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Matlab Tutorial

Introduction

The purpose of this tutorial is to provide an introduction to MATLAB, a powerful software

package that performs numeric computations. MATLAB is extremely useful for scientists and

engineers, so an investment of time now to become familiar with MATLAB will pay dividends

throughout your career. As you follow this tutorial you should try all of the examples. The best

way to learn MATLAB is through examples - so lets get started.

Using the Command Window

At startup MATLAB opens several windows. You can customize the space and decide which

windows to keep open. However, you will mostly use

Editor window - to write m-files;

Command window to type a command wait for the prompt sign >>.

You can start MATLAB by double clicking on the MATLAB icon that should be on the desktop of

your computer. This brings up the Command Window. In the Command Window the user can

enter simple commands one at a time and execute them as they are entered.

For example, type (we will use bold for the things that you should type)

2+2

and then press the <enter key>. You should see

ans = 4

This is the simplest way to use MATLAB, simply as a calculator. Im not going to keep telling you

to press the <enter> key after typing each command, you probably have caught on to that by

now.

You can also introduce variables and assign values to them, for example type

a = 2

b = 3

Now you have two variables, a and b, in the workspace and you can use them in further

calculations. For example type

a + b

you should see

ans = 5

MATLAB also knows a lot of functions and constants, such as (pi) and sin among many others,

for example you can type

fun = sin(pi/4) and MATLAB returns

fun = 0.7071

Note that the results of these computations are saved as variables with the names chosen by

the user. If a variable is needed during your current MATLAB session, then you can obtain its

value by typing the variable name and pressing the Enter key. For example, at any time you can

type

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Matlab Tutorial

fun

and MATLAB will return

fun = 0.7071

This variable will appear in the Workspace, another one of the Windows that should have

opened when you started MATLAB, until you clear it. You can clear any variable by typing clear

followed by the variable name. For example

clear fun

will clear the value stored for fun. You can clear all of the variables by typing simply

clear

Variable names always have to begin with a letter, followed by more letters, numbers or

underscores (no spaces). MATLAB recognizes only the first 31 characters of a variable name so

don't get too carried away making long names.

As you have just seen, Matlab expressions typed by the user are interpreted and immediately

evaluated by the MATLAB program. If a MATLAB statement ends with a semicolon, MATLAB

evaluates the statement but suppresses the display of the results.

So if you were to type

fun = sin(pi/4);

Matlab will just return the prompt symbol >>, however fun is stored in memory with the value

0.7071.

Arrays and Matrices

Matlab is optimized to work with arrays and matrices. If you are unfamiliar with matrices to not

worry, well make the rules for manipulating them clear as we go along. Arrays (or matrices) are

just blocks of numbers that can be manipulated according to specific rules.

A matrix may be entered as follows:

A = [1 2 3; 2 3 4; 3 4 5]

Upon pressing <enter>, MATLAB will return

A =

1

2

3

2 3

3 4

4 5

Note that the matrix entries are enclosed by square brackets [ ] with the elements in a row

separated by spaces or by commas. The end of each row, with the exception of the last one, is

indicated by a semicolon. The matrix A can also be entered across three input lines as

A = [ 1 2 3

2 3 4

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Matlab Tutorial

3 4 5];

In this case, the carriage returns replace the semicolons. A row vector B with five elements can

be entered as

B = [6 9 12 15 18]

or if you like,

B = [6,9,12,15,18]

For readability, it is better to use spaces rather than commas between the elements. The row

vector B can be turned into a column vector by transposition, which is obtained by typing a

single quote ( ) after the variable, such as

C = B

The above results in

C =

6

9

12

15

18

Other ways of entering the column vector C are

C = [6

9

12

15

18]

or

C = [6;9;12;15;18]

MATLAB is case sensitive in naming variables, commands and functions. Thus b and B are not

the same variable. If you do not want MATLAB to be case sensitive, you can use the command

casesen off. To obtain the size of a specific variable, type size().For example, to find the size of

matrix A, you can execute the following command:

size(A)

will return

ans = 3 3

The result will be a row vector with two entries. The first is the number of rows in A, the second

the number of columns in A.

HELP!!!

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Matlab Tutorial

One of the nicer features of MATLAB is its help system. To learn more about a function you

would like to use, say soundsc a command we will use a lot in this course, type in the

Command Window

help soundsc

and you will see this.

SOUNDSC Autoscale and play vector as sound.

SOUNDSC(Y,...) is the same as SOUND(Y,...) except the data is

scaled so that the sound is played as loud as possible without

clipping. The mean of the data is removed.

SOUNDSC(Y,...,SLIM) where SLIM = [SLOW SHIGH] linearly scales

values in Y in the range [SLOW, SHIGH] to [-1, 1]. Values

outside this range are not clipped. By default, SLIM is

[MIN(Y) MAX(Y)].

See also sound, wavplay, wavrecord.

Reference page in Help browser

doc soundsc

If you do not remember the exact name of a function you want to learn more about use the

command lookfor followed by the incomplete name of a function in the Command window.

For example if you type

lookfor soun

after a while (it takes MATLAB some time to complete the search) you will receive a list of

commands that contain anything to do with the string soun; the commands sound, soundsc

and a lot of other things! This is a nice to explore MATLAB, if you think that it would be nice if a

certain function existed, lets say plot, just type

help plot or

lookfor plot

and you will find it. You can also type

helpwin

which opens a new help window that you can follow until you find what you are looking for.

You can go directly to the help text of any function, for example by typing helpwin followed by

the function name. For example, executing the following command

helpwin zeros

tells you all about the zeros command which allows you to create an array of zeros of any size

and shape.

MATLAB also provides a web-browser-based help utility. In order to access these help files click

on MATLAB Help in the main Help menu.

To explore MATLABs capabilities you can find many demo programs in the help utility. One of

the best ways to learn MATLAB is by following examples.

As was mentioned above all variables used in the current MATLAB session are saved in the

Workspace. You can view the contents of the Workspace by going to the Desktop menu and

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Matlab Tutorial

selecting Workpace. You can also check contents of the Workspace by typing whos in the

Command Window.

To enter a statement that is too long to be typed in one line, use three periods, , followed by

<enter>. For instance,

x = sin(1) - sin(2) + sin(3) - sin(4) + sin(5) - ...

sin(6) + sin(7) - sin(8) + sin(9) - sin(10)

gives

x =

0.7744

A Few Other Commonly Used Commands

% The comment sign. Everything appearing on the same line after the % symbol is not executed.

Use lots of comments in your own programs, I guarantee that you will find it helpful in the

future!

clear Clears the variables or functions from the workspace

clc Clears the command window during a session

clf Clears all figures and graphs

length Length of an array, largest dimension if the array is multi-dimensional

Matrix Operations

The basic matrix operations are addition (+), subtraction (-), multiplication (*), and conjugate

transpose () of matrices, and exponentiation ( ^). In addition to the above basic operations,

MATLAB has two forms of matrix division: the left inverse operator \ or the right inverse

operator /.

Matrices of the same dimension may be subtracted or added. Thus if E and F are entered in

MATLAB as

E = [7 2 3;4 3 6;8 1 5];

F = [1 4 2;6 7 5;1 9 1];

and

G = E F

H = E + F

then, matrices G and H will be returned as the element by element difference and sum of E and

F.

G =

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Matlab Tutorial

6 - 2 1

2 -4 1

7 -8 4

H =

8 6 5

10 10 11

9 10 6

A scalar (1-by-1 matrix) also may be added to or subtracted from a matrix. In this particular case,

the scalar is added to or subtracted from each element. For

example,

J = H + 1

gives

J =

9 7 6

11 11 12

10 11 7

Matrix multiplication is defined provided the inner dimensions of the two matrices are the same.

Thus if X is an n-by-m matrix and Y is a i-by-j matrix, X*Y is defined provided m = i , i.e., the

number of columns of X equals the number of rows of Y. Since E and F are 3-by-3 matrices, the

product

Q = E*F

results in

Q =

22 69 27

28 97 29

19 84 26

Any matrix can be multiplied by a scalar. For example,

2*Q

gives

ans =

44 138 54

56 182 58

38 168 52

Remember that if a variable name and the = sign are omitted, a variable name ans is

automatically created.

Matrix division can be the left division operator \ or the right division operator /. The right

division A/B, for instance, is algebraically equivalent to A*inv(B), while the left division A\B is

equivalent to inv(A)*B, where inv(A) is the matrix inverse of A, i.e., it gives inv(A)*A = I where I is

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Matlab Tutorial

the identity matrix with ones along the diagonal and all other elements equal to zero. You have

to be careful, some matrices do not have inverses, such matrices are said to be singular.

There are MATLAB functions that can be used to produce special matrices. Examples are given in

the following table.

Function Description

ones(n,m) Produces n-by-m matrix with all the elements being unity

eye(n) Gives n-by-n identity matrix

zeros(n,m) Produces n-by-m matrix of zeros

diag(A) Produce a vector consisting of the elements on the diagonal of a square matrix A

Array Operations

Array operations refer to element-by-element arithmetic operations on matrices or

arrays. Preceding the multiplication ( * ) or division operation ( / ), by a period (.) indicates an

array or element-by-element operation. If A1 and B1 are matrices of the same dimension, then

A1 .* B1 denotes an array whose elements are products of the corresponding elements of A1

and B1.

Thus if,

A1 = [2 7 6; 8 9 10];

B1 = [6 4 3; 2 3 4];

then

C1 = A1.*B1

results in

C1 =

12 28 18

16 27 40

An array operation for left and right division also exists. The expressions A1.\B1 give the

quotient of element-by-element division of matrices A1 and B1. The statement

D1 = A1./B1

gives the result

D1 =

0.3333 1.7500 2.0000

The array operation of raising to the power is denoted by ( .^ ). The statement will be of the

form:

q = r1.^s1

If r1 and s1 are matrices of the same dimensions, then the result q is also a matrix of the same

dimension. For example, if

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Matlab Tutorial

r1 = [7 3 5];

s1 = [2 4 3];

then

q1 = r1.^s1

gives the result

q1 =

49 81 125

which has the elements [72 34 53]. One of the operands can be a scalar, just a single number.

For example the expression

q2 = r1.^2

will give the result

q2 =

49 9 25

and

q3 = 2.^s1

will give back

q3 =

4 16 8

Note that when one of the operands is a scalar, the resulting matrix will have the same

dimension as the matrix operand.

Complex Numbers

MATLAB also allows operations involving complex numbers. Complex numbers are entered

using either i or j to represent the square root of -1, -1. For example, a number

z = 2 + j2 may be entered in MATLAB as

z = 2+2*i, z = 2+2i

or

z = 2+2*j, z = 2+2j

But z = 2+i2 or z = 2+j2 does not work since i2 and j2 will be recognized as two variables in

MATLAB.

Here I will show you the difference between the two forms shown above, for example,

z = 2 + 2*i and z = 2 + 2i

If we set i = 1, then

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Matlab Tutorial

z = 2 + 2*i

will give back

z =

While

z = 2+2i

z =

2.0000 + 2.0000i

which means that i in 2*i is recognized as the variable we set, but the i in 2i is still

recognized as the unit pure complex number i. This can also be applied on j.

Also, a complex number can be entered into MATLAB as complex exponential functions.

za = 2*sqrt(2)*exp(j*pi/4)

Matrices with complex elements are also possible, for example typing

w = [1+j 2-2*j; 3+2*j 4+3*j]

will produce the result

w =

1.0000 + 1.0000i 2.0000 2.0000i

3.0000 + 2.0000i 4.0000 + 3.0000i

If the entries in a matrix are complex, then the prime ( ) operator also takes the complex

conjugate of each element in addition to transposing the matrix. Thus typing

wp = w

will produce

wp =

1.0000 1.0000i 3.0000 2.0000i

2.0000 + 2.0000i 4.0000 3.0000i

For the unconjugated transpose of a complex matrix, we can use the point transpose (.)

command. For example,

wt = w.

will yield

wt =

1.0000 + 1.0000i 3.0000 + 2.0000i

2.0000 2.0000i 4.0000 + 3.0000i

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Matlab Tutorial

There are three kinds of numbers most commonly used in MATLAB:

integers

real numbers

complex numbers

In addition to the classes of numbers mentioned above, MATLAB has three symbols that

represent non-numbers for lack of a better label:

-Inf

Inf

NaN

The symbols Inf and Inf are for negative and positive infinity, respectively. Infinity is generated

by overflow or by the operation of dividing by zero. The NaN stands for the not-a-number and is

obtained as a result of mathematically undefined operations such as 0.0/0.0 or .

The Colon Symbol (:)

The colon symbol (:) is one of the most useful operators in MATLAB. It can be used to create

vectors and matrices, to specify sub-matrices and vectors, and to perform iteration. The

statement

t1 = 1:6

will generate a row vector containing the numbers from 1 to 6 with unit increment. MATLAB

produces the result

t1 =

1 2 3 4 5 6

Non-unity (positive or negative) increments may be specified. For example, the statement

t2 = 3:-0.5:1

will result in

t2 =

3.0000 2.5000 2.0000 1.5000 1.0000

The statement

t3 = [(0:2:10);(5:-0.2:4)]

will result in a 2-by-4 matrix

t3 =

0.0000 2.0000 4.0000 6.0000 8.0000 10.0000

5.0000 4.8000 4.6000 4.4000 4.2000 4.0000

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Other MATLAB functions for generating vectors are linspace and logspace. Linspace generates

linearly evenly spaced vectors, while logspace generates logarithmically evenly spaced vectors.

The usage of these functions is of the form:

linspace (i_value, f_value, np)

logspace (i_value, f_value, np)

where i_value is the initial value, f_value is the final value, and np is the total number of

elements in the vector.

For example,

t4 = linspace (2,6,4)

will generate the vector

t4 =

2.0000 3.3333 4.6667 6.0000

Individual elements in a matrix can be referenced with subscripts inside parentheses. For

example, t4(4) is the fourth element of vector t4. Also, for matrix t3, t3(2,3) denotes the entry

in the second row and third column. Using the colon as one of the subscripts denotes all of the

corresponding row or column. For example, t3(:,4) is the fourth column of matrix t3. Thus, the

statement

t5 = t3(:,4)

will give

t5 =

6.0000

4.4000

Also, the statement t3(2,:) is the second row of matrix t3. That is the statement

t6 = t3(2,:)

will result in

t6 =

5.0000 4.8000 4.6000 4.4000 4.2000 4.0000

If the colon exists as the only subscript, such as t3(:), the latter denotes the elements of matrix

t3 strung out in a long column vector.

Graphing Signals

In MATLAB both plot and stem can be used to plot a signal. In general, stem is used to plot short

discrete-time signals, and plot is better suited for sampled approximations of continuous-time

signals or for very long discrete-time signals. The difference between these functions can be

seen by typing the following example in the Command window:

11

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Matlab Tutorial

x = [-5:5];

y = sin(x);

subplot(211), stem(x,y)

subplot(212), plot(x,y)

Here is a slightly more relevant example of generating a sinusiodal signal x(t), with a frequency

of 200 Hz, sampled at a sampling rate R = 10,000 times per second. Here is a simple sequence of

commands to generate this signal, plot it and then listen to it.

R = 10000;

f = 200;

t = 0:1/R:2;

x = sin(2*pi*f*t);

plot(t(1:200),x(1:200)) % Only plot the first 200 points

soundsc(x,R)

Either type this into the Command window, or copy and paste it, to see what it does.

To plot several figures in different windows, just add statement figure before each plot

operation. You can try the following commands to see what will happen.

R = 10000;

f = 200;

t = 0:1/R:2;

x = sin(2*pi*f*t);

figure

plot(t(1:100),x(1:100))

figure

plot(t(1:200),x(1:200))

M-Files and Scripts

More advanced computations often require execution of several lines of MATLAB code. Rather

than typing all of the commands in the Command Window you should create what is known as

an m-file. Each time that you will wish to repeat a computation just run the m-file again.

Another advantage of using m-files is the ease in modifying the commands. There are two kinds

of m-files: script files and function files. Both script and function files contain a sequence of

commands. However, function files take arguments and return values and can be called by

other script files, or even other function files.

To list all of the m-files in the current directory on your disk, you can use the MATLAB command

what. The MATLAB command, type, can be used to show the contents of a specified file.

12

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Creating Script files

To make an m-file click on File, select New and click on M-File from the pull-down menu. You

will be presented with the MATLAB Editor/Debugger screen into which you will type your

commands. Once you are done typing, select File, in the MATLAB Editor/Debugger screen and

select Save As . Chose a name for your file, e.g., firstgraph.m and click on Save. Make sure that

your file is saved in the directory that is in MATLAB's search path.

If you have two files with the same name, then the one that occurs first in MATLAB's search path

will be executed. To open the m-file from within the Command Window type

edit firstgraph

and then press the <enter> key. You can open a previously created m-file by selecting Open

in the File menu. Choose the desired m-file and open it. You should see a new window that

contains your code.

To illustrate the use of an m-file, type the series of commands in the previous example into the

Matlab Editor and save it as firstgraph.

% My first MATLAB m-file

% This creates a sine wave and then plots it and plays it as a sound

clear

close all

R = 10000; % sampling rate in samples per second

f = 200;

t = 0:1/R:2; % Create a time array 2 seconds long

x = sin(2*pi*f*t);

plot(t(1:200),x(1:200)) % Only plot the first 200 points

soundsc(x,R)

To run the script, go to the Debug menu and select Run. You can also choose to press F5 (on a

PC) to run your script.

Statements in a script file operate globally on the workspace data. Normally, when

M-files are running, the commands are not displayed on screen. The MATLAB echo command

can be used to view m-files while they are executing.

Functions

Functions are m-files that are used to create new MATLAB functions. Variables defined and

manipulated inside a function file are local to the function, and they do not appear in the

workspace. However, arguments may be passed into and out of a function file.

The general form of a function file is:

function variable(s) = function_name(arguments)

% help text in the usage of the function

command lines

end

13

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Matlab Tutorial

To illustrate the use of function files and rules for writing m-file functions, lets look at an

example. Write a function file to generate a sinusoidal sum, for given input frequencies,

sampling rate, and desired length in seconds

Solution

function signal_add = u(f1,f2,R,tMax)

% f-input frequncies, R- sampling rate, tMax max duration

t = 0:1/R:tMax;

signal_add = sin(2*pi*f1*t) + sin(2*pi*f2*t);

end

Save this m-file as signal_add.m It is very important that you give the function file the same

name as the function itself. It is not necessary to compile the function file. Be sure the folder

that you saved the function file to is in the same folder as the m-file that calls the function. Now

suppose we want to find the sum of two sinusoids whose frequencies are 210 and 200 Hz,

sampled at 2000 Hz, for 2 seconds. The following statements can by typed in the MATLAB

command window to apply the function to a specific set of inputs and then to plot the output.

x = u(210,200,2000,2);

plot(x)

The Panic Button

To interrupt a running program either press the Ctrl and c keys or the Ctrl and . together.

Sometimes you have to do this multiple times to halt execution of your program. This is not a

recommended way to exit a program, however, in certain circumstances it is a necessity. For

instance, a poorly written program can put MATLAB into an unending loop and this would be

your only way to escape the program short of shutting down the computer.

Loops

There are two common ways to implement loops in MATLAB (for and while statements). For

example, loops can be used to calculate the sum of 1+2+3++100. To calculate the result in

MATLAB, the for loop reads,

sum = 0;

for i = 1:100

end

sum = sum + i;

sum = 0;

i = 0;

sum = sum + i;

14

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Matlab Tutorial

end

i = i + 1;

Both loop operations will return the value of sum as 5050. For further information, you can

check help for and help while.

The if, elseif, else expressions

Sometimes we need to do some operations under specific conditions, then we can use if

expression for help. The structure of if expression is

if expression

statements

elseif expression

statements

else

statements

end

For example, we plan to change all the elements valued 2 to 3 and 1 to 4 and others to 0 in set A

= [1,2,3,4,3,2,1].

Solution

A = [1,2,3,4,3,2,1];

for i = 1:7

if A(i) == 1

elseif A(i) == 2

A(i) = 4;

A(i) = 3;

else

A(i) = 0;

end

end

Then the result will be

A =

In this course, we may need to generate some random variables for further processing, then the

function rand and random are helpful.

Rand

The most useful functions of rand are A = rand, A = rand(n) and A = rand(n,m). The former

one will return a random number between 0 and 1 (0 and 1 are not included). The second one

will form a matrix in shape n x n with each element a random number between 0 and 1 (0 and 1

15

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Matlab Tutorial

are not included). The last one will form a matrix in shape n x m with each element a random

number between 0 and 1 (0 and 1 are not included).

For example, A = rand will returns

A =

0.9649

A =

0.8147 0.9134 0.2785

0.9058 0.6324 0.5469

A =

0.1576 0.4854 0.4218 0.9595

0.9706 0.8003 0.9157 0.6557

0.9572 0.1419 0.7922 0.0357

We may also need to generate some random values with different distributions, which will be

discussed in the course. Then the function random will be helpful.

The general form of random function is X = random(name, A, B, C, D, ),

where name stands for the type of the distribution and A, B, C, D, stands for parameters

corresponding to the distribution.

For example, to generate a random variable with normal distribution, the solution is

X = random('Normal',0,1)

It returns

X =

0.7172

For more information about this function and distribution names, you can use help random for

further study.

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