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In the photovoltaic field, manufacturers provide ratings for PV modules for conditions

referred to as standard test conditions (STC). However, these conditions rarely occur
outdoors, so the usefulness and applicability of the indoors characterization in standard test
conditions of PV modules area controversial issue. Therefore, to carry out photovoltaic
engineering well, a suitable characterization of PV module electrical behavior (VI curves) is
necessary [1].Since solar cells convert light to electricity it might seem odd to measure the
photovoltaic cells in the dark. However, dark I-V measurements are in valuable in examining
the cell properties. Under illumination, small fluctuations in the light intensity add
considerable amounts of noise to the system making it difficult to measure. Dark I-V
measurements use injects carriers into the circuit with electrical means rather than with light
generated carriers. In most cases the two are equivalent and the Dark I-V measurements give
extra information about the cell for diagnostic purposes. Even in the absence of noise there is
a wealth of information in comparing the illuminated and dark I-V curves [2].The solar cell
characteristics are handled in many references [3-13]. Alternatively, the static parameters and
characteristics of solar cells are normally determined from their illuminated current-voltage
characteristics under standard solar simulators, based on flash.
A known of various methods has been adopted previously through which we can improve the
production efficiency of solar PV generation capability of plant.

V.4.2 Review of Earlier Work


Renewable energy systems (RESs) for producing electricity have received greater attention in
recent years due to increase in fossil fuel prices, concerns over increasing levels of
greenhouse gas emissions and global climate change. There is an urgent need to develop and
implement RESs that can make substantial contributions towards curtailing the impact of
increasing energy demand. The European Commission [48] has identified photovoltaic (PV)
as one such technology. Life cycle PV electricity costs remain higher than electricity
generated using fossil fuels. However, the conventional economic comparison is distorted by
hidden environmental and health costs associated with fossil fuels which are not generally
included in energy prices together with the fact that many conventional energy carriers are
subsidized [49]. Environmental concerns are growing, interest in environmental issues is
increasing and the idea of generating electricity with less pollution is becoming more and
more attractive. Unlike conventional generation systems, fuel for PV systems is available at
no cost. PV systems generate electricity pollution-free and can easily be installed on the roof
of residential buildings as well as on the walls of commercial buildings for grid-connected
application [50].A more widespread use of grid-connected PV systems is hindered by a
number of reasons which include; the declining, but still high costs of PV generated
electricity and lack of knowledge about the benefits of distributed generation with PV in the
urban environment. When strategically sited, PV generators integrated into building facade
and rooftops in urban areas at limited penetration levels can benefit local distribution
networks.

A number of studies have been published [51-55], with learning curves demonstrating the
cost-reduction potential of large-scale PV production, and in some markets the cost of PV
electricity is approaching residential tariffs, the so-called grid parity [56]. Due to the
intermittent nature of solar radiation resource, PV is considered non-despicable power, but
under some conditions, in sunny urban areas with electricity load curves dominated by airconditioning loads, there is a high correlation between PV generation and feeder loads. In
these situations, a considerable fraction of a given PV generator can be considered as a firm
source of power supply [57]. In recent years the PV industry has been experiencing a
dramatic growth at a global level. Continuous increase of conventional fuel costs as well as
growing pressure to turn towards RES have been identified as the main drivers behind this
rapidly expanding industry which, since 2000 has achieved consistent annual growth rates of
around 30%. At a global energy output level, the PV industry is still lagging behind other
RES technologies, such as, hydropower and wind energy [58]. This is attributed to the high
costs associated with the manufacturing of PV modules, costs that should however steadily
diminish as a result of continuous advancements in technology [59]. Since the mid-1980s, PV
has developed into a mature technology and become acceptable worldwide. As a promising
renewable energy resource, PV technology enjoys substantial government supports in
research and application in several major industrial countries such as Germany, Italy, Spain.
International competition, along with years of experience in manufacturing, research and
development, has resulted in improved PV module efficiency, cost reduction and productivity
increases [60]
Despite a significant decrease in PV module costs, the cost of entire PV systems remains
relatively high compared with traditional power generation technologies. The high cost
necessitates that the design parameters, such as surface tilt angle and array size, should be
optimized [60]. PV electricity is widely considered as one of the more promising renewable
energy technologies which produce electricity without moving parts, emissions or noise and
all this by converting abundant sunlight [61].