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Vedic Mathematics

1) Vedic Mathematics or Sixteen Simple

Mathematical Formulae from the Vedas

(For one-line answers to all mathematical

M. Krishnamoorthy (moorthy)

problems), Motilal Banarsidass Publishers,

email address: moorthy@cs.rpi.edu Delhi, 1965. ISBN 81-208-0164-4

URL: 2) History of Hindu Mathematics - A source

http://www.cs.rpi.edu/~moorthy/vm Book Parts 1&2 B. Datta and A. N. Singh,

Asia Publishing House, Bombay, 1935.

(chapter 3) 2/2/97 used in Vedic Mathematics

and Division Sutra (chapter 4) 2/9/97 calculations in a different (faster/more

Argumental Division (chapter 1) 2/16/97 efficient manner).

Recapitulation and More exercises 2/23/97 Usefulness of these methods in a

Factorization of Simple Quadratics (chapter calculator/computer age.

7) 3/2/97

About Students Agenda for Today

Find out any relevant background and Brief History Vedas, Vedangas and

interest of the audience Upavedas

What do they understand by vedic Why did the vedic people do mathematics?

mathematics? Some of the mathematical inventions that

Why one should do mathematics in the were attributed to India. -

20th/21st century? Famous Indian mathematicians of the

Can you name a famous 20th century Indian bygone and their writings

Mathematician? Sutras for Multiplication and Examples

Overview HISTORY

Let us say that you want to multiply Explain how all the individual topics fit

1) 1257 * 1001 together

2) 777 * 999

3) 113 * 108

Period of Vedic Mathematics Other Claims

This is a book by Shankaracharya (1884-

1960) of Puri. It was meant to be the first of Some others claim that this book is about

16 volumes covering aspects of Hindu Mathematics between Aryabhatta

mathematics by explaining the use of 16 and Bhaskara - that is roughly between 500

sutras from the Vedas. All of these volumes and 1100 AD.

were lost. Before he dies, he rewrote Vol. 1 Chandogya Upanishad - Story about Narada

from his memory. This volume covers quick and Sage Sanatkumara.

methods for doing arithmetic.

Upavedas

Upangas

Fourteen-fold Vedic Knowledge: 4 Upavedas (Ayurveda, Gandharvaveda,

1) 4 Vedas (Rg, Yajur, Sama and Atharva) - Dhanurveda and Sthapatyaveda)

originally oral in nature.

2) 6 Vedangas (phonetics, grammar, Vedas refer to a body of knowledge that

etymology, metronomy(chandas), reveals different means and ends available

Astronomy and Astrology, and Kalpa) to the human being.

4) 4 Upavedas (Analysis, Logic, Puranic

Literature) and Darma Sastra

Vedic Mathematics Uses of Mathematics

Most important sources for Vedic Kalpasutras gave directions for conducting

Mathematics are found in Astronomy sacrificial fires at different times of the year.

&Astrology and Kalpa (rules for rituals and So they need to calculate the planetary

ceremonies). positions which needed mathematics. They

Evidence is usually in the form of sutras (a also need to construct calendars/panchangas

peculiar form of writing which is very for lunar as well solar months. Astrology

concise and often uses a poetic style to also needed considerable mathematical

capture the essence of argument or result. calculations.

Sutras Examples

Condensation of sutras so that minimal Sutra can be thought of Sanskrit equivalent of

writing material is used. This was the form something like: i before e except after

in which the contents of Brahmanas were c.

preserved. This was later used by various Example: Nikhilam Navatashcaramam

philosophical and scientific schools such as Dashatah

statecraft (arthasasastra). A concise Sanskrit All from nine and the last from 10.

statement that gives a rule or principle to be

followed, for example, in grammar, in ritual

or in mathematics

Uses of that sutra More Examples

Multiplication

8x 7x 7x9

9 8 9x9

8 -2 7 -3

9 -1 8 -2 12 x 13

-------- --------- 14 x 17

7 2 5 6 19 x 19

(x-a) * (x-b) = x^2 -x(a+b) + ab There is a upasutra (subsutra) of one word

= x(x-a-b) + ab anurupyena which means Proportionately.

In 8 x 9 In other words, one can take any base that is

x-a = 8, x-b=9 and x is taken to be 10. suitable.

Before I explain what is meant by base:

91 -9

89 -11

80 99.

Base Examples

The base we choose in the previous example

is 100. ( or x in the formula is 100). 56 6 45 -5 211 11

54 4 47 -3 209 09

Bases can be understood from the positional -------- --------- -------------

number system (again this system is 60/2 24 21 15 440 99

believed to be the invention of Indians.

3024

Normally, numbers are represented in base 10

notation. Computers use binary numbers or

numbers represented in base 2.

with vedic-mathematics

read a book titled The Man Who Knew

Infinity

Feedback

Please give me feed back from both parents

and students. If something goes above your

head, please do not worry. Once you have

an adequate background, read the material

again. It took me many attempts to

understand the material.

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