Aim
We have learned in the lectures that standard eddyviscosity RANS models (EVM) have
some limitations and that different improvement and corrections are available. In this lab we
will look at the interaction between stagnation and separated flow by CFD computations of
the turbulent flow around the bluff plate shown below. One of the problems with std EVM is
excessive production of turbulence in stagnation regions seen in the example computation
below. High turbulence levels are convected into the separated region resulting in a severe
underprediction of the separation length. Your task is to confirm this deficit of std EVMs and
to demonstrate the improvements available.
Figure 1. Experimental setup (top) and computational results (streamlines and turbulence
kinetic energy) using one std EVM (bottom) (ref: N. Djilali and I. S. Gartshore (1991),
Turbulent Flow Around a Bluff Rectangular Plate, Part I: Experimental Investigation, JFE,
Vol. 113, pp. 5159.)
Casedefinition
The case is geometrically very simple and defined in Figure 1. The experiment is made in a
lowspeed wind tunnel and incompressible flow can be assumed (Mach number less than
0.2). The Reynolds number based on the plate thickness
is
50 000
where
is the kinematic viscosity. The incoming isotropic turbulence level can be prescribed
as
where
,
/2 and are the rms of the streamwise
fluctuations, turbulence kinetic energy and dissipation rate respectively. Isotropic turbulence
2 /3. Figure 2 shows the experimental skin friction and
implies that
where
1
2
and
1
2
are the freestream density and
pressure respectively. The experimental data are available in text files. The experimentally
observed reattachment point is
4.7.
Computationalsetup
The computational mesh is provided and consists of about 26 000 nodes and elements
(shown in Figure 3). Symmetry is utilised so only the half geometry is meshed. The thickness
of the nearwall cells are about 80m resulting in
0.1m, the
height of the domain is 1m, the upstream and downstream extents are 1m and 2m
respectively.
The following boundary conditions apply:
sym: Symmetry. This is the boundary upstream of the plate where symmetry applies.
1.225kg/m ,
1.7894 10 kg/ms,
Figure 3. Computational domain and mesh. Right figure is a zoom in on the corner.
Expectedresults
You must complete all assignments specified below and present the results in the lab report.
1. Matching the experimental setup.
a. What is the inlet velocity ( ) and turbulence quantities ( and ) used for
matching the experimental case definition.
b. What is the corresponding Mach number.
2. Turbulence model results.
a. For each turbulence model result, plot the velocity magnitude, stream lines,
turbulence kinetic energy ( ) and production of turbulence kinetic energy (
similar to the plots in Figure 1. Use the same colour scale for all plots for easy
comparison.
b. Make one diagram with
and each model as a line with different line styles or colours. Export the
pressure ( ) from the computations to e.g. matlab, compute
according to
the definition and plot. Note that the absolute pressure is irrelevant for the
incompressible assumption and that
c. Make one diagram with
0 is default in Fluent.
and each model as a line with different line styles or colours. Export the skin
friction (
according to
the definition and plot. Use the same line styles and colours as for
d. Make one diagram with turbulence kinetic energy ( ) along the symmetry
line upstream of the plate. Use the same line styles and colours as for
Fluentsetupandrunning
The zip file FluentLabSG2218.zip contain:
You can open and use the ANSYS workbench setup including the geometry and mesh. Most
settings are here predefined.
Alternatively, you can open the Fluent mesh directly in Fluent and do all settings yourself.
Or you can import the Fluent mesh to your favourite CFD solver (e.g. OpenFOAM) and do
the computations there. You dont need to use Fluent and you can replace some of the
turbulence models if they are missing in your CFD solver.
StartANSYSWorkbench
Available under All Programs > ANSYS > Workbench
Open:FluentLabSG2218.wbpj
Here you will see the setup of the test case. The Geometry and Mesh are already available.
And also the basic Setup of the case in Fluent. You are free to modify everything.
StartFluent
Doubleclick on Solution to open Fluent. (press Yes to any warning of changed upstream
data).
You should see the following mesh when Fluent have started.
Most things are already setup, mostly with default values. In the following, the necessary
steps are explained
Turbulencemodel
Under Tree > Setup > Models > Viscous, press Edit. Here you will choose the turbulence
model. The standard keps model is already chosen. Use enhanced wall treatment, which
will be able to handle any nearwall resolution. The mesh is too fine to use wall function BCs.
The different turbulence models you should test are:
1. Std keps: kepsilon + Standard + EnhancedWallTreatment.
2. Realizable keps: kepsilon + Realizable + EnhancedWallTreatment.
3. Std komega: komega + Standard (uncheck all options).
4. SST komega: komega + SST + ProductionLimiter.
5. RST komega: ReynoldsStress + StressBSL.
For each turbulence model you can either do a new initialization of the solution or continue
to run from the previous solution. You are also very welcome to try other models and model
options. The complete documentation is available under the small ? at the top right corner.
The turbulence models are documented at: Users Guide > Fluent > Theory Guide >
Turbulence.
Boundaryconditions
Under Tree > Setup > BoundaryConditions:
All boundary condition types are already set according to the setup earlier in this document.
The values on the inlet boundary must be set. Mark inlet and press Edit.
and
coefficients to be correctly
the inlet boundary condition. You can easily do that by choosing Computefrom > inlet.
SolutionMonitor
Under Tree > Solution > Monitors, choose Residuals and press Edit.
We will avoid using any convergence criteria, so uncheck CheckConvergence for all
equation. You might need to scroll down to see and uncheck everything. Instead we will use
a certain number of iterations.
Under Tree > Solution > Monitors, you can also define to monitor the convergence of other
properties. It is recommended to monitor a typical global force and the
coefficient is
The image can be saved by using the camera symbol in the plotting window.
XYPlots
Under Tree > Results > Plots, choose XYPlot and press SetUp. E.g. plot the upperwall
skin friction using the following setting:
Yplus.
along the wall is plotted by Pressure > PressureCoefficient.
Turbulence quantities along the symmetry line upstream of the plate can be plotted by
choosing the sym surface and plot Turbulence > TurbulentKineticEnergy(k) or
Productionofk.
There is an option WritetoFile that should be used for exporting the data to a text file. Edit
the text file to keep only the data table to import into matlab, python or excel for
normalization and plotting. The data is not necessary written in any particular order and you
might need to sort the data for increasing
plotting.