sources"thatrevealthe"subjectiveperspective"onsocialphenomena,to
"biographical research" where biographies are understood as social
constructions,asaresultofspecialeffortsmadebyindividualsinorderto
construct actively their social experiences and also to generate personal
coherence.ThenIwillrefertothecriticismfacedbythisapproach,(a)from
a radical constructivist point of view, which argues that biographical
narrative must be seen only as an "instantaneous text", and (b) from a
postmodernist perspective, which argues that the interpretative case
reconstructivebiographicalresearchreproducesnecessarilyanessentialist
perceptionofacoherentandstableselfidentity.Finally,Iwilldiscusshow
biographicalresearchersanswerthesecriticisms.

.
,

.


.
,
2.

, ,
.email:tsiolisg@uoc.gr.
2
. Chamberlayne, Bornat & Wengraf (2000)
FuchsHeinritz(2000)Roberts,(2002)Rosenthal(2004)Miller(2005)Vlter,..(2005)
(2006),(2010).

[531]


,
, 3,

,
,
.
( /
)
(transcription)(.,2006:
181183).
.

/
:



.

: ,

(personal documents documents of
life Plummer, 2000)
,
.

: William
Thomas Florian Znaniecki
.(Thomas&Znaniecki,1958).




.
ThomasZnaniecki,
,

, ,
. ,
3

Schtze(1983),
Rosenthal (2005: 137152), Maindok (2003:121135), Alheit (1997), (2006:170
181).

[532]

Thomas Znaniecki,
, ,


(.Coser,1977:513).

Thomas Znaniecki
,
(Thomas&Znaniecki,1958:1832).
,,
:
.
,

. ,

,
.
,
70
.

,
:



,
,
,

,
, ,

milieu.

.
, ,
. , ,
, . ,

.
[533]


,FritzSchtze,
,
.


..
, , ,

.
LabovWaletzky,
o Schtze (1987: 14)


.


.
FritzSchtze
.
,,
,

.
Fritz Schtze ,

.


,
,

().

,
,

,,,

[534]

80
,
. ()
.
,
,.


,,
. Fischer
Rosenthal (1990:13) " "
" ",
.
,,

,
.

,

70.
,
/
() 4.
N.Luhmann(U.Schimank5
A. Nassehi G. Weber6),

.

,
.
,
.

,
,
.
, ,
,
4

.Beck(1986)Beck,Giddens&Lash(1996)Giddens,(1990/2001),(1991).
.Schimank(1988).
6
.Nassehi(1994),Nassehi&Weber(1990).
5

[535]

( )
7.
, ,
,
,
.A.Hanses:

[...]
,


,
.
:

(2004:
1).


, Peter Alheit & Bettina Dausien
(2000).

.
.

().
:(),

. ()
, ,
.

,
,
.

, FischerRosenthal & Rosenthal (1997),


""
"",
.
,
,

.

[536]

,
, .
,

,
, , ,
,
,
.

.
, ,



. :

,

.
, ,
(discourses)
.,,(setting)
. , ,


. , ,

.
(

),,
(Rekonstruktion).
, Alfred Schtz,
,
,
(.,Dausien,
2000).

. , , ,
[537]


.



.

,

(Dausien2000).

,
. (.
Rosenthal2004):
()
,
. (
).
() ,

,
. (
).
() (abductiv)
() .
(
).

:

.

,

, ,

(soziale Operation),
(Nassehi
1994:54).
Nassehi (1994:54), ,


,
[538]

.H,Nassehi,
,
.
.
,

,
.
, Nassehi (1994:59),
,

.Nassehi,,.


.
,
(. . Nassehi
Saake2002:82).

(. . WohlrabSahr 1999).


,,


,
.

.
, ,
.

,
(..SchferVlter2005).
,
,
,
,
.
[539]

,
,

,
,
(SchferVlter2005).
Schfer Vlter (2005:176178)
:

,
,
,

.
,
(Bude 1984:11),
(WohlrabSahr 2002:15)
(Alheit 2003:25). ,
,


.
(Schfer Vlter 2005:178),

, ,
.

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.

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,

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.

[540]

,

(
, ) (WohlrabSahr 2002:12).

,
,(.Rosenthal,1995
2005 1997:211220).
,
,
(discourses),,
..

,

,
.
, .
,
, .
.,
, ,

, (
(. Schtze 1987)
.

,
.,,

. , Alheit,

,

.
,
, .

.
,

[541]

, .
,
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[544]


.corpus

Abstract

Reusingandrevaluatingarchivematerialsoforalhistory.Theexampleofa
corpusofsilversmithslifestories

Thepaperexamineshowmucholderoralhistorymaterialisreinterpreted
bythesameoradifferentresearcherfromadifferentperspective.Wewill
focus on the reuse of eighty interviews of silversmiths from Ioannina,
recordedin19956anddealingwiththehistoryofcraftsmanshipaswellas
theeverydaylifeandcultureofthesilversmiths.Thereturntothismaterial
revealeduniqueareasforstudy,unexploredareasandmeaningsthatdid
not get enough attention, for example concerning the impact of the war
decade on the lives of the silversmiths, the role of women and gender
relations, the role of the family and the development of a local cultural
identity. As a result, the establishment of oral history archives in
universitiesorotherresearchorganizationsconstitutesanessentialmove.


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