By: Muhaamad Arief Dharmawan 07360141 / 4E



1.1 Background of Study No one can live without communicating with other people because human beings are social creatures in nature. In order to get what they need from others, people should be a able to transfer their thought, feelings, and needs through a certain channel. They speak and behave in certain ways when they send their message. Those who get their message will do something as the response to the message. That is how communication occurs. Thus, the need of understanding communication theory or how to carry the message as well as interpret the signals is important in order to maintain the smoothness of communication. According to Canale (1983), to achieve the goal of communication, people need language as the media. Language is the central means by which people communicate with one another in everyday life. He states, communication is the exchange and negotiation of information between at least two individuals through the use of verbal and non-verbal symbol, oral and written/visual modes, and production and comprehension processes. Based on the above explanation, the study mf speech acts is important. According to Searle (1980:16) speech acts are the basic or minimal units of linguistic communication that occur in all linguistic communication. While the unit of linguistic word or sentence, but rather the production or issuance of the symbol or word or as a produced or issued token. More precisely, the production or issuance of sentence token under certain conditions is a speech act. Furthermore, a philosopher Austin (1975: 1-11) develops the theory of speech acts that are used simultaneously in communicating with others. There are three kinds of acts in utterances. Locutionary act is the act of producing a recognizable grammatical utterance in the language. It is the act of saying something or producing a series of sounds that mean something. Illocutionary act is the act performed in saying something. It is attempt to

accomplish some communicative purpose. So the interpretation of illocutionary act is concerned with force. The last one is Perlocutionary act that procedures some effects upon the thoughts, feelings, or actions of the audience. Moreover, illocutionary are the most important act that is given attention to. Austin (1962: 151) classifies illocutionary forcae into verdictives, exertives, commissives, expressive and declaratives for illuctionary act. English language is a kind of language. Absolutely English language has a kind of speech, act and anything else that was described above. Learn about English language is not only learn about that language only but also about the literature. As we know literature is a part of language that cannot be separated each other. Hudson (1965:10) says that literary work talks about the expression of life that uses a form of language. It describes the conditions and the problems of society and the experience of someone as an individual through the medium of language. More over literary language has its own characteristic. They are (1) the world is highly connotative. In delivering the idea, the writer does not use direct language; (2) the language has its expressive and pragmatic sides which always need interpretation from the readers. Novel as literary work has its own real life. It’s a form of literature which looks at people in society. A novelist frequently focuses on the tensions between individuals and the society in which they live, presenting characters that are in the society. Novels, however, are long works with a great amount of details in every page in order to give the readers a picture to recognize the complex reality of character or event in the story (Peck and Cole: 1988). In other words the details give the clear picture about story as well as the discourse. Discourse here means the language and texture of the writing novel. In Jonathan Livingston Seagull’s novel The Why Are You Here Café, the characters’ speech acts are vivid and interesting to study. The main characters in this novel always communicate in a certain context. His speeches influence others and create some actions that are the consequences of his communication. The process of communication goes interactively and may lead to the successful one as well as the opposite one. Through this speech event the performances of illocutionary act and perlocutionary act can be identified as well as analyzed. Besides, the writer often imitates real life speech. The researcher chooses to describe performance of the acts indirectly as if it is being overhead by another character. Such speech may come out no as if being said by the first character but as if being heard by another.

1.2 Statement of Research Problems Based on the background described above, the general problem of this study is “How are speeches acts applied in the main characters of The Why Are You Here Café?” It is specified as follows: 1. How are illocutionary acts performed in The Why Are You Here Café? 2. How are perlucutionary act performed in The Why Are You Here Café? 1.3 Purpose of the Study In line with the above mentioned problem, the purpose of this study is to describe how speech acts applied through the main characters in The Why Are You Here Café. The specifications are: 1. Description on how illocutionary acts are performed in The Why Are You Here Café. 2. Description on how perlocutionary acts are performed in The Why Are You Here Café. 1.4 Significance of the Study This study is expected to give a description on speech acts of the main characters utterances’ in communicating their thought. The result of the study is hoped to give theoretical and practical contribution. In terms of theoretical contribution, the study is expected to give a description on speech acts rules in literary work that is The Why Are You Here Café and contribution to discourse analysis and pragmatics. The contribution is in form of variations of the types os speech acts which occur in literary work through the main character’s utterances in their communication activities. As practical contribution, the results of the study are expected to help students as well as teachers appreciate literary works. Literary works can be used as the alternative media to study speech act theories while enjoying the work itself. Since literature is designed as an elective subject in English department, the study on the speech act theories are considered necessary. In terms of language teaching, the result of the study can be expected to give contribution to the teaching of productive skills like speaking and writing. Through the understanding of speech acts, students can be better communicators because they have a better understanding of making coherence discourse. They can also be effective writers in communicating their thought that can be applied in writing class

Of course, the result of the study hopefully can be helping the next researchers who wanted to describe similar analysis. 1.5 Scope and Limitation This study gives a great concern on the main characters’ expression in Jonathan Livingston Seagull’s novel The Why Are You Here Café. The main character in this novel was named John. 1.6 The Definition of Key Terms The definitions of key terms are as follows: 1. Speech Act is the act of saying something that is while producing an utterance or expression, people performs acts. It is about language’s productive force which depends on place and time it is used. 2. Locutionary Act is the act of saying something; producing a series of sounds that mean something. 3. Illocutionary Act is the act performed in saying something. The interpretation of this act is concerned with force. 4. Perlocutionary Act is the act which can be described in terms of the effect of the locutionary and perlocutionary acts upon the hearers’ feeling, thought, or action. 5. Novel is a book-length story in prose, whose authors’ tries to create the sense that while readers read, they experience actual life. 6. Main Characters are those who almost always appear during the story and have important roles. 7. Characters’ utterance is the utterances that are produced by the main characters which are considered as speech acts as well as have language force. 8. The Why Are You Here Café is a novel by Jonathan Livingston Seagull. The theme of the novel is about how to face the life. This make the main characters take a long journey to find the answers.


2.1 Literature The word "literature" has different meanings depending on who is using it. It could be applied broadly to mean any symbolic record, encompassing everything from images and sculptures to letters. In a more narrow sense the term could mean only text composed of letters, or other examples of symbolic written language (Egyptian hieroglyphs, for example). An even more narrow interpretation is that text have a physical form, such as on paper or some other portable form, to the exclusion of inscriptions or digital media. The Muslim scholar and philosopher Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq (702-765 AD) defined "literature" as follows: "Literature is the garment which one puts on what he says or writes so that it may appear more attractive."Added that literature is a slice of life that has been given direction and meaning, an artistic interpretation of the world according to the percipient's point of views. Frequently, the texts that make up literature crossed over these boundaries. Russian Formalist Roman Jakobson defines literature as "organized violence committed on ordinary speech", highlighting literature's deviation from the day-to-day and conversational structure of words. Illustrated stories, hypertexts, cave paintings and inscribed monuments have all at one time or another pushed the boundaries of "literature." People may perceive a difference between "literature" and some popular forms of written work. The terms "literary fiction" and "literary merit" often serve to distinguish between individual works. For example, almost all literate people perceive the works of Charles Dickens as "literature," whereas some critics[citation needed] look down on the works of Jeffrey Archer as unworthy of inclusion under the general heading of "English literature." Critics may exclude works from the classification "literature," for example, on the grounds of a poor standard of grammar and syntax, of an unbelievable or disjointed story-line, or of inconsistent or unconvincing characters. Genre fiction (for example: romance, crime, or science fiction) may also become excluded from consideration as "literature."

2.2. Novel 2.2.1 Definition A novel is a prose narrative work which is long enough to be printed as an entire book. The novel is usually divided into smaller portions, called chapters. (A short story, in contrast, is a narrative prose work which is short enough to be read in one sitting, and is usually published in a magazine or anthology.) (Lukács, Georg: 1971, 1916) 2.2.2 Sub-genres There are many sub-genres of the novel. These include:
• • • • •

The detective novel The romantic novel The horror novel The thriller novel The science fiction novel

• 2.2.3 Elements of Novel There will be several elements of Novel: 1. Setting : The background in which the story takes place. There are several aspects to setting: (a) Place: This is the geographical location of the story. Since novels are lengthy, the story may move from one place to another. When asked to describe the setting, you may give the general geographical location (e.g., in a novel which takes place in numerous locations around Italy, you may mention only the country) or you may describe several specific locations. (b) Time: First, this refers to the period of history, if the story is set in the past. If the story could happen now or at some recent unspecified time, we say that it is "contemporary." If it is a science fiction story, it may be set in the future. When describing setting, be as specific as the author is. Novels usually span (take place over) a much longer period of time than short stories, so you may need to say that a novel's setting in time is from 1937 to 1956. When describing the setting of a portion of the novel, you may be able to specify the season, month, and even time of day.

(c) Climate/Weather: This is an aspect of setting which is often forgotten, but it can be important to the novel. If the story begins in the midst of a hurricane, it is significant to the story. (d) Lifestyle: This refers to the daily life of the characters. If a story takes place in a particular historical period, the lifestyle of the characters (e.g., whether they are poor farmers or residents of the court) is part of the setting. 2. Atmosphere: The mood or feeling of the story, the emotional quality that the story gives to the reader. This is usually evoked by the setting and, like the setting, may change throughout the novel. You may say that a novel opens with a mysterious atmosphere, a gloomy atmosphere, a light, carefree atmosphere, etc. 3. Characters: the people, animal, robots, etc., who take part in the action of the story. 4. Conflict: the struggle between opposing forces in the story. Conflict provides interest and suspense. There are various types of conflict, which can usually be categorized as one of the following: (a) A Character Struggling Against Nature (B) A Struggle Between Two Or More Characters (C) A Struggle Between The Main Character And Some Aspect Of Society (D) A Struggle Of Opposing Forces Within One Character The reader usually follows the actions of one main character throughout the novel; this character is referred to as the protagonist. The force with which the protagonist is in conflict is called the antagonist. In the case of the fourth type of conflict listed, the antagonist would be another internal force within the protagonist, e.g., selfdoubt. 5. Plot: The storyline; the ordered arrangement of incidents in a story. Plot arises out of the conflict in the story, which builds to a climax. 6. Theme: the central idea in the story or novel. It can usually be expressed in a short statement about human nature, life, or the universe. 2.3 The Character 2.3.1 Round vs. flat Round characters are characters who are complex and realistic; they represent a depth of personality which is imitative of life. A flat character is distinguished by its lack of a realistic personality. Though the description of a flat

character may be detailed and rich in defining characteristics, it falls short of the complexity associated with a round character. James Patrick Kelly describes round and flat characters in his article "You and Your Characters" (Writing Science Fiction & Fantasy) as "someone who is characterized by one or two traits. 'Flat' and 'round' were terms first proposed by E. M. Forster in his Aspects of the Novel. 2.3.2 Dynamic vs. Static A dynamic character is one who, during the course of the story, changes significantly. Significant changes might include changes in sight or understanding, changes in commitment, and changes in values. Changes in circumstance, even physical circumstance, would not qualify unless they result in some change within the character's self. An example of a dynamic character is Guy Montag, the main character in the novel Fahrenheit 451. In contrast, a static character does not undergo significant change, remaining basically unchanged (in understanding, commitment, values) throughout a work. 2.3.3 Protagonist vs. Antagonist A protagonist is the main character (the central or main figure) of a drama or story. The word "protagonist" derives from the Greek πρωταγωνιστής (protagonistes), "one who plays the first part, chief actor."[1] In the theatre of Ancient Greece, three actors played all of the main dramatic roles in a tragedy; the leading role was played by the protagonist, while the other roles were played by deuteragonist and the tritagonist. The terms protagonist, main character and hero are variously (and rarely well) defined and, depending on the source, may denote different concepts. In fiction, the story of the protagonist may be told from the perspective of a different character (who may also, but not necessarily, be the narrator). An example would be a narrator who relates the fate of several protagonists, perhaps as prominent figures recalled in a biographical perspective. The principal opponent of the protagonist is a character known as the antagonist, who represents or creates obstacles that the protagonist(s) must overcome. As with protagonists, there may be more than one antagonist in a story.

Sometimes, a work will offer a particular character as the protagonist, only to dispose of that character unexpectedly, as a dramatic device. Such a character is called a false protagonist. Marion in Alfred Hitchcock's Psycho (1960) is a famous example. When the work contains subplots, these may have different protagonists from the main plot. In some novels, the protagonists may be impossible to identify, because multiple plots in the novel do not permit clear identification of one as the main plot, such as in Alexander Solzhenitsyn's The First Circle, depicting a variety of characters imprisoned and living in a gulag camp, or in Leo Tolstoy's War and Peace, depicting 15 major characters involved or affected by a war. In psychodrama, the "protagonist" is the person (group member, patient or client) who decides to enact some significant aspect of his life, experiences or relationships on stage with the help of the psychodrama director and other group members, taking supplementary roles as auxiliary egos. An antagonist (from Greek ανταγωνιστής - antagonistes, "opponent, competitor, rival"[1][2]) is a character, group of characters, or an institution, who represents the opposition against which the protagonist(s) must contend. In other words, 'A person, or a group of people who oppose the main character, or the main characters.' In the classic style of story where in the action consists of a hero fighting a villain, the two can be regarded as protagonist and antagonist, respectively. Contrary to popular belief, the antagonist is not always the villain, but simply those who oppose the main character. Writers have also created more complex situations. In some instances, a story is told from the villain's point of view, and any hero trying to stop the villain can be regarded as an antagonist. In the film K-19: The Widowmaker, an American film about a Soviet Cold War submarine crew, the crew, enemies of the United States, are depicted as protagonists, creating something of a paradox — as very often the American film industry tends to depict the forces of the United States as the people that fight for "good" and "justice", in opposition to Russia (especially the former Soviet Union) being the antagonists who often have maniacal and/or malicious intentions (e.g. world domination). Such antagonists are usually police officers or other law enforcement officials. Sometimes, antagonists and protagonists may overlap, depending on what their ultimate objectives are considered to be

2.4 Communication Communication is a learned skill. Most people are born with the physical ability to talk, but we must learn to speak well and communicate effectively. Speaking, listening, and our ability to understand verbal and nonverbal meanings are skills we develop in various ways. We learn basic communication skills by observing other people and modeling our behaviors based on what we see. We also are taught some communication skills directly through education, and by practicing those skills and having them evaluated. Communication as an academic discipline relates to all the ways we communicate, so it embraces a large body of study and knowledge. The communication discipline includes both verbal and nonverbal messages. A body of scholarship all about communication is presented and explained in textbooks, electronic publications, and academic journals. In the journals, researchers report the results of studies that are the basis for an ever expanding understanding of how we all communicate. Communication teachers and scholars, in 1995, developed a definition of the field of communication to clarify it as a discipline for the public. That definition is now used by the U.S. Department of Education in its national publication, Classification of Instructional Programs, 2000: The field of communication focuses on how people use messages to generate meanings within and across various contexts, cultures, channels, and media. The field promotes the effective and ethical practice of human communication. 2.4.1 Speech Act We perform speech acts when we offer an apology, greeting, request, complaint, invitation, compliment, or refusal. A speech act is an utterance that serves a function in communication. A speech act might contain just one word, as in "Sorry!" to perform an apology, or several words or sentences: "I’m sorry I forgot your birthday. I just let it slip my mind." Speech acts include real-life interactions and require not only knowledge of the language but also appropriate use of that language within a given culture. Speech acts are difficult to perform in a second language because learners may not know the idiomatic expressions or cultural norms in the second language or they may transfer their first language rules and conventions into the second language, assuming that such rules are universal. Because the natural tendency for

language learners is to fall back on what they know to be appropriate in their first language, it is important that these learners understand exactly what they do in that first language in order to be able to recognize what is transferable to other languages. Something that works in English might not transfer in meaning when translated into the second language. For example, the following remark as uttered by a native English speaker could easily be misinterpreted by a native Chinese hearer: An example of potential misunderstanding for an American learner of Japanese would be what is said by a dinner guest in Japan to thank the host. For the invitation and the meal the guests may well apologize a number of times in addition to using an expression of gratitude (arigatou gosaimasu) -- for instance, for the intrusion into the private home (sumimasen ojama shimasu), the commotion that they are causing by getting up from the table (shitsurei shimasu), and also for the fact that they put their host out since they had to cook the meal, serve it, and will have to do the dishes once the guests have left (sumimasen). American guests might think this to be rude or inappropriate and choose to compliment the host on the wonderful food and festive atmosphere, or thank the host for inviting them, unaware of the social conventions involved in performing such a speech act in Japanese. Although such compliments or expression of thanks are also appropriate in Japanese, they are hardly enough for native speakers of Japanese -- not without a few apologies! Searle (1969) identified five illocutionary/perlocutionary points:
• • • • •

Assertives: statements may be judged true or false because they aim to describe a state of affairs in the world. Directives: statements attempt to make the other person's actions fit the propositional content. Commissives: statements which commit the speaker to a course of action as described by the propositional content. Expressives: statements that express the “sincerity condition of the speech act”. Declaratives: statements that attempt to change the world by “representing it as having been changed”.

• 2.4.2 Locutionary Act

In linguistics and the philosophy of mind, a locutionary act is the performance of an utterance, and hence of a speech act. The term equally refers to the surface meaning of an utterance because, according to Austin's posthumous "How To Do Things With Words", a speech act should be analysed as a locutionary act (ie the actual utterance and its ostensible meaning, comprising phonetic, phatic and rhetic acts corresponding to the verbal, syntactic and semantic aspects of any meaningful utterance), as well as an illocutionary act (the semantic 'illocutionary force' of the utterance, thus its real, intended meaning), and in certain cases a further perlocutionary act (ie its actual effect, whether intended or not). For example, my saying to you "Don't go into the water" (a locutionary act with distinct phonetic, syntactic and semantic features) counts as warning you not to go into the water (an illocutionary act), and if you heed my warning I have thereby succeeded in persuading you not to go into the water (a perlocutionary act). This taxonomy of speech acts was inherited by John R. Searle, Austin's pupil at Oxford and subsequently an influential exponent of speech act theory. 2.4.3 Illocutionary Act Illocutionary act is a technical term introduced by John L. Austin in investigations concerning what he calls 'performative' and 'constative utterances'. According to Austin's original exposition in How to Do Things With Words, an illocutionary act is an act (1) for the performance of which I must make it clear to some other person that the act is performed (Austin speaks of the 'securing of uptake'), and (2) the performance of which involves the production of what Austin calls 'conventional consequences' as, e.g., rights, commitments, or obligations. For example, in order to successfully perform a promise I must make clear to my audience that the promise occurs, and undertake an obligation to do the promised thing: hence promising is an illocutionary act in the present sense. However, for certain reasons, among them insufficient knowledge of Austin's original exposition, the term 'illocutionary act' is nowadays understood in a number of other ways. Many define the term with reference to examples, saying such things as that any speech act like stating, asking, commanding, promising, and so on is an illocutionary act; they then often fail to give any sense of the expression illocutionary act capable of making clear what being an illocutionary act essentially consists in.

It is also often emphasised that Austin introduced the illocutionary act by means of a contrast with other kinds of acts: the illocutionary act, he says, is an act performed in saying something, as contrasted with a locutionary act, the act of saying something, and also contrasted with a perlocutionary act, an act performed by saying something. But it may be misleading to distinguish between 'kinds' of acts, for these are not separate categories of speech, but instead describe different levels on which speech might work. Any one particular speech event may have any combination of locutionary, illocutionary or perlocutionary effects. Still another conception of an illocutionary act goes back to Schiffer's famous book 'Meaning' (1972, 103), in which the illocutionary act is represented as just the act of meaning something. According to the conception Bach and Harnish adopt in 'Linguistic Communication and Speech Acts' (1979), an illocutionary act is an attempt to communicate, which they again analyze as the expressing of an attitude. 2.4.4 Perlocutionary Act A perlocutionary act (or perlocutionary effect) is a speech act, as viewed at the level of its psychological consequences, such as persuading, convincing, scaring, enlightening, inspiring, or otherwise getting someone to do or realize something. This is contrasted with locutionary and illocutionary acts (which are other levels of description, rather than different types of speech acts). The term was introduced by J. L. Austin in his work How to Do Things With Words. Unlike the notion of locutionary act, which describes the linguistic function of an utterance, a perlocutionary effect is in some sense external to the performance. It may be thought of, in a sense, as the effect of the illocutionary act. Therefore, when examining perlocutionary acts, the effect on the hearer or reader is emphasized 2.5 Related Previous Studies This study is similar with:

Anggela, M. P. P. 2000 Speech Acts analysis on Amy Tan’s The Joy Luck Club, State University of Malang, Graduate program in English Education. (a Thesis Proposal)



This Chapter presents the research design, data and sources of data, research subject, research instruments, data collection and data analysis of the present study. 3.1 Research Design Since this research is trying to describe the use of speech acts in The Why Are You Here Café as it is without testing hypotheses, it is called descriptive explorative research (Ary, 1981). It is also considered as descriptive interpretative or qualitative interpretative research (Suryawinata, 1984) because the researcher interprets the use of speech acts in The Why Are You Here Café based on its context. Burges (1985: 7) states the qualitative research has characteristic such as (1) The researcher is the main instrument in investigating the subjects who are in their natural setting in order to see the way in which they attribute meaning in social situation. The investigation is to get some understanding of the social, cultural, and historical setting of subject; (2) Studies are designed and redesigned by its flexibility; (3) The researcher is concerned with social process and with meaning to understand the way in which participants perceive situation; (4) Data collection and data analysis occur simultaneously. Besides, this researcher is also classified as a case study. It is not a research that uses sample from a certain population as the subject but it only study one particular case. The case is about the use of speech acts in a certain novel by Jonathan Livingston Seagull’s novel The Why Are You Here Café. The researcher does not deal with speech acts in general novels. The use of speech acts in The Why Are You Here Café is not meant to describe or conclude the application of speech acts in general novel or in prose fiction but only describes speech acts in The Why Are You Here Café.

3.2 Data and Source of Data

The data of the research are the objects of the research. In qualitative research the material or information that can be considered as the data are usually in the form of words organized into extended text rather than in numbers (Miles and Huberman: 1984). The data of this research is the language description in Jonathan Livingston Seagull’s novel The Why Are You Here Café. The identification and existence of the data actually depend on the researcher who faces the real language phenomena. This study uses main characters’ utterances and acts in the novel that can reveal the characteristic of speech acts. Absolutely the main source of data in this study is the Jonathan Livingston Seagull’s novel The Why Are You Here Café. 3.3 Research Subject Research subject is an individual who participates in study or someone from whom the data are collected (McMillan, 1992). The subjects for this study is the main character of Jonathan Livingston Seagull’s novel The Why Are You Here Café. This character was named John. As a worker John feels bored with his daily life and he decide to take a journey and during his journey he finds another side of life. 3.4 Research Instruments The instrument of this study is the researcher himself. The use of human instruments is the right choice because the data of the research is in the form of literary language description that needs interpretative activity. This research requires him as an active reader. He reads The Why Are You Here Café continually, recognizes and identifies units of speech acts in each section that will be related each other as a whole as well as recognizes and identifies the context to interpret the meaning and the use of speech acts themselves. 3.5 Data Collection The data collection in this study will be done through reading library research. The researcher spends his time in reading Jonathan Livingston Seagull’s novel The Why Are You Here Café. He also reads other materials such as critics of the literary work, books, journals and articles to support. The supported data are used to give more understanding about the work itself.

The second part, the researcher determines the speech acts of the main character of Jonathan Livingston Seagull’s novel The Why Are You Here Café. He decides the illocutionary acts as well as the perlocutionary acts of the main characters through their dialogues, monologues, and action. The data collection is done simultaneously with data analysis. 3.6 Data Analysis The first step in doing data analysis is that researcher reads carefully the novel as the whole. Then he reads and identifies speech acts in every section. Every section means every chapter in the novel. Since there are nineteen chapters in The Why Are You Here, T\the first section will be named one and so forth until nineteen. Every speech unit is transcribed and coded. The transcription and the coding are gathered based on the chapter but not all the utterance and action are done. It is only the utterances and the action of the main character which represent the characters of speech acts especially illocutionary act and perlocutionary act to answer the questions. This is meant to classify the utterance as well as the action into illocutionary act or perlocutionary act. The next step is analyzing the data that have been transcribed and coded. In evaluate the data, the researcher determines the elements of illocutionary act of the data, wheter they are representatives, directives, comissives, expressive, or declaratives. The determination is based on the felicity conditions of the data. Then, using local interpretation which means interpret data based on context, the researcher tries to get the real meaning of the utterance and action that are done by the main character. Moreover, perlocutionary act is seen as the effect of illocutionary act. It can be utterances or actions of the main character after illocutionary act is produced.


Ary, Donald, Lucy Chisea Jacobs and Asghar Razavich, 1981. Introduction to Research in Education. 3rd ed. New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston Austin, J. L. 1962. How to do things with Words. Cambridge Harvard University Press. Hudson, William H. 1965. An introduction to The Study of Literarture. Los angeles: Macimilian Publishing Company. Searle, John R. 1969. Speech Acts: An Eassay in The Philosophy of Language. London: Cambridge University Press. Seagull, L. J. 1999. The why are you Here Café. London Burkhardt, Armin (ed.). Speech Acts, Meaning and Intentions: Critical Approaches to the Philosophy of John R. Searle. Berlin / New York 1990