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Teachings of

Śrī Śrīmad A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupāda
Founder – Ācārya of International Society for Krsṛ nṛ ṛa Consciousness

manu-saṁhitā ślokānusārana
The Laws of Manu Summary of Verses

Śrī Bhaktivedānta Vidyālaya

The origin of the sacred law
1.1
manum ekāgram āsīnam abhigamya maharsayah

ṛ / pratipūjya yathānyāyam idaṁ vacanam abruvan //
The great sages approached Manu (Lord Brahmā), who was seated with a collected mind, and, after duly worshipped him, spoke as follows:
Subject of the sacred law
1.2
bhagavan sarva varn ṛānāṁ yathāvad anupūrvaśah ṛ / antara prabhavānāṁ ca dharmāno vaktum arhasi //
Be pleased, O divine one, to declare to us precisely and in due order, the sacred laws of each of the (four chief) varn ṇas and of the intermediate ones.
Purpose of the sacred law
1.3
tvam eko hyasya sarvasya vidhānasya svayaṁbhuvah ṛ / acintya syāprameyasya kārya tattvārthavit prabho //
'For thou alone, O lord, knowest the purport, (i.e.) the rites, and the knowledge of the soul, (taught) in connection with, and for the purpose of, realising the
Self-existent (Svayambhū, Vis ṇn ṇu), who is unknowable and unfathomable.'
Students of the sacred law
1.4
sa taih ṛ prsṛ tṛ as
ṛ tathā samya gamitojā mahātmabhih ṛ / pratyuvācārcya tān sarvān maharsīṛ ṁ śrūyatām iti //
Being thus asked by the high-minded great sages, he, whose power is measureless, duly honoured them, and answered, 'Listen!'
Assigned duties for all created Beings
1.21
sarvesāṛ ṁ tu sa nāmāni karmān ṛi ca prthak
prthak
/ vedaśabdebhya evādau prthak
saṁsthāśca nirmame //



But in the beginning He assigned their several names, actions, and conditions to all (created beings), even according to the words of the Veda.
Pious & impious actions
1.26
karman ṛāṁ ca vivekārthaṁ dharmādharmau vyavecayat / dvandvairayo jayaccaimāh ṛ sukha duh ṛkhādibhih ṛ prajāh ṛ //

and the śudra to proceed from his mouth. But here in the material world. the most resplendent one. in the Dvāpara (the performance of) sacrifices.31 lokānāṁ tu vivrddhy arthaṁ mukha bāhūrupādatah ṛ / brāhman ṛaṁ ks ṛatriyaṁ vaiśyaṁ śūdraṁ ca niravartayat // ṛ But for the sake of the prosperity of the worlds He caused the brāhman ṇa. his thighs. The duties of men 1.42 yesāṛ ṁ tu yādrśa ṛ ṁ karma bhūtānāmiha kīrtitam / tat tathā vo abhidhāsyāmi kramayogaṁ ca janmani // But whatever act is stated (to belong) to (each of) those creatures here below.86 tapah ṛ paraṁ krtayuge tretāyāṁ jñānam ucyate / dvāpare yajñaṁ evāhur dānam ekaṁ kalau yuge // ṛ In the Krita age the chief (virtue) is declared to be (the performance of) austerities. Even studying the Veda and performing the duties enjoined therein is based upon desire. thighs. his arms. assigned separate (duties and) occupations to those who sprang from his mouth. as well as their order in respect to birth. in order to distinguish actions. Purpose and origin of occupational duties 1. the vaiśya. He separated merit from demerit (pious & impious). and his feet.87 sarvasyāsya tu sargasya guptyarthaṁ sa mahādyutih ṛ / mukha bāhū rupajjānāṁ prthak karmān ṛya kalpayat // ṛ But in order to protect this universe He. there is no such thing as no desire. in the Kali liberality alone.Moreover. Qualities of the ages 1. such as pain and pleasure. the ks ṇatriya. and he caused the creatures to be affected by the pairs (of opposites). arms. that I will truly declare to you.2 kāmātmatā na praśastā na caivehāsty akāmatā /vkāmyo hi vedādhigamah ṛ karmayogaśca vaidikah ṛ // Action impelled by desire is not approved. Desire for results − the basis of action 2. . and feet. Order of occupational duties 1. in the Treta (divine) knowledge.

next the tradition and the virtuous conduct of those who know the (Veda further).26 vaidikaih ṛ karmabhih ṛ pun ṛyair nis ṛekādir dvijanmanām / kāryah ṛ śarīra saṁskārah ṛ pāvanah ṛ pretya caiha ca // With holy rites.2. reaches the deathless state and even in this (life) obtains (the fulfilment of) all the desires that he may have conceived.18 tasmin deśe ya ācārah ṛ pāramparya kramāgatah ṛ / varn ṛānāṁ sāntarālānāṁ sa sadācāra ucyate // The custom handed down in regular succession (since time immemorial) among the (four chief) castes (varn ṇa) and the mixed (races) of that country. is called the conduct of virtuous men. The purpose of the sacraments 2. must the ceremony on conception and other sacraments be performed for twice-born men. the grain ceremony should be observed. and (finally) self-satisfaction. and sacrifice appears in intention. 2.35 cūd ṛākarma dvijātīnāṁ sarvesāmeva dharmatah ṛ / prathame abde trtīye ṛ vā kartavyaṁ śruticodanāt // ṛ .6 vedo akhilo dharma mūlaṁ smrtiśīle ca tadvidām / ācāraś caiva sādhūnām ātmanas tus ṛtirṛ eva ca // ṛ The whole Veda is the (first) source of the sacred law.3 saṅkalpamūlah ṛ kāmo vai yajñāh ṛ saṅkalp asaṁbhavāh ṛ / vratāni yama dharmāśca sarve saṅkalpajāh ṛ smrtāh ṛ ṛ // Desire is the very root of intention. According to one's tradition. regulations and duties also appear in intention. and on the sixth month. 2. 2. 2. prescribed by the Veda. All vows.34 caturthe māsi kartavyaṁ śiśor niskraman ṛ / s ṛas ṛthe ṛ ṛaṁ grhāt ṛ annaprāśanaṁ māsi yad vais ṛtaṛ ṁ maṅgalaṁ kule // One should take his newly born child outside of the house to see the sun on the fourth month.5 tesuṛ samyag vartamāno gacchaty amara lokatām / yathā saṅkalpitāṁścaiha sarvān kāmān samaśnute // He who persists in discharging these (prescribed duties) in the right manner. Source of the sacred law 2. which sanctify the body and purify (from sin) in this (life) and after death. he should observe a ceremony. also the customs of holy men.

Therefore. on the first year and the third year. (for) unless the syllable o ṁ precede (the lesson) will slip away (from him). the teacher must first instruct the (pupil) in (the rules of) personal purification. and has brought his organs under due control. counting from the womb. 2.57 anārogya manāyus ṛyama svargyaṁ cātibhojanam / apun ṛyaṁ lokavidvistṛ aṛ ṁ tasmāt tat parivarjayet // Eating too much causes disease. has made the brahmāñjali. and of the twilight devotions.Every twice born family (brāhman ṇa. and causes one to become unmeritorious and unbeneficial.74 brāhman ṛah ṛ pran ṛavaṁ kuryādādāvante ca sarvadā / sravatyanoṅkrta ṛ ṁ pūrvaṁ parastāca viśīryati // Let him always pronounce the syllable oṁ at the beginning and at the end of (a lesson in) the Veda.69 upanīyaṁ guruh ṛ śisya ṛ ṁ śiks ṛayet śaucam āditah ṛ / ācāramagnikāryaṁ ca saṁdhya upāsanam eva ca // Having performed the (rite of) initiation. beginning with the womb. after he has sipped water in accordance with the Institutes (of the sacred law). of conduct. ks ṇatriya. A vaiśya's child's sacred ceremony should be done on the twelfth year. of the fire-worship. 2. (has put on) a clean dress. vaiśya) should observe their children's hair cutting ceremony according to Vedic instruction.70 adhyesya ṛ adhyāpyo laghuvāsā jita indriyah ṛ // ṛ mān ṛas tvācānto yathā śāstra mudaṅmukhah ṛ / brahmāñjali krto But (a student) who is about to begin the study (of the Veda). (Womb is nine months. one should give up over eating. 2. shall receive instruction.81 oṁkāra pūrvikā stisro mahāvyāhrtayo avyayāh ṛ / tripadā caiva sāvitrī vijñeyaṁ brahman ṛo mukham // ṛ . The exalted position of oṁkara 2. removes from heavenly feelings. and unless it follow it will fade away.36 garbhāstṛ ame abde kurvīta brāhman ṛasya upanāyanam / garbhādekādaśe rājño garbhāt tu dvādaśe viśah ṛ // ṛ The sacred thread ceremony for a brāhman ṇa's child should be held on the eighth year. The ordinances of studentship 2.) The rules of begging & eating 2. A sacred thread ceremony for a ks ṇatriya's child should be done on the eleventh year beginning with the womb. reduces the duration of life.

. the person who gives up the sense gratification is superior. and (followed) by the three-footed Sāvitrī are the portal of the Veda and the gate leading (to union with) Brahman.97 vedāstyāgaśca yajñāśca niyamāśca tapāṁsi ca / na vipra dus ṛtaṛ bhāvasya siddhiṁ gacchati karhi cit // A corrupt person who is always attached to the thoughts of sense gratification. it always increases as the fire always increases with the supply of ghee. there is even one hole. 2. 2. consisting of muttered prayers. the performance of sacrifice. and performing austerity. can never attain perfection in the study of Vedic literature.99 indriyān ṛāṁ tu sarves ṛāṁ yadyekaṁ ksaratīndriyam / tenāsya ksarati prajñā drteh ṛ ṛ pādādivodakam // ṛ ṛ If among all the senses. Subduing the senses 2. is ten times more efficacious than a sacrifice performed according to the rules (of the Veda). 2. preceded by the syllable oṁ. he becomes the friend of everyone and achieves liberation in the end as well. and the mental (recitation of sacred texts) a thousand times. following the rules of giving in charity. then a person's real intelligence is gradually destroyed.85 vidhi yajñāj japayajño viśis ṛtoṛ daśabhirgun ṛaih ṛ / upāṁśuh ṛ syātśatagun ṛah ṛ sāhasro mānasah ṛ smrtah ṛ ṛ // An offering.Know that the three imperishable Mahāvyāhr ṇtis. a (prayer) which is inaudible (to others) surpasses it a hundred times. even one sense remains attached to sense objects.87 japyenaiva tu saṁsidhyed brāhman ṛo nātra saṁśayah ṛ / kuryādanyanna vā kuryān maitro brāhman ṛa ucyate // A twice born person achieves his perfection of life by chanting japa without a doubt. 2. Instead.95 yaścaitān prāpnuyāt sarvān yaścaitān kevalāṁstyajet / prāpan ṛāt sarvakāmānāṁ parityāgo viśis ṛyate // If there are two people and one of them achieves all kinds of objects of sense gratification and another person gives them up. then gradually all of the water leaks out of it. If in a water pot. 2. Whether he follows any Vedic processes like the yoga system or not.94 na jātu kāmah ṛ kāmānāmupabhogena śāmyati / havis ṛā krsṛ ṛn ṛa vartmaiva bhūya evābhivardhate // The desire for sense gratification can never be satisfied by an unlimited supply of sense objects.

which is like a poison and always should hanker for his own insults which should seem to him like nectar. .162 sammānād brāhman ṛo nityamudvijeta visādiva / amrtasyeva cākāṅkseṛ davamānasya sarvadā // ṛ ṛ A twice born person always feels disgusted with his own respect.110 nā prsṛ tṛ ah ṛ ṛ ṛ kasya cid brūyānna cānyāyena prcchatah ṛ / jānannapi hi medhāvī jad ṛavalloka ācaret // Unless one be asked. though he knows (the answer). the teacher (ācārya. Ks aṇ triyas by physical strength. if he has sufficient wisdom. but even a young man. nor (must one answer) a person who asks improperly. and śūdras by birth. he is called a great personality.156 na tena vrddho bhavati yenāsya palitaṁ śirah ṛ / yo vai yuvā apyadhīyānastaṁ devāh ṛ sthaviraṁ viduh ṛ // ṛ One cannot be called great or superior just because he has gray hairs on his head. Recognition of occupational duties 2. behave among men as (if he were) an idiot. his duration of life. even by the demigods. Ones own respect and insults 2. Respect of superiors 2. of the latter).140 upanīya tu yah ṛ śisyamṛ vedam adhyāpayed dvijah ṛ / sakalpamṛ sarahasyamṛ ca tam ācāryamṛ pracaksate ṛ ṛ // They call that brāhman aṇ who initiates a pupil and teaches him the Veda together with the Kalpa and the Rahasyas.Protection of knowledge 2. let a wise man. 2. The teacher 2. fame and strength increases.121 abhivādanaśīlasya nityaṁ vrddhopasevinah ṛ ṛ / catvāri tasya vardhante āyurdharmo yaśo balam // One who pays obeisances and humbly serves his superiors. one must not explain (anything) to anybody.155 viprān ṛāṁ jñānato jyaistṛ hya ṛ ṁ ks ṛatriyān ṛāṁ tu vīryatah ṛ / vaiśyānāṁ dhānya dhanatah ṛ śūdrān ṛāmeva janmatah ṛ // Brāhman ṇas are recognized by knowledge. Vaiśyas are recognized by wealth. knowledge.

then a celibate student should close his ears and walk out from that place. similarly.200 guroryatra parivādo nindā vā api pravartate / karn ṛau tatra pidhātavyau gantavyaṁ vā tato anyatah ṛ // If there is a criticism about his own spiritual master somewhere. he becomes a donkey.201 parīvādāt kharo bhavati śvā vai bhavati nindakah ṛ / paribhoktā krmirbhavati kītoṛ bhavati matsarī // ṛ If a disciple argues with his spiritual master. or daughter.213 svabhāva esaṛ nārīn ṛāṁ narān ṛāmiha dūsan ṛ ṛam / ato arthānna pramādyanti pramadāsu vipaścitah ṛ // It is the nature of women to seduce men in this (world). he becomes a moth in his next life. and master even a learned man. But the guru should be a genuine guru. Associating with a woman 2. one obtains water. If he enjoys the guru's wealth. for that reason the wise are never unguarded in (the company of) females. The eight marriage rites 3. 2. he becomes a worm in stool in his next life and if he becomes envious with the improvements of his own spiritual master. .Etiquette with the teacher & his relations 2.218 yathā khanan khanitren ṛa naro vāryadhi gacchati / tathā gurugatāṁ vidyāṁ śuśrūs ṛu radhi gacchati // Just as by digging the ground with a digger or spade.215 mātrā svasrā duhitrā vā na viviktāsano bhavet / balavān indriyagrāmo vidvāṁsamapi kars ṛati // One should not sit in a lonely place with one's mother. If he criticizes him. sister. in his next life. Achieving realized knowledge 2. 2. a serious disciple achieves realized knowledge from a true spiritual master by serving him. for the senses are powerful. he becomes a dog.20 caturn ṛām api varn ṛānaṁ pretya caiha hitāhitān / as ṛtāvimān samāsena strī vivāhān nibodhata // ṛ Now listen to (the) brief (description of) the following eight marriage-rites used by the four castes (varn ṇa) which partly secure benefits and partly produce evil both in this life and after death.

3. The five slaughter-houses 3.3. a hermaphrodite or a boy and a girl. the burnt oblation the sacrifice offered to the gods. the grinding-stone.16 indriyārthes ṛu sarvesuṛ na prasajyeta kāmatah ṛ / atiprasaktiṁ caitesāṛ ṁ manasā saṁnivartayet // One should not become too attached to the sense objects due to lust. that of Prājāpati (Prājāpatya).68 pañca sūnā grhasthasya cullī pes ṛan ṛyupaskarah ṛ / kan ṛd ṛanī caudakumbhaśca badhyate yāstu vāhayan // ṛ A householder has five slaughter-houses (as it were. the (offerings of water and food called) Tarpan ṇa the sacrifice to the manes. as well as their good and evil results with respect to the offspring. viz. that of the Asuras (Asura). by using which he is bound (with the fetters of sin). all this I will declare to you. Production of male & female child 3. the water-vessel. One should control his attachment to sense objects with his mind. and that of the Paiśācas (Paiśāca). a failure of conception (results). . a female child by the prevalence of the female. The five great sacrifices 3. the broom. that of the gods (Daiva).70 adhyāpanaṁ brahmayajñah ṛ pitryajñastu tarpan ṛam / homo daivo balirbhauto nryajño atithi pūjanam // ṛ ṛ Teaching (and studying) is the sacrifice (offered) to Brahman. that of the Gāndharvas (Gāndharva). the pestle and mortar. and the hospitable reception of guests the offering to men.22 yo yasya dharmyo varn ṛasya gun ṛados ṛau ca yasya yau / tad vah ṛ sarvaṁ pravaks ṛyāmi prasave ca gun ṛāgun ṛān // Which is lawful for each caste (varn ṇa) and which are the virtues or faults of each (rite).49 pumān puṁso adhike śukre strī bhavatyadhike striyāh ṛ / same apumān puṁ striyau vā ksīn ṛ ṛe alpe ca viparyayah ṛ // A male child is produced by a greater quantity of male seed.) the hearth. that of the Rāks ṇasas (Rāks ṇasa).21 brāhmo daiva stathaivārsah adhamah ṛ // ṛ ṛ prājāpatyastathā asurah ṛ / gāndharvo rāks ṛasaś caiva paiśācaś cās ṛtamo ṛ (They are) the rite of Brāhman (Brāhma). if (both are) equal. that of the Rṇs ṇis (Arśa). Non-attachment 4. the Bali offering that offered to the Bhutas. if (both are) weak or deficient in quantity.

nor in one swarming with men of the lowest castes. 4. 4.61 na śūdrarājye nivasennā dhārmikajanāvrteṛ / na pāsan ṛ ṛ ṛdiṛ gan ṛākrānte nopassrṛ tṛ eṛ antyajair nrbhih ṛ // Let him not dwell in a country where the rulers are śudras. and at meals. 4.76 ārdrapādastu bhuñjīta nārdrapādastu saṁviśet / ārdrapādastu bhuñjāno dīrghamāyuravāpnuyāt // Let him eat while his feet are (yet) wet (from the ablution). circumstances of non-study 4.58 agnyagāre gavāṁ gos ṛthe ṛ brāhman ṛānāṁ ca saṁnidhau / svādhyāye bhojane caiva daksin ṛ ṛaṁ pān ṛim uddharet // Let him keep his right arm uncovered in a place where a sacred fire is kept. but let him not go to bed with wet feet. on the eighth day of the fortnights. nor in one which is surrounded by unrighteous men. purity and respect 4. in the presence of brāhman ṇas. will attain long life. and one should not look at or talk to a woman passing through menstruation and one should not go to a sacrifice festival without an invitation. on the fourteenth day of the fortnights. Anadhyayam. on the new moon. let him never sleep naked. He who eats while his feet are (still) wet. 4. 4. nor in one which has become subject to heretics. in a cow-pen.114 amāvāsyā guruṁ hanti śis ṛyaṁ hanti caturdaśī / brahmāstṛ aṛ kapaurn ṛamāsyau tasmāt tāh ṛ parivarjayet // . one should never wake up his own superiors. nor go anywhere unpurified (after meals).75 sarvaṁ ca tilasaṁbaddhaṁ nādyādastamite ravau / na ca nagnah ṛ śayītaiha na cocchis ṛtah ṛ ṛ kva cid vrajet // Let him not eat after sunset any (food) containing sesamum grains.113 nīhāre bān ṛaśabde ca saṁdhyayor eva cobhayoh ṛ / amāvāsyā caturdaśyoh ṛ paurn ṛamāsya as ṛtakāsu ca // ṛ One should not study scriptures when it is foggy. while the sound of arrows is audible.57 naikah ṛ supyātśūnyagehe na śreyāṁsaṁ prabodhayet / nodakyayā abhibhās ṛeta yajñaṁ gacchenna cāvrtah ṛ ṛ // One should never sleep alone in his house. during the private recitation of the Veda.Miscellaneous rules of cleanliness. and on the full moon day. at dawn and at dusk.

Consumption of meat 5. Study on the fourteenth day gives problems to the spiritual master and disciple. full moon day.161 yat karma kurvato asya syāt paritosoṛ antarātmanah ṛ / tat prayatnena kurvīta viparītaṁ tu varjayet // Any meritorious action which satisfies the soul itself should be accepted with great endeavor and all other actions should be rejected. Therefore. the relatives depart with averted faces. one should give up all of these days for studies. Purpose of creating animals 5.27 proksita māṁsaṁ brāhman ṛānāṁ ca kāmyayā / yathāvidhi niyuktastu prān ṛānām eva cātyaye // ṛ ṁ bhaksayen ṛ One may eat meat when it has been sprinkled with water. but spiritual merit follows the (soul). while mantras were recited.If one studies scriptures on the newmoon day. Self-reliance 4. Therefore. when brāhman ṇas desire (one’s doing it).128 amāvāsyā mastṛ amī ṛ ṁ ca paurn ṛamāsīṁ caturdaśīm / brahmacārī bhavennityamapyartau snātako dvijah ṛ // The twice born person should remain celibate on the newmoon day. or a clod of earth. and fourteenth day of fortnights. it will cause trouble to the teacher. when one is engaged (in the performance of a rite) according to the law. On the eighth day and new moon day. even if his wife has finished her menstruation period.241 mrta ṁ śarīra mutsr jya kās ha los t asama ṁ ks itau / vimukhā bāndhavā yānti dharma stamanu gacchati // ṛ ṛ ṛt ṛ ṛṛ ṛ Leaving the dead body on the ground like a log of wood. one should always be free from copulating with another's wife. it destroys Vedic knowledge. 4.134 na hīdrśamanā yusya paradāropa sevanam // ṛ ṛ ṁ purusasyeha ṛ ṁ loke kiṁ cana vidyate / yādrśa ṛ There is no worst action for a man in the world for decreasing his duration of life than copulating with another's wife. Celibate 4.39 . Spiritual merit 4. the eighth day of fortnight. and when one’s life is in danger.

(holy) food. a dead body. a woman must never be independent. or a person who touched a dead body. 5. self command. when her lord is dead to her sons. the internal organ is purified by truthfulness. knowledge of the Supreme Soul.85 divā kīrti mudakyāṁ ca patitaṁ sūtikāṁ tathā / śavaṁ tatsprsṛ ṛtina ṛ ṁ caiva sprsṛ ṛtvā ṛ snānena śudhyati // One who touches a dogeater.109 adbhir gātrān ṛi śudhyanti manah ṛ satyena śudhyati / vidyā tapobhyāṁ bhūtātmā buddhir jñānena śudhyati // The body is cleansed by water. freedom from anger. the wind. smearing (with cowdung). These are the ten religious symptoms. austerities. sacrifices (have been instituted) for the good of this whole (world).yajñārthaṁ paśavah ṛ srsṛ ṛtāh ṛ ṛ svayameva svayaṁbhuvā / yajño asya bhūtyai sarvasya tasmād yajñe vadho avadhah ṛ // Svayambhū (the Self-existent) himself created animals for the sake of sacrifices. truthfulness. controlling the senses. a murderer. fire. Religious symptoms 6. non-stealing. (restraint of) the internal organ. the intellect by (true) knowledge. in youth to her husband. forgiveness.148 bālye piturvaśe tistṛ het ṛ pān ṛigrāhasya yauvane / putrān ṛāṁ bhartari prete na bhajet strī svatantratām // In childhood a female must be subject to her father. the sun. hence the slaughtering (of beasts) for sacrifices is not slaughtering (in the ordinary sense of the word). a woman who newly gave birth to a child. cleanliness (purity). Purification 5. 5. Protection of women 5. the individual soul by sacred learning and austerities. water. realized knowledge. sacred rites. he becomes purified only after bathing properly. and time are the purifiers of corporeal (beings).92 dhrtih damo asteyaṁ śaucam indriyani grahah ṛ / dhīr vidyā satyam akrodho daśakaṁ dharma laks ṛan ṛam // ṛ ṛ ksamā ṛ Patience. a menstruating lady.105 jñānaṁ tapo agnirāhāro mrtmano vāryu pāñjanam / vāyuh ṛ karmārkakālau ca śuddheh ṛ kartṝn ṛi dehinām // ṛ The knowledge (of Brahman). earth. The creation of punishment .

Punishment. and seeking protection. a reward) without end.) alliance. Six measures of royal policy 7. (a gift) to one who knows the Veda and the aṅgas (vedaparaga.85 samama brāhman ṛe dānaṁ dvigun ṛaṁ brāhman ṛabruve / prādhīte śata sāhasram anantaṁ vedapārage // A gift to one who is not a brāhman ṇa (yields) the ordinary (reward.14 tasyārthe sarva bhūtānāṁ goptāraṁ dharma mātmajam / brahma tejo mayaṁ dan ṛd ṛa masrjat ṛ pūrvam īśvarah ṛ // For the (king’s) sake the Lord formerly created his own son.51 dan ṛd ṛasya pātanaṁ caiva vākpārus ṛyārthadūs ṛan ṛe / krodhaje api gan ṛe vidyāt kas ṛtametat trikaṁ sadā // ṛ Doing bodily injury. (an incarnation of) the law. Four manners of negotiation . he must know to be the most pernicious in the set that springs from love of pleasure. and the seizure of property. these three he must know to be the most pernicious in the set produced by wrath. Honouring the brāhman ṛas 7.99 alabdhaṁ caiva lipseta labdhaṁ raks ṛet prayatnatah ṛ / raks ṛitaṁ vardhayec caiva vrddha ṁ pātres ṛu niks ṛipet // ṛ Let him strive to gain what he has not yet gained. reviling. marching. Dealings with wealth 7. dividing the army. a double (reward). The seven most pernicious vices 7.7. a gift) to one who calls himself a brāhman ṇa. a hundred-thousandfold (reward).160 saṁdhiṁ ca vigrahaṁ caiva yānamāsanam eva ca / dvaidhībhāvaṁ saṁśrayaṁ ca s ṛad ṛ gun ṛāṁś cintayet sadā // Let him constantly think of the six measures of royal policy (gun ṇa. a gift to a well-read brāhman ṇa. viz. 7. formed of Brahman’s glory. women. dice. and what he has augmented let him bestow on worthy men. what he has gained let him carefully preserve. these four (which have been enumerated) in succession. and hunting. war. let him augment what he preserves. halting.50 pānamaks ṛāh ṛ striyaścaiva mrgayā ca yathākramam / etat kas ṛtatama ṁ vidyāt catuska ṛ ṛ ṛ ṁ kāmaje gan ṛe // Drinking. the protector of all creatures.

Supersoul the witness of the soul 8.7 svāṁ prasūtiṁ caritraṁ ca kulam ātmānam eva ca / svaṁ ca dharmaṁ prayatnena jāyāṁ raks ṛan hi raks ṛati // He who carefully guards his wife.) Meritorious activities are the only friend 8. Everything else. despise not thy own Soul. wealth etc. and the Soul is the refuge of the soul.17 eka eva suhrdṛ dharmo nidhāne apyanuyāti yah ṛ / śarīren ṛa samaṁ nāśaṁ sarvamanyad hi gacchati // Meritorious activities are the only friend of a man in this world because it remains with one even after death. afterwards by (harsh) reproof. Gradation of punishments 8. used either separately or conjointly. children. and by creating dissension. the supreme witness of men. .7. (if it can be avoided.129 vāg dan ṛdaṛ ṁ prathamaṁ kuryād dhig dan ṛd ṛaṁ tad anantaram / trtīya ṛ ṁ dhana dan ṛdaṛ ṁ tu vadha dan ṛd ṛa matah ṛ param // Let him punish first by (gentle) admonition. thirdly by a fine. wife.198 sāmnā dānena bhedena samastairatha vā prthak / vijetuṁ prayatetārīnna yuddhena kadā cana // ṛ He should (however) try to conquer his foes by conciliation. all get destroyed when the body gets destroyed.3 pitā raksati ṛ kaumāre bhartā raksati ṛ yauvane / raks ṛanti sthavire putrā na strī svātantryam arhati // A woman is protected in her childhood by her father. never by fighting. Dependency of women 9. and his (means of acquiring) merit. after that by corporal chastisement. A woman is not allowed to stay free. by (well-applied) gifts. Purity of offsping 9. himself. preserves (the purity of) his offspring. virtuous conduct. in her youth by her husband and in her old age by her son. his family.84 ātmaiva hyātmanah ṛ sāksīṛ gatirātmā tathā atmanah ṛ / mā avamaṁsthāh ṛ svamātmānaṁ nrnṛ ṛāṁ sāks ṛin ṛam uttamam // The Soul itself is the witness of the soul.

who reside) in the houses (of men). these are the seven limbs of a kingdom.2 . study (the Veda). The seven limbs of the kingdom 9. the fort. the minister. must each and all be considered as men who committed mortal sins (mahāpātaka). and he who violates a Guru’s bed. that is an established rule. not the other two.1 adhīyīraṁstrayo varn ṛāh ṛ svakarmasthā dvijātayah ṛ / prabrūyād brāhman ṛas tves ṛāṁ netarāviti niścayah ṛ // Let the three twice-born castes (varn ṇa). Definition of mortal sins 9. and between the goddesses of fortune (śrīyah ṇ. but among them the brāhman ṇa (alone) shall teach it. there is no difference whatsoever. (a twice-born man) who drinks (the spirituous liquor called) Sura. charioteers.235 brahmahā ca surāpaśca steyī ca gurutalpagah ṛ / ete sarve prthag jñeyā mahāpātakino narāh ṛ // ṛ The slayer of a brāhman ṇa.26 eva mādīn vijānīyāt prakāśāṁ loka kan ṛtakān / nigūd ṛhacāri n ṛaścānyāna nāryānārya liṅginah ṛ // ṛ Between wives (striyah ṇ) who (are destined) to bear children. the treasury house. 10. but thinking of him as a man. the kingdom. discharging their (prescribed) duties. who are worthy of worship and irradiate (their) dwellings. who secure many blessings. the army (all kinds of army such as infantry. elephant army.14 naitā rūpaṁ parīksante nāsāṁ vayasi saṁsthitih ṛ / surūpaṁ vā virūpaṁ vā pumānityeva bhuñjate // ṛ A woman does not examine a man's beauty or how youthful he is. With these seven limbs.294 svāmya amātyau puraṁ rāstṛ ra hyetāh ṛ saptāṅgaṁ rājyamucyate // ṛ ṛ ṁ kośadan ṛd ṛau suhrtṛ tathā / sapta prakrtayo The king.Disloyalty 9. either beautiful or ugly. a kingdom is said to be naturally managed. they enjoy him. he who steals (the gold of a brāhman ṇa). Duties of the twice-born The Brāhman ṛa is the lord of all castes 10. Virtuous wives are like the Goddess of Fortune 9. horse army) and friends.

Characteristics of those of impure origin 10. (varn ṇa. who.) inheritance. finding or friendly donation. The seven lawful modes of acquiring properties 10. are produced (sons who owe their origin) to a confusion the castes. lending at interest. Causes of varn ṛa-sankara 10. the performance of work.57 varn ṛāpetam avijñātaṁ naraṁ kalusayonijam / ārya rūpam ivānāryaṁ karmabhih ṛ svairvi bhāvayet // ṛ A man of impure origin. purchase.24 vyabhicāren ṛa varn ṛā nāmavedyā vedanena ca / svakarman ṛāṁ ca tyāgena jāyante varn ṛa saṅkarāh ṛ // By adultery (committed by persons) of (different) castes. Performing ones own duty 10. and the acceptance of gifts from virtuous men. on account of his observance of (particular) restrictive rules. on account of the superiority of his origin.sarvesāṛ ṁ brāhman ṛo vidyād vrttyupāyān yathāvidhi / prabrūyāditarebhyaśca svayaṁ caiva tathā bhavet // ṛ The Brāhman ṇa must know the means of subsistence (prescribed) by law for all. conquest. instruct the others. one may discover by his acts. and himself live according to (the law). and by the neglect of the duties and occupations (prescribed) to each. has the appearance of an Aryan. who belongs not to any caste. (though) not an Aryan. . by marriages with women who ought not to be married.3 vaiśesyāt yamasya ca dhāran ṛāt / saṁskārasya viśes ṛācca varn ṛānāṁ brāhman ṛah ṛ prabhuh ṛ // ṛ prakrtiṛ śraistṛ hyānni ṛ On account of his pre-eminence. but whose character is) not known.97 varaṁ svadharmo vigun ṛo na pārakyah ṛ svanustṛ hitah ṛ ṛ / paradharmen ṛa jīvan hi sadyah ṛ patati jātitah ṛ // It is better (to discharge) one's own (appointed) duty incompletely than to perform completely that of another. 10. (viz.115 sapta vittāgamā dharmyā dāyo lābhah ṛ krayo jayah ṛ / prayogah ṛ karma yogaśca satpratigraha eva ca // There are seven lawful modes of acquiring property. for he who lives according to the law of another (caste) is instantly excluded from his own. and on account of his particular sanctification the brāhman ṇa is the lord of (all) castes (varn ṇa).

rearing cattle. without being in distress. Obtaining wealth from śudras for sacred rites The priest is degraded 11. The giver is elevated 11. Physical reactions due to sinful activities 11. traffic. performs his duties according to the law for times of distress.28 āpatkalpena yo dharmaṁ kurute anāpadi dvijah ṛ / sa nāpnoti phalaṁ tasya paratreti vicāritam // But a twice-born. contentment (with little). Performing secondary duties while neglecting primary duties 11. the giver (of the wealth) shall always pass over his miseries (in the next world). that is the opinion (of the sages). service. who. mechanical arts.48 iha duścaritaih ṛ ke cit ke cit pūrva krtais ṛ tathā / prāpnuvanti durātmāno narā rūpa viparyayam // Some wicked men suffer a change of their (natural) appearance in consequence of crimes committed in this life. work for wages. and receiving interest on money.The ten modes of subsistence 10.42 ye śūdrādadhi gamyārtham agnihotram upāsate / rtvijaste hi śūdrān ṛāṁ brahmavādis ṛu garhitāh ṛ // ṛ Those who. are priests officiating for śudras. obtaining wealth from śudras. are the ten modes of subsistence (permitted to all men in times of distress). alms. (and hence) censured among those who recite the Veda.116 vidyā śilpaṁ bhrtih ṛ ṛ sevā go raks ṛyaṁ vipan ṛih ṛ krsṛ ih ṛ bhaiksaṛ ṁ kusīdaṁ ca daśa jīvana hetavah ṛ // ṛ ṛ / dhrtir Learning. obtains no reward for them in the next world. (and using that) offer an Agnihotra. agriculture. and some in consequence of those committed in a former (existence).43 tesāṛ ṁ satatam ajñānāṁ vrsṛ alāgnyupa sevinām / padā masta kamākramya dātā durgān ṛi saṁtaret // ṛ Treading with his foot on the heads of those fools who worship a fire (kindled at the expense) of a śudra. .

are born (again) with disgraceful marks.54 brahmahatyā surāpānaṁ steyaṁ gurvaṅganāgamah ṛ / mahānti pātakānyāhuh ṛ saṁsargaścāpi taih ṛ saha // Penances. Freedom from guilt 11. that shall purify the (sinners).228 yathā yathā naro adharmaṁ svayaṁ krtvā ṛ anubhās ṛate / tathā tathā tvacaivāhistenā dharmen ṛa mucyate // By confession. The words of learned men are a means of purification 11. because those whose sins have not been expiated.231 evaṁ sañcintya manasā pretya karma phalo dayam / manovāṅ mūrti bhirnityaṁ śubhaṁ karma samācaret // . Repentance 11. 11. and by reciting (the Veda) a sinner is freed from guilt.86 ato anyata mamāsthāya vidhiṁ viprah ṛ samāhitah ṛ / brahma hatyā krta ṛ ṁ pāpaṁ vyapo hatyātmavattayā // If only three of them who are learned in the Veda proclaim the expiation for offences. must always be performed for the sake of purification. they declare (to be) mortal sins (mahāpātaka). drinking (the spirituous liquor called) Sura. therefore. by liberality. for the words of learned men are a means of purification. but let him purify those whose sins are not known by (the recitation of) sacred texts and by (the performance of) burnt oblations. and associating with such (offenders).227 khyāpane nānu tāpena tapasā adhyayanena ca / pāpa krtṛ mucyate pāpāt tathā dānena cāpadi // By these expiations twice-born men must be purified whose sins are known. and in case no other course is possible. stealing (the gold of a brāhman ṇa). by austerity.Penance relieves one from future reactions 11. adultery with a Guru's wife. Definitions of mortal sins 11.55 anrta ṛ ṁ ca samutkars ṛe rājagāmi ca paiśunam / guroścālīkanir bandhah ṛ samāni brahmahatyayā // Killing a brāhman ṇa. by repentance.

to have austerity for its root. having either unintentionally or intentionally committed a reprehensible deed. Prajapati.234 tapo mūlam idaṁ sarvaṁ daiva mānus ṛakaṁ sukham / tapomadhyaṁ budhaih ṛ proktaṁ tapo antaṁ veda darśibhih ṛ // If his mind be uneasy with respect to any act. The potency of austerities 11. 11. and austerity for its end. Austerity is the root of all perfection 11.244 ityetat tapaso devā mahābhāgyaṁ pracaksate ṛ / sarvasyāsya prapaśyantas tapasah ṛ pun ṛyam uttamam // The lord. created these Institutes (of the sacred law) by his austerities alone. and service the austerity of a śudra. but he is purified only by (the resolution of) ceasing (to sin and thinking) 'I will do so no more. 11.' 11.233 yasmin karman ṛyasya krteṛ manasah ṛ syādalāghavam / tasmiṁ stāvat tapah ṛ kuryād yāvat tustṛ ikara ṁ bhavet // ṛ He who. . austerity for its middle. (the pursuit of) his daily business is the austerity of a vaiśya. desires to be freed from (the guilt on it. must not commit it a second time. speech. let him repeat the austerities (prescribed as a penance) for it until they fully satisfy (his conscience). protecting (the people) is the austerity of a ks ṇatriya. and actions.236 rsṛ ayah ṛ ṛ saṁyatātmānah ṛ phala mūlā nilāśanāh ṛ / tapasaiva prapaśyanti trailokyaṁ sa carācaram // (The pursuit of sacred) knowledge is the austerity of a brāhman ṇa. let him always be good in thoughts.He who has committed a sin and has repented. is freed from that sin.232 ajñānād yadi vā jñānāt krtvā ṛ karma vigarhitam / tasmād vimukti manvicchan dvitīyaṁ na samācaret // Having thus considered in his mind what results will arise from his deeds after death. 11. the sages likewise obtained (the revelation of) the Vedas through their austerities.235 brāhman ṛasya tapo jñānaṁ tapah ṛ ks ṛatrasya raksan ṛ ṛam / vaiśyasya tu tapo vārtā tapah ṛ śūdrasya sevanam // All the bliss of gods and men is declared by the sages to whom the Veda was revealed.

(is called) learned in the Veda. the Upanis ṇads). must be known (to form) the triple Veda.262 hatvā lokān apī māṁ strī naśnann api yatastatah ṛ / rgṛ vedaṁ dhārayan vipro nainah ṛ prāpnoti kiṁ cana // A brāhman aṇ who retains in his memory the Rṇg-veda is not stained by guilt. though he may have destroyed these three worlds. mind &words 12. 11.265 rco yo vedainaṁ sa vedavit // ṛ yajūṁsiṛ cānyāni sāmāni vividhāni ca / esaṛ jñeyas trivrdvedo ṛ The Rṇkas. He who recites the Veda is completely freed from all sins 11.247 ity etadenasā muktaṁ prāyaścittaṁ yathāvidhi / ata ūrdhvaṁ rahasyānāṁ prāyaścittaṁ nibodhata // As a fire in one moment consumes with its bright flame the fuel that has been placed on it. he who knows that.266 ādyaṁ yat tryaksara / sa guhyo anyas trivrdvedo yastaṁ veda sa vedavit // ṛ ṛ ṁ brahma trayī yasmin pratistṛ hitā ṛ The initial triliteral Brahman on which the threefold (sacred science) is based. or (that of the) Yajur-veda. even so he who knows the Veda destroys all guilt by the fire of knowledge. thrice recites the Rṇg-saṁhitā. is another triple Veda which must be kept secret. or (that of the) Sāma-veda together with the secret (texts. the Yajus (formulas) which differ (from the former). (is called) learned in the Veda. 11. he who knows them. is completely freed from all sins. with a concentrated mind.3 śubhāśubha phalaṁ karma mano vāgdeha saṁbhavam / karmajā gatayo nṝn ṛām uttamādhama madhyamah ṛ // .The fire of knowledge 11. the manifold Sāman (songs). Actions springing from the body. Learned in the Veda 11.263 rkṛ saṁhitāṁ trirabhyasya yajusāṛ ṁ vā samāhitah ṛ / sāmnāṁ vā sarahasyānāṁ sarvapāpaih ṛ pramucyate // He who. though he may eat the food of anybody.

which springs from the mind. ṇ the control over his thoughts (manodan ṇda).11 tridan ṛdaṛ metan niksipya sarva bhūtes ṛu mānavah ṛ / kāma krodhau tu saṁyamya tatah ṛ siddhiṁ niyacchati // ṛ .7 adattānāmu pādānaṁ hiṁsā caivā vidhānatah ṛ / paradāropa sevā ca śārīraṁ trividhaṁ smrtam // ṛ Taking what has not been given. ṇ and the control over his body (kāyadan ṇda). and from the body. mind &words 12. a man becomes (in the next birth) something inanimate.Action. ṇ are firmly fixed. and talking idly. The three kinds of evil mental action 12. thinking in one's heart of what is undesirable. are the three kinds of (sinful) mental action.5 para dravyesva ṛ bhidhyānaṁ manasā anistṛ aṛ cintanam / vitathā bhiniveśaś ca trividhaṁ karma mānasam // Coveting the property of others. a bird. mind & words 12. are declared to be the three kinds of (wicked) bodily action. produces either good or evil results. the control over his speech (vāgdan ṇda). one who has control over the body.10 vāgdan ṛdoṛ atha manodan ṛd ṛah ṛ kāyadan ṛd ṛas tathaiva ca / yasyaite nihitā buddhau tridan ṛd ṛīti sa ucyate // That man is called a (true) tridandin in whose mind these three. The three kinds of wicked bodily action 12. shall be the four kinds of (evil) verbal action.9 śarīrajaih ṛ karma dos ṛairyāti sthāvaratāṁ narah ṛ / vācikaih ṛ paks ṛi mrgatā ṁ mānasair antyajātitām // ṛ In consequence of (many) sinful acts committed with his body. the middling. from speech. or a beast. and holding criminal intercourse with another man's wife.6 pārus ṛya manrta ṛ ṁ caiva paiśunyaṁ cāpi sarvaśah ṛ / asaṁ baddha pralāpaśca vāṅmayaṁ syāc caturvidham // Abusing (others. by action are caused the (various) conditions of men. and adherence to false (doctrines). and in consequence of mental (sins he is re-born in) a low caste. Reaction for action springing from the body. injuring (creatures) without the sanction of the law. detracting from the merits of all men. speaking) untruth. and the lowest. in consequence (of sins) committed by speech. The four kinds of evil verbal action 12. the highest. 12. The true tridandin.

Judgement 12. which are produced by attachment to sensual objects. Fixing the mind on merit 12. having recognised even by means of his intellect these transitions of the individual soul (which depend) on merit and demerit. having suffered for his faults.That man who keeps this threefold control (over himself) with respect to all created beings and wholly subdues desire and wrath. 12. always fix his heart on (the acquisition of) merit. The three modes of nature 12. The threefold course of transmigration 12. and which result in misery. free from stains.19 tau dharmaṁ paśya tastasya pāpaṁ cātandritau saha / yābhyāṁ prāpnoti saṁprktah ṛ ṛ pretyeha ca sukhāsukham // Those two together examine without tiring the merit and the guilt of that (individual soul).25 yo yadesāṛ ṁ gun ṛo dehe sākalyenātiricyate / sa tadā tadgun ṛaprāyaṁ taṁ karoti śarīrin ṛam // When one of these qualities wholly predominates in a body.18 so anubhūyā sukho darkān dos ṛān vis ṛaya saṅgajān / vyapeta kalmas ṛo abhyeti tāvevobhau mahaujasau // He. united with which it obtains bliss or misery both in this world and the next. 12.39 yena yastu gun ṛenaisāṛ ṁ saṁsarān pratipadyate / tān samāsena vaksyāmi sarvasyāsya yathākramam // ṛ I will briefly declare in due order what transmigrations in this whole (world a man) obtains through each of these qualities.23 etā drsṛ ṛtvā ṛ asya jīvasya gatīh ṛ svenaiva cetasā / dharmato adharmataś caiva dharme dadhyāt sadā manah ṛ // Let (man).40 devatvaṁ sāttvikā yānti manusyatva ṁ ca rājasāh ṛ / tiryaktvaṁ tāmasā nityamityes ṛā trividhā gatih ṛ // ṛ . those two mighty ones. then it makes the embodied (soul) eminently distinguished for that quality. thereby assuredly gains complete success. approaches.

Those endowed with Goodness reach the state of gods.85 sarvesām / tad hyagryaṁ sarva vidyānāṁ prāpyate hyamrta ṛ ṛ ṁ tatah ṛ // ṛ api caitesām ṛ ātma jñānaṁ paraṁ smrtam (The answer is that) the knowledge of the Soul is stated to be the most excellent among all of them. and such as ensure supreme bliss and cause a cessation (of mundane existence. such as procure an increase of happiness and cause a continuation (of mundane existence. nivritta). The manner of obtaining supreme bliss 12. in that same proportion their taste for them grows. those endowed with Activity the state of men. Taste for sensual pleasures 12. Pravrtta ṛ & nivrtta ṛ 12.68 yad vā tad vā para dravyam apahrtya ṛ balānnarah ṛ / avaśyaṁ yāti tiryaktvaṁ jagdhvā caivāhutaṁ havih ṛ // That man who has forcibly taken away any kind of property belonging to another.91 sarva bhūtesuṛ cātmānaṁ sarva bhūtāni cātmani / samaṁ paśyannātmayājī svārājyamadhi gacchati // . he reaps its result in a (future) body endowed with the same quality. The result of good and bad action 12. or who has eaten sacrificial food (of) which (no portion) had been offered.88 sukhābhyudayikaṁ caiva naih ṛśreyasikam eva ca / pravrtta ṛ ṁ ca nivrtta ṛ ṁ ca dvividhaṁ karma vaidikam // The acts prescribed by the Veda are of two kinds. pravritta). 12. for that is the first of all sciences.81 yādrśena tu bhāvena yad yat karma nis ṛevate / tādrśena śarīren ṛa tat tat phalam upāśnute // ṛ ṛ But with whatever disposition of mind (a man) forms any act. because immortality is gained through that. inevitably becomes an animal. that is the threefold course of transmigrations. and those endowed with Darkness ever sink to the condition of beasts.73 yathā yathā nisevante vis ṛayān visayātmakāh ṛ ṛ ṛ / tathā tathā kuśalatā tes ṛāṁ tes ṛūpajāyate // In proportion as sensual men indulge in sensual pleasures. 12.

and men. The results of Vedic sciences 12.He who sacrifices to the Self (alone). which spring up and (soon) perish. Doctrines to be rejected 12. equally recognising the Self in all created beings and all created beings in the Self. even so he who knows the Veda burns out the taint of his soul which arises from (evil) acts. because they are of modern date.101 yathā jātabalo vahnirdahatyārdrān api drumān / tathā dahati vedajñah ṛ karmajaṁ dos ṛam ātmanah ṛ // As a fire that has gained strength consumes even trees full of sap. and sovereignty over the whole world he (only) deserves who knows the Veda-science. the Veda-ordinance (is) both beyond the sphere of (human) power. the office of a judge. The exalted position of the Veda 12. and beyond the sphere of (human) comprehension. becomes (independent like) an autocrat and self-luminous. differing from the (Veda). produce no reward after death. are worthless and false. for they are declared to be founded on Darkness. 12.96 utpadyante cyavante ca yānyato anyāni kāni cit / tānyarvākkālikatayā nis ṛphalānyanrtāni ca // ṛ All those (doctrines). gods.94 pitr ṛdeva manusyān ṛ ṛāṁ vedaś caksuh ṛ ṛ sanātanam / aśakyaṁ cāprameyaṁ ca veda śāstramiti sthitih ṛ // The Veda is the eternal eye of the manes. Stages of studentship . 12.95 yā vedabāhyāh ṛ smrtayo yāśca kāśca kudrsṛ ṛtayah ṛ ṛ ṛ // ṛ ṛ / sarvāstā nisphalāh ṛ ṛ pretya tamonistṛ hā ṛ hi tāh ṛ smrtāh All those traditions (smriti) and those despicable systems of philosophy. royal authority.100 senāpatyaṁ ca rājyaṁ ca dan ṛdanetr tvam eva ca / sarva lokādhipatyaṁ ca veda śāstra vidarhati // ṛ ṛ Command of armies. that is a certain fact. which are not based on the Veda.

(the answer is).113 eko api vedavid dharmaṁ yaṁ vyavasyed dvijottamah ṛ / sa vijñeyah ṛ paro dharmo nājñānāmudito ayutaih ṛ // Even that which one brāhman ṇa versed in the Veda declares to be law. must be fully understood by him who desires perfect correctness with respect to the sacred law. those who possess a knowledge (of the meaning) are more distinguished than those who (only) remember (the words). inference. must be considered (to have) supreme legal (force. and are able to adduce proofs perceptible by the senses from the revealed texts. The knowledge of the Ātman. in accordance with the sacred law.12. perception.109 dharmen ṛādhigato yais ṛtuṛ vedah ṛ saparibrṁṛ han ṛah ṛ / te śistṛ āṛ brāhman ṛā jñeyāh ṛ śruti pratyaksaṛ hetavah ṛ // Those brāhman ṇas must be considered as śis ṇt ṇāswho. 12. and the (sacred) Institutes which comprise the tradition (of) many (schools).105 pratyaksaṛ ṁ cānumānaṁ ca śāstraṁ ca vividhā agamam / trayaṁ suviditaṁ kāryaṁ dharma śuddhim abhīpsatā // The three (kinds of evidence). men who follow (the teaching of the texts) surpass those who (merely) know (their meaning). shall doubtlessly have legal (force). The secret portions of the sacred law Brāhman ṛas words have legal force 12.108 anāmnātesuṛ dharmesuṛ kathaṁ syāditi ced bhavet / yaṁ śistṛ āṛ brāhman ṛā brūyuh ṛ sa dharmah ṛ syādaśaṅkitah ṛ // If it be asked how it should be with respect to (points of) the law which have not been (specially) mentioned. Conclusion of the sacred law 12. Desire for knowledge 12. but) not that which is proclaimed by myriads of ignorant men. have studied the Veda together with its appendages. those who remember them surpass the (forgetful) students.122 praśāsitāraṁ sarvesāman ṛ ṛīyāṁ saman ṛor api / rukmābhaṁ svapna dhīgamyaṁ vidyāt taṁ purusaṛ ṁ param // .' 12.103 ajñebhyo granthinah ṛ śrestṛ hā ṛ granthibhyo dhārin ṛo varāh ṛ / dhāribhyo jñāninah ṛ śres ṛthā ṛ jñānibhyo vyavasāyinah ṛ // (Even forgetful) students of the (sacred) books are more distinguished than the ignorant. 'that which brāhman ṇas (who are) śis ṇt ṇāspropound.

ṇ to be) the sovereign ruler of them all. bright like gold. smaller even than small.Let him know the supreme Male (Purusa.126 ity etan mānavaṁ śāstraṁ bhrgu ṛ proktaṁ pathan ṛ dvijah ṛ / bhavaty ācāravānnityaṁ yathes ṛtāṛ ṁ prāpnuyād gatim // A twice-born man who recites these Institutes. and will reach whatever condition he desires. revealed by Manu. will be always virtuous in conduct. and perceptible by the intellect (only when) in (a state of) sleep (like abstraction). iti manu-saṁhitā ślokānusāranaṁ // Thus ends The Laws of Manu Summary of Verses . 12.