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Final Semester 1 2016 Study Guide

1. The smallest particle into which an element can be divided and still have the properties of that element is called
a(n)
atom.
2. Where are electrons likely to be found?
in electron clouds
3. Every atom of a given element has the same number of
protons.
4. What are the only parts of an atom that make chemical bonds?
valence electrons
5. Why dont noble gases normally form chemical bonds?
They have full outermost energy levels.
6. Which of the following represents the number of protons in an atom?
atomic number
7. What causes a change in velocity?
. a change in speed, a change in direction, or both
8. Which of the following are the two factors used to calculate average speed?
total distance and total time
9. Which of the following cause an object to start moving?
unbalanced forces
10. Which of the following best determines the net force when more than one force is acting on an object?
a combination of all forces acting on an object

11. Which of the following best describes force?


a push or a pull acting on an object

12. Which of the following always cause changes in speed, direction, or both?
unbalanced forces

13. When the net force on an object equals 0 N, the forces are which of the following?
balanced

14. What is a force that opposes motion between two surfaces that are in contact?
friction
15. What term or phrase describes a point that appears to stay in place and can be used to detect the motion of an
object?
a reference point

16. What is an objects change in position relative to a reference point called?


motion

17. To produce change in motion, a force must be a(n)


unbalanced force.

18. The two properties that all forces have are


magnitude and direction.

19. A decrease in speed is sometimes called


deceleration.

20. All matter has mass,


and all mass is affected by gravity.

21. The force of gravity


is related to the mass of objects.

22. The force of gravity


can change the velocity of objects.

23. As the distance between two objects increases, the force of gravity between them
decreases.
24. If a baseball and a cannonball are dropped from the same height at the same time, and there is no air resistance,
which ball will hit the ground first?
The balls will land at the same time.
25. In what direction(s) does gravity accelerate a projectile?

vertically downward

26. The reaction force of a chair you are sitting on


is equal to your weight.

27. What force affects all matter, including all objects in the solar system, based on mass?
gravity

28. Which of the following carts will accelerate the least?


a full cart pushed with a light force
29. Why does a crumpled piece of paper land before a flat sheet of paper?
There is more air resistance on the flat paper.
30. What happens to the gravitational force between two objects as the objects move closer together?
It increases.
31. What happens to the weight and mass of an object when the object is moved from Earth to Jupiter?
weight increases, mass remains the same
32. Mass is
a measure of the amount of matter.
33. If a tennis ball, a solid rubber ball, and a solid steel ball were dropped at the same time from the same height,
which would hit the ground first? (Assume there is no air resistance.)
All three balls would hit at the same time.
34. According to Newtons first law of motion, a moving object that is not acted on by an unbalanced force will
remain in motion.
35. When an objects distance from another object is changing,
it is in motion.
36. When you know both the speed and direction of an objects motion, you know the
velocity of the object.
37. In graphing motion, the steepness of the slope depends on
how quickly or slowly the object is moving.
38. The rate at which velocity changes is called
acceleration.
39. A train that travels 100 kilometers in 4 hours is traveling at what average speed?
25 km/h
40. A place or object used for comparison to determine if something is in motion is called
a reference point.
41. On a graph showing distance versus time, a horizontal line represents an object that is

not moving at all.


42. If the speed of an object does NOT change, the object is traveling at a
constant speed.
43. Changing direction is an example of a kind of
acceleration.
44. The moon accelerates because it is
continuously changing direction.
45. If an object moves in the same direction and at a constant speed for 4 hours, which of the following is true?
The objects speed and average speed were equal during the entire 4 hours.
46. What happens when two forces act in the same direction?
They add together.
47. The tendency of an object to resist change in its motion is known as
inertia.
48. The greater the mass of an object,
the greater its inertia.
49. One way to increase acceleration is by
decreasing mass.
50. The force of gravity on a person or object at the surface of a planet is known as
weight.
51. Two figure skaters who push off of each other will move at the same speed if
they have the same mass.
52. Forces can be added together only if they are
acting on the same object.
53. The achievement of lifting a rocket off the ground and into space can be explained by
Newtons third law.
54. What is required for a rocket to lift off into space?
thrust that is greater than Earths gravity
55. In physical science, a push or a pull is called a(n)
force.
56. The amount of matter in an object is called its
mass.
57. The force that pulls falling objects toward Earth is called
gravity.
58. According to Newtons third law of motion, when a hammer strikes and exerts force on a nail, the nail
exerts an equal force back on the hammer.
59. The energy associated with motion is called
kinetic energy.
60. Kinetic energy increases as
both mass and velocity increase.
61. An example of something that stores chemical energy is

a match.
84. The range of electromagnetic waves placed in a certain order is called the
electromagnetic spectrum.
85. White light can be separated into the various colors of the visible spectrum to form a(n)
rainbow.
86. What happens if you break a magnet in half?
Each half will be a new magnet, with both a north and south pole.
87. Magnetic poles that are alike
repel each other.
88. The region around a magnet where the magnetic force is exerted is known as its
magnetic field.
89. An example of a common ferromagnetic material is
nickel.

91. A magnetic field is produced by moving electrons, which carry an electric


charge.
92. An electric current produces a(an)
magnetic field.
93. A complete path through which electric charges can flow is a(an)
electric circuit.
94. What do toasters, radios, televisions, and electric guitars all have in common?
They all contain electric circuits.
95. An example of an insulator is
rubber.

96. Every magnet, regardless of its shape, has two


magnetic poles.
97. The magnetic properties of a material depend on its
atomic structure.
98. A device that uses electrical energy as it interferes with the flow of current is a(n)
resistor.
99. An example of a conductor is
aluminum.
100. As in the case of unlike magnetic poles, unlike electric charges
attract each other.
101. The buildup of charges on an object is called
static electricity.
102. Clothes in a dryer acquire static cling by
friction.

108. In a parallel circuit with three bulbs,


each bulb can have its own path from one terminal of the battery to the other.
109. A connection that allows current to take an unintended path is called a
short circuit.
110. The charge on a proton is
positive, and the charge on an electron is negative.
111. To provide electrical energy, a generator converts mechanical energy and batteries convert
chemical energy.

115. Which letter refers to the negatively charged particles? a


116. Which letter refers to the positively charged particles? d
117. Which letter refers to the particles with no charge? b
118. Which letter refers to the dense center of the atom? c

143. What does the person transfer to the rope by pulling it up and down at point A? energy
146. What kind of wave is being generated? transverse

147. What does point C represent? Wave trough