Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum

ADHITI
The Proceeding of XI Sessional Conference
of
All Orissa Association of College Teachers in Sanskrit
and Seminar on
Curriculum in Sanskrit
Held at :
Christ College, Cuttack
on 5th-6th Feb, 2005
Editorial Advisor
Dr. G.K. Dash
President, AOACTS
Editor
Dr. Manmohan Acharya
General Secretary, AOACTS.
Published by :
MAHARSHI PUBLICATION
Bhubaneswar
ADHITI
The Proceeding of XI Sessional Conference
of
All Orissa Association of College Teachers in Sanskrit
and Seminar on
Curriculum in Sanskrit
Held at :
Christ College, Cuttack
on 5th-6th Feb, 2005
Editorial Advisor
Dr. G.K. Dash
President, AOACTS
Editor
Dr. Manmohan Acharya
General Secretary, AOACTS.
Published by :
MAHARSHI PUBLICATION
Bhubaneswar
ADHITI
The Proceeding of XI Sessional Conference
of
All Orissa Association of College Teachers in Sanskrit
and Seminar on
Curriculum in Sanskrit
Edited by :
Dr. Manomohan Acharya
General Secretary, AOACTS.
Published by
Maharshi Publication,
Jayadev Vihar, Bhubaneswar, Ph : 9437312643 (M)
Lipisajja :
Sri Prasanta Kumar Mohapatra,
Org. Secretary, Sanskrit Sangeeta Nataka Academy,
776, Rasulgarh, Bhubaneswar.
Copy Right reserved
by AOACTS, VaniVihar, Bhubaneswar
Books available at
Maharshi Book Store,
College Road, Banki, Dist- Cuttack
Price : Rs 100.00
Avant-Propos
The Curriculum is an indispensable part of an academic environment. During last four
decades, the Sanskrit course in higher educational institutions was confined in teaching the lan-
guage and ancient books on literature. In order to make Sanskrit education need based and useful
for the present age, U.G.C. and different academic bodies recommended new dimensions on applied
part of the language. This is no doubt the positive symbol for re-establishment of Sanskritic culture
in our country. Different types of curriculum are found introduced in different Universities and
Autonomous Colleges of Orissa. Second thing is that the scholars and lovers of Sanskrit have been
demanding to recognize Sanskrit a Modern Indian Language (M.I.L.) since a long time. On the other
hand, they are habituated in teaching and learning the ancient literature only in their syllabi.
Should our course designers introduced modern aspects of Sanskrit in curriculums to make the
subject more relevant and lively? This is a question mark to answer. Taking all these matters into
consideration the All Orissa Association of College Teachers in Sanskrit organized a seminar,
exclusively on curriculum at Christ College, Cuttack, last year. Numbers of valuable papers were
presented and some important findings were discovered in the above said seminar. On occasion of
XII Sessional Conference of our association, held on 24 – 25 Feb, 2007 at Ravenshaw
University, Cuttack, I on behalf of AOACTS dedicate this book to the learned members of our
association, members of different syllabus committees/Board of studies and also to the Sanskrit
loving people. This book is named as ‘ADHITI’, which contains the detailed Proceedings and
presented research papers of the seminar.
Here I feel highly gratified to place before our distinguished delegates a collection of
research articles on curriculum, penned by the resourceful scholars of our state. I convey hearty
thanks to the contributors. The task of publishing a proceeding could not have been possible without
the help of a publisher. I could not but extend my deep sense of thanks to Sri Yaminikanta Mohapatra,
Proprietor, Maharshi publication who made this first attempt of our association fruitful. I take the
opportunity of placing on record the invaluable guidance of my President, Prof. G.K. Dash and the
members of present executive committee.
Dr. Manmohan Acharya
24th Feb, 2007 General Secretary
CONTENTS
Sl.No. Subject Page
1 Resolution 1
2 Emphasis on Functional
Sanskrit : Need of the hour : Dr. Radhamadhab Dash 5
3 Practical Utility of Sanskrit
Curriculum : Dr. Bidyutlata Ray 10
4 Sanskrit in Curriculum : Sri Purna Chandra Ojha 15
5 Introducing Oral Chanting of Vedic
Mantrs in Sanskrit Curriculum : Dr.P.M. Rath 22
6 A Summon for Need-based
Curriculum in Sanskrit with
Practical Component : Dr.Narayan Prasad Dash25
7 Curriculum in Sanskrit : Dr.Manjushree Tripathy 31
8 Sarasvati sruti mahati
mahiyatam : The logo of
Curriculum in Sanskrit : Sri Tapan Kumar Panda 42
9 Redesigning of Sanskrit curriculum
for College students : Dr. B. Nayak 46
10 Restructuring of Curriculum : Dr. Kanhei Ch. Swain 50
11 Technical And Utilitarian Sanskrit
The Present Need : Er. S.S. Mishra 52
12 English Education in Sanskritic Soil :
A Prejudiced Perception : Dr.Manmohan Acharya 58
13 Sikshalayesu Sanskruta
pathyakramasya parivartanam : Dr. Jadunath Mishra 64
14 Higher Education and study of
Sanskrit in the Millennium : Smt. Sailabala Dash 66
15 +2 +3 Chhatranam krute
prachalitasanskrutapathyakramesu
Sanskarah : Dr. Suneli Dei 70
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Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum
Resolution of the XI Annual Conference
held at Christ College, Cuttack
on Dt.05/02/2005
The 11
th
Annual Conference of AOACTS was held on 5
th
and 6
th
feb, 2005 at Christ College, Cuttack.
The conference was inaugurated by H.H.Swami Nirliptananda
Saraswati, International Vice president of The Devine Life
Society at 10 A.M. on 5/2/2005, where Prof.A.K.Bose ,
Principal and Chairman, Reception Committee was the
President. Prof. A.C.Sarangi, Hon’ble V.C., SJSV graced the
occasion as the Chief Guest and H.H. Swami
Shivachidananda Saraswati addressed as the Chief speaker.
Prof.G.K.Dash, President,AOACTS addressed as a guest of
honour. Dr.D.G.Mishra, Local Secy. Introduced the
dignitaries and Dr. Devayani Dash accorded the vote of
thanks.
The meeting was followed by two parallel paper reading
sessions at 3.p.m.. The session in Conference hall was chaired by
Prof. Sadashiv Praharaj. Sj.A.K.Upadhyaya,IPS co-chaired the
session where Dr. Baidhar Naik acted as the Raporteaur. About
five papers including the papers of Dr.R.M.Dash and Dr. Mamata
Das were presented and discussed.
In other session Prof. R.N.Panda was in chair and Dr.
Rajashree Padhi acted as the Raporteaur. Near about 10 papers
were read in that session.
The Academic cum business session was held at 9.a.m on
6/2/2004 under the chairmanship of Prof.G.K.Dash. The possision
of Sanskrit in present curriculum was discussed and the house
expressed concern for the apathy of the Govt. towards Sanskrit.The
following resolutions have been unanimously accepted.
Agenda 1. (Resolutions on curriculum)
Resolved that -
(a) Government and other appropriate authorities be pressed
upon to consider the resolutions of the plus two council for opening
Sanskrit as MIL, since Alternative English, Hindi, Urdu, Bengali etc
are already tought as MILs.
(b) the committee in framing syllabus in plus two and plus
three levels be moved to include a unit of 20 marks for inter-active
and spoken sanskrit and there should be provision in routine to
have one period in a week for the purpose.
(c) Government and University authorities be moved to
make Sanskrit open for all other students in plus two level in science
and commerce.
(d) Universities and Autonomous Colleges be requested to
introduce self financing courses on practical Sanskrit like
Karmakanda, Ayurveda, Vastusastra, Jyotissastra in degree level
be introduced.
(e) The Board of Studies of different Universities,
Autonomous Colleges and CHSE be requested to include the courses
of modern Sanskrit literature along with the ancient Sanskrit to
establish the same as a relevant Modern Indian Language (M.I.L.).
(f) Universities and Autonomous Colleges be moved to
introduce Sanskrit curriculum as an ancillary subject in order to add
cultural relevance to the field of Sanskrit.
(g) Common curriculum be itroduced for all the Universities
and Autonomous Colleges of Orissa .
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Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum
(h) Universities and CHSE be requested to nominate
representatives from AOACTS while framing any committees in
regards to curriculum or examination.
(i) CHSE and Universities be appealed not to change the
courses frequently and the students should be given minimum three
years gap-period for implementation of new courses or any change
in old courses.
(j) the members of Syllabus committees be advised not to
conceal information such as edition, details of publication , availability
etc. while introducing the new books in syllabus.
(k) The H.O.D., P.G. Dept. of Sanskrit be nominated to
the different syllabus Committees.
(l) CHSE be requested not to introduce any un-published
book in syllabus .
(m) AOACTS should take responsibility of publishing text
books for the students .
(n) Board of Studies may consider the reduction of course
burden of +3 IInd year Sanskrit Honours.
Immediately after the paper reading-session the business
session was held. Dr. Manmohan Acharya, General
Secretary,AOACTS presented the Annual Report and put forth the
following proposals before the house. After discussion the same
were passed unanimously.
Agenda.2 (Organizational Resolutions)
Resolved that –
(a) The amount collected out of Patron and Life membership
shall be deposited through fix deposite scheme along
with the balance amount of the present A/C of AOACTS.
The interest amount of the Fixed deposit shall be credited
to the SBI.A/C of AOACTS. The amount earned out
interest may be with-drawn to meet the day to day
expenditure of the association.
(b) The house expressed pleasure that The AOACTS has
started to publish a quarterly Bulletin. The house decided
to carry on the Bulletin and Gen.Secy was empowered
to take all necessary steps for the purpose.
(c) The contribution for Life membership and Patronage
shall be Rs.700/ and Rs.1000 respectively w.e.f
Dt.1.3.2005.
(d) The present executive body is allowed to continue to
complete its term.
The Valedictory Session was presided by Prof.G.K.Dash,
President, AOACTS. Prof.P.K.Mishra, HOD, P.G.Department of
Sanskrit addressed as the Chief guest of honour. Prof.A.K.Bose,
Principal and Dr. Manmohan Acharya, General Secretary, AOACTS
were present as the guest of honour. Mrs. K.P. Nanda, Lect. in
Sanskrit, Christ College, accorded the vote of thanks to the President
and the members present.
Sd- Sd-
Dr. Manmohan Acharya, Prof. G.K. Dash,
General Secretary President
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Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum
Emphasis on Functional Sanskrit :
Need of the hour
(With Special Reference to Paurohitya ‘Priestcraft’)
Dr. Radhamadhab Dash
Sophistication effect tells upon the present status and future
growth of Sanskrit studies in our country. Education, as it is looked
upon now, is more for getting jobs and arranging means of livelihood
than acquiring knowledge or promoting manifestation of latent
potential in the learner, as it was understood for ages in the past, in
this country. The self-explanatory maxim - sa vidya ya vimuktaye
‘True learning is meant to free one from bondage’ has become a
rhetoric pronunciation of the scripture. The policy makers and the
society as a whole at the present age of globalization and
commercialization of the learning system emphasize the material
output of certain discipline of study. This has brought about immense
changes in our perspective outlook very deeply and widely.
Therefore, a student opting for Sanskrit in graduation or postgraduate
level of studies or still in higher level also becomes vulnerable to this
psychology of prevalent environment. Sanskrit is considered a
medium and a literature, which always shows us path of value and
welfare not only of the self but also of the mass basing on reasoning
and balanced distribution of wealth in the society. Amassing wealth
for selfish purpose is an act of condemnation. But the present
environment demands material growth, not the spiritual progress of
the humankind. Therefore, regardless of propriety of any job, people
choose profession indecent and meritless. A Brahmin boy does not
hesitate to engage himself in unworthy and prohibited trades such as
fishery, poultry fanning, narcotics and liquor vending, broking and
even butchery and so on. The ever-venerated eternal values oflife
are compromised in the parameter of earning huge money. A Sanskrit
student is not an exception to this attitude.
At such a juncture, students do not find any logic as to why
they should study Sanskrit. Parents are equally concerned about
the future of their children. By studying Sahitya, Vyakarana, Darsana,
Dharmasastra or any traditional subject for years together in one’s
career in true spirit, no doubt, he grows with rare intelligence and
builds a refined personality, but he may not satisfy his material
aspiration despite his unmatched intelligence because there is no
job for this qualification. Besides, everyone is enamored by
technological revolution of the modem era, and the quantum of
material prosperity and its consumption is considered to be the
standard of one’s social status. Therefore, our policies for Sanskrit
education should emphasize the vocational utility of those branches
of it, which can be harnessed to provide jobs to the learners. Sanskrit
does not comprise the traditional subjects alone hinted above, it has
in its treasury subjects like Paurohitya or priest-craft, Jyoti$a or
Astronomy and Astrology, Vaikalpika Bhai,mjya oraltemative
medicine including Yoga, Ayurveda, Ratnacikitsa or gem therapy
and literatures containing other occult therapies, Vastu or ancient
architecture, Saundarya and Prasadhana-vidya or subjects of
body-beautitication through indigenous herbal application and such
other disciplines of vocational interest from catuhasati-kalas
‘sixtyfour branches of learning’. which can provide ample
opportunities for Sanskrit learners to earn handsome remuneration.
Sanskrit scholars specializing in any of these disciplines should take
leadership and come forward to form NGOs and such other institutes
and thus patronize the cause of Sanskrit heritage. It is high time to
show to the world the spectacular vocational and practical utility of
Sanskrit and providing opportunities for many unemployed youth of
this country. Motivation is required to pursue the student mass
highlighting the vocational essence of Sanskrit. so that a conducive
environment would emerge auguring hopes and aspirations for many.
The pass-out students can have these specialized courses and, engage
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Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum
themselves. Sanskrit scholars can collaborate with scientists and
agency of research laboratories in-certain areas of research to further
improve the practical productive value of those subjects. Besides.
allied technology in most of the branches cited above can be
developed and create herbal gardens, supplying the raw herbs from
their farms to the manufacturing industries as in the collaborative
area of Ayurveda. So also, the collaborative consultancies of modem
civil engineering and architectural Vastu, astrological calculation and
prediction through software simultaneously prescribing gems and
other herbal product for therapeutic and occult beliefs, running beauty
homes and massage parlors on indigenous principles and so on can
be the areas, where Sanskrit scholars can fare well to create job
opportunities for themselves. These trades should not be undermined
in their importance. Any business tries to capitalize the weakness
and emotional emphasis of the consumers. Nowadays, people are
crazy for occult practices, use of herbal products, indigenous
technology, as they are believed to have no side effects. Why can
we not succeed in all these branches of Sanskrit ? Neither in the
past, nor now even we have any emphasis of these subjects in our
curriculum. But reorienting our syllabus in college and university level
in these becomes demanding for the sustenance of Sanskrit heritage.
In the following paragraphs I choose Paurohitya or priest
craft as a productive area of earning. Let us forget sponsored jobs
employment with handsome salary and other benefits in Government
and private firms. Secured jobs in those organizations are limited.
Sanskrit students should change their mindset and rethink doing things
for their own enterprises. The Paurohitya can be an area of service
only where capital investment is very marginal or almost nil. One is
to qualify and equip him with knowledge of the mantras applied in
different rituals and the step-bystep activities involved in them.
Therefore, learning the subject and practicing it simultaneously under
the supervision of knowledgeable priests becomes mandatory. Two
three year’s learning and practice in this line makes one a perfect
priest. Maharshi Mahesh Yogi in last decade had started such a
venture in different centres of Delhi. The programme was
discontinued and this may be perhaps, due to lack of management
skill of a large number of participants. This project could have been
re-evaluated by expert and could have been improved.
The following propositions and action plans may be considered
regarding the viability of Paurohitya.
(1) NeIiher the central nor the State Government would
patronize such courses and programmes. Therefore, moneyed and
generous Hindu celebrities are to be approached for supporting or
sponsoring this programme in opening institutes exclusively meant
for different branches of vocational interests of Sanskrit literature
specially the priest craft under discussion.
(2) Motivation is needed to attract Brahmin boys, who have
passed minimum matriculation, and the higher their qualification the
better would be their status in this profession, so that the sophistication
effect referred to in the beginning would be dispelled from the minds
of Sanskrit learners. It is believed that so long does survive the Hindu
society, priests will be needed for performing their puja or saf!lSkiira
or any kind of rite or ritual either in small or large scale. As good
priests are not available, indifference reigns in the minds of the
Yajamanas to go for performing different rites. Once such facilities
are available and awareness spreads, society will definitely feci the
need of their service.
(3) Special consultancies should develop to take care of these
activities, the priests well trained would be available. The daksina
patterns would be kept highlighted for different rites. There should
be hierarchy of quality service of the priests, and the Yajamanas
have options for choosing the priest in term of demanded daksina.
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Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum
(4) The materials meant for the different rites should be
provided in the consultancies for which extra charges can be
collected, and this will facilitate the Yajamanas to procure from the
same place puja-materials along with the priests. Not only that, the
consultancies should provide advice on related queries of the
Yajamanas as regards appropriate time of performing certain rite
and other issues pertaining to the astronomy and Dharmasastra
needed to determine the time of rites and rituals. Instances of the
trades such as catering service and tent house may be cited. People
now-a-days do not bother for economy in expenditure, rather go
for descent management of the occasions by fully hiring the service
of these traders. It is evident that these trades fare well with very
good seasonal income to compensate their annual income. Thus, no
doubt, a number of people can be engaged if this trade of priest
craft is duly planned and managed considering it as an industry
providing bread and butter for many. .
(5) Finally we have to change our attitude of the customers
who are no other than the Yajamanas and we have to develop a
liking for this profession. The students who pass out from Sanskrit
institutions need to be motivated in favor of this profession having
employment opportunity. No attempt be left to render it as an
honored profession.
Thus, a modest beginning is to be made. The deserving priests
are to be created through the institutions meant for exclusive training
of priest craft, which would also serve as consultancies. This age is
the age of advertisement, and this profession in order to be productive
should not lag behind in these regards also. Once the products of
the trained priests are duly received by the society, this will definitely
go on generating large scale opportunities for employment of a good
number of Sanskrit students.
Reader, P. G. Department of Sanskrit
UtIcal University, Vanivihar
Bhubaneswara - 751004
Practical Utility of Sanskrit Curriculum
Dr. (Mrs) Bidyut Lata Ray,
The present Curriculam in Sanskrit prevailing in our state as
well as in many other states of India fails to provide employment
opportunities to our students. Though Sanskrit is the mother language,
it is gradually losing its impact on society due to the traditional way of
teaching and learing the subject. In ancient times, particularly. in the
Vedic period, the language had strong social implications, because of
its practical application in the performance of social rites and sacrifices.
Besides, the study of the astronomy, jyotisa and Karmakanda paved
ways for selfemployment of the learners through the practical
application of the subject learned. At present, another door has been
opened for providing major employment facilities to the Sanskrit-
learners by the computerisation of the subject. Such an application of
this language is the need of the time in order to protect and preserve
the manusript materials through data processing. But, to our utter
surprise, no such training is being imparted to our pupils now,
consequently, the Sanskrit-learners of our state do not have access to
computerise the language and thereby losing employment opportuni
ties.
Therefore, in our Sanskrit-syllabus, enough stress must be given
on the introduction of the topics like astronomy, jyotisa, karmakanda,
vedic studies and language-computing keeping in view the job
provisions for the Sanskrit-learners.
Prolegomenon :
Sanskrit is the mother of all Indian languages. In the most ancient
period, it was colloquial and hence was the language of communication.
This language and literature was sophisticated being patronised by
the kings and emperors. Actually, this language symbolises our rich
cultural heritage and profound tradition. Our Vedas, Epics, Puranas,
Brahmanas, Brahmanas, Aranyakas, Upanisads, Sutras.
Vyakarana and the Sidhantas etc. all arc written in Sanskrit. Many
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Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum
seers, writers, pocts, novelists, dramatists, grammarians, the
communicators and the interpreters of our country and abroad have
contributed a lot for the upliftment of Sanskrit language and literaturc.
In this connection, we remember the names of Vyasadeva, ValmIki,
Kalidasa, Banabhatta, J) Dandin, Suvandhu, BharavI, Magha, SrIharsa,
Bhatti, Jayadeva, DhoyI, Kahlana, Asvaghosa, Vihlana. JahlaIna,
Ksemendra, Panini, Katyayan, Patai’ijali, Barahamihira, Bhaskar,
Aryabhatta and Pathani Samanta etc. Among the foreign scholars.
we come across the names of F. Maxmuller. AA Macdonell, A.B.
Keith, H. Olden berg, M. Winternitz, A. Weber, A.W. Von Schegel,
Rudolph Roth, Otto Bothlingk, St. Petersburg, F. W. Hopkins, M.
Bloomfield, W. Caland, V. Henry, AL. Chezy, Charles Wilkins, William
Jones, Abraham Roger, R.L. Renou and R.T.H. Griffith etc., who
have enriched this language and literature with their writings and
interpretations. Copious studies on this subject are only concentrated
on the analysis of the writings, their contents and annotations. But.
the present problem of population-explosion and cosequent emergence
of unemployment situation demand the practical utility of every learning
in Social perspectives. The study of every course in the secondary,
higher secondary, college and university level should provide ample
opportunity for the employment of our youths. To our utter surprise,
the courses prescribed by the concerned boards, councils, or
universities remain far behind the objective and hence do not have
social implications. It is the time for every individual, educationist,
politician, administrator, writer and policy-maker to think over the matter
seriously for searching the alternative ways to bring Sanskrit to
practice, so that the sanskrit learners can earn their livelihood by the
practical aplication of the knowledge they have gained from the study
of the curriculum in Sanskrit. We will now concentrate our discussion
on the following few chief-sources of utilizing Sanskrit in practice to
develop self-employment, so that this language and literature can
occupy a special status in solving the unemployment problem faced
by our students. Sanskrit can be put to practice by the way of (a)
Vedic Studies, (b) Astronomical readings, (c) Jyotisa-practising. (d)
Karmakanda- utilizing and (e) Computer data-processing. Let us
focuss on each of these items in detail.
(a) Vedic Studies:
The procedures of performing the house-hold rituals and
sacrifices are laid down there in the Rgveda and Yajurveda. On the
other hand. the Siimaveda contains the musical tone of the verses
and the Atharvaveda is the Veda of sciences. The courses prescribed
by the colleges and universities should include vedic studies, so that a
student of Sanskrit can have access to the performance of rituals and
sacrifies, and for such deeds. the learner can earn money for his/her
maintenance.
(b) Astronomical readings:
Astronomy is a major subject of the Vedas. The origin of the
Universe has been narraled in the vedic verses in such a way that it
adheres to the modem scientific theory of cosmology. Vedic cosmogony
includes mainly two theories of creation, namely (i) water theory and
(ii) GoldenEgg theory. In addition to these, the Vedas include five
elements of this material world. i.e.. air. fire. water, lhe earth and the
antariksa.
The modified curriculum in Sanskrit should be such that a student
of this suhjecl can have enough knowledge in astronomy and this in
turn help him lo predict the positions and movements of the stars,
planets, satellites and the comets in the sky. Such studies will no doubt
focuss on the future happenings around us, i.e.. the tidal effects, earth
quake effects and the cyclonic effects can be predicted long before
the actual events to take place. Thereby, the lives and properties can
be saved from destruction. Such speculations can also fetch money
for the practisers. So. sclfemployment will be possible by studying
astronomy.
(c) Jyotisa-Practising :
Jyotisa is a special subject of the Vedas. In this respect, the
Vedanga-Jyotisa of Lagadha draws our attention. The practice of
Jyotisa-Sastra depends upon counting. The theory of the numbers is
applicable to Jyotisa-Sastra widely and without its help no conclusions
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Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum
can he drawn by the practitioner. Yantra, Mantra, Tantra and Yoga
also intluence the practice of Jyotisa a lot. Before taking up any
work or plan, one wants to know whether the work or plan will be
beneficial to himlher. The result is predicted by the practioner through
counting. Likewise, the fate of a person or child is predicted by
analysing the Jataka concerned. Ostensibly, .!yoti$a is a practical
subject which paves a way to earn livelyhood by the practitioner.
.!yoti$a also influences ViistuVidya. Any construction is based on
Viistu-Siistra that is linked with the positions of the grahas and
nak$atras. Therefore, any curriculum in Sanskrit should include the
study of Jyoti$a-Siistra, So that self-employment facilities will be
available to the learner.
(d) Karmakanda-utilizing:
Like astrology, learning and practising Karmakanda also open
doors for self-employment. The knowledge in this field is applied in
the fields of performing rituals. Homas, Yajftas and worshipping the
deities. Installations of gods and goddesses in the temples are instituted
with utilization of Karmakanda. These works are generally done by
the Brahmins. But a Brahmin, not sufficiently trained in the procedures
of Karmakanda fail to discharge his duties correctly. On the other
hand, anybody having well trained in the subject can perform the
work rightly. So, a student of the college or university should be taught
with Karmakanda in such a manner as to take up the job in practice.
This will certainly help himlher to earn livelyhood. Thus, time has
come to include this subject in the Sanskrit curriculum of Boards,
Councils and Universities.
(e) Computer Data-processing :
The recent trends in Sanskrit-learning and teaching adhere to
computerisation of the language. Keeping in view, the long-term
preservation and protection of the palm-leaf manuscripts and the
Sanskrit-writings, computer data-processing has been developed by
the reserachers to feed the Sanskrit words to the machine. Scientists
are trying hard to create specific software for true spelling and
pronounciation of a word in Sanskrit language. The dialectic marks
used in the Devaniigari ar:e also given by the use of modem software
technique. A Sanskrit student of the University should know how to
computerise the language. Specific courses and training should be
included in the Sanksrit Curriculum for gaining such knowledge. But,
to our utter surprise, our present curriculum lacks in that. If proper
training in this field will be given to our students in the college and
university level, then ample employment opportunities will be created.
This will, on the other hand, attract our students towards the subject.
Conclusion:
To sum up, we can say that Sanskrit is no longer classical. It is
modernised through developed techniques of teaching and learning
the subject. Now. the topics related to astronomy. astrology, tantrism
and ritualism are being analysed with the help of figures, graphs and
tables. Data fed to a computer bring out the output. Therefore, the
modern curriculum in Sanskrit should be framed in such way that a
taught can put his/her knowledge to social fields and earn money.
The topics discussed above should be included in the modified course
structure of the colleges and universities to create opportunities for
self-employment. Traditional way of teaching and learning the subject
has already lost its significance in the wake of mass explosion and
cry for a job. The authorities framing the syllabus should look into the
problems of the learners first and then go ahead of designing the
curriculum in Sanskrit.
Department of Sanskrit,
Neelamadhava Mahavidyala,
Kantilo, Nayagarh, 752069
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Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum
Sanskrit in Curriculum
Sj. Puma Chandra Ojha
The mosfimportant and indispensable item in the educative
process is curriculum. A well thought and well-made curriculum
make the educational structure lively, lovely and perfect.
Curriculum, what we in narrow sense mean the course of
study; but it is not like that. The course of study, no doubt, forms an
important part of the content, but it is only a part of the curriculum.
The dictionary-meaning of the curriculum, as stated by sir
Ashutosh Dev is “The specified course of study of a university”.
William Geddie says the same thing; whereas Tess Stein says.
“curriculum is the aggregate of course of study given in a school,
college etc.” Generally it means
Etymologically, the term ‘Curriculum’ has been derived from
the Latin ‘CURRER.E’ which means ‘RUN’. Thus Curriculum
means a course to be run for reaching a certain goal or destination.
In this sense, education is imagined as a race, with its aim as the
goal, and curriculum as the course, leading to that goal.
Both the western and eastern scholars like Carter. V. Goods,
Moorroe, Bent Rudyard and Kormenberg Henry, Frobel, T.P. Nunn,
Crow and Crow, Mahatma Gandhi, Rabindranath Tagore, Swami
Dayananda Saraswati etc. have given their own definitions on
curriculum. From among them Cunningham tops the list. He says,
“Curriculum is a tool in the hands of the artist (teacher) to mould his
material (pupils) according to his ideals (aims and objectives) in his
studio (school)”.
Keeping in mind the time, situation and age factor, Curriculum
has been changing. There was a time when life was simple and the
needs of the society were not very complicated and numerous. So
only a few subjects in the curriculum began to be considered as
synonymous with academic subjects of instruction. Education is
viewed as a dynamic process, so now the old concept of curriculum
can not be accepted in i~s entirety. The framers of the Secondary
Education Commission - have also pointed out, “According to the
best modern educational thoughts, Curriculum does not mean only
the academic subjects, traditionally taught in schools, but it includes
the sum total of experiences that a pupil receives through the manifold
activities that of in the school, in the class-room, library, laboratory,
workshop, playgrounds and in the numerous informal contracts
between teachers and pupils. In this sense, the whole life of the
school becomes the curriculum which can touch the life of the students
at all points and help in the evolution of balanced personality.”
In course of time, some of the major concepts and types of
curriculum have been developed like Traditional or Subject-centered
curriculum, the Activity Curriculum, the Experience Curriculum, the
undifferentiated curriculum, Basic Education Curriculum etc.
Though certain principles for construction of curriculum -
prevail, the basic principles of Curriculum-Construction as
recommended by Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) are
for totality of experience, variety and elasticity, relation to community
life, training for leisure and integration and correlation. Then in 1966,
the Indian Education Commission suggested radical reform of school
curriculum, where giving different types of developmental education,
stress was given on education in moral and spiritual value.
Curriculum, in course of time has been varied by several
commissions in recommending different pattern of education for the
whole country. Now what we see, due to the unpopularity of the
old pattern of higher secondary course, the +2 Higher Secondary
School is recommended in its place. It is line with the new national
pattern (10+2+3) of education. The Calcutta University Commission
first conceived this idea “10+2+3” pattern of education in 1919. In
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Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum
1966, the education commission revived the idea “10+2+3” pattern
of education. In this pattern curriculum has been prescribed by the
Board, the Council and the University respectively.
Anyway, for educational institution - Primary to University, a
definite curriculum should be made where culture, religion should
be planned. Now it would be authentic to take the views and
suggestions given by the learned persons of our nation and abroad
as well. Out of this, Mahatma Gandhi’s view is to be noted first.
What Gandhiji advocated is the complete overhauling of the
curriculum. He has said that our emphasis should be upon all those
subjects which concern our own country, our people, our life and
our physical and social environment. Again, he emphasized the
teaching of mother-tongue as opposed to the teaching of English.
Gandhiji also introduced crafts as an essential part of curriculum.
John Dewey includes moral. aesthetic and religious education in the
curriculum.
Regarding curriculum, Swami Dayananda Saraswati also in
his “Satyartha PrakMa” has suggested a definite curriculum for
educational institutions. The curriculum is predominated by Vedic
studies, religion education and Sanskrit studies. Such a curriculum
is relevant to his Philosophy of spiritual development, religious
development, Dharma and Character development. He emphasizes
the study of Vedic and Sanskrit texts which are mostly studied in
ancient Indian period. So he begins with Panini’s phonetics and
proceeds to grammar (~), Vedic philosophy (~), prosody (~),
manusmrti (~), Ramayana, Mahabharata. six systems of Indian
Philosophy
chery (~). After these suhjects, he wants the student to study
astronomy, astrology, mathematics and other allied subjects.
If we consider minutely, the views given by Gandhiji,
Dayananda etc., we can say that Sanskrit should possess a special
place in the curriculum of educational institutions. Sanskrit should
be given a big share in the curriculum. It should be made compulsory
not only as it is an enriched language but also it is the store house of
all types of knowledge and wisdom. Sanskrit is to be taught now
from the grass-root level to quite the today’s world which is
beleaguered with war, terrorism, corruption, consumerism and moral
depravity.
It must not be redundant to say that the inclusion of Sanskrit,
the most scientific and systematic language in the world in the
curriculum of educational system or institution should be made
compulsory. Sanskrit is the soul of India. To know India is to know
Sanskrit. Now-adays it has its great value. It is mentioned in ‘Forbes
Magazine’ (July, 1987) that Sanskrit is the mother of all the European
languages and is the most suitable language for the computer software.
As NASA says it is the world’s oldest spiritual language and the
only clear spoken language on the planet. For the need and
importance of Sanskrit education in the present educational texture,
the Govt. of India set up the Sanskrit Commission in October, 1956
under the chairmanship of prof. Suniti Kumar Chaterjee, with Prof.
V. Raghavan, Prof. R.N. Oandeker and Prof. S.K. De as members.
When India was fraught with linguistic parochialism and regional
Chauvinism during 1950s, as Dr. K.K. Basa remarks, the Sanskrit
Commission considered its role more than just pedagogical. Harping
on the age old Indian heritage of “Unity in diversity”, Sanskrit was
trumpeted as ‘a supreme Unifier’, and ‘the great Unifying force’.
So the commission sought to link inextricably membership’of the
nation with the mandatory learning of the language. The commission
stated, “As a matter of fact, so far as Indian education is concerned,
Sanskrit may study, it must be regarded as constituting the
foundation...”
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Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum
Considering the importance of Sanskrit from different angles,
it can be emphatically said that the study of Sanskrit is highly essential
now-a-days. Hence, it will not be spurious to quote some famous
sayings on Sanskrit by different dignitaries and scholars.
Sir Monier Williams says, “Sanskrit grammar reflects the
wondrous capacity of the hu man brain, which till today no other
country has been able to produce except India.”
James Burnet wrote in 1773, that Sanskrit was “a language
of wonderful art” and “in some respects, it resembles very much the
Greek, particularly in the Verbs...”
The great scientist Raja Ramanna remarks, “It is not realised
by many that sanskrit was once a very effective vehicle for conveying
scientific thoughts and has a rich scientific literature apart from works
of art, philosophy, religion, law etc. This is particularly true in the
areas of mathematics and astronomy; logic and philosophy; physical
and medical sciences.”
Regarding the path-breaking achievements of the ancient
Indians in the medical sciences and the art of good and healthy livings
as seen in Sanskrit, ‘Truth’ - A weekly says about Susruta as,
“SuSruta Sarphita (350 A.D.) enumerates eight branches of medical
knowledge as surgery, treatment of the diseases of the eyes, ears,
nose, throat and teeth; therapeutics; psychiatry and psychotherapy;
paediatrics; toxicology and rejuvenation and treatment for increasing
virility. The text is, however, known more for its extensive chapter
or surgery. It mentions 300 different operations employing 42 surgical
processes and 121 surgical instruments. These include ophthalmic
couching, cutting for stone, removal of arrows and splinters suturing,
examination of dead bodies for anatomy and caesarian sections.”
Will Durant one of the greatest and most learned - historians
of the western world, had observed: Indian Arithmetic, Algebra,
Astronomy, Astrology, Physics, Chemistry, Medicine, Law, Industry
and Economics, infact, everything that a civilization can boast of not
only aniticipated the Western Science, Arts and Industries by
thousands of Years, but in many cases then remain unsurpassed
even today.
Sanskrit retains the Indo-European character much more than
the other highly ancient Indo European language like Greek and
Hittite. In both phonology and morphology, Sanskrit is nearer to
Indo-European than the others. It is well known that the discovery
of Sanskrit led to that discovery of the Indo-European language
family. The impact of the discovery of sanskrit has been aptly
expressed by Sir William Jones in his speech at the foundation laying
ceremony of the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal in 1786. - “The
Sanskrit language, whatever be its antiquity, is of wonderful structure,
more perfect than the Greek, more copious than the Latin, and more
exquisitely refined than either, yet bearin~ to both of them a strong
ailinity . No philologer could examine Sanskrit, Greek and Latin
without believing them to have sprung from some common source,
which perhaps no longer exists.”
“Fixity in self-knowledge” is the Kernel of what is - noblest in
Sanskrit literature. The great German philosopher Schoepenhauer
once said, “The Upanishads are the solace of my life, they will be
the solace of my death”. Someone has also said rightly, “Who lives
if Sanskrit dies, and who dies if Sanskrit lives 1”
In this way, many scholars have given their views from which
we took news only to know our country and language as well. Last
but not the least, before giving the stop in this writing, I can say that
for the development of an individual in particular and the nation as
whole, Sanskrit which is constructed like geometry and follow a
rigorous logic should be introduced in our educational curriculum
from the grass-root level. So Prof. H.R. Aggarwal says, “Verily
sanskrit is regarded by many as ‘kamadhenu’ as the coW that fulfils
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Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum
all our cherished desires. Without the study of Sanskrit, we can not
master the different regional language, nor comprehend and
appreciate their comparative study. The study of Sanskrit is equally
important for the development of technical terminology in the various
fields of science and literature. Sanskrit literature provides us with a
unique record of our ancient history, religious, cultural, political and
social. If we are in search of mirror that can adequately reflect our
past, if we want to understand our culture and civilization thoroughly,
if we want a carrier here and hereafter, if we want to realise the
harmony between body and soul, then Sanskrit must be studied.”
Books for Reference:
1. H.R. Aggarwal, A Short History Sanskrit Literature, Delhi,
1963.
2. N. Mohapatra & G. Mohap~tra, Our Education, Cuttack,
1983.
3. R.N. Safaya and B.D. Shaida, Development of Educational
Theory and Pracitce.
4. B.K. Mishra, Adhunika Sik$tJra Moulika Tattva, Cuttack,
1996.
5. Vii1J.ijyotib., VoI.XIY., 1999. P.G. Department of Sanskrit,
Utkal University, 2000.
6. Wisdom. January, 2005, International Monthly Digest,
Chennai.
7. Truth, A weekly and Informing Digest of the World’s New,
Vol. 71. No. 38, 6th fehruary, 2004
8. Ibid., 18th April, 2003.
9. The Heritage, Vo1.5. No.4. April, 1989, Madras.
H.O.D. of Sanskrit, Salipur College
Salipur, Cuttack - 754202
INTRODUCING ORAL CHANTING OF VEDIC
MANTRS IN SANSKRIT CURRICULUM
Dr.(Mrs.) P.M. Rath
While designing the curriculum of Sanskrit studies,
one should be very clear about the objectives of the
curriculum. The objectives of Vedic studies have much more
significance and complexities. The purpose is to acquaint
the students with the Vedic texts by giving them board
outlines of the subject and by making them coversant with
certain parts of Vedic literature through explanations,
grammatical peculiarities etc. But the most significant point
is to make the subject interesting. We have rightly
incorporated Samhita texts from various Vedas, Brahmana
texts, Upanisadic texts, Vedic grammar and history of Vedic
literature etc. in the Honours and Post-graduate Curriculum.
The students who have completed graduation or doing their
Post-graduate studies are not able to enjoy the archaic
language of Veda mantras, as it is not presented to them in
right process. Average student considers the paper on Vedic
subject as the difficult one and few who do like it, acquire
mastery by going though the key books only. The present
curriculum at honours level and P.G. level appears to be
lacking one interesting as well as significant aspect of Vedic
studies.
Correct recitation of mantras is the most
fundamental prerequisite for Vedic studies. In the under-
graduate level as well as in the post-graduate level, a student
is initiated in the Vedic studies without knowing anything
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Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum
about the proper recitation of the mantras. As it is said
vedabhyasa is of five types-
Vedasvikaranam purvam vicaro’abhyasanam japah /
Taddanam caiva sisyebhyo vedabhyaso hi pancadha //
Daksasmrti-2.26
Thus the vocabulary and the process of recitation of
Vedic texts has it’s own pristine purity and uniqueness
conducive to the proper understanding of the Vedas.
In this context, the various modes of recitations
known as vikrtis may be introduced in the honours and P.G.
courses. A general idea about the eight vikrtis and some
specific practical recitation of one or two vikrtis like
jatapatha or Sikhapatha may be introduced in the
curriculum. The entire portion may be of 20 marks covering
one unit. This unit is to be introduced on oral test basis and
proper care should be taken to impart training to the
Lecturers on the Vedic recitation process by arranging
workshops or refresher courses through the Acharya expert
in this regard.
If such recitation practice will be introduced in the
curriculum then the student will be acquainted with the
tradition of Vedic recitation and it will incur interest within
him for Vedic studies.
This skill, if nourished properly, will help in the
preservation of Vedic mantras in its proper perspective will
help a person not only to earn livelihood but also will
effectively equip him to be trained in functional Sanskrit.
Conducting different rituals both grhya and srauta, requires
correct recitation of Vedic mantras and the faulty recitation
of mantras during the different religious occasions will not
yield the desired result.
Introducing oral chanting of mantras will certainly
generate interest within the young and energetic students
and the Veda as a subject of curriculum will be very
interesting to them. In the past the Acharyas were very
vigilant in listening to the recitations and even a minor
mistake committed by pupils in one vowel was instantly
corrected by the Acharyas. This involves the ceaseless
efforts exerted by those Acharyas as well as the students
aimed at through mastery over the Vedic mantras.
If we want to propagate and preserve the wonderful
ancient Vedic wisdom, then we must follow the time-tested
techniques and adopt methods of study conducive for Vedic
learning. Though the modern method of teaching and
learning through audio cassettes, printed books and
computers are useful but still these media would be of little
avail in propagating the age-old Indian wisdom in the absence
of living Acharyas graced psychologically and physically
through the traditional method of Vedic chanting. The proper
chanting of Veda mantras impresses upon the pupil the real
essence of Vedic wisdom.
Reader, P.G. Dept. of Sanskrit
Utakal Univeresity
Bhubaneswar.
o o o
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A Summon for Need-based Curriculum in
Sanskrit with Practical Component
Sj. Narayan Prasad Dash
The thinkers of India and abroad have started
recognizing the relevancy and potency of Sanskrit language
and literature in fields like technology, medicine,
management and machine – translation etc. apart from
shaping the culture and rationalizing the national behaviour
of India. Standing on the threshold of this accepted
conviction, every student, teacher and lover of Sanskrit
should look forward to eradicate the problems in reading,
understanding and promoting Sanskrit to make it appropriate
and complementary to the modern global need and trend.
One of the ways to fulfil this aim is to incorporate some
changes in the academic syllabus in vogue. Unless the
language and learner are given due attention, the survival and
healthy growth of Sanskrit is bound to suffer.
A model syllabus or curriculum should be resourceful
to satisfy the queries of a present day pupil. One must find
answers to the questions like – why should I study Sanskrit?
What is the purpose of knowing and reading the prescribed
texts? In which way it would help me in my real-life
situation? Can I get inspiration from it to make my life
meaningful and worthy in the days of cut-throat competition
and survival of the fittest?
In this small paper I have tried to focus some light on
the proposed framework of Sanskrit curriculum and laid
stress on the practical component of it. In order to make the
syllabus viable from the pragmatic point of view, Yoga,
Karmakanda, Vastu-Shastra, Ayurveda and Dialectics etc.
may be introduced. The successful pass-outs will be treated
as assets to the Society by learning and earning
simultaneously. These topics can be carried to the
laboratories, work-shops, hospitals, ritual exhibits, herbal
gardens for the fulfillment of their respective practical
components in Degree level can be made available through
website for quick response and result. These courses can
also be opened as self-financing courses by the authorities
of autonomous colleges.
The term ‘Classical literature’ for Sanskrit speaks of
its restrained and organized style established in antiquity.
Time has come to de-recognize this kind of limited
identification by prescribing topics having contextual
dimensions of the language in the curriculum. To cite some
instances of deviations Sanskrit in taught under the caption
of ‘Indology’ in J&K and the engineering students of Sankar
University, Tamilnadu are studying Sanskrit in the name of
‘Indian Culture & Language’. This kind of step has been
proved fruitful to attract Muslim and Christian Students all
over the country.
Topics from Sanskrit texts beginning from the Vedas
till date announcing the dignity of physical labour and
relationship of human being with ecology should be
incorporated in the curriculum. It will be a step to save young
generation from being violent and prey to mentality of
earning easy-money though unfair means. A shift from
traditional outlook of teaching Megha and Magha is
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Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum
necessary. Since the flow of literature is perpetual, modern
topics of modern writers representing global problems and
solutions, patriotism, national developments &
Achievements, literacy activities of other nations should be
introduced in form of translated or original Sanskrit. The
practical component of this part of the syllabus will be stage-
enactment of plays, mono-action, composition of stanzas
according to various metres and participation in debates etc.
It is highly beneficial from interest-generating point of view.
Everybody falls in love with his own poem or stanza. Singing
of Slokas both by the teacher and the taught, chanting of
Mantras, Vishnu Sahashranam etc. with musical instruments
would add fragrance to the flavour.
Learning of diacritical marks and their application
should be in the curriculum at H.S.C. level. A student leaving
Sanskrit after H.S.C. will easily be attracted to go through
Sanskrit passages and stanzas written in English by the help
of these signs. I have seen some non-Sanskrit Scholar and
the teachers showing interest in reading Sanskrit by
acquainting themselves with these fundamental signs. Its
practical component may be a fieldwork in which a student
may be an asked to make fixed number of persons
knowledgeable of these signs.
The problems of reading Devanagari Script fluently are
always there with average H.S.C. students. Sometimes
Degree students also fumble when confronted with
compounded or euphonic words. It can only be eradicated
not by cramming or reading habit but by writing the script. I
believe that grammar is the chastity of any Indian language
and due to this chastity and rich stock of vocabulary, Sanskrit
language has the authority to express any human idea. The
curriculum of grammar at H.S.C. and H.S. level should be
designed in such way that the student will feel proud of it. A
student must learn through his syllabus that he is destined
to acquire the knowledge of a language uncorrupted through
the ages and foreigners salute his country for this kind of
lofty linguistic heritage. For that, like the grammar book of
other languages Sanskrit grammar book, grammar class and
grammar answers should be in Sanskrit language and
Devanagari script in H.S.C. and H.S. level. It will not be
difficult for students to attempt grammar questions if they
will be asked in shortest forms demanding no sentences and
no phrases. It is found that grammar teaching is neglected in
H.S. classrooms. Therefore one paper should be there
exclusively for general grammar and it should be answered
in Devanagari script. The practical component of this topic
can be the study of rules and notations of a Sanskrit
Dictionary. Various meanings of a word in different given
situations and its use in different parts of speech can prove
useful in school-syllabus. The syllabus of grammar should
be molded in such a way that Sanskrit will not only taste
madhura in literature but in life also by its adaptability and
applicability. The situation like inability to read the contents
of Sanskrit manuscript and to correct a proof would not
harass a young graduate.
The idea of introducing practical components in the
curriculums is not new though it appears so. Some critics
of linguistics say that the terms like ‘syllabus’ and
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Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum
‘curriculum’ have developed from Sanskrit terms like
Salabh-yasa and Gurukulam. The syllabi approved by
Valmiki, Agastya and Kanva etc. as the vice-chancellors of
their respective Gurukulas were inclusive of practical
aspects like the collection of faggot, services to cows and
other animals, reading the position of stars in nights,
plantation and afforestation, treatment of guests, knowledge
of herbs and medicinal plants etc. It was making the
education comprehensive, complete and integral.
Now I would like to say a word on the introduction of
a paper in connection with the art of creative writing and
speaking at a Degree level. Oriental publishers like Motional
Banarasi Das and Punthi Pustak etc. are bringing out
publications most of which are written in English and by
foreign scholars. A time has come when we see that the ‘C’
language and English language are the ruling languages of
the world. A Sanskrit scholar should be careful and serious
in this respect. The role of English for the prosperity of
Sanskrit can not be avoided when the range of English can
attend National and International Seminars, debates, carry
on researches, publish books, chanalize Indian thought while
at the same time check the advent of consumerism into Indian
syllabus. The Knowledge of computer operation and machine
translation through the application of generative grammar
may be introduced in Honours courses as a practical
component of the paper.
Old order changeth giving place to new. It is the law of
nature. Vasistha was the adherent of traditional and orthodox
views but the society has always voted in favour of
Visvamitra who was the champion of revolutionary ideas in
the-then age. By dint of his penance and perseverance
Visvamitra obtained Bramhatva, by dint of his wisdom and
logic adopted Sunah-sepha as his son, famous in the name
of Rsi Madhuchanda. Rsi Animandavya also amended the
provision of punishment to a boy below fourteen years of
age. All kinds of traditions have to undergo change to suit
the society. So the changes are welcome if they are in
positive direction.
During my participation in a refresher course in
Tamilnadu last year, I came across a number of hoardings
displayed at the roadside of the town. They read-
// Long Live Classical Divine Tamil //
I thank the Tamilians for their deep concern and with
them I like to join my voice as a lover of Sanskrit-// Long
Live Practical Divine Sanskrit //
Jayatu Samskrtam.
Senior Lect. & Head,
Department of Sanskrit,
S.V.M. College
o o o
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Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum
Curriculum in Sanskrit
Dr. (Mrs.) Manjushree Tripathy,
Education is the Life-blood of Democracy. Proper
education should aim at including democratic and human
values and respect human rights. Realising the importance
of Education in the process of nation building, Pandit
Jawaharlal Nehru had remarked “all is well with the nation if
all is well with our universities and colleges”. The emphasis
on Education in general and Higher Education in particular
has perhaps been lost sight of by our planners for which the
country has not evolved properly with the present scenario.
The beginning of this century has unleashed a new
socio-economic-cultural revolution world –wide. Higher
education is being rapidly internationalized. The new global
scenario possesses unprecedented challenges for our higher
education system where whole ranges of skills are demanded
from graduates of all disciplines. However, the centres of
higher leaving generally suffer from a number of maladies
like under-nourishment, mal-administration, improper
database and non-futuristic need-based planning, societal
alienation and apathy, lack of vision, expertise and lack of
inputs necessary to inculcate professionalism among the
pass-outs. Therefore, most of the centres of higher learning
are in a crisis. To certain extent this can be eradicated, if an
adequate and updated syllabi as per the norms of the UGC
model curriculum can be framed and implemented. Thus the
modified and updated syllabi in accordance with the UGC
model curriculum is at par with all the leading institutions
of the country imparting teachings in Sanskrit. The fruits of
change in syllabi have paid rich dividends. Present academic
standards will have to be strengthened by adopting a more
flexible credit based modular system giving emphasis on a
balanced curriculum that lays stress on humanities, social
sciences, basic sciences being conglomerated in Sanskrit
which embraces the applied and frontier area courses. Thus
the present educational scenario in the country requires
many departures to be made from the Macaulay system of
higher education. Recently during the vice-chancellor’s
conference on Central Universities, President Dr. A.P.J.
Abdul Kalam emphasized that educational system should be
employment oriented which has been also rightly quoted by
Vidura in the Mahabharata as “Arthakarica Vidya” etc. While
passing out from Universities, graduate students should also
have in their possession a diploma in a professional course
besides a degree. The pass outs should have capacities of
research and inquiry in higher field, creativity, innovation
and leadership qualities. This can be possible only through
additional exposure and training beyond normal course
curriculum. The strength of individuals will have to be
pooled together to build up a corporate vision of work
culture in Research and Teaching which can facilitate the
modern resurgent India of tomorrow.
Thus in order to meet the new demand on the emerging
challenges for Sanskrit studies in India in the new
millennium, the UGC has framed the new model curriculum.
Receiving the syllabi from various Universities the
committee has late down the policy and guidelines of the
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Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum
restructure of the syllabus. Variations found in different
universities regarding a) the number of papers, b) codes
contents and c) structure, were taken into consideration
and the proposal was accepted unanimously towards the
formation of uniform syllabus through out the country. With
the purpose of making the students graduates having acquired
the desirable proficiency in various disciplines in order to
make them face the ground reality the best elements of the
existing syllabi of Sanskrit rich with various branches of
learning in different universities were taken into
consideration. Ultimately after the comparative analysis of
the course contents of different universities the selection
of texts towards the making of uniform syllabus was arrived
at an agreement about the range of literature. Thus the
committee has decided to adopt certain policy and guidelines
for the revision of the syllabi.
Four major shortcomings are found out in graduate and
post-graduate students in Sanskrit. Such as:
i. The students are not able to speak or converse in
Sanskrit
ii. They are not aware of the intellectual strength of the
Sanskrit tradition of thought
iii. They confined themselves to Sanskrit study only and
unable to interact with other disciplines or
contemporary thought.
iv. Lastly, they are not linked with the new technologies
and the associated changes in the employment patterns.
The committee laid specific policy and set of certain
guidelines for framing the syllabi in order to eradicate these
4 shortcomings. Hence certain principles were adopted fro
this purpose. They are discussed in the following pages
1. Care has been taken to ensure that students achieve
a good command over all the 3 abilities in Sanskrit language
speaking, reading and writing. Of these it was felt, speaking
is of paramount importance as this is the primary ability
which generate confidence and gives rise to other abilities.
To ensure this (i) courses in Sanskrit language is
introduces, (ii) courses in the structure of Sanskrit language
is also included in the syllabi and (iii) UGC sponsored
monthly diploma courses through out the year to felicitate
the Sanskrit speaking ability of the students.
2. The students must be well acquainted with the
Sanskrit intellectual traditions. To ensure this –
(i) a special introductory course in Sanskrit intellectual
tradition is to be introduced
(ii) the course should cover a wide range of knowledge
domains as far as possible
(iii) courses particularly in scientific and technical
literature is to be introduced and
(iv) foundational courses in Paninian grammar and in
Indian logic be made compulsory.
3. The Sanskrit students must interact with other
tradition particularly classical and modern western thought.
He should be updated with the continuing relevance of
classical Indian thought. To ensure this (i) comparative
studies should be introduced to facilitate the components
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of comparative thought and reality both Indian and western
(ii) secondly, contemporary thought should be introduced
in order to explore the possibility of linking the traditional
Indian thought with modern problems of knowledge and
requirements.
4. Lastly, in the field of Sanskrit stress has been found
only in literature and philosophy till now but no such
emphasis is given on science and emerging field on
technologies. Hence, a Sanskrit graduate should be exposed
to the important segments of Sanskrit enriched with science
and technologies, in order to enable them to make a sound
base in the employment market for the future.
Therefore care must be taken to correct Sanskrit
theoretical studies with the imposing technologies. To
ensure this, the courses should be introduced to train the
students all aspects of emerging information and technology.
Thus in the aforesaid manner, the courses are spelt out
with the arrangement and distribution of texts and
specifications of the exact portions or sections of the texts
etc. to be prescribed whenever and wherever necessary with
the additions along with their reference. With this aim of
specific details, the units, their themes and the texts of all
the courses for graduation and post-graduation were framed
and worked out. The enumeration of references gives a
modern critical and comparative perspective on the thought
– content of each course. Thus the syllabi show structural
uniformity for all the courses. Moreover, the texts have been
chosen both for their undoubted value in the tradition and
their relevance for modern emerging issues and allows
exposure to multiple perspectives.
General recommendations for Sanskrit studies are as
follows:
A. (i) As far as possible, Sanskrit should be the medium
of instruction at some stage or in some courses
(ii) The question papers in all courses should be in
Sanskrit language only
(iii) 25 % of answers should be in Sanskrit in the answer
scripts for evaluation
B. To successfully implement these revised syllabi, it
is necessary -
(i) To prepare reading and teaching materials based on
scientific methodology.
(ii) To organize refresher courses on a large scale to
give the teachers the necessary orientation for effective
implementation for the proposed syllabi.
(iii) To make the students actively participate in the
teaching learning process in the pedagogy through
appropriate classroom methods seminars, tutorials,
workshops etc.
C. To establish a linkage between Sanskrit and other
discipline it is desirable that courses dealing with Sanskrit
language, literature and intellectual tradition should be
allowed and made available as optional for students
graduating in disciplines other than in Sanskrit. For example,
a science student could opt for scientific and technical
Sanskrit literature as an optional subject and so on. Hence
necessary provision and openness should be introduced in
respective syllabi of other disciplines.
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D. All teaching programmes must ensure that those
who possess a graduation or post-graduation degree in
Sanskrit can speak Sanskrit fluently as in the case with other
degree holders in other languages.
E. The post graduation course may be open to all. For
this one who has no background in Sanskrit, short-term bridge
course may be introduced to bring them in to the main stream.
F. Lastly the cultural aspects of Sanskrit should be
introduced in our curriculum, which will help the students
to get better nourishment to the human values of ethos and
sentiments, which will come forward for the preservation
inculcation and discimination of our rich cultural heritage.
Both in the country and abroad Sanskrit has a rich tradition
as well as an outstanding contribution in all aspects of fine
arts like art, architecture, painting, music and sculpture etc.
of national international appreciation which are yet to be
explored.
The fruitful result of a well-planned curriculum will
give the following results –
1. International scenario – The new graduate will have
whole some education with strength in fundamentals,
appreciation of economics, values and ethos of world
community, excellence in communication and interpersonal
skills and exposure to the latest in science and technology.
2. Employment scenario –
a. The employment in global market is likely to
increase provided our graduates have necessary knowledge,
skills and abilities to work in global environment.
b. The employment in service sector (travel, tourism,
entertainment, administration, banking, health care etc) is
likely to increase substantially apart from becoming the
traditional way of imparting Sanskrit teaching.
3. Focus on innovation - In a knowledge driven society,
innovation is the key to prosperity and growth. It is the
innovation, which gives birth to design and development of
new processes, effective solutions to existing problems, new
job opportunities, new path making ideas etc. To make our
graduates innovative, the existing teaching-learning
pedagogy has to undergo sea change from one of spoon
feeding, memorizing and vomiting to self and group learning,
problem solving and guiding to the world of knowledge and
bright ideas. Thus the curriculum will provide an atmosphere
of learning, experimenting and facilities for accessing the
world of knowledge. The divergent views, free and frank
opinions and non-linear thinking have to be all treated with
respect. The curriculum has to evolve newer systems and
procedures to give values to innovations rather than the
traditional focus on marks in examination while awarding
degree or diploma.
4. Role of Institutions – For this, the institution need not
be necessary a philanthropic organization but it has to look
towards the long-term development and sustainability. The
institutions can do best if they leave the education to the
really learned people and create environment and facilities
to facilitate teaching-learning, innovation and research. Thus
the institutions have to focus on over all personality
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development through several co-curriculum and extra
curricular activities and take all efforts to imbibe a national
institutional pride with international perspective in their
graduates.
5. Role of Government – The Government should take the
responsibility to ensure the society regarding the qualitative
achievement of the Sanskrit in the emerging time. It should
take keen interest for students, teachers, employment and
public at large.
6. Role of Students/Parents/Guardians – Students role
is very important in the educational system. The success of
Sanskrit lies in its abilities to transform a young, enthusiastic
and inquisitive and competent professional who can face the
competitive world without sacrificing his or her values and
ethics. Besides excelling in academics, he/she has to make
all efforts to develop personality, group working
temperament, communication skills and creativity. The
students have to keep their eyes and ears open to all sources
of knowledge.
i. The role of the parents or guardians in shaping the
career and personality of a young mind needs very little
emphasis, still then they should be watchful not only I respect
of their wards academic achievement but also on their
wholesome personality development.
7. Role of the University – The university has to ensure
that –
a. The curriculum and syllabi of the university is
constantly updated to keep them at par with the best in the
world.
b. The system of examination, evaluation and award of
degree is inline with the international best practices so that
the graduates can complete in the world market.
c. The constituent and affiliated colleges impart quality
education as per the rules and regulations of the university.
d. The teaching-learning environment is improved in
its colleges and in its own departments.
e. The thrust of education is in line with the global
trend and local needs. Its graduates have necessary
knowledge, skills creativity and high moral/ethical standards.
f. An inquisitive and research environment in its
departments and colleges is created.
g. It gives value for the money and time that a student
spends in an university set up.
h. The quality of teacher and their teaching is
constantly upgraded through opportunity for higher
qualifications, seminars, workshops, symposia and refresher
programmmes.
i. The university makes an indelible mark in the field
of technical education, research and extension; it
contributes significantly to enhance quality of life of the
society at large.
Thus the curriculum in sum toto provides a state of
the art curricula and syllabi, which provide quality, input in
the students through lectures, printed materials and
electronic media. The mission can also be fulfilled the
training and orientation programs of all teachers. Moreover,
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Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum
by the career development of faculty through P.G. teaching
and Ph.D. programmes also this mission can be achieved
sincerely.
Thus Sanskrit in the Higher education system in the
country is in a critical phase, which requires major
upliftment. The problems are many but not insurmountable.
However, the solution lies in the change of our mindsets
and in concerted and co-operative effort of all concerned
with the system.
The present crisis must be viewed seriously and should
be taken as an opportunity to change the excel. The
environment conducive to such changes. Sooner we realize
and take effective steps, we reap its benefits.
Lect. (SS) in Sanskrit,
Ravenshaw (Auto) College, Cuttack.
o o o
“Sarasvati sruti mahati mahiyatam”: - The
logo of Curriculum in Sanskrit
Tapan Kumar Panda
There are two different aspects of the word
curriculum. One is the “prescribed text for teaching” and
the other one is “the associated activities”.
So far Sanskrit is concerned there prevails a deep-
rooted prejudice in the mind of common man. As per the
prejudice Sanskrit is widely accepted as a subject like
History Economics etc. As a result of which Sanskrit
teachers very often face embarrassing situations while they
are asked and expected to explain some technical texts like
Ayurveda and Jyotisa etc. Intention behind this narration is
to make it clean that Sanskrit is not at all a subject. Rather it
is a language where almost all the Subjects can trace their
origin.
So to say subjects like Astrology, Medical Science,
Psychology, Political Science, of architecture all these can
be studied through Sanskrit language.
Now, the question comes: - what does it mean when
one says “Curriculum in Sanskrit Language”? Does it mean
“the ways and means to learn Sanskrit language”? Does it
mean: - “the programmes and activities to promote/impart
Sanskrit language”?
Probably the answer is - yes. If not, the out come of
this discussion shall be null and void as there can never be a
single curriculum for a number of subjects, which can be
acquired through Sanskrit language.
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Thus the point of discussion drops down from an un-
limited area to a specific zone i.e. “Technique and aids of
teaching of Sanskrit language. Following observations are
made in order to meet the present need.
Learning of language is considered to be a different
one but experiments reveal that with a very little effort it
can be acquired. The result of this experiment can be
witnessed in many children who very often acquire a new
language without many difficulties just by spending few
hours with their friends of that new language. But the
scenario is completely different when in the classroom a
new language is imposed upon them. They begin to tremble.
The other experience, which might have been gathered
by each and every individual reveals that a non-Hindi speaking
child, at the age of 8 to 10 quite effectively understands
Hindi dialogues of Television serials.
To sum-up these observations it can safely be
concluded that human being develops a superb memory
power by continuous hearing process.
Although Vedic age has lost it’s past glory but the
teaching method adopted during those days was an unparallel
one. Which was based on this hearing principle. That’s why
Veda was renamed as Sruti. At present the same trend be
revived. With some required modifications the teaching
methods through constant hearing process are narrated
below.
1. The teacher should use simple and short Sanskrit
sentences to explain the texts.
2. Through gesture, picture or acting the difficulties be
clarified.
3. In case of high degree of difficulties, in a sentence one
or two words from the mother tongue be used long with
the corresponding Sanskrit word such as =i-i. ~i-i=i-ii-i.
(in oriya) -i=ii=iø.
4. Up to under graduate level all such traditional texts
having long compounds, highly erotic narrations necked
description of unwanted body exposer, be removed and
simple texts be included so that the learner can freely
participate in the discussion.
5. There shall be at least one practical paper in both
graduate and under graduate level in which creative
writing and simple story telling in Sanskrit be tested.
6. At least once in a month all the teachers of a particular
zone along with some selected students from each
institution should meet each other. In such meetings
students be encouraged to cite songs, poems etc.
7. An annual literary meet be organized where selected
participants from different zones shall take part.
As learning and teaching is a continuous process. The
research in this field is also a continuous one. So a lot more
paths are yet to be opined. However as per the discussions
made earlier the bharatavakya of Abhijnana Sakuntalam be
recalled, where it is said “Sarasvati Sruti Mahati Mahiyatam”.
Just a mild change in analyzing this line gives a complete
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new look. The word Sruti, if becomes hearing then the line
can be understood in the following manner.
“Through the process of hearing the great goddess of
language be worshipped, and all know Sanskrit is =it-iiºii.
=it·iit-ii + Hence this line of that great poet ‘Kalidasa’ be the
logo of curriculum in Sanskrit and accordingly both the
meanings of the word curriculum i.e. the prescribed text
and the activities beyond the text be followed.
Mahima College, Joranda,
Dhenkanal.
o o o
Redesigning of Sanskrit curriculum for
college students
Dr. B. Nayak
India, the sacred abode of gods is a land of different
cultures, religions and languages. It has been glorified
through the vast amount of knowledge stored in Vedic
literature, philosophy and religion. The Veda-based Indian
culture enshrined in Sanskrit language unites the people of
divergent cultures and religions. India is revealed to the
western world through Sanskrit. Therefore Sanskrit is highly
appreciated and widely read in the Western land. Still now
the western world remembers the smooth and melodious
verses of Kalidas, deep and heart-rending pathos of
Bhavabhuti, polished and jingling music of Dandin, elaborate
and highly finished art of Magha, deep significance of Bharavi
and bewildering complex phrases of Bana. In this age of
science and technology this language some how finds a
better position in Orissa than any other state of the country.
Orissa feels proud of giving birth to the scholars like
Jayadeva, Biswanath Kaviraja and Pathanisamanta who have
attained unique position in the Sanskrit world. The language
has been preserved and transmitted to the students of the
schools and colleges of the state. Here the college education
means both +2 as well as +3 streams since +2 stream has
not yet been segregated from college education except in a
few autonomous colleges of the state. So when we have to
analyze the curriculum of Sanskrit both the streams may be
taken into consideration. An effort has been made in this
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paper to analyze the problems faced by the students and
teachers of Sanskrit.
Curriculum is a tool in the hands of the artist (teacher)
to mould his materials (students) according to his ideals
(objectives) in his studio (college). The planning of the
curriculum should reflect the aims, values and contents
through its entire design. After independence different
commissions have been setup to recommend a designed
curriculum for the students of the schools and colleges
mainly basing on the principles like i) development of
individual personality ii) principle of child centered-ness
and principle of national development. But principal
objectives of the curriculum are to enable an individual to
cultivate the art of social, moral and spiritual values.
Particularly the curriculum for Sanskrit learning is to be
designed in such a manner so that the whole of Indian culture
and civilization, the vast amount of ancient wisdom, values
and skills will be preserved and transmitted to the successive
generation through educational institutions.
Let us first analyze the difficulties of the students of
+2 level have to read two papers. Paper one carries 100 marks
and paper two carries 100 marks too. For 60 marks of the
paper two the +2 Council has prescribed a book entitled
Samskrtamandakini, which comprises of prose and poetry.
But however the students going to appear +2 exam 2005
have not yet been supplied with the specific text called
Samskrtamandakini. The only Oriya translations of different
editions available to them are not fully acceptable since they
are not free from ambiguity. As a result the students offering
Sanskrit at +2 stream have been harassed. Hence the course
designers may review the discontentment of the students.
UGC and other educational authorities at state and
central level have given the guidelines to be followed in
designing the curriculum for the different disciplines of the
higher education. The guidelines suggest to plan the
curriculum in such a way so that we can be able to cope with
the global curriculum, related textbooks and reference books
and learning resources. Keeping in view the national
education policy the course designers of the different
universities have streamlined the curriculum of the subjects.
Since our college in affiliated to Utkal University let us
analyze the problems of the students of this university
studying Sanskrit at Degree stage.
As per the curriculum of the university some take
Sanskrit as pass subject, some as elective and some as Hons.
Subject. Hence we get the opportunity of teaching Sanskrit
to three categories of students at the Degree stage. Naturally
their feelings regarding the course is different. When I
closely observe the Sanskrit attitude as a teacher, I have
marked their dissatisfaction over the present curriculum of
Sanskrit. Subject matters of all the four papers +3 2
nd
year
Sanskrit Hons. Have made them over burdened. The unitary
mark division of the papers is disproportionate. They have
to read a lot for a unit of 20 marks. To reduce the burden of
paper III paribhasa portion may be dropped. More over the
teachers lose interest in teaching the same selected Vedic
hymns for so many years. Hence the selected hymns of paper
5
th
may be replaced by some other hymns. The success of
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each curriculum lies with the performance of the students.
Therefore to widen the scope of Sanskrit learning the
feelings and reactions of the students and teachers may be
reviewed and an up to date course may be designed. A
curriculum howsoever reformed it may be, it can’t be
claimed as perfect since it is a continuous process of
thinking, modifying and evaluating. As I think, we are lagging
much behind in presenting a full-fledged curriculum in
Sanskrit for the streams, +2 as well as +3.
Therefore, let us analyze the difficulties and
challenges faced by the students and teachers of Sanskrit in
colleges and get prepared to accept and adopt a new vision
of curriculum in Sanskrit.
Dept. of Sanskrit
Kendrapara College, Kendrapara
o o o
Restructuring of Curriculum
Dr. Kanhei Charan Swain,
0.0. The University Grants Commissions in his publication
– ‘Planning Commission Working Group IX plan
Development of Higher Education’ has hinted at
relevance of Higher Education. After a though
observation and critical examination on all the
Committees and Commissions the academicians have
realized that the present curriculum of undergraduate
level education offered at the Degree colleges leads
us no where. It has no goal in view. The subjects of the
study are old and out dated. The courses are mostly
academic, theoretical, narrowly conceived and
examination oriented. So this type of curriculum does
not provide the right kind of preparation and adjustment
to face the growing problems of the 21
st
century. This
curriculum does not appear to related with the practical
life. Therefore, it is high time to rethink on the above
theme. Hence a through overhaul of our curriculum is
needed in the beginning of the 21
st
Century. For this
the following suggestions are given.
1.0. Uniformity in the curriculum structure –
It is felt that there should be uniformity in the
curriculum structure all over India on at least in all +3
degree colleges including autonomous colleges in the
state. Sa that a student will face no difficulty in the
event of his migrating to a difficult university or
college. Apart from this there will be uniformity in
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curriculum all among the students of under graduate
level.
1.1. As it is said that ‘sariramadyam kfalu dharmasadhanam’,
so body should be protected to learn properly and to
do better for the betterment of the society. For this
Yogo should be made compulsory not only at the
degree level but also from the very beginning. There
should be practical for this purpose.
1.2. To sensitize the youth, the study of scriptures, such as
the Upanishads and the Gita should be introduced.
1.3. The subject like Vastusatra, Astrology, Astronomy,
Ayurveda and Arthasastras should be introduced at the
degree level, so that after graduation, are should earn
something independently.
1.4. In this modern age computer is a essential thing to do
the academic work, therefore computer application
should from a part of applied course for all students.
1.5. Moral and spiritual education must have a definite place
in the revised syllabus. For this purpose the text like
Panchatantra, Kadambari, Kathopanisad etc. should be
prescribed to inculcate in the minds of the students a
sense of purpose in life, which is necessary.
In this way we must change for the letter, try to
achieve the excellence.
Sr. Lecture in Sanskrit
Udala College, Udala
Mayurbhanj.
Technical And Utilitarian Sanskrit
The Present Need
Er. Sudhansu Sekhar Mishra,
Sanskrit is not just a language or literature. This is the hidden
treasury of world wisdom prevailed since a longtime. Indology, which
mainly includes Sanskrit, might be said to have commenced as a
modern academic discipline by the founding of the Asiatic Society
of Bengal at Calcutta in 1784, by Sir William Jones and virtual
launching of the discipline of comparative linguistics in indo-European
with the following declaration made by them before the society in
1786. “The Sanskrit language, what ever be it’s antiquity, is of
wonderful structure; more perfect than Greek, more copious than
Latin and more exquisitely refined than either; but bearing to both of
them a stronger affinity both in the roots of verbs and the forms of
Grammar than could possibly have been produced by accident; so
strong indeed that no philologer could examine then at all without
believing them to have sprung from some common source, which
perhaps no longer exists. There is similar reason though not so
forcible, for supposing that both Gothic and Celtic, though blended
with a different idiom, had the same origin with Sanskrit; Gothic and
Old Persian might se added to the same family
1
.” These events
caused the imagination of the votaries of allied disciplines like
Language, Linguistics, Philosophy, Religion, History, Archeology,
Art and like both in India and aboard. Nationally, Sanskrit being at
the root of all these disciplines had been the greatest beneficiary in
this boom of oriental studies. A large number of text editions,
translations, critical studies and researches in Sanskrit works came
to be published.
In all these activities, however, while every other field of
Sanskrit gained, the field of Science has been neglected. In
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comparison to it’s stature, not much has been done in this field,
technical terms, which required more effort in the matter of identifying
vocal bularies, understanding their significance and trans Latins them
perfectly. The wealth of scientific literature produced in India in
Sanskrit has been enormous even as to be unbelievable. Indeed an
examination of the cataloges of the large number of repositories of
Indian manuscripts will substanciate this statement the study of Indian
Scientific literature has not received the attaintion it deserves. This is
a proper forum, where I like to put forth few lines of suggestions for
the study and research on scientific literature in Sanskrit. The work
on scientific literature has to be conducted with the co-operative
effort of a Sanskritist and a Scientist, unless, of course, the Sanskritist
is a Scientist and vice-versa.
i. The objectives of the study of early Indian Science should be
that the result thereof should be made useful for the advancement
of the modern science. This is possible and also feasible. For
instance, the use of Ayurvedic turmeric is proved effective to
combat severe deseases and the practice of Yoga is proved
as Mahousadhi for health.
ii. Science in India, has been largely utilitarian with the object of
solving problems of the people. Indian Science was not for
science sake. It is necessary for the modern Scientists to take
up from where their ancient counterparts have left off.
iii. Scientific documentation in India is found in the Sutra style of
the philosophical systems. The scientists are therefore required
to express the data, arguments, results etc. in capsule form.
Living out the details and rationale. It is for the modern
Sanskritists and the collaborating scientists to understand
through intense study, comparision of parallels and the
circumstantial evidences.
iv. The branch of science, which has the highest potential for
furthering scientific knowledge having the universal utility is
the Indian Medicine, the Ayurveda. The vast sub-continent of
India has an unparalleled wealth of flora and fauna with the
medicinal values. These are to be scientifically researched taking
the modern need.
v. The case of minerals may be taken into research areas. It has
been established that a Gemlike mineral called lizardite is the
only effective remedy for crippling disease of fluorosis
2
. It
should be worthwhile to investigate these minerals on scientific
viewpoints.
vi. There is urgent need to prepare an authentic and up-to-date
history of ancient Indian Science. The history of ancient Indian
Shastras may be scientifically re-written. This may separately
made for ancient Indian Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry
etc.
vii. Thanks to Late Sankara-acharya of Govardhana Pitha, Shri
Bharati Krishna Tirthswamiji for his effective attempt to take
some sutras of Vedic mathematics into lime light in 20
th
century.
Ancient Indian knowledge of Mathematics is still in form of
codified Sutras, so these are often unknown and un-explained.
As a result of which the significant contribution of India like
Math is considered to be borrowed fro Babylon, Greece etc.
viii. All the available Sanskrit manuscripts on Scientific base be
produced, translated into inter-national languages with
commentaries and modern notations and terminologies.
ix. Pictures, charts, slide and PowerPoint presentations illustrating
all the scientific findings in Sanskrit should be prepared. It
should cover all the disciplines like Astronomy, Astrology,
Physics, Architecture and Aeronautics etc.
x. The texts on ancient scientific Sanskrit may be prepared and
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Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum
included in the syllabus of the Schools and Colleges in the
country.
xi. U.G.C. should associate the bodies like N.C.E.R.T and
S.C.E.R.Ts and learned institutions working in the field to under
take massive projects on Scientific Sanskrit. Both traditional
scholars and scientists may be encouraged to undertake such
projects jointly.
xiii. The detailed study on ancient atomic science can be made
taking into account the deep meaning of mantras of the Vedas
and philosophical scriptures. Adhyatma is the initial and the
most interior part of the structure of atom. So Atman is always
present in each and every particle of nature. God is said as
present in every particle. Purusa is the part of God and he is
present inside the particle. Therefore, every particle is
considered to be a living particle in the nature, which has it’s
own life as its own time period and after which it will decay
50, half life of radio-active decaying of the material. All these
well explained in Vedic sciences.It is needless to say that these
are the points, from which the nuclear Physics explores. These
all be properly studied and scientifically established.
xv. Apart from the above, the Science of creation, explained in
Vedic Literature deserves a serious attention. The study of the
scientific aspects of Vedanta is further required.
xvi. There is a wider scope for the study of Environmental sciences
and the Botanical science, depicted in ancient Sanskrit
scriptures. At present time, it will have a great utility.
xvii. A lot of works have been done in India and abroad in the field
of Ancient Indian Engineering and technologies. Indira Gandhi
National Centre for Art, The Birla Science Centre and some
others have done a lot in this field. Did any Engineer study the
technology applied in construction of the temple of Lord
Jagannath. The technologies and plans applied in the ancient
temples of India be studied on technical view points. Also we
should study Shilpasamhita, Bharadvaja smrti, Sukraniti,
Agastya Samhita etc. to know detailed about the ancient
technologies in constituting Steam Engines, Telescopes,
Artificial Gems etc
3
.
xviii. In the Vedas, nearly 224 verses are devoted for the
description of Anna i.e diet. It includes the philosophy of food
and its spiritual importance. Thousand of verses are found in
Smrti Texts describing the rules of dinning. There are a lot of
texts in Sanskrit those confine the dietetics and cookery. The
research on these books is really needful for the present age
4
.
xix. Now a days, some people are addicted to dangerous
alcoholic wines and some others dye due to the adulteration
of wines. This is really a challenge to combat this addiction.
The preparation of herbal wines is discussed in the Vedas and
Ayurveda in Sanskrit. Should not we study in this area for the
welfare of our Country
5
.
xx. Metallurgy appears prominently in the subjects related to
Science in the Sanskrit literature. Recently, interests of the
scientists has aroused towards rustless Delhi Iron Pillar and
towards continious process of direct reduction techniques of
steel making, available with tribes. In addition to steel making,
the glorious tradition of metallurgy in Indian wisdom includes
the production and use of Gold, Silver, Mercury, Lead, Tin
etc. and alloy making techniques of Brasses and Bronzes.
These reference are observed in Vedas and post Vedic works
like Vastumanikya Ratnakar, Rasa Ratna Samucchaya,
Sukraniti, ArthaShastra, Manusmrti, Charaka and Susruta. A
vivid productive research in this connection on the above said
books will no doubt prove Sanskrit as an utilitarian subject
6
.
55 56
Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum
It is hoped that scholars , both Sanskritists and Scientists ,
would come forward to take up the work on Scientific Sanskrit and
make this holy language utilitarian one and the culture most glorious
in the world.
Foot Note : -
1
White Paper on Sanskrit, Sampurnananda Sanskrit Visva
Vidyalaya, Varanasi, 2000, p.33
2
Proceeding of the Fluorosis symphosium, Hyderabad, 1974
3
Machines in Sanskrit Literature, P.P.Holay, New Delhi
4
Dietetics in Sanskrit Literature, Samskrita Bharati, New
Delhi
5
Wine in Sanskrit Literature, Dr. Deopujari & Purohit, Delhi
6
Metallurgy in Sanskrit Literature, Dr. V.K.Didolkar, New
Delhi
Chairman, Sri Jagannath Institute
of Engineering and Management
ENGLISH EDUCATION IN SANSKRITIC SOIL:
A PREJUDICED PERCEPTION
Dr. Monmohan Acharya
English is a Language and articulate a priori :
English has got a miraculous history of her own. This
is originated neither from Greek nor from Latin, although it
is scribed in Roman Script and Greek alphabets. English did
not spring from the Anglo-saxon of wessex only, but from
the dialects Spoken in every part of Great Britain,
distinguished by local peculiarities and modified at different
times by the influence of Latin, Danish, Norman, French and
other foreign elements
1
. Modern researchers of linguistics
include this language in Teutonic family. This language has
been changed a lot in various territories of the world during
the last 2000 years.
English , transplanted in India :
Sanskrit was the spoken language of India at least in
the Vedic civilization. The Vedic dialect, which is followed
by the modern Sanskrit, has become a popular dialect up to
3
rd
cent. B.C. The said language ceased to be a spoken
language as Prakrit sprung as an easier speech. We see how
through the mixture with the languages of the various
conquerors the Arabic, Persian, Mongolic and Turkis and
through their corrupt grammatical system, the Prakrit has
been changed into Hindi, Hindustani, Marathi etc.
English language was planned to be transplanted in
Indian Soil on the 9
th
of may 1498 when Vasco-da-Gamma
57 58
Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum
landed at Calicut but failed. The first drop of English water
entered India through St. Francis, Xavier in 1552. Let me
quote Max Muller, who told, “St. Francis Xavier was the first
to organise the great work of preaching the Gospel in India.
Then-after, every new ship that reached India brought new
Missionaries
2
. The traders language, achieving royal
patronage was imposed on Indian students as a curriculum
of Sohallsan Colleges in the year 1835. It is clearly written
in the thesis of Mr. Macule, ‘The minutes of Education’. After
English was introduced, we dreamt the global unity and the
linguistic unity of our country. But English culture is well
settled in Indian mind rather the language herself. During
the last three centuries, India spent uncountable wealth,
energy and time to irrigate the river flow of English language
into her all corners, but surprisingly it is confined on the
verandas of Indian offices and academic institutions till today.
This is limited to a particular class, not the muss. The
different factors are responsible for the failure perception
of English Education in India.
English is not indigenous in India:
(i) Biological Factor: - the infants by means of the
biological process inherit Language. To some extent,
language is genetic. If parents are well versed in
English, a child conceived, is expected to speak good
English, though there are some exceptions to it. Rare
Indian parents speak in English. Although some speak
English some times, they use mother tongues always.
Talking it into consideration some linguists say that
English is not an infants speech in India. The vocal
organs of the children are normally designed as per
those of the ancestors. So the vocal organs of Indian
children are not naturally appropriate to speak
English.
(ii) Geographical Factor: - The Languages are arranged
according to the geographical conditions. The
geographical factors influencing the speech
mechanism needs no mentions, as the scholars of
literature know it. Taking this into views we can say
that English language is a test-tube baby of non-Indian
jeans, planted and nourished in Indian geographical
territory, for which it develops several prejudiced
perception.
(iii) Environmental Factors: - Environment has always
occupied the prominent role in influencing a
language. Our vocal organs are habituated and
mechanized according to our environment. For
example; Indian people easily pronounce the
murmured vowels, such as ‘a’ ‘e’ and the words,
ending with consonant ‘r’. But in the original English
pronunciation, these are slow sounding. Most of the
times we could not hear it. British people failed to
pronounce Ali, Kataka and Kolkata. Should we be
compelled to follow their style of pronunciation,
since these are the names of the cities, well-accepted
by our people. Americans don’t blindly accept the
pronunciation. They pronounce and spell English at
their own style.
59 60
Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum
English American
Col-our Color
Programme Program
Even in English literature, we see the
differences. Alfred is different from present lay
English. But what happens in India, we so called
masters mutilate the pronunciation by using so many
instruments like pianos etc. Let English be
pronounced spontaneously. We don’t converse with
the inhabitants of England directly. Now a days,
written forms of communication prevails in the world
The 2/3
rd
of present books on Science are written in
English and understood by allover the world.
(iv) Social Factors: - Ancient Indian Society was
dymatrically different from that of today. An English
child can address all of his family members by means
of his own language. But our family relation is not
established throw English trend of social
communication.
The sense of Agraja and Elder brother, anuja
and younger brother pitrvya and uncle, matula and
uncle are not same. Every word has an independent
communicative current of meaning. A child, grown
in Indian Society is obviously puzzled when he lesions
the different vegetables, such as ladies finger, bitter
gourd, nut, betel-nut, coconut, green coconut, red
gram (not harvested in India), horse gram, black gram
and gram. We are astonished that the common names
used in India are not found in English language with
its exact form and sense.
(v) Cultural: - In the plea of reading English language we
are forced to be taught their Culture. English culture
conceives in the mind of Indian child everyday. This
is how, some the Indians develop the habit to hate
and hatred toward their own language. Very few
people know that the Sanskrit word plava is raid and
taught as plough in English lang and literature.
There is great confusion in designing the
courses of studies. It prevailed from very beginning
of introducing the English courses for Indian schools.
A book published in 1914 named as ‘English courses
for Indian schools’ may be cited here. A picture of a
farmer, plaughing is displayed in the said book to
teach agriculture to the student. A horse is plaughing
in the field there and the peasant in picture wears suit
and cap. The picture is of British trend of cultivation.
An Indian child, who witnesses the plaughing farmers
in Indian fields, wearing suit and cap and cultivates
by help of bullocks, is simply puzzled.
(vi) Educational Factor: - (a) Language is a spontaneous
process. She excels by the speech of the people.
Language has not been originated as a result of
teaching-learning method. Moment we introduce a
language as a curriculum of a study and teach in
academic institutions, the language is turned slow-
poisoned and sleeps on the death-bed. In the year
1835, the British Govt. started educating English in
61 62
Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum
Indian schools and from that very day the language
has been made unused for common people. This is
the first and foremost cause that English did not
become spoken rather it has been educated.
(b) The teaching method of English in our country
appears very much defective as if it had no aim at all.
The language teaching method is something different.
In this method, the teaching of grammar and
grammatical principles is avoided by experiments,
displaying pictures, teaching through actions and
mental exercises, the language is conceived into
children’s mind. For example a teacher calls for a
student and keeps him with him and tells that ‘Ram is
here’. After-wards he keeps the student far from him
and tells ‘Ram is there’. But what happens in our
schools and colleges, some of the teachers teach
English words corresponding with their meaning in
modern Indian languages. Many teachers are there
who don’t bother to make the students understanding
and they go on sterio-type teaching .
Endnotes : -
1
. The Science of Language, Max Muller, p.62
2
. Ibid p.157
Lecturer in Sanskrit,
Banki (Auto) College, Cuttack
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63 64
Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum
·iit-i-i·i i-i+i=·i -i-i--i -i··ii-i. :i-i -i -i·i:i-i it·ii -ii -i=i + ~i-i·ii
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Higher Education and Study of Sanskrit in
the Millennium
Smt. Sailabala Dash
Sanskrit is the language of India in the early Vedic
period and it is the oldest language of the world. With the
passage of time Sanskrit lost its importance as the language
of communication. Still Sanskrit has its importance when
we see towards European nations today. In Germany we see
old Scriptures and manuscripts of ancient India (in their
library). In India today, a researcher in Sanskrit cannot
complete the work without visiting libraries of European
countries (Alexander took away many materials during his
attack). Sanskrit lost its importance due to Brahminism.
Brahmins and high caste people considered it as their
language. So casteism became a hindrance to Sanskrit. Our
contact with others-especially with colonial masters – took
us towards English. During Moghal, Maratha and East India
Company (Parsi) became the dominant language (even
official language – language of the court). In the post –
colonial Indian Society, Sanskrit became confined to ‘Karma
Kanda’, which was taught by ‘Sanskrit tolls’ in an indigenous
syllabus. Students after the completion of study opted for
‘Pooja’ or worshipping Gods and Goddess. Some of them
joined as teacher in those institutions. However efforts by
Govt. of India in the post-independent period enhanced the
Status of Sanskrit as one of the language to be taught in
school as well as college levels. For this Sanskrit became a
subject for higher studies and research.
Any literature has its own purposes-preservation and
Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum
protection as well as promotion of the language, reforms in
the Society, brings Social changes and movements and So
on. Oriya as a literature has brought Oriya Nationalist
movement through Fakirmohan, Radhanath, Gangadhar and
others. Literature also gives pleasure to readers through play,
drama, short stories, humours writings etc.
I
Sanskrit as a language in school career is taught and
put emphasis on grammar, prose, poems and stories with
‘Niti Slokas’. Students hardly take interest in the study of
Sanskrit due to harder grammar. They manage to complete
of through practices not giving through formulas to have
control over grammar. Now-a-days the schools
examinations has become a farce with objective questions
with multiple choices also. Those who are opting for Sanskrit
in higher education, they have the idea of securing more
marks in examinations than other optional subjects. Sanskrit
as a literature should focus on societal problems like other
literatures.
If we go back to our Vedas, we find solutions to many
problems- Societal, economic, health related as well as
environmental and others. Any study has its utilitarian aspect
(towards Society) not only academic and must have relevance
today. 21
st
century is the century of knowledge where
globalisation is the alternative to make the whole world a
global village puts emphasis on protection of indigenous
language and culture. Globalisation in not against individual
language and culture of any nation. In this context we have
to protect, preserve and improve Sanskrit as a language to
make it relevant today.
II
If we compare syllabus of Sanskrit at +2 level with
other literature Subjects such as Oriya, Urdu, Alternative
English, we see that, Sanskrit is becoming really difficult as
a subject book/syllabus are frequently changed, prices of
books are high, more grammar in question papers than other
subjects. So the interest towards Sanskrit is gradually
declining of course, at present we see the decline of social
sciences in general with emphasis on it, technical subjects
and management studies.
So at this juncture of time we have to become serious
to make the study of Sanskrit more simple, interesting, wide
spread, economical as well as relevant. At this time of
privatization we see decline of governmental funding – by
UGC, ICSSR and other institutions at Pune and other places
– to studies and research in Sanskrit. Now we see private
bodies funding for research to serve their own purpose,
which is not published for wide circulation also. Hence, in
the age of privatization (when the Govt. and State is
withdrawing from Social sector Health, Education, Social
Security etc. we have to develop our capacity to face the
situation as students of Sanskrit.
III
Keeping in view the above factors, we have to modify
our curriculum in Sanskrit to be more practical. In my
opinion, we have to emphasize on –
i) Spoken Sanskrit: - for these 10 marks must be there
from +2 level in the CHS Examinations.
ii) Subjects related to social maladies-population
explosion, crime, and violence against women,
67 68
Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum
corruption, and good governance moral degradation –
should get top priority in the syllabus.
iii) Economic issues must be studied in the syllabus in
such as Kautilya’s Arthasastra, to improve ourselves
on our economy than adopting the economy of west
(Capitalist economy of MNCS/TNCS).
iv) Philosophy of Gandhi must be a part of higher
Education in Sanskrit. If by adopting Gandhian
economy, no way became No.1 in HDI of the world,
why not we?
v) Health related topics from Vedas to be chosen for our
future Citizens, who are suffering from heart attack,
blood pressure, diabetes and other fatal diseases. Our
Vedas provide answers to all these traumas to have a
smooth life.
vi) Environmental issues should be a part of our syllabus
for the young students of India as well as Orissa. Our
ancient scriptures – Vedas, Upanisads etc. put
emphasis on protection of flora and fauna to provide a
smooth environment for sound thinking.
vii) In my opinion, topics, related to reforms in Society
and moral upliftment with nation building should get
top priority in the curriculum of higher studies. So that
it will pare the ways for new Social movements to
make the nation No.1 in 2020 as per vision of our
president A.P.J. Abdul Kalam. Thanking you.
Lecturer, Dept. of Sanskrit,
Trupti Women’s College, Basudevpur,
Bhadrak-756125.
+¤ +- or·rr¤rr -r .·r
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-i ·i-i -i . -ii t øi·ii. =i =-i·-i -ii =-i i-i=-=iiit-ii. ·i-i ·i . + ~ii -i·i
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-i=i-i-iii-i ·i -i=i --i + =i=i =i-i -i +- -i·«ii·ii. øi·ii. -i·i=i-i·i -i·i=i-i·i=-i ºi
·i-ii-i·ii·i =i=-i·-i=i-*ii-i·-ii=·i =i--i·i-iii-i -i=i-i-iii-i ·i -i=i--i + =i=i
=i-i -i +--i·«ii·ii. øi·ii. -i·i=i-i·i -i·i=i-i·i=-i ºi ·i-ii -i·ii·i
=i=-i·-i=i-*i-i·-ii=·i =i--i·i-iii-i -i·ii -i-ii-i·ii·i >ii=i=·i-i* ·ii-ii·ii.
i t-ii ·i-i=i*-ii··iii·i-i-i ~iei*-ii··ii·i ·i º-i·. ~i··ii·i. i -i=-i +
i t-ii ·i-i·i=-i ºi i t-ii ·i-i·i -ii=-i·i -i·ii·i =-i--i-ii=i-i*-i·ii=*-i
-ii-i-ii·ii ·i-·iti·iºi-ii=-i·-i-i ·ii=i-i·-i=i-·i-i i -i·=ii-i -ii=-i· i-i=-i +
69 70
Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum
-i-ii-i·ii·i =i=-i·-i=i-*ii -i·-ii =·i -i=i-i-iii-i -i -i-i* i-i=-i + ·i-ii i t
-i ·=iit=i=·i-i=iti-i·i-·i=·i -i=i=i=i·i . ~i-ii -i i -i«ii ºi·ii :i =-i +
=-i--i-ii=i-i*-i-ii=-i·=ii -i ~i-·i--i·e=ii =-i + -i·iii -i *i ·i-i·i=i ·ii-i-i ~i-i·ii .
·i-·i·iit··i·i-i =i=ii·ii-i -i -ii-i·iii-i + ·i·i ~i-i--i =i=-i·-i=iiit-·i -i-i-i.
-i·i º-i·t -i ·i-·i. -iit=·iit -ii=·i-i·=i=·i =-ii -i·it. ·i i¯ -i -i·i -i -i. -i
·i-ii-i + ~i-i. -ii-i-i·i -ii=-i·=i=·i -iit-i-i-i i-i·i·i +
··- -ii=·i-i·=i--i-i ~i-=ii=ii-i·i-i-i. ·i-·i. -i-i ·itºii·i. +
··- -iºi·i=i=·ii=i-i·i-·iii-i +--i·«ii·ii. øi·iiºii -ii=·i-i·=i
-i-i =i=·ii-i-ii·i. + ·i-ii it -iºi-i·i=-i·i·ii-ii-i øi·ii. -ii·i-i·-iii·i-i··ii.
-iºi·i-i-ii--i=ii--iit-i·-i·ii =i>i= -i ·iti··ii--i +
··· =i-ii-ii =i=-i·-i=iiit-·i i-i-i=ii-i·i =it-ii·i·i-·ii-ii =i·ii
-i·tºii·ii + -i-i -ii-i i·i-i·i··i. º-i·-iit -ii=·i-i·=i-iit-i-i-i-i·i=i -i·i:i-i
~i=ii-i·ii -i =·ii-i + ;ei--i=-iºi -i··i-i =it-ii ·i·i-·ii. +- øi·iiºii
-ii=·ii-i·i·i--i-i ~i·iii=ii=i-ii.
· >ii=i=·i-i:i-ii·ii. º-i·. º-i·. ~i··ii·i.
- ti=ii·iºi=·i º-i·. º-i·. ~i··ii·i.
- =iti·iit-i=·i º-i·. º-i·. ~i··ii·i.
· ~iei*-i-i tiºii-ii=i-i·. º-i·. ~i-i.
· =-ii -i·i*·i-·ii.
- =i=-i·-i=iiit-·i=·ii-iti=i.
~ -ii*-i·=iiit-·i=·ii-iti=i.
¿ ~ii·i-i*=·ii-iti=i.
º -·iii-i·i-ii=·i=·ii-iti=i.
···iiºi-i-ii=·i=·ii-iti=i.
·· =iiit-·i-ii=·i=·ii-iti=i.
·- øi-*.-ii=·i=·ii-iti=i.
·- -·ii-i·tºi-ii=·i=·ii-iti=i.
··it-ii-i*-i.
··-i=i-i-·i=·i -i -i-ii=·i-i·=i i=·i-ii. -i=i-i··ii. -ii t-·i-·i
~i-·ii. -i=i-i··ii.
··· -i·ii=i-i-ii=·i-i·=i. ~i-·i -i. -i -i -i·ii*-i i-i=ii t-i. ·i-i -i +
-ii=·i-i·=i-i·i=i-ii-i º-i·-i·i-i-i ·ii* -ii=·i-i·=i. -i-i·ii-i-i. ·i-i-i. -iit
i-iti=i. =i=i-i·i. ·i·ii=i=i·i -ii=·i-i=-i-i·ii-i -i-i·ii-i-i =i=i·ii. ·i-i·i. +
·i·ii -··· -i·i=·i +- =i=-i·-i-ii=·i-i·=i. -···-i·i -i-i·i-i-ii ·i. +
-i·i -i -··--i·i =·i +- øi·iiºii -i ·-i =i =-i ·-i-ii=·i-i·=i. -···-i·i
-ii-i·i-i-ii ·i. +
··- -ii=·i-i·=i ·i·ii -i·i ºi*i -i *i ·i. -i ·i-i -i . -i*·i
=i-i-i ·;i e. i -i·i ·ii + =i=-ii -i -ii=·i-i·=i=·i *i ·i-i·itºii-i i -iti =.
-·ii=·ii-i-i-i-i· =i-i·i =i-i·i =i =-i·-i=i-*ii -i·-ii·i-·i·i -ii=·i *. ;-·i-i +
=.i -it=i-i-ii -i=iti *·i -i =i -i·i =i-i =i =-i ·-i=i-*ii -i·-ii ·i-·i ·i-i
·i-i tit-i ·-i-iii-i-i-i-i· ·iiºi-i·i-i ·-i·iiºi-i·i-iii -iºi i -i-i-i . -i-i -iii -i-i-i -i·
·iiºi-i ·i-ii i -i =.-i=ii*-i ·=iit-iici=iti *·i=·i =.·ii -ii-ii·i=iti-ii·i=iti *·i=·i
=i =-i ·-i=i-*ii -i·-ii ·i-·i i ·i·i-i ·ii -i-i -i + º-i ·ii =i -i·i =i-i ·i
=i =-i ·-i=i-*ii -i·-ii ·i-·i ·i -ii=·i *=·i -i·itºi -i ·i-ii -i *i ·i-i ºi
-ii=·i-i·=ii -i=i tºi=i + +- øi·iiºii -i ·-i -i·ii =i-i=i =-i ·-i-ii=·i-i·=i
it-ii ·i-i·i=-i ºi =i··i=·ii-i-i·. =i =-i ·-i=i-*ii-i·-ii ·i-·i. -i ·-i =iti*·i-i
i-iti ·i-i. =i-i·i =i-ii -ii :-·i=·ii ==i =i. -iii=-i + -i-iti -i =i =-i ·-i=i-*ii -i·-ii=·i
-i-ii -i·ii·i -i·ii -i·i=i.(ti=ii·iºi-i. -=ii ···). >ii =i=·i-i:i -ii
(ti*-ii:··ii·i.). ·iiºi-i ·i-ii i-i. (-=ii ···). ·i-iti t-i·-i -iii-i-i-i-i·=i
(-=ii ···). t·i-i-i=i (it-ii·i=i·i=·i -=ii ·-·). i-i*t=·i ·i·i.-itie
71 72
Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum
-ii-i -ii-·i-i* -i. (=iti·iit-i=·i -=ii ·-·). t =ii-i=ii-i. (-i ·i·i-i.).
*=i·i--ii =-i·i=·it. (=iti·iit-i=·i -=ii ··¿). -i=-ii=iti -it-iºi -i=i
(ti=ii·iºi=·i -=ii ···). =i*i·iit. (=i-i ==i -i. -=ii ···) :i -i
*-i-i-ii -i·i·ii. =ii --i + -i·i -i=i-i-ii -i·i·ii. +- -i·«ii·ii. øi·iiºii
-ii=·ii -i·i·i--i-i =-ii-i ·-ii. + +- øi·i ··i. =i =-i ·-i=i-*ii -i·-ii·i-·i=·i
=--i·=i·ii·i·ii -·ii=·ii-iit. i -iti =i. =i=-i ·-i=i-*ii-i·-ii ·i-·i -i ;·=-ii
ti=ii·iºi>ii=i=·i-i*·ii-ii·iiºi-i ·i-iii -i·i-i tit-i·-i-iii -i-i-i-i·-i·i-ii-ii
=i=i·i-·ii-ii =iti·i-ii·i=i -i =i=i =-i ·-i=i-*ii-i·-ii·i-·i=·i -·ii=·ii -i·-i-i--i. +
-it--i =i=-i ·-i=i-*ii-i·-ii·i-·i ti=ii·iºi=·i -i·ii-i·i=i. >ii=i=·i-i:i-ii·ii.
ti*-ii··ii·iºi =i=i·i-·ii-i =-i i-i-i -i. -it--i ·iiºi-i ·i-ii -ii ·i-i ti t-iii-i-i-i-i ·
·ii-i -ii·i-i·t·i =i =-i ·-i=i-*ii-i·-ii-i·it. ·iiºi-i ·i-ii-i. -iii-i-i-i-i·i··i
-i·i=i-i =-ii* ·i-=ii -i·i-i =i ·i »i =i -i·i =i-i-ii-i + ~i·i -ii=·i-i·=i
=i =-i·-i=i-*ii -i·-ii =·i ·iiºi-i·i-ii -i . ··· -=ii-i·i. i-ii =ei. + -it--i
=-iei-i=-ii·ii-ii-i =. -i=ii*-i ·=iit-iici=iti *·i. -ii-i·=it·ii -ii-ii·i=iti*·iºi
=ii«ii-i ·iiºi-i·i-ii-i. -iii-i-i-i-i·=·i ·i -i·=ii-i=iiitºi. ··· -=ii-i·i.
=i·it-i-i-i· -·ii=·ii-ii. + -i·=i-i. ~i·i-i·i=i-i·-i-i=i=·ii-i=iit -=ii -i·i·ii-ii-i
i -iti=. =i-i·i =i-i·i =i=-i·-i=i-*ii-i·-ii·i-·i·i ·i *. -ii t-i·i «i-ii :·i -i +
~i-i. -ii=·i-i·=i. *i·i-i-·i. =i-i·itit-iºi ·i-i-i +
º.¤ +- or·rr¤rr -r .·r rr-rr` ~r·r=r =-r .·r·rra-r>r.-r ·r
=r =-r.rt·
+- -i·«ii·ii. øi·ii. =i=-i ·-ii -i·i·i =i==ii-i-i·i (Honours).
=i-ii-ii -i-i·i (Elective). =ii=ii-·i-i·i (Pass) ·i -i=i --i + =i==ii-i-i·i
øi·ii. ¿··~i=-ii ti=i-iii-i ~ie-i·iii ºi -i=i --i + =i-ii -ii -i-i·i øi·ii.
-··~i=-ii ti =i-i -i·it·i . =ii=ii-·i-i·i ···~i=-iiti =i-iii-i ·i--iiit
-i·iiiºi -i=i--i + º-i·ii +- ø~i·iiºii -i·-i -i·ii=i-i-ii=·i-i·=i=·i =i -iºi
-iit-i-i-i -i·tºii·i=i + ~i·i. -i=·i-i·i -i=i-ii -i*i-i-ii
rrºr-r·r·r-r- -·rr-r.t¤r-r
·r ¤rr =r·-º««
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·i i-i= · =i-ii-i-i·tºi=i -·
·ii-i=- -iit·ii·ii-i-i·tºi=i -·
·i i-i=- =ii-·i-i-i·tºi=i -·
·ii -i=· -i·it-i·-i-i·tºi=i -·
·ii-i=· =i=ii=i-i-i·tºi=i -·
r`x·rr·r·r·r-r - =r =-r.·r+rr·rr+rr-r-r
·r ¤rr =r·-º««
r`~rr`tr·r=r =-r.·r -r.r`ºr·r=r=r-r .·r=r ¬r=r·
·i i-i=· -i·*=-iiiºi ··
·ii-i=- ·ii-i=-iii ºi ··
·i i-i=- =i=-i·-i-i. =--i·=i·ii·i·ii-i -ii*. ··
·ii -i=· =--i·=i·ii·ii-i. =i =-i·-i·ii·i·ii-i -ii*. ··
·ii-i=· =i =-i·-i-i·i-·i. -·
·ii -i=- =i =-i ·-i-i ·ii-i=i=-i=iitºi=i ··
·ii -i=~ -ii·iii ·i-i·i-ii·i. (Practical) ··
-i·i·i-i=i =-i·-i=i
·r·rr·r·r·r-r - -ra=r-r ·r -ra-r.-r-r.r¤s=r
·r ¤rr=r·-º««
¬r=r·
·i i-i=· i -i-iiti-i·i·i-i·=i-·ii. -·
·ii-i=- ·iºi-i-i-ii=it=-i-ii -i-iii-i·ii-i-i-i·it. -·
·i i-i=- =-i-i·i-i=i=i-i·it=i=·i-·ii. =i-·ii. ··
·ii -i=· ~i--·ii ei-i··ii=i=·i-·ii. =i-·ii. ··
·ii-i=· -i*=i-i-iii -i -·
·ii -i=- -ii·ii i·i-i·i-ii·i.(Practical) -i*=i-·ii ··iitºi=i -·
-r·r ºr·r·r-r - -rr=·r vrr=·r-r
73 74
Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum Adhiti : The Proceeding on Curriculum
·r ¤rr =r·-º««
¬r=r·
·i i-i=· øi·iiºii =ii=i··ii-i =-i. =-ii*·ii-i·i·i. ~·
·ii-i=- -ii·ii i·i-i·i-ii·i. (Practical) -·
·r=r-r·r·r-r-÷·rr r`·r·rvrr=·r-r
·r ¤rr =r·-º««
¬r=r·
·i i-i=· =ii=-ii -i-i··i·i ~i-·i-i-·i-i·i.
-·iii-i·i-ii=·i=i=·i-·ii. i-i·i·ii. ~·
·ii-i=- -ii·iii·i-i·i-ii·i.(Practical) -·
·r¤·r·r-r - ¬r~r=rtvrr=r o-a·vrr=r-r -r -
¬r=r· - º««
¬r=r·
·i i-i= · =i-iºi. =iiit-·i*-iºi. ··
·ii-i=- >i-i·ii·i. ø-*i=i=iti -ii -·
·ii-i=- -ii·iii·i-i·i-ii·i.(Practical) -·
(-=ii -i·t·i-ii. «i:-ii=-i·t·i-ii)
=r··r-r·r·r-r - ¬rr·r-ravrr=r-r -
¬r=r· - º««
¬r=r·
·i i-i= · ·it-i·=ii t-ii (øi·iiºii =ii=i··ii -i=-i. =-ii* ·ii-i·i·i.) ~·
·ii-i=- -ii·ii i·i-i·i-ii·i. (Practical) -·
¬r¤-r·r·r-r - -r.r-·r-rrz-r.rarr`-r -
¬r=r· - º««
¬r=r·
·i i-i= · ~ii·i-ii-i-ii-i·--i=i=i ··
·ii-i=- =i -iºi -i··i=iit=i=·i-i=i ··
·ii-i=- -ii·ii i·i-i·i-ii·i. (Practical) -·
-=ii-i·i-ii -i.
=·r=rørt·
i-ii-i·i-i·itºi-i-i-i. -it-i. øi·ii. =-ii-i-i·-iti«ii·ii -ii =-i ~i=i=i·ii .
·i-ii--i + -i·i -i·itºi·i -i=i=iii-i =ii--i
· ~i·ii·ii-i.
- ~ii·iti·ii-i.
=i=-i·-i=-ii-i-i·i-it-i=-i=·i -i·ii-i ~ii-i-·i-i·-ii -iii=-i + i·i·i·ii :·i
-ii-i=i-ii-i*i-i ~i=i=i·i. ·i-i-iii-i i-i·ii··i øi·ii. =i=-i·-i=-ii-i-i·i-it -i
-ii =--ii ~i-·i-i «i ·i -ii -i ;i e -i**i -i. ·i -i -i ~ii-=ii -i·i t-ii =ii.
~i·ii-ii-i-i«i=iiºi ·i-i·i. +
º-i*·i -i·ii=i-i=i =-i·-i-ii=·i-i·=i=·i -ii t-i-i-i=i-i ·i ·i-i + ·ii*
+--i·«ii·ii øi·ii. =i=-i·-i=iiit-·i=·ii-iti=i-ii*-i·=iiit-·i=·i i-iti=i
-·ii-i·tºi-ii=·i=·i i -iti=i-i·i -ii -i -i -ii-i -ii-i :i -iti=i·i-·ii-i ~ii ·i-·i
~i-i--i=i =-i ·-i·i-·ii-ii=i-ii t -ii-i=ii·ii*-i--it ·i*i -i +- øi·ii. +-
-i·«ii·ii =i =-i ·-i -ii =··ii --i+ -i*i -i øi·ii.~i·ii-ii-i-i«i=ii ºi -i *-i·=i-i·iº=
-ii=-i -ii=i~ii·i-i *-ii=i-·iii -i·i-ii=ii*i i -i -ii =--ii =-i=·i -ii -ii -i·ii-i-iit
-i·-i =i=i·ii. ·i-ii--i + º-i-i øi·ii. =-ii-i-i·-iti«ii·ii =-iiºii*-i--it ·ii*
=ii -i·=i -ii~i i·ii ·i- i«i-i. - ii t·iii =i-i-ii t«i i·ii .
·iit-ii·i-i-ii=ii -i-i·=i-ii-iti«ii·ii. -·iii== -iti«ii·ii (Banking Service).
==i-i·i=i=i -i ·=i-i-iti«ii·ii (SSC Exam) ·i *·ii ··i-i-i-i. ~i-i-ii ºii.
=·i . -i»i i -i -i øi·ii. =-ii-i-i·-iti «ii·ii -ii =-i=i ~i·ii -ii-i -i«i=i
-ii=-i -ii=iii *=i =-i ·-ii-i·i·i=i ~i-i=i=··i =-i=·i ~iii ·i-i·* ti-i=·ii * ti -i ···i .+
~ii -i ·i -i øi·ii. =-ii-i =i -i ºi -ii=-i -ii=ii -i*. -i *-i·=i -i·iº=i -i*.
-·iii-i·i-ii=ii-i*. ~ii·i-i*-ii=ii-i*ºi -i·-i =i=-i·-i=-ii-i-i·i-it -ii=-i=i
~ii·ii tºi. ·i-i ·i . + ~i·ii -ii-i -i=·i =i=·ii-i-ii--ii-i -i øi·ii.
~iii·i-i·*ti-i=·ii·i -i-ii. =i--ii:i-i -i··ii=i-i =i=-i·-i=-ii-i-i·i-it -ii=-i
-i·i--i -i·it··ii-i + º·i ~ie=i-i·i ·i ·i-ii-i·=ii-i -i·it·i =i-ii-ii-i-i·i =i =·ii-i-ii ·i
-i·i·i-i e·i=i =ii=ii-·i-i·i =i=·ii-i-ii ·i=i + -ii=-i -ii=i-·ii i -i·i-ii=i
~ii·i -i *-ii=i ·i -i-i -ii·ii-ii-i -i ·ii ·i-i·i-i·i-i=i=i-i·i=i--i=i-i·iiiºi·ii-i=-i·=i ºi
-ii-i=·iii-i-iii -i +
75 76

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