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Hydrographic

Surveying
Rusli Othman
Department of Geoinformation
Faculty of Geoinformation Science & Engineering
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Mapping the Seabed

Hydrography
Traditionally surveying at sea is known as Hydrography
Science of Hydrography
Defined as that branch of applied science which deals with the
measurement and description of the physical features of the
navigable portion of the Earths surface and adjoining coastal
areas, with special reference to their use for the purpose of
navigation
Hydrographic Dictionary (1996), International Hydrographic Bureau

Stages of Hydrographic Survey


1. Data acquisition
on land or sea
Using various system and equipments
Software, HYDROpro,CARIS
Types of data observe: position
(DGPS), depth (SBES/MBES), tidal
obsrrvation

Stages of Hydrographic Survey


2. Processing using certain software
HYDROpro
AutoCAD
CDS
CARIS

Stages of Hydrographic Survey


3. Presentation
chart,
plan,
report, etc

Elements of Hydrographic Survey

Positioning System
Coordinate System

Depth Measurement System


MSL
Chart Datum LAT

Tidal observation
Conventional Method
Automated Tide Gauge
TLDM & JUPEM

Elements of Hydrographic Survey

Horizontal Controls
Preparation of control
Horizontal
Vertical
Method and Planning in Hydrographic Survey
Method to maintain accuracy and avoid error

History and Development of Hydrography


Production of marine maps/charts showing coastline information +
seabed topography + obstructions/dangers to navigation

To assist Navigation (Latin: Navigare navis = ship, gare = drive)


Development of sea-borne trade
Military requirements
France / Netherlands / UK / USA

Coastline Information - Traditional Nautical


Chart

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Seabed Topography

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History and Development of Hydrography

Earliest evidence from 3000 BC


Sailing directions written descriptions of passages between ports
Earliest charts of coastline in Chinese/Greek/Roman times
1st printed charts in 15th century
1st true map using mathematical projection Mercator
Dutch Government charts published 17th century
French Chart Office 1720
Admiralty Hydrographic Dept 1795
Scientific Instruments development in 18th century
Organised Hydrographic surveys by most civilised countries from 19th century
Detailed charts showing seabed obtained from lead soundings /position provided by
sextant
Many charts still show information dating back 80+ years

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Chinese Navigation Diagram 1371

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Sketch Chart

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Mercator

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Shipping / Navigation

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Major Developments in Modern


Hydrography 1 / 4
The echo sounder in 1930s

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Major Developments in Modern


Hydrography 2 / 4

Electronic position fixing developed in 1940s

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Major Developments in Modern


Hydrography 3 / 4
Satellite Position
fixing developed
in 1960s leading
to GPS/DGPS
replacing most
other systems
during 1990s

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Major Developments in Modern


Hydrography 4 / 4

Development of multibeam/swathe sounding systems


in late 1980s

SS Richard
Montgomery
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Markets for Hydrography


Until 1950s almost entirely centred on the shipping and

fishing industries.
Navigation
Inshore Waters
Confined/Busy Waters
Deep water channels Commerce
Since then remarkable increase in interest in the
resources of the sea and sea floor. Oil & gas by far the
biggest investor.

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Hydrographic or Offshore Surveying ?


Offshore Surveying surveying activities in support of
resource and infrastructure development. Conducted by
commercial survey companies for industry, local
government, etc.

Hydrographic Surveying surveying for nautical


charting, general trade and safety of life at sea. Largely
a governmental organised and conducted activity. Some
commercial activity, market is growing.

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Applications of Hydrography
Shipping - Navigation Charts, wrecks and coastline surveys
Civil - Marinas, Bridges, Harbours, Outfalls, Sea Defences, Dredging
Military - Precise Navigation Charts for submarines, Special Forces, etc
Environmental - Coastal management and engineering
Mining - Diamonds and manganese nodules
Oil and Gas Exploration (Seismic, Geo-technical, Geo-physical & Rigmoves) Construction (Pipelines, Platforms, Wells and Refineries)
Monitoring (Seismic, Pipeline Inspections) Decommissioning.

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Navigation Charts

in open sea
ports
rivers
etc

Shipping - Navigation Charts, wrecks and coastline surveys

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Civil

Dredging- shipping channel,


port and habour

Jetties and breakwaters

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Environment

Environmental

- Coastal management and engineering


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Marine Activities
Mining - Diamonds and
manganese nodules
Oil and Gas Exploration
(Seismic, Geo-technical,
Geo-physical & Rig-moves)
Construction (Pipelines,
Platforms, Wells and
Refineries)
Monitoring (Seismic,
Pipeline inspections)
Decommissioning

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Mining

Diamond mining at
sea and the collection
of manganese nodules
Performed by a
dredge or scoop
deployed from a towing
and recovery vessel
Use seismic
interpretation for the
identification of targets
area

Mining - Diamonds and manganese nodules

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Minerals

EEZ surveys
Sand/Gravel deposits
Diamond Mining
Deep ocean
manganese nodules
Political sensitivity

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Oil and Gas


Oil and Gas
Exploration (Seismic,
Geo-technical, Geophysical & Rig-moves)
Construction
(Pipelines, Platforms,
Wells and Refineries)

Monitoring (Seismic,
Pipeline inspections)
Decommissioning

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Oil and Gas

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Oil and Gas - Exploration


Seismic Surveys
Geophysical Surveys
Rig Moves

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Oil and Gas - Construction


Offshore Installation
Platforms
Subsea installations
Pipelines

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Oil and Gas - Monitoring


IRM (Inspection, Repair &
Maintenance)
GPS Subsidence monitoring
Contributes to platform safety
case
Tilt measurements
Structural integrity
Pipeline inspection surveys
ROVs & Sonars
Base map maintenance
Detailed installation drawings
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Oil and Gas - Decommissioning


Decommissioning or Abandonment
Removal of facilities and return to natural environment
Political and Environmental Sensitivity
Requires survey services for
Seabed and facilities investigations
(De-)Construction support
Post Decommissioning surveys

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Construction Positioning
Jacket installations
Well guide bases
Sub sea manifolds
Satellite wells
Pipeline Lay downs
& Crossings

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Underwater Positioning
For many offshore survey activities, positioning the
surface vessel (i.e. ship, barge, rig) is only part of
offshore positioning

In many projects, positioning underwater is also required


The positioning of survey sensors, underwater vehicles,
subsea structures all require a means of solving position
underwater, examples: Side scan sonar, ROV, pipelines

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Drill ship

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Jackup Rig Moves


Shallow Water

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Semi Submersible Rigmoves


Deepwater

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Jacket Installation

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Pipe laying
Fiber-optic and communication
cables.
The corridor is mere 100 m
but is used to determine a safe
route through seabed hazards
and involve deviations of many
hundreds of km in order to
locate a suitable path.
Side scan sonar is used to
determine the suitable route.

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Multibeam &
Side Scan Sonar Survey

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Side Scan Sonar


APPLICATIONS:

Pipeline Inspection
Site Surveys
Wreck Hunting
Environmental & Sediment Classification
ROV Operations

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Side Scan Sonar

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Side Scan Sonar

Tow height = 10%


range setting

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Fix Mounting of SSS


- Layout survey vessel with fixed
mount side scan sonar.
- The accuracy in this method is
much better, better than 1m

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Side Scan Sonar on ROV


Mounted on ROV:
>For inspection, together
with video recordings.
Mounted under a
floating device (not
possible to mount on
the bow esp. small boat
not stable enough):
>Small catamaran,
surfboard, run at low
speeds

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Side Scan Sonar Surveys

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Example of SSS Record

Shipwreck: Menja

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Seismic Surveys

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Sub Bottom Profile

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Towing Configuration

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Seismic Receiver

Hydrophones @ Streamer and Tail Buoy

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ROV Surveys
(Remote Operated Vehicle)

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SBP Sample Image

Pinger profile (24 kHz)

Chirp profile (2-6 kHz)


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SBP Sample Image

Boomer profile (500 Hz - 1.5 kHz)

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SBP Sample Image

Pinger profile (28 kHz)

Air gun profile (~100 Hz)


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Military

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Solar

Energy
Power Stations
Wind

Wave

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Professional Courses
Professional Courses
HYDRO I (Cat B)
HYDRO II (Cat A)
Cat B (Marine Cartography)

Government Agencies
TLDM Chart, Tide Table, Notice to Mariner
JUPEM- TideTable
Port Authorities
Marine Department

All Hydrographic Surveys should follow the IHO


Standard S-44
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