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Characteristic of lit.

during ancient times

The sparrow and the shrimp- this an eternal love

story of the sparrow and the shrimp who happened o
fall in love with each other despite of their diff. world
in the end their both took their lif. They married and
try to live in water but the sparrow couldnt bear to
live in water so as the shrimp take to live in sparrow
her skin burned from the sun.

Political, economic, social, spiritual life

FOLK TALES- are stories or tales of the ancient times which

usually project lessons which could be imbibed by the young
Classification of folk tales
1. MYTHS- are fictitious or conjectural narratives presented
as historical but without basis of fact.

EPICS- are long narrative poems delineating the romantic,

heroic, or war exploits of charaters of high positions among
the tribe, nation or race exhibiting dignity and honor in the
pursuance of their adventures.

The creation of God

Manual- king of air and who created the world upon

raging the sky and earth that formed islands and
Magauyan-who took the name of plant kawayan
Pamulak Manobo-great god
Sikalak-man in the bamboo
Sikakay- woman in the bamboo

The flood in ibalon

Ibalon-long ago call for bicol

Rabut-half man half beast
Handiong-great warrior of ibalon
Bantong- abossom friend of handiong

2. LEGENDS- sagas are eitherauthentic or improbable stories

popularly known as explanations of the origin of a local
phenomena which are not necessarily verifiable but
historically and traditionally believed.
Legend of Hari sa bukid
Legend of the mango in kslibu vil.

Siguinhon and wife tiguinlan a childless

Paray- name of grains

The first banana in bicol

Malinay- a girl who want to see a spirit

Baltong-son of encantadia

3. WHIMSICAL TALES- fantastic or fairy tales are stories of

ghost dwarfs, usually of the unseen or the undersworld
The enchanted lake of Buhi
The big man in the tree- a little boy was afraid
when he was going home through a thick wood
where this creature usually found, and also in a huge
tree he saw a kapre- a big man and his skin is black
as coal who smoked tabacco.
Pedro and the witch- a story of a son ofn poor
man, he lived with his father and mother bythe sea
shore. He was left by his parent to look for a food,
when night comes pedro felt very hungry

Pedro- a som of a poor man

Baroka- a witch, the most children afraid of,
with wings and 4 feet a horse

4. FABLES-are brief stories or tales invented to embody

morals and acted by animals or inanimate things. Are
prevalent among muslims.
Monkey and the tortoise
The Greedy Crow- a story of greediness where the
crow wAnted to steal the dead meat of
KASAYKASAy unfortunately it was a kind of bird who
could fly as fast as the crow the reason why the crow
had to return back where he left his dead meat was
taken by the hawk immediately after he left the

Alim-is an ifugo epic which id religious in nature and

chanted only during religious and semi-religious
rituals for instance , the harvests a ceremony
performed before any harvesting done.
The early Spanish chronicles-Padre Colin,
Pigafetta, chirino and the zuniega attested the
existence of phil epics.
Dr. Roy Franklin barton- vchanting of alim would last
all nighth with atleast 5 persons.
Dr. Otley Beyer- language use in alim is different
from Filipino language.
Mumbaki- high priest
Bugan- daughter of rich family and most beautiful
woman in realm.
Umangal-bravest handsomest most industrious in
the tribe, former husband of bugan
Hudhud- companion piece of alim.
Baddang- rice havest ceremony called

Biag ni Lam Ang- means life of Lam Ang- this project

exploits by Ilocano hero

Daeogdog- man who violent temper

Agahon- a lovely daughter of daegdog found the
spirit in the spring
Maeopig- had a uncontrollable temper

The origin of Rice- western visayas

Ines Kannoyan- wife of Lam Ang

Namongan- Lam ang Mother
Nalbuan home town of lam ang
Pets of Lam Ang- Roaster, Pet hen, White dog

Rev. Fr. Jose castano- kept the manuscript of Ibalong as a
souvenir to his stay in Bicolandia in 19th century.
Maragtas- means history- this work is compilation of event of
panay island from the time of its settling by the bornean

Pedro Alcantara Monteclaro- The man who wrote

andIt is written in epic versein old visayan script in
Hiligaynon-Iraya dialect
Sinugbuhan was ruled by Marikudo- who
succed his father populan- by reason his
bravery, streght and extraordinaryskills in
Maniwantiwan- came from poor family and wife of

Ten Datus
Datu Putihis wife pinangpangan, Datu bangkaya wife
katurang, datu sumakwel wife kapinangan, paduhinog wife
ribong sapaw, domangsol wife kabiling, lubay, dumangsil,
balensuela, balkasusa.
Wise sayings- are erudite expression of experience and
observations projecting advice in relation to the philosophy of
Maxims- are concisely expressed principles or rules ogf
conduct elucidating general truth usually embodying morals
or practical precepts.(ex. Ang taong masipag daig ang
Proverbs- are established principles, thougt not necessarily
truths, but are usually universally received. Ex. (kung minsan
ang awa ay masakit na hiwa)
Epigrams sort of incriptions with poetical sense, treating
concisely ang pointedly single thoughts or events, usually
ending with witticism, often times satirical.
Riddles- are obscure or inexplicable sayings to be solve by
guessing or by conjecturing: covering practically all the
experience of life.

Digres are songs or tunes of lamentation or wailings to

express grief or mourning.
Folk song are informal reactions to the various experiences
of daily life through oral tradition, either love songs, planting
songs etc.
Harana, Serenade, Pamulinawen (ilocano song), Sa
daplinsausakasapa(Cebuano song), By the side of the
creek, Sadtongisasaudto (hilingaynon folk song),
Chichirit chit alibang bang,, caprichosa, lawiswis
kawayan, tinikling, magtanim ay di biro, halina halina
inday sa balitaw, sarungbanggi

Performed -to thanks God for whatever harvest the igorots

were able to reap form the good earth and To prove that the
participants are men in valor if the participant is a bachelor to
show his lady that he is enough to rear family.
Buluwon- an igorot poem tells everyday life experiences in
Plays-performed to entertain guest or to enliven occasions.
Puppet shows- are mock dramas, characters of which are
figurines manipulated by strings to mimic the characters
Dances- preformed during religious feast or weddings
Debates in verse- are poetrical debaqtes participated by
two persons, the participant must have reservoir of knowledge
for the debate range personages and event on myths.
Astrology and to other things

Ritualistic verses- used in solemn or religious ceremonies

performed in prescribed or established manner, constituting
or accompanying any formal, solemn or ceremonies act of

Invocation- are supplication addressed to the good

Incantation are sayings or chanting of magical word
for enchantment or exorcisms addressed to evil

Poetry- during the pre- Spanish times could best project both
the extrinsic qualities of experiences of our ancestor.
Loa or loan- was a popular during this periodusually written
in diffused style conforming to Asiatic taste.
According to Joaquin Martinez de Zuniega- the loa or loan
are describe the creation of the world.
Dura- bagobo war song : chanting at the time during rthe
cutting down ceremonial bamboos were use to triangular
Gindaya-verse ceremony chanted anti-phinically and
alternately by two choirs at ginium.
Bangnibang- an Ifugao poem invoking the aid of the spirit in
order to drive away evil things or pest like rats.
Bag-bag-to- is old as igorot culture itself a ceremony which
forms a part of wealth of igorot mores, customs and traditions.