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mass

force
torque
density
Asia-Pacific Symposium on

24 - 26 October 2007

APMF 2007
Asia-Pacific Symposium on

mass
force
torque
density
enabling
metrology
24 - 26 August 2007
Sydney, Australia

Organised by National Measurement Institute




Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force, Torque and Density (APMF 2007)

APMF 2007
Asia-Pacific Symposium on

mass
force
torque
density
enabling
metrology
24 - 26 October 2007
Sydney, Australia

Organised by National Measurement Institute


Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force, Torque and Density (APMF 2007)

Foreword
Enabling metrology is the theme for this sixth biennial conference of the Asia-Pacific
Symposium on Measurement of Mass, Force, Torque and Density. The theme reflects
the importance of these conventional areas of metrology in commerce and trade. For
example, from meat and grocery, to agricultural products or materials, many goods
are sold by weight. As the demands of efficiency and international competitiveness
grow, it is necessary to improve measurement practices and to develop new methods
and equipment as technology changes. The papers in these proceedings highlight the
value of metrology and demonstrate the rich tradition of the measurement science in
mass, force, torque and density areas.
Following its very successful processors, APMF 2007 will be three days of cultivating
metrology, exchanging information, sharing ideas, renewing friendships and making
new friends. There will be 20 presentations in six technical sessions and 14 papers
in a poster session, keynote talks, visits to metrology and industrial facilities and
social events. Organising and putting all these together is a difficult and demanding
task. On behalf of all you, I thank the National Organising Committee members and
the International Program Committee members for all their hard work and supports
in preparing such a diverse and interesting major international conference. I would
also like to acknowledge the sponsors who have given generously to support the
APMF 2007. The organising committee thanks all the participants in the APMF 2007,
particularly the authors for their efforts and for the high standard of their papers.
May you all enjoy your stay in Sydney and we hope that you return to your country
with a pleasant flavour of Australia in your mind.

International
Program
Committee

Organising
Committee

Dae-Im Kang, Chair, Korea

John Man, Chair

Zhang Yue, Vice-chair, China

Kitty Fen, Secretary

YoshikazuWatabe,Vicechair,Japan

Brad Ward

Zhang Zhimin, China

Angelo Cella-Sartor

Li Zhenmin, China

Xihu Jiang

Sushil Kumar Jain, India

Noel Bignell

Kazunaga Ueda, Japan

Mark Rutherford

Masaaki Ueki, Japan

Yi Chen

Jin Wan Chung, Korea


Yon Kyu Park, Korea
Chen Soo Fatt, Malaysia
Lee Shih Mean, Singapore
Chris Sutton, New Zealand
Noel Bignell, Australia
John Man, Australia

John Man
Chair, APMF 2007 National Organising Committee

Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force, Torque and Density (APMF 2007)

Foreword
Enabling metrology is the theme for this sixth biennial conference of the Asia-Pacific
Symposium on Measurement of Mass, Force, Torque and Density. The theme reflects
the importance of these conventional areas of metrology in commerce and trade. For
example, from meat and grocery, to agricultural products or materials, many goods
are sold by weight. As the demands of efficiency and international competitiveness
grow, it is necessary to improve measurement practices and to develop new methods
and equipment as technology changes. The papers in these proceedings highlight the
value of metrology and demonstrate the rich tradition of the measurement science in
mass, force, torque and density areas.
Following its very successful processors, APMF 2007 will be three days of cultivating
metrology, exchanging information, sharing ideas, renewing friendships and making
new friends. There will be 20 presentations in six technical sessions and 14 papers
in a poster session, keynote talks, visits to metrology and industrial facilities and
social events. Organising and putting all these together is a difficult and demanding
task. On behalf of all you, I thank the National Organising Committee members and
the International Program Committee members for all their hard work and supports
in preparing such a diverse and interesting major international conference. I would
also like to acknowledge the sponsors who have given generously to support the
APMF 2007. The organising committee thanks all the participants in the APMF 2007,
particularly the authors for their efforts and for the high standard of their papers.
May you all enjoy your stay in Sydney and we hope that you return to your country
with a pleasant flavour of Australia in your mind.

International
Program
Committee

Organising
Committee

Dae-Im Kang, Chair, Korea

John Man, Chair

Zhang Yue, Vice-chair, China

Kitty Fen, Secretary

YoshikazuWatabe,Vicechair,Japan

Brad Ward

Zhang Zhimin, China

Angelo Cella-Sartor

Li Zhenmin, China

Xihu Jiang

Sushil Kumar Jain, India

Noel Bignell

Kazunaga Ueda, Japan

Mark Rutherford

Masaaki Ueki, Japan

Yi Chen

Jin Wan Chung, Korea


Yon Kyu Park, Korea
Chen Soo Fatt, Malaysia
Lee Shih Mean, Singapore
Chris Sutton, New Zealand
Noel Bignell, Australia
John Man, Australia

John Man
Chair, APMF 2007 National Organising Committee

Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force, Torque and Density (APMF 2007)

Symposium Program

Table of Contents

Date

Time

Activity

Oct-24
(Wed)

08:00 ~ 09:30

Registration

09:30 ~ 10:45

Opening Ceremony
Keynote Session

10:45 ~ 11:15

Morning Tea

11:15 ~ 12:30

Keynote Lectures - Wednesday 24th October 2007


Chair Person: Dr. J. Man
09:45 - 10:15

From Mega-Newton to Pico-Newton


Dae-Im Kang, KRISS, Korea

Technical Session 1
(Mass I)

10:15 - 10:45

Density measurement at NMIA


Noel Bignell, NMI, Australia

12:30 ~ 13:35

Lunch

Technical Sessions - Wednesday 24th October 2007

13:35 ~ 15:15

Technical Session 2
(Force I)

Mass I Chair Person: Mr. Y. Watabe

15:15 ~ 15:45

Afternoon Tea

11:15 - 11:40

15:45 ~ 17:00

Technical Session 3
(Torque & Density I)

On Watt Balance Design for a Non-Artefact Kilogram


Chris Sutton, MSL, New Zealand, IRL

11:40 - 12:05

18:30 ~ 20:30

Welcoming Dinner

Calibration of a 1 kg Stainless Steel Standard with respect


to a 1 kg Pt-Ir Prototype: A Survey of Corrections and Their
Uncertainties
1

Oct-25
(Thur)

Oct-26
(Fri)

09:00 ~ 10:40

Technical Session 4
(Mass II)

10:40 ~ 11:10

Morning Tea

11:10 ~ 12:25

Technical Session 5
(Weighing I)

12:25 ~ 13:30

Lunch

13:30 ~ 15:00

Poster Session

15:00 ~ 15:30

Afternoon Tea

15:30 ~ 16:45

Technical Session 6
(Mass III & Weighing II)

16:45 ~ 17:00

Closing Ceremony

18:30 ~ 22:00

Symposium Dinner (Harbour Cruise)

09:00 ~ 17:00

Technical Tour

12:05 - 12:30

LEE Shih Mean, 2Dr Richard DAVIS, 1LIM Lee Kwee


SPRING, Singapore 2BIPM

Estimation of Adsorption Mass for National Prototype Kilogram


(II)
Jin Wan Chung, Sungjun Lee, Woo-Gab LEE KRISS, Korea

Force I Chair Person: Mr. K. Ueda


13:35 - 14:00

The Development of NIM 1 MN deadweight force standard


machine
Zhang Zhimin, Zhang Yue, Zhou Hong,Wu Kun and Hu Gang
NIM, P.R.China

14:00 - 14:25

Improvement of calibration reproducibility by removing balancing


mechanism in dead-weight type force standard machine
Toshiyuki Hayashi1*, Yoshihisa Katase1, Hiroshi Maejima1, Yukio
Yamaguchi1, Kazunaga Ueda1, Masao Ueno2 1NMIJ, Japan, AIST
2
Tokyokoki Seizosho Ltd

14:25 - 14:50

Application of PC/104 Embedded Controller to Hydraulic Force


Standard Machine
Hu Gang, NIM, P. R. China

Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force, Torque and Density (APMF 2007)

Symposium Program

Table of Contents

Date

Time

Activity

Oct-24
(Wed)

08:00 ~ 09:30

Registration

09:30 ~ 10:45

Opening Ceremony
Keynote Session

10:45 ~ 11:15

Morning Tea

11:15 ~ 12:30

Keynote Lectures - Wednesday 24th October 2007


Chair Person: Dr. J. Man
09:45 - 10:15

From Mega-Newton to Pico-Newton


Dae-Im Kang, KRISS, Korea

Technical Session 1
(Mass I)

10:15 - 10:45

Density measurement at NMIA


Noel Bignell, NMI, Australia

12:30 ~ 13:35

Lunch

Technical Sessions - Wednesday 24th October 2007

13:35 ~ 15:15

Technical Session 2
(Force I)

Mass I Chair Person: Mr. Y. Watabe

15:15 ~ 15:45

Afternoon Tea

11:15 - 11:40

15:45 ~ 17:00

Technical Session 3
(Torque & Density I)

On Watt Balance Design for a Non-Artefact Kilogram


Chris Sutton, MSL, New Zealand, IRL

11:40 - 12:05

18:30 ~ 20:30

Welcoming Dinner

Calibration of a  kg Stainless Steel Standard with respect


to a  kg Pt-Ir Prototype: A Survey of Corrections and Their
Uncertainties
1

Oct-25
(Thur)

Oct-26
(Fri)

09:00 ~ 10:40

Technical Session 4
(Mass II)

10:40 ~ 11:10

Morning Tea

11:10 ~ 12:25

Technical Session 5
(Weighing I)

12:25 ~ 13:30

Lunch

13:30 ~ 15:00

Poster Session

15:00 ~ 15:30

Afternoon Tea

15:30 ~ 16:45

Technical Session 6
(Mass III & Weighing II)

16:45 ~ 17:00

Closing Ceremony

18:30 ~ 22:00

Symposium Dinner (Harbour Cruise)

09:00 ~ 17:00

Technical Tour

12:05 - 12:30

LEE Shih Mean, 2Dr Richard DAVIS, 1LIM Lee Kwee


SPRING, Singapore 2BIPM

Estimation of Adsorption Mass for National Prototype Kilogram


(II)
Jin Wan Chung, Sungjun Lee, Woo-Gab LEE KRISS, Korea

Force I Chair Person: Mr. K. Ueda


13:35 - 14:00

The Development of NIM  MN deadweight force standard


machine
Zhang Zhimin, Zhang Yue, Zhou Hong,Wu Kun and Hu Gang
NIM, P.R.China

14:00 - 14:25

Improvement of calibration reproducibility by removing balancing


mechanism in dead-weight type force standard machine
Toshiyuki Hayashi1*, Yoshihisa Katase1, Hiroshi Maejima1, Yukio
Yamaguchi1, Kazunaga Ueda1, Masao Ueno2 1NMIJ, Japan, AIST
2
Tokyokoki Seizosho Ltd

14:25 - 14:50

Application of PC/04 Embedded Controller to Hydraulic Force


Standard Machine
Hu Gang, NIM, P. R. China

Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force, Torque and Density (APMF 2007)

14:50 - 15:15

High Accurate Creep Compensation Method for Load Cell


Makoto Makabe, Toru Kohashi
Research and Development, Yamato Scale Co., Ltd, Akashi,
Japan

Torque & Density I Chair Person: Dr. J.W. Chung


15:45 - 16:10

Weighing I Chair Person: Mrs. Z.M. Zhang


11:10 - 11:35

Su Yi, SIMT, China


11:35 - 12:00

The 000Nm Torque Calibration Device with Reference


Transducer

Verification scheme of measuring instruments for Torque in China

KRISS, South Korea


12:00 - 12:25

Guo Bin, NIM, China


16:35 - 17:00

Load Cell Failure Prediction Based on Grey Theory in a Weighing


System
Zhu Zhi jian, Mettler-Toledo (Changzhou) Scale & System Ltd.,
China

The research for the immersing effect in the solid density


measurement
Sheau-shi Pan, Feng-Yu Yang, Sheng-Jui Chen and Jiong-Shiun
Hsu CMS, ITRI, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Test of a Microbalance below 1 mg using the Electrostatic Load


and Micro-Weights
Min-Seok Kim, Jae-Hyuk Choi, Yon-Kyu Park

Yin Baojing, SIMT, China


16:10 - 16:35

Calibration of Moisture Meters with Weighing and Temperature


Method

Mass III & Weighing II Chair Person: Mr. S.M. Lee


15:30 15:55

Technical Sessions - Thursday 25th October 2007

A method of upgrading the analogue reading device of a


mechanical balance
Feng Ruidong1, KuiNa2, and Li Zhanhong1

Mass II Chair Person: Dr. C. Sutton

NIM, P.R.China,

Beijing kedong electric power control system Co., Ltd, CEPRI,


P.R.China
2

09:00 - 09:25

Evaluation of the magnetic properties of weights at NMIJ


Masaaki Ueki*, Jian-Xin Sun and Kazunaga Ueda
NMIJ, Japan

09:25 - 09:50

15:55 16:20

Rooms and Equipment of the LNEs New Mass Laboratory

Length Measurement for Moving Products on Conveyor Belt by


Image Processing (2nd Report)
Akihiro Watanabe1, Takanori Yamazaki2, Hideo Ohnishi3, Masaaki
Kobayashi3, Shigeru Kurosu4, 1Utsunomiya University, 2Oyama
National College of Technology.

Tanguy MADEC, AndrGOSSET, Paul-Andr MEURY and


Jacques COURAUD, LNE, France

09:50 - 10:15

10:15 - 10:40

Volume Measurement on Weights


Yao Hong1 and Huang Jian2,
1
NIM, P.R. China
2
Y I MTT, China

16:20 - 16:45

Shinko Co., Ltd., 4Reserach Inst. Crotech

Stability of prototype kilograms and the stainless steel kilogram


standards at NMIA
Kitty Fen, NMI, Australia

Automated Mass System for the Avogadro Project


Angelo Cella-Sartor, Simon Dignan, NMI, Australia

Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force, Torque and Density (APMF 2007)

14:50 - 15:15

High Accurate Creep Compensation Method for Load Cell


Makoto Makabe, Toru Kohashi
Research and Development, Yamato Scale Co., Ltd, Akashi,
Japan

Torque & Density I Chair Person: Dr. J.W. Chung


15:45 - 16:10

Weighing I Chair Person: Mrs. Z.M. Zhang


11:10 - 11:35

Su Yi, SIMT, China


11:35 - 12:00

The 1000Nm Torque Calibration Device with Reference


Transducer

Verification scheme of measuring instruments for Torque in China

KRISS, South Korea


12:00 - 12:25

Guo Bin, NIM, China


16:35 - 17:00

Load Cell Failure Prediction Based on Grey Theory in a Weighing


System
Zhu Zhi jian, Mettler-Toledo (Changzhou) Scale & System Ltd.,
China

The research for the immersing effect in the solid density


measurement
Sheau-shi Pan, Feng-Yu Yang, Sheng-Jui Chen and Jiong-Shiun
Hsu CMS, ITRI, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Test of a Microbalance below  mg using the Electrostatic Load


and Micro-Weights
Min-Seok Kim, Jae-Hyuk Choi, Yon-Kyu Park

Yin Baojing, SIMT, China


16:10 - 16:35

Calibration of Moisture Meters with Weighing and Temperature


Method

Mass III & Weighing II Chair Person: Mr. S.M. Lee


15:30 15:55

Technical Sessions - Thursday 25th October 2007

A method of upgrading the analogue reading device of a


mechanical balance
Feng Ruidong1, KuiNa2, and Li Zhanhong1

Mass II Chair Person: Dr. C. Sutton

NIM, P.R.China,

Beijing kedong electric power control system Co., Ltd, CEPRI,


P.R.China

09:00 - 09:25

Evaluation of the magnetic properties of weights at NMIJ


Masaaki Ueki*, Jian-Xin Sun and Kazunaga Ueda
NMIJ, Japan

09:25 - 09:50

15:55 16:20

Rooms and Equipment of the LNEs New Mass Laboratory

Length Measurement for Moving Products on Conveyor Belt by


Image Processing (2nd Report)
Akihiro Watanabe1, Takanori Yamazaki2, Hideo Ohnishi3, Masaaki
Kobayashi3, Shigeru Kurosu4, 1Utsunomiya University, 2Oyama
National College of Technology.

Tanguy MADEC, AndrGOSSET, Paul-Andr MEURY and


Jacques COURAUD, LNE, France

09:50 - 10:15

10:15 - 10:40

Volume Measurement on Weights


Yao Hong1 and Huang Jian2,
1
NIM, P.R. China
2
Y I MTT, China

16:20 - 16:45

Shinko Co., Ltd., 4Reserach Inst. Crotech

Stability of prototype kilograms and the stainless steel kilogram


standards at NMIA
Kitty Fen, NMI, Australia

Automated Mass System for the Avogadro Project


Angelo Cella-Sartor, Simon Dignan, NMI, Australia

Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force, Torque and Density (APMF 2007)

Poster Session - Thursday 25th October 2007 13:30 15:30

Density
The Absolute Measurement of Density of Silicon Crystals for
determination of Avogadro constant

Mass
Study On the Results of Korea-Japan inter-laboratory comparison
Using the Artifacts (E Class  kg Weights)

Luo Zhiyong, Yang Lifeng, Gu Yingzi,Guo Ligong and Ding Jingan


NIM, China

Sung Ho Yoo, Min-Soo Lee, Jae Hoon Choi


Measurement & Calibration Center, KTL, Korea

Comparison of three different methods for determining the


density of weights used in pressure balance

Frequency Analysis Method using the Adaptive Algorithm and


Application to Dynamic Measurement of Mass and Weight

Sam-yong Woo, Han-wook Song, Yong-jae Lee, In-Mook Choi


and Boo-shik Kim

Yuuki SASAMOTO1, Toshitaka UMEMOTO1, Motoyuki


Adachi2,Yoichiro Kagawa2

KRISS, Korea

Osaka Prefectural College of Technology, Japan,

Yamato Scale Co., Ltd., Japan

Torque

Trend of JCSS (Japan Calibration Service System)

Design and Component Evaluation of the10Nm Dead Weight


Torque Standard Machine

Yoshikazu Watabe, Laboratory Division of Mettler-Toledo, Japan

Atsuhiro NISHINO*, Koji OHGUSHI, Kazunaga UEDA


NMIJ, Japan

Force
4kNm Torque standard equipment
A bilateral comparison of force standards between NIMT and
NMIJ
Kittipong Chaemthet1, Chanchai Amornsakun1, Noppadol
Sumyong1, Veera Tulasombut1, Toshiyuki Hayashi2 and Kazunaga
Ueda2
1

NIM, Thailand, 2NMIJ, Japan

Development of a 200 N deadweight force standard machine


Yon-Kyu Park, Min-Seok Kim, Hou-Keun Song and Dae-Im Kang
KRISS, Korea
Development of Sasang Constitution Inspection Equipment using
Load Cell
Han-Wook Song1, Yon-Kyu Park1, Sunhyang Kim2 and Dal Rae
Kim2
1KRISS, Korea, 2Kyung Hee University, Korea
Measurement of Finger Muscular Force to set up a Standard for
Intelligent Artificial Arms
Jeong-Tae Lee1, Han-Wook Song1, Yon-Kyu Park1 and CheongHwan Oh2
1

10

Meng Feng, Tang Gefei, Zhang Zhimin


NIM, P.R.China
Weighing
10 t Electromagnetic Balance established
Li Ting Yuan, Wang Xiaosan and Mei Hongwei
Beijing Aerospace Institute for Measurement and Test Technology
A Dynamic Model for the Weighbridge of an Axle Weighing
System for In-motion Vehicles with High Velocity
Kengo Fukuda1, Koji Yoshida2, Tetsuya Kinugasa2, Kazuhito
Kanazawa3, and Toshiro Ono2
1

Oyo Measurement Co., Ltd., Japan

Okayama University of Science, Japan

Hanshin Expressway Co., Ltd., Japan

Weighing Solutions for Safe Operation and Regulatory


Compliance
Yoshikazu Watabe, Mettler-Toledo, Japan

KRISS, Korea, Chungnam National University


2

Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force, Torque and Density (APMF 2007)

11

Poster Session - Thursday 25th October 2007 13:30 15:30

Density
The Absolute Measurement of Density of Silicon Crystals for
determination of Avogadro constant

Mass
Study On the Results of Korea-Japan inter-laboratory comparison
Using the Artifacts (E1 Class 1 kg Weights)

Luo Zhiyong, Yang Lifeng, Gu Yingzi,Guo Ligong and Ding Jingan


NIM, China

Sung Ho Yoo, Min-Soo Lee, Jae Hoon Choi


Measurement & Calibration Center, KTL, Korea

Comparison of three different methods for determining the


density of weights used in pressure balance

Frequency Analysis Method using the Adaptive Algorithm and


Application to Dynamic Measurement of Mass and Weight

Sam-yong Woo, Han-wook Song, Yong-jae Lee, In-Mook Choi


and Boo-shik Kim

Yuuki SASAMOTO1, Toshitaka UMEMOTO1, Motoyuki


Adachi2,Yoichiro Kagawa2

KRISS, Korea

Osaka Prefectural College of Technology, Japan,

Yamato Scale Co., Ltd., Japan

Torque

Trend of JCSS (Japan Calibration Service System)

Design and Component Evaluation of the0Nm Dead Weight


Torque Standard Machine

Yoshikazu Watabe, Laboratory Division of Mettler-Toledo, Japan

Atsuhiro NISHINO*, Koji OHGUSHI, Kazunaga UEDA


NMIJ, Japan

Force
4kNm Torque standard equipment
A bilateral comparison of force standards between NIMT and
NMIJ
Kittipong Chaemthet1, Chanchai Amornsakun1, Noppadol
Sumyong1, Veera Tulasombut1, Toshiyuki Hayashi2 and Kazunaga
Ueda2
1

NIM, Thailand, 2NMIJ, Japan

Development of a 200 N deadweight force standard machine


Yon-Kyu Park, Min-Seok Kim, Hou-Keun Song and Dae-Im Kang
KRISS, Korea
Development of Sasang Constitution Inspection Equipment using
Load Cell
Han-Wook Song1, Yon-Kyu Park1, Sunhyang Kim2 and Dal Rae
Kim2
1KRISS, Korea, 2Kyung Hee University, Korea
Measurement of Finger Muscular Force to set up a Standard for
Intelligent Artificial Arms
Jeong-Tae Lee1, Han-Wook Song1, Yon-Kyu Park1 and CheongHwan Oh2
1

10

Meng Feng, Tang Gefei, Zhang Zhimin


NIM, P.R.China
Weighing
1
Li Ting Yuan, Wang Xiaosan and Mei Hongwei
Beijing Aerospace Institute for Measurement and Test Technology
A Dynamic Model for the Weighbridge of an Axle Weighing
System for In-motion Vehicles with High Velocity
Kengo Fukuda1, Koji Yoshida2, Tetsuya Kinugasa2, Kazuhito
Kanazawa3, and Toshiro Ono2
Oyo Measurement Co., Ltd., Japan

1
2

Okayama University of Science, Japan

Hanshin Expressway Co., Ltd., Japan

Weighing Solutions for Safe Operation and Regulatory


Compliance
Yoshikazu Watabe, Mettler-Toledo, Japan

KRISS, Korea, Chungnam National University


2

Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force, Torque and Density (APMF 2007)

11

Keynote Speakers Session


Wednesday 24th Oct 2007

12

Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force, Torque and Density (APMF 2007)

13

From Mega-Newton to pico-Newton


Dae-Im Kang
Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS)
ABSTRACT
Force is a mechanical quantity that changes the physical status of a body. The unit of force is defined by the deadweight of standard
masses subjected to the effect of the local gravitational field. The mechanical structure, and the apparatus that handles and controls such
deadweights, is known as a deadweight force standard machine. Because of their high accuracy, deadweight force standard machines are
widely used at most NMIs (national metrology institutes) to provide national standards for forces in the range of 50 N ~ 4.5 MN. The
relative expanded uncertainty of deadweight force machines is often stated as 2 x 105.
As world industrialization increases, the need for high-capacity force measurement over the force range covered by deadweight force
machines is also increasing. For measurement of forces over a greater range, hydraulic amplification machines are used at several NMIs
to measure forces up to 20 MN. Hydraulic force machines amplify the force generated by small deadweights using a ram-cylinder
system. The increased sensitivity of hydraulic force standard machines is about 1 x 104. The hydraulic force machine consists of a
loading frame, a deadweight machine and a hydraulic control system. The loading frame consists of a fixed frame with a lower bed, a
upper bed and four columns, a moving frame on which a force measuring device is installed and a main ram/cylinder system.
Another efficient method to increase the measurement range is the build-up system. A build-up system itself has the capacity for
measurement of large forces. In addition, it can be used for large-force standard machines. KRISS developed a 10 MN build-up force
standard machine. The build-up force standard machine consists of a loading frame, a hydraulic generating unit and a force control
system. The loading frame consists of four columns, a cylinder, a piston, an upper frame, a lower frame and bearing platens. In the force
machine, the four columns are used as built-in force transducers. A build-up system was used as a transfer standard to calibrate the builtin column force sensors. However, the build-up system can be used as the reference force measurement for the force control in the
machine. In 2002, KRISS established a very precise build-up system with a capacity of 6 MN and used it to measure the reference force.
Uncertainty analysis of the force machine using the precise build-up system showed that the relative uncertainty of the new system was
2 x 104 up to a force of 6 MN.
As the progress on the nanotechnology and biotechnology has been accelerated, much more work about measuring small forces in the
micro- or nanonewton regime has been done, such as measurement of the properties of thin films using nano indenters, mechanical
properties of carbon nanotubes, covalent bonds, antigen-antibody adhesion force, DNA tensile strength, and so on. Such small forces are
usually measured by use of Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). However, the cantilever-type AFM probes have not provided accurate
force measurement data from two reasons. First, the spring constant of AFM probe has not been calibrated by reliable means. Although
AFM manufacturers present the spring constants of AFM probes from theoretical calculations by estimating the shape of them or from
some experimental techniques, these have 10~20 % errors. Second, these levels of force measurements are not traceable to the
International System of Units (SI). No national measurement institute supports the available methods for establishing force measurement
traceability below 10 micronewtons. Thus, extensive works are under way to develop the primary standard of force at the micronewton
region or below and to disseminate it through the micro force calibration standards such as capacitive sensors, and piezoresisitve
cantilevers.
As Dr. Richard Feynman, a Nobel Prize Laureate and the father of Nano-Science, said 40 years ago, Theres plenty of room at the
bottom, there is still wide force range below nano-Newton where force sensitivity in leading-edge nano-bio researches is reaching.
Beyond moropholgical nano-imaging, force-based application keeps widening to find new areas requiring higher accuracy in ultra-small

force measurement such as DNA unzipping, protein stretching, single spin detection, and so on. Especially, pico-Newton forces control
many key processes in biology, but research on its standard hardly has been performed. In June 2006, KRISS launched a Quantum-based
Mass-force Standard Project of which the short-term goal is developing pico-Newton force standard with 1 % uncertainty. Pico-Newton
force exerted on quantum weights can be increased or decreased by a constant step with perfect linearity.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Density measurement at NMIA


Noel Bignell and Brad Ward
Mass Group, Division of Physical Metrology, NMIA, Australia
ABSTRACT
The Australian National Laboratory NMIA, has been involved in density measurements at a high level for many years.
It was clear by 1970 that the density tables for water needed reviewing and new measurements were necessary. NMIA
began a series of measurements of the absolute density of water using the hydrostatic weighing of spheres. The
diameter of the sphere was measured with an interferometer to calculate its volume. This work led directly to the use of
silicon spheres as solid density standards and to the Avogadro constant measurement that is the basis for our current
work on the establishment of a new definition of the kilogram. The change in the density of water when it is saturated
with dissolved air was measured using a magnetically suspended float that is able to measure density changes of 0.03
ppm. Comparative measurements of the density of mercury also using hydrostatic weighing were done to support the
use of the Cooks value in the measurement of the Absolute Volt being done by this laboratory at that time. Both these
studies are now finished.
Many liquid density measurements in industry are done with hydrometers calibrated using the Cuckow method at
NMIA. Those for liquid petroleum gas (LPG) are used at elevated pressures and require a correction to their
atmospheric pressure calibration. Other liquid density measurements are made with a vibrating densitometer using
water as a reference. Important air density measurements are made using equation of state parameters, pressure,
temperature and relative humidity. Equation of state techniques have also been used to obtain reference densities in
nitrogen for the calibration of gas density meters as used in gas pipelines.
Keywords: Density, measurement, standards, water, hydrometer

1. INTRODUCTION
While density, usually denoted by the Greek letter rho, , is an important quantity its use in science, technology and
commerce is not as extensive as mass. Nevertheless our perception of the world is based more on density than on mass
and the term heavy that might be expected to apply only to mass is frequently used to describe some object of high
density rather than high mass. Hence the phrase as heavy as lead and the basis of an old school boy joke that asks
what is heavier, a kilogram of lead or a kilogram of feathers. That even some school boys answer lead proves the
point. Metrologists however are well acquainted with the definition of density as

= mass volume

and so would

never get that wrong. Indeed the size of the unit of mass was based on the density of water, being the mass of a cubic
decimetre of water at its temperature of maximum density. The density of water is the first topic to be discussed.
The primary technique of density measurement requires that the mass of a body of known volume be measured.
However, the most useful techniques for density metrology rely on Archimedes Principle which states that the upthrust
on a body is equal to the weight of the volume of fluid displaced. The fluid used is frequently water so the technique is
commonly referred to as hydrostatic weighing. Traditional hydrostatic weighing uses a suspension wire attached to the
body. This wire emerges through the surface of the liquid and attaches to a balance that enables the weight of the body
in air and in the liquid to be found. For some measurements a wire either introduces variable additional forces or it
cannot be used at all because the fluid may be a gas or must be contained at high pressures. Magnetic forces are useful
in these situations [1].
From Archimedes Principle the upthrust on a sinker submerged in a fluid of density L is VB L g and the weight of the
sinker is MBg where VB is the volume of the sinker, MB its mass and g the gravitational acceleration. Thus the force that
is needed to produce equilibrium is the difference between these two forces and this is the force that will be measured
by a mass balance in terms of the mass needed to produce the force in the gravitational field. When weighing in air of
density A the reading of the balance will be mA given by
m A g = M B g V B g A
(1)
and in liquid the reading mL is given by
B

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

m L g = M B g V B g L .

(2)

Canceling g and subtracting gives

L =

m A mB
+ A
VB

(3)

This equation and ones similar to it form the basis of most of the absolute liquid density measurements for which the
volume of the sinker VB needs to be known from some dimensional measurement. Alternatively VB can be measured by
making the same measurements in a liquid of known density, usually water at a known temperature, and using equation
(2) provided someone has at sometime used a solid of volume known from dimensional measurements.

2. THE DENSITY OF WATER MEASUREMENTS AT NMIA


2.1 REASONS FOR THE WORK
In the early 1970s it was recognised that the then current tables for the density of water were partly based on data
obtained at the beginning of the twentieth century. It was decided that there was a need for the density of water to be remeasured and a project with far reaching implications was begun at this laboratory and at several others around the
world.
2.2 ABSOLUTE DENSITY METHOD
NMIA has had a significant input into the recommended table for the density of water between 0C and 40C [2] with
the investigation of the absolute density of standard mean ocean water (SMOW) over a period of several years. [3, 4].
Patterson and Morris [4] applied the method of weighing a sphere of known volume in air-free water of known isotopic
content.
From the beginning it was decided to use hydrostatic weighing with a sinker of known volume. The problem of the
small forces acting on the suspension wire due to the liquid surface was overcome by adding a small drop of detergent
at the entry point. To measure the volume of a solid object dimensionally requires that its geometry be quite regular.
Cubes, cylinders and spheres seem obvious choices and of these only the sphere has no sharp edges easily damaged
during use so it was chosen for this work. The material of the sphere for this measurement is ideally of zero thermal
expansion and a material with a very low expansion coefficient, ultra low expansion (ULE) glass, was used. It was
made into a hollow evacuated sphere and the diameters to calculate the volume were measured using a Saunders [5]
interferometer combined with Talyrond measurements.

The density (t,P) of water at temperature t and pressure P is given by

[
(t , P ) =

M a M w (1

gm

)( )
gs
m

]
(4)

V (t )

where, Ma and Mw are the true mass in air and apparent mass in water, air density during weighing in water, m is the
density of the mass standards, gm and gs are the gravity values at the mass and sphere measurement positions and V is
the volume of the sphere at the test temperature.

Figure 2 shows a schematic diagram of the hydrostatic weighing set-up used for measuring the apparent mass of the
sphere in the water sample under test.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Figure 1 Schematic of the hydrostatic water measurement apparatus.

Apparent mass measurements were made on 10 distilled water samples over a 1C to 40C temperature range which
was controlled to better than 5 mK. After cleaning the surface, true mass measurements were made of the sphere and
corrections for air buoyancy (about 230 mg) applied using the standard CIPM air density equation [6]. The uncertainty
of the true mass was 40 g.

The volume of the sphere was obtained using roundness and diameter data measurements. Diameter measurements were
done at temperatures ranging from 7C to 40C with a temperature controlled chamber fitted around the sphere. This
enabled the absolute density value to be calculated without relying too much on dilation equations for the change in
volume of the sphere with temperature.

From the above measurement data, the absolute density of water was calculated from (4) and published in 1994 [4]. A
new recommended table of water density values between 0C and 40C [2] which included data from NMIA and NMIJ
(Japan) was published. The value recommended for the density of de-aerated Standard Mean Ocean Water (SMOW) at
20C and 101 325 Pa is 998.2067 kg m-3 with an uncertainty of 0.00083 kg m-3 (k = 2). Corrections to the value of
SMOW may need to be applied if conditions differ from the above. These corrections are detailed in the publication.

2.3 EFFECT OF DISSOLVED AIR


When water is used as a density standard it is often saturated with air, or partly so. As part of the project to measure the
density of water it was clear that the effect of dissolved air on the density needed to be measured again since the
existing data were unsatisfactory. NMIA began a series of measurements of this effect using a magnetic float
densimeter described by Bignell [7 ].
The 130 mL Pyrex glass float has a permanent magnet in the bottom and a blackened bob on the top that is used for
position detection. The geometry of the coil/magnet system reduces to zero the effect due to coil temperature changes
on the magnetic field gradient.
The philosophy of the measurement technique is to maintain everything constant except the state of the water sample
and to make that change as rapidly as possible so that long term stability is not required. The same water sample is used
and it is saturated with the gas in the sample cell at constant temperature. The time for saturation was about 15 h and so
stability of the apparatus over about 17 h is needed. It is a differential measurement so that many of the corrections that
would have to be applied in an absolute measurement cancel or become of less significance. For example the
uncertainty in the volume of the float and the uncertainty in the magnetic force applied to it directly affects the
uncertainty of the density in an absolute measurement but here in a differential measurement there will be cancellation.
It is however important that the temperature of the float does not change very much when the sample is first introduced

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

and then cooled down as there is an hysteresis effect on the volume V of the float so that V/V is about 1.810-8 K-1.
This is avoided by adjusting the sample temperature prior to transfer.
The other sources of uncertainty considered were: servo position noise; changes in the temperature of the float and
sample; barometric pressure changes; the effects of gas-free sample preparation and the subsequent saturation process;
coil current by voltage across a standard resistor; float position. In brief the type B uncertainties cancel and the random,
type A just mentioned, are added as independent to give 1410-5 kg m-3. The observed standard deviation of 21

2 banks
of LEDs

+1

-1

Signal
generator

PSD

To PSD

1.2247a

2a

Figure 2. Magnetic float apparatus used to measure the effect of air on the density of water.

measurements was 1510-5 kg m-3 so that the experimental standard deviation of the mean is 3.310-5 kg m-3. It needs to
be understood that the quantity being measured is a small density change of 4.210-3 kg m-3 so that an uncertainty of
3.310-5 kg m-3, whilst a very small quantity, is only about 0.8% of the measured quantity. As well as air, the effect on
the density of water when the pure gas components of air and of some other gases were dissolved in it was measured by
Bignell [8, 9, 10, 11]. When the effect of hydrogen on the density was measured it was found to decrease it by about 15
g m-3 at 20 C whereas for argon the effect was to increase the density by about 13 g m-3. A mixture of the two gases
was made that should have had an approximately zero effect on the density when dissolved in water and which could be
calculated using Henrys law. There was a small but significant discrepancy between the calculation and the
measurement that could be explained by a break down in Henrys law but further work needs to be done to substantiate
this claim. These results are of some importance to chemists for the calculation of partial molar volumes of gases in
water. Harvey, Kaplan and Burnett [12 ] used the best available data on the partial molar volumes and Henrys
constants for the components of air and obtained good agreement with the results of Bignell.

3. THE DENSITY OF MERCURY


3.1 THE REASON FOR THE MEASUREMENT
Mercury is used to maintain the barometric pressure standards and in the 1970s and 1980s was used at NMIA to
determine the relationship between the SI volt and the volt maintained by the Josephson effect using an assumed value

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

for the combination of fundamental constants 2e/h. The volt was measured using the elevation of the surface of a pool
of mercury when acted on by a force provided electrostatically by a voltage derived from the as maintained volt. The
elevation depends on the value of gravitational acceleration and on the density of mercury. This work on the absolute
value of the volt was reported by Clothier et al [13] who found that there was a difference of 8.1 ppm between the SI
volt and the as-maintained volt from the Josephson effect. This is still an important matter in metrology since the
greatest uncertainty component in the volt arises from the lack of knowledge of 2e/h and traces back to the nature of the
kilogram itself and is the main reason for the proposals to redefine the kilogram.
The source for much of the work performed at NMIA on the density of mercury is based on the work by Cook and
Stone [14] and Cook [15] on the absolute value for the density of mercury.
3.2 METHODS USED
Relative density comparisons by Patterson and Prowse [16] determined the density of mercury used in the absolute volt
project from a sample measured by Cook [15]. To measure the density difference between the two samples of mercury a
sinker of known volume and mass is needed and (2) is applied. Figure 3 shows a schematic of the apparatus used.

Figure 3. Schematic of the relative mercury density measurement apparatus

The density of mercury is around 13 600 kg m-3 so a sinker of higher density is needed. The material chosen was
tungsten carbide as it has a density around 14,900 kg m-3 and can be given a mirror finish. The average difference, in
density, between the reference sample and the absolute volt sample was around 0.0099 kg m-3 with an uncertainty of
0.0011 kg m-3. The ITS-90 value for Cooks measurement was 13 545.859 kg m-3. Further studies to investigate the
long term changes in density of mercury samples were made [17]. The results from this study indicate the change was
within the uncertainties of the measurements by Cook and that mercury is a stable density standard.

4. DENSITY OF SOLIDS
Solid and liquid density measurements are linked and in general rely on each other especially when considering low to
medium level accuracy measurements. Thus (3) can be used to determine the density of solids using standard liquids or
the density of liquids using sinkers of known volume. Except at the highest level, solid density measurements at NMIA
are usually performed using hydrostatic weighing techniques. The density of the sample is determined by measuring the
upthrust exerted on it when suspended in a liquid of known density.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

The density is given by

D=

W .( - 1).(1 - 1 / )
+ 1
W .(1 - 1 / ) - W .(1 - 2 / )

(4)

where W and W are the apparent mass of the sample in air and in the standard liquid, is the density of the standard
liquid, 1 and 2 are air densities when weighing the sample in air and in the standard liquid and the density of the
masses. Uncertainties around 2 to 10ppm can be achieved with this method.

The standard liquids used in the measurement process are usually water or nonane whose densities have been measured
in a similar manner via hydrostatic weighing using a sinker of known volume or from water density tables [4].

For more exacting work artefacts such as cubes, cylinders and spheres manufactured from various materials like ultra
low expansion (ULE) glass or silicon are used as density standards. Volumes of these artefacts are measured
interferometrically and their masses are measured on high level mass comparators, both quantities traceable back to
national standards.

From the early eighties NMIA has been using objects with a spherical form for this work as the edges of a cube can be
easily damaged. Initially spheres were made from ULE glass and were used in absolute water density determinations
[4]. Experience from this project and the development of expertise in the fabrication and polishing of single crystal
silicon spheres [18, 19] has led to the NMIA involvement in the international project for the determination of the
Avogadro Constant and possible redefinition of the kilogram. NMIA has characterised several spherical density
standards for use by national laboratories around the world [20], and is currently cooperating with CSIRO to make two
spheres of pure silicon 28 isotope for use in the Avogadro project.

Diameter measurements of these spheres are made in a temperature controlled chamber (Figure 1) in a helium
environment at a pressure of 5 kPa absolute. Temperature stabilities of 4 to 5 mK at 20C are maintained during the
measurements.

Figure 4. Cut-away schematic view of the chamber for diameter measurements.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Around 100 diameter measurements are made on the sphere which can be rotated inside the chamber. Together with
roundness measurements [18] and surface characteristic corrections volume can be calculated to about 0.01ppm. This
volume and the mass measurements done on a modified 2kg mass comparator, allow the density of the 1 kg spheres to
be calculated with a relative uncertainty of around 0.1ppm. [19]

5. DENSITY OF GASES
When very accurate weighings in air are made to determine the mass of weights and other objects it is essential that a
correction be made for the buoyancy of the object in the air. This requires a very good measurement of the air
density[21]. The method usually adopted for this measurement relies on calculation using an equation [1] that contains
parameters that account for the pressure, the temperature and the relative humidity of the air. Recently there has been
some doubt as to the correct value for the argon content that the standard formula assumes and a new version of the
CIPM air density equation will be published in Metrologia. For some work the carbon dioxide content is also measured
and at NMIA its value is monitored.

Another use that requires the calculation of the density of gas from an equation of state is in the calibration of gas
density meters [22]. These are sometimes used in gas pipelines as part of the measurement of the flow of gas. This is a
fairly straight forward procedure that changes the pressure of the gas to obtain a range of densities for the calibration
calculated from the equation of state using published data though care needs to be taken that thermal equilibrium has
been reached after pressure changes.

6. DENSITY CALIBRATIONS AT NMIA


6.1 CALIBRATION SERVICE
The density calibration service at NMIA is typically performed using four routine methods. For density determinations
of small and usually irregularly shaped solids a hydrostatic method is used as previously described. For liquid density
measurements hydrometers are calibrated for customers to use. Liquid density determinations at NMIA are made using
a vibrating U-tube density cell and density bottles or pycnometers.
6.2 HYDROMETERS
Hydrometers are sealed vessels, usually made from glass, which when floating in a liquid, measure the liquid density,
by the position of the liquid surface along a marked scale. They are cheap, simple devices and are made for a particular
density range to suit the application. They are available in several scale reading types ie % alcohol, Baume, Brix, SpGr,
which are all related back to the density scale. Figure 5 shows a hydrometer (left) with a density range of 950-1000 kg
m-3, typical of a working standard used in industry. Calibration uncertainty would be around 100ppm.

Figure 5

Working and Standard Hydrometers

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

An increase in the bulb size and decrease in the stem diameter increases the sensitivity and accuracy of the hydrometer.
The hydrometer on the right, with the larger bulb and smaller stem diameter, is one made at NMIA to measure over a
much narrower density range with greater sensitivity and accuracy. Its typical uncertainty is 5 ppm.

Figure 6

Hydrometer calibration apparatus at NMIA

At NMIA all hydrometers are calibrated by weighing the hydrometer in a fluid of known density while suspended by a
balance, with the level of the fluid set at the scale point to be calibrated. This calibration method by Cuckow [23] is
used for all hydrometer types and relative scales are calculated by recognised tables and formulae. The large
hydrometer in Figure 5 is used to measure the density of the standard fluid (nonane) in the test apparatus, Figure 6.

Pressure hydrometers for use in LPG gas are also calibrated, with an extra step in the calibration requiring testing in a
pressure vessel to check the change in volume of the hydrometer under pressure.

6.2 VIBRATING U-TUBE DENSITOMETER


The densitometer consists of a small glass U-tube, which is set to vibrate, at its resonant frequency, at right angles to the
plane of the tubes. The frequency of the vibration depends on the mass, and hence density, of the air or liquid contained in
the tube. The constants of the relationship between the period of vibration and density are determined by using samples of
known density, usually air and water, and measuring the period of vibration for each sample. The constants are temperature
dependent and thus the gas and liquid temperature in the tube is maintained at a fixed value using a temperature-control unit.
This technique has been in use for 40 years with development over that time. Recent machines incorporate viscosity
corrections and manufacturers claim density accuracies of 5 x 10-6 g cm-3 with a temperature uncertainty of measurement of
0.01C. The big advantages of these instruments are small sample size (around 1-2 ml), accuracy, suitable for automatic
online measurements and speed.
Figure 8 shows a density scan done on water using the unit in Figure 7 and the results indicate a deviation of less than
0.01 kg m-3 from the water density tables. These types of instrument are now available in portable forms and are
replacing hydrometers in general use in industry.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Figure 7

Vibrating U-Tube Densitometer at NMIA

DMA5000 Water Density Scan 0 to 35C


1000.00

Density kg/m^3

999.00
998.00
997.00
996.00
995.00
994.00
993.00
0

10

Tempertaure (C)

15

20

25
NMI Water

30

35

AP Ultra Pure Water

Figure 8 Density Scan from 0C to 25C

6. CONCLUSIONS
Density is an important parameter in many industrial processes and water is commonly used as a reference standard.
The density of water of particular isotopic composition and air content is specified in [4] and much of this is based on
work done at NMIA over many years. Techniques developed for this work are currently being applied to the
measurement of the Avogadro constant with the long-term goal of establishing a new definition of the kilogram. The
density of mercury has directly influenced the results in the absolute volt measurements.

The determination of the density of liquids, using hydrometers calibrated by NMIA or measured directly at NMIA,
allows traceability in a number of areas of measurement in Australia. Internally our most important density
measurement is that of air, used for buoyancy correction in disseminating the value of mass derived from the Australian
platinum-iridium kilogram. This provides traceability and hence the legal basis for countless measurements and
transactions made in Australia.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
It is necessary to acknowledge a number of colleagues, many of them retired and some of them dead who participated in
various aspects of this work over the years. It has been our privilege to work with them.

5. REFERENCES
[1] Bignell N., Magnetic flotation in densimetry, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17 pp2574-2580, 2006
[2] M. Tanaka, G. Girard, R. Davis, A. Peuto and N. Bignell, Recommended table for the density of water between 0
C and 40 C based on recent experimental evidence, Metrologia, 38, 301-309, 2001.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

[3] Bell G A, Patterson J B, Density Standards- The Density and Thermal Dilation of Water, Precision Measurement
and Fundamental Constants II , Natl. Bur. Stand,(U.S.) Spec. Pub. 617, 1984, 445.
[4] Patterson J B and Morris E C, Measurement of Absolute Water Density, 1C to 40C, Metrologia, 31, 277-288,
1994.
[5] Saunders J. B., Ball and Cylinder Interferometer, Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards, Vol
76, pp11-20, 1972.
[6] Davis, R.S., Equation for the Determination of the Density of Moist Air, Metrologia, 29, 67-70, 1992.
[7] Bignell N., A magnetic float densimeter for the measurement of changes in water density on aeration, J. Phys. E:
Sci. Instrum., 15, 378-381, 1982.
[8] Bignell, N., The Effect of Dissolved Air on the Density of Water, Metrologia, 19, 57-59, 1983.
[9] Bignell, N., The Change in Water Density Due to Aeration in the Range 0 8C, Metrologia, 23, 207-211,
1986/87.
[10] Bignell N., Partial molar volumes of atmospheric gases in water, J. Phys. Chem. 88 pp5409-5412, 1984.
[11] Bignell N., Precise density measurements of aqueous solutions of mixed non-polar gases, J. Phys. Chem. 91
pp1687-1690, 1987.
[12] Harvey A.H., Kaplan S.G, Burnett J.H., Effect of dissolved air on the density and refractive index of water, Int.
Journal of Thermophysics, 26 pp. 1495-1514, 2005.
[13] Clother W.K., et al A Determination of the Volt, Metrologia 26, pp. 9-46, 1989.
[14] Cook A. H. and Stone N. W. B., Precise Measurements of the Density of Mercury at 20C. I Absolute
Displacement Method, Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, Ser. A, 250, pp.279-323, 1957.
[15] Cook A. H. ,Precise Measurements of the Density of Mercury at 20C, Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, Ser. A,
254, pp.125-154, 1961.
[16] Paterson J. B. and Prowse D. B., Comparative measurement of the Density of Mercury, Metrologia, 21, pp.107113, 1985.
[17] Paterson J. B. and Prowse D. B., Measurements Pertaining to the Long-Term Stability of the Density of
Mercury, Metrologia, 25, pp.121-123, 1988.
[18] Leistner A.J. and Giardini W.J., Fabrication and sphericity measurements of single-crystal silicon
spheres, Metrologia, 31, 231-244, 1994
[19] Kenny M. J., Leistner A. J., Walsh C. J., Fen K., Giardini W. J., Wielunski L. S., Netterfield R. P. and Ward B. R.,
Precision Determination of the Density of a Single Crystal Silicon Sphere and Evaluation of the Avogadro Constant,
IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 587-92, 2001
[20] Leistner A J and Zosi G, Polishing of a 1 kg Silicon Sphere as a Density Standard, Applied Optics 26, 600-1,
1987.
[21] Prowse D.B., Measurement of Air Density for High Accuracy Mass Determination, Precision Meas. And
Fundamental Constants II, Natl. Bur. Stand. (US), Spec. Publ. 617, pp.437-439, 1984.
[22] Bignell N., Calibration of Gas Density Transducers at the National Measurement Laboratory, Australian Journal
of Instrumentation and Control, pp 92-94, October, 1977.
[23] Cuckow F. W., A New Method of High Accuracy for the Calibration of Reference Standard Hydrometers, JSCI
68, pp.44-49, 1949.

Density measurement at NMIA


Noel Bignell
NMI, Australia

ABSTRACT
The Australian National Laboratory NMIA, has been involved in density measurements
at a high level for many years. It was clear by 1970 that the density tables for water
needed reviewing and new measurements were necessary. NMIA began a series of
measurements of the absolute density of water using the hydrostatic weighing of
spheres. The diameter of the sphere was measured with an interferometer to calculate
its volume. This work led directly to the use of silicon spheres as solid density standards
and to the Avogadro constant measurement that is the basis for our current work on the
establishment of a new definition of the kilogram. The change in the density of water
when it is saturated with dissolved air was measured using a magnetically suspended
float that is able to measure density changes of 0.03 ppm. Comparative measurements
of the density of mercury also using hydrostatic weighing were done to support the
use of the Cooks value in the measurement of the Absolute Volt being done by this
laboratory at that time. Both these studies are now finished.

Technical Sessions
Wednesday 24th Oct 2007

Many liquid density measurements in industry are done with hydrometers calibrated
using the Cuckow method at NMIA. Those for liquid petroleum gas (LPG) are used at
elevated pressures and require a correction to their atmospheric pressure calibration.
Other liquid density measurements are made with a vibrating densitometer using water
as a reference. Important air density measurements are made using equation of state
parameters, pressure, temperature and relative humidity. Equation of state techniques
have also been used to obtain reference densities in nitrogen for the calibration of gas
density meters as used in gas pipelines.

16

Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force, Torque and Density (APMF 2007)

17

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

On Watt Balance Design for a Non-Artefact Kilogram


C M Sutton
Mass & Pressure Project, Measurement Standards Laboratory of New Zealand (MSL),
Industrial Research Ltd., New Zealand
ABSTRACT
In this paper the key characteristics of existing Watt balance experiments are reviewed and some new approaches to
elements of Watt balance design are proposed. A Watt balance relates mechanical to electrical energy by comparing
the gravitational force on a mass with the force on a current-carrying coil in a magnetic field. It is one of the favoured
approaches to replacing the present artefact kilogram as it will allow the kilogram to be redefined in terms of the Planck
constant. The first proposal is to use low-frequency oscillatory movement of the coil in the magnetic field for the
calibration mode of the Watt balance experiment. Advantages of this ac method include; better mapping of the
magnetic field, the use of phase sensitive detection to reduce noise, and a smaller and simpler balance construction.
The second proposal is a Watt balance based on a twin pressure balance, taking advantage of the well-defined axis of a
pressure balance and the excellent short-term stability of the generated pressure.
Keywords: Watt balance, kilogram, Planck constant.

1. INTRODUCTION
The present definition of the kilogram is limiting both the further improvement of the SI and the reduction in the
uncertainty with which many of the fundamental constants are known. The kilogram is the only remaining SI base
unit that is still defined in terms of a unique physical artefact and it is the oldest unit definition of the SI still current
today. It was established in 1889 by the first General Conference of the Metre Convention1. The one-kilogram
artefact is a 90 % platinum, 10 % iridium mass known as the IPK that is triple-locked in a vault at the BIPM (Bureau
International des Poids et Mesures) in Svres near Paris.
The problem is that the mass of the kilogram artefact IPK, while defined to be exactly 1 kg, may have changed by about
50 g (5 parts in 108) over the last 100 years. In contrast, one kilogram masses can be compared with an uncertainty
of about 1 part in 109 and electrical standards for the units of voltage and resistance (volt and ohm) can be realised using
the Josephson volt and quantized Hall effect with better than 1 part in 109 reproducibility2. The evidence for the
instability of the IPK comes from the re-verifications of national copies of the kilogram against the IPK which suggest
that the mass of the IPK has decreased by about 50 g over a period of 100 years3. Of course, there is no way of
knowing exactly how stable the IPK is without an invariant reference.
Before the kilogram can be re-defined, the metrology community needs to be satisfied that the different experiments for
realising the kilogram agree with each other to within about 2 parts in 108. Furthermore, to establish confidence in any
new definition of the kilogram, it is important that the results of a variety of measurements agree at this level. These
were the key points of a recommendation from the 2005 meeting of the Consultative Committee for Mass and Related
Quantities of the Metre Convention.
Research on a non-artefact kilogram is being conducted in a number of institutions. Approaches to a non-artefact
kilogram include; the Watt balance, the Avogadro constant, atomic ion beam deposition, the volt balance and
superconducting magnetic levitation. Of these, the Watt balance and the Avogadro constant approaches are the most
advanced and likely to achieve the necessary accuracy of about 20 g at 1 kg in the immediate future.
The focus of this paper is on the Watt balance because it has the potential to be a convenient way of realising the
kilogram in any national metrology institute worldwide. Watt balance theory is covered in Section 2. The five
current Watt balance experiments are briefly reviewed in Section 3 and their key features are compared in Section 4.
Experimental issues that have arisen with the current Watt balances are discussed in Section 5. These issues form the
basis for the new approaches to elements of the design of a Watt balance presented in Section 6 and summarised in
Section 7.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

2. WATT BALANCE THEORY


The concept of using the moving coil Watt balance to relate mechanical power to electrical power was first proposed by
Kibble4. A Watt balance experiment has two modes of operation.
In the first mode, the force on a coil carrying current I in a horizontal magnetic field of uniform flux density B is
balanced against the gravitational force on mass m. This mode of the Watt balance experiment is referred to as the
static or weighing mode. See Figure 1 (a). With existing technology, current I can be measured via the voltage US
across resistance R, with these values linked to the Josephson voltage standard and the quantum Hall effect resistance
standard respectively.
In the future, current I may be directly measured against a quantum current standard. The

force vector F on the coil due to the interaction of the current with the magnetic field is the integral of the magnetic
field vector and the current vector cross product for each element of length dl along the coil length l. This force can be
equated to the gravitational force mg on mass m, where g is the value of the local gravitational field. Hence


F=I

dl B = I = m g



where F is assumed to be vertical (parallel to the gravitational force on m), and is a calibration constant.
radial field geometry with n turns on a circular coil of diameter D, = n D B .

(1)
For a

In the second
mode, the coil and magnetic field configuration are the same but now the coil is moved vertically at

velocity v across the magnetic field as shown in Figure 1 (b). The voltage U induced in the coil by this movement
can be measured against a Josephson voltage standard. This mode of the Watt balance experiment is referred to as the
calibration or moving mode and is described by the equation

  
  

U = B dl = dl B v = v

(2)

which includes the same geometric factor as (1).

Figure 1: Weighing mode (a) and calibration mode (b) of the Watt balance experiment.



If we assume that vectors F and v are both vertical, then we can combine equations (1) and (2) to give

mg U
=
I
v

where the quantities are represented by their magnitudes only.


electrical power to mechanical power

(3)
Rearranging (3) gives the classic expression relating

U I = m g v or m =

UI
gv

(4)

which shows how mass m can be determined from electrical measurements (voltage and current), a measurement of the
gravitational acceleration, and a velocity measurement.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

If U is measured against a Josephson voltage standard and I is measured from the voltage drop across a resistance
calibrated against a quantum Hall resistance standard then5

m=C

f J2
h
gv

(5)

where C is a numerical constant, fJ is the Josephson frequency, and h is the Planck constant.
Equation (5) shows two things; that the Watt balance can be used to link mass to the Planck constant and that mass m
can be determined with a Watt balance from the value of h and from other values traceable to the SI metre and second.
These other values are frequency fJ, the local gravitational acceleration g (m/s2), and speed (m/s). The SI unit of
time, the second, can be realised with a relative uncertainty of less than 10-13. The SI unit of length, the metre, is
defined in terms of the second and the (now fixed) value for the speed of light. In practice the metre is realised with
stabilised lasers of known frequency. For example, the wavelength in vacuum of an iodine-stabilised laser beam has a
relative uncertainty of less then 10-10. Hence in principle a unit of mass defined in terms of the Planck constant h can
be realised with a relative uncertainty of order 10-8 or less which is better than the existing IPK artefact standard.

3. WATT BALANCE RESEARCH


There are currently five Watt balance experiments in various stages of development. These are at the BIPM and at the
national metrology institutes BNM (France), METAS (Switzerland), NIST (USA), and NPL (UK). In addition, it was
reported to the CCM meeting in Paris in late March 2007 that NIM (China) is funding a new Watt balance type
experiment and that the national metrology institutes of several countries are considering Watt balance experiments
(Finland-Russia, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and New Zealand).
A brief description of each of these five Watt balance experiments and their status are given in the following sections.
3.1 NPL WATT BALANCE
The NPL Watt balance is the most mature of the five current Watt balances, with initial research starting in the late
1970s6. For more detail, see the literature on the NPL Watt balance project7-11. The NPL Watt balance is based on a
conventional beam balance, which is used for both the weighing and calibration modes. This Watt balance is large;
each arm of the beam balance is 1.2 m long and the permanent magnet system that provides that magnetic field weighs
6000 kg. The beam supports the coil in the magnetic field and is tilted in the calibration mode to move the coil
vertically. Coil velocity is measured via the phase shift between the measured fringe frequency from a Michelson
interferometer and a 6 kHz reference frequency7. The resolution of a single phase measurement is 1/64 of a fringe or
about 2.5 nm.
Results from the NPL Watt balance have demonstrated that it has the necessary repeatability. Once type B errors have
been understood and quantified correctly, this Watt balance is expected to achieve an overall uncertainty of less then 1
part in 108 from a single automated overnight run9. With recent improvements12, the apparatus can now be aligned
with most of the critical alignment errors below 1 part in 108. The target uncertainty for the next measurement result is
5 parts in 108 (or 50 nW/W)12.
3.2 NIST WATT BALANCE
NIST started its Watt balance project a few years after NPL. The NIST Watt balance is the largest of the five current
Watt balances (about 7 m high) and the only one using a super-conducting magnet. Linear vertical motion of the coil
in the magnetic field for the calibration mode is achieved using a band on a wheel. This wheel, which has a knife-edge
bearing, also serves as the balance beam for the weighing mode. The method used to measure is essentially the same
as that used by NPL. Several papers have been written covering different aspects of the NIST Watt balance13-17.
The most recent result from the NIST Watt balance12 gave a value for the Planck constant with an uncertainty of
36 nW/W.
3.3 METAS WATT BALANCE
The METAS Watt balance project started in 199718. The main design ideas for this Watt balance18 are to keep the
apparatus small, and to separate the weighing and calibration modes to allow a commercial mass comparator to be used.
The coil is either supported by the comparator (for the weighing mode) or by a rolling arm parallelogram structure used

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

to move the coil vertically in the calibration mode. A permanent magnet is used to generate the magnetic field.
Further information on this Watt balance is given in publications by Beer et. al19-21.
Some measurements have been made in air with the METAS Watt balance using 50 g and 100 g masses, which show
reasonable agreement and a standard deviation of the results of approximately 40 g. Further improvements to this
Watt balance are planned12, including a new design of permanent magnet22.
3.4 BNM WATT BALANCE
While this is referred to as the BNM Watt balance, the project involves cooperation with several other French
organisations. Development of this Watt balance started in 2001. Like the NPL and METAS Watt balances, the
whole BNM Watt balance operates at room temperature and uses a permanent magnet. A key feature of the BNM
Watt balance is the flexure arrangement that allows the whole mass comparator to be moved vertically in the calibration
mode to move the coil through the magnetic field. One arm of the comparator supports the coil and a test mass while
the other arm supports a counterweight. Papers have been published on this Watt balance in general23 and on
particular aspects including the magnetic circuit design24 and velocity control of the coil movement25.
The BNM Watt balance is still under construction. The magnet has been designed and assembled, the flexures for
moving the balance are being improved, and the interferometer and associated electronics for controlling the velocity of
the balance and coil in the calibration mode have been trialled.
3.5 BIPM WATT BALANCE
BIPM decided late in 2002 to start a Watt balance project. A recent paper describes the BIPM Watt balance project26.
The BIPM Watt balance will use a cryogenic permanent magnet and a superconducting coil so that the weighing and
calibration modes can be performed simultaneously. The coil is moved at constant velocity in the magnetic field while
at the same time performing a weighing. With the superconducting coil having zero resistance, current I can be passed
through the coil to provide the force to support the mass while the measured voltage across the coil is the induced
voltage due to the coil velocity. The test mass, an electrostatic expander and the coil are supported below a
commercial mass balance. The electrostatic expander controls the separation between the coil and the balance. In
this way, the balance and the magnet can remain stationary while the coil is moved through the magnetic field. Like
the METAS and BNM Watt balances, the BIPM Watt balance will be modest in size (about 1 m by 1 m by 1.5 m).
A room temperature prototype of the BIPM Watt balance is currently being constructed. The magnet has been
designed and a simplified prototype magnet has been built. An electrostatic expander has been constructed and control
systems to drive this have been trialled.

4. FEATURES OF WATT BALANCE EXPERIMENTS


Table 1 summarises some of the key features and parameters of the five Watt balance experiments. Most of this table
is from a paper by Eichenberger et. al18 but extended to include the BNM and BIPM Watt balances and to add other
parameters such as the coil movement and drive mechanisms. A question mark indicates unknown or uncertain
parameters.
The five Watt balances have many similarities in their parameters. This is not surprising as all five experiments meet
the same basic design requirements:
In the weighing mode, force F must be large enough that it can be compared with sufficient accuracy against a
highly-stable test mass m.
In the calibration mode, the induced voltage U must be large enough that it can be measured against a Josephson
voltage standard with a relative uncertainty of less than 10-8, and the coil must move at constant velocity for long
enough and far enough to measure U and with sufficient accuracy.
Most of the parameter values are as expected from these basic design requirements:
The values for m are in the range 100 g to 1 kg.
The values for U are in the range 0.1 V to 1.0 V.
For the BIPM, BNM and NPL permanent magnet systems, the magnetic field strengths range from 0.4 T to 1.0 T
and the coils are 250 mm to 340 mm diameter with 600 to 1200 turns (the range of nD is 1.6 105 to 3.0 105).
These parameters determine and therefore I (I = mg/) and ( = U/).
The weighing currents are from 10 mA/kg to 20 mA/kg (except for the METAS Watt balance).

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

The coil velocities are 1.3 mm/s to 2 mm/s, except for the BIPM Watt balance for which the proposed coil velocity
is 0.2 mm/s to accommodate the time constant of the balance feedback system (the weighing and calibration modes
occur simultaneously with this Watt balance)
The time allowed for the measurement of induced voltage, calculated from the measurement travel length divided
by the typical velocity , varies from 8 s to 40 s and the measurement travel lengths range from 20 mm to 79 mm
(for the BNM, METAS, NIST and NPL Watt balances).

The main differences between the five Watt balances are the mechanism for enabling the coil movement in the
calibration mode and the coil drive motor. The different coil movement mechanisms have been discussed in Section 3.
For some features, one Watt balance takes a different approach from the other four. For example, NIST use a
superconducting magnet, and METAS use a Fabry-Perot interferometer and a non-circular coil geometry.

Table 1: Summary of key features and parameters of current Watt balance experiments.

Test mass m
Magnet type
Magnetic field
Field geometry
Coil ampere turns
Coil turns (layers)
Coil geometry
Coil dimension
Weighing mode
Balance type
Total mass suspended
Typical weighing current
Power dissipation in coil
Calibration mode
Typical
Typical U
Coil movement

Coil drive
Regulation source
Measurement travel
length
Movement
interferometer
Measurement time for U

BIPM
0.1 kg
Permanent, cryogenic
Sm2Co17
0.6 T
Radial
?
1200 (30)
Circular
250 mm diameter

BNM
0.5 kg
Permanent
Sm2Co17
1.0 T
Radial
3
600
Circular
266 mm diameter

METAS
0.1 kg or 1 kg?
Permanent
SmCo
0.5 T
Parallel
20
4000
8-shape
80 mm by 80 mm

NIST
1 kg
Superconducting

NPL
1 kg
Permanent, Columax

0.1 T
Radial
25
2456
Circular
700 mm diameter

0.4 T
Radial
11
688
Circular
340 mm diameter

Commercial mass
comparator
?
2 mA
?

Flexure strip beam


balance
<5 kg
5 mA
4 mW

Commercial mass
comparator
2.2 kg
5 mA
50 mW

Balance wheel
63 kg
10.18 mA
75 mW

Traditional beam
balance
70 kg
16 mA
13 mW

0.2 mm/s
0.1 V

2 mm/s
1V

3 mm/s
0.3 V

2 mm/s
1.018 V

1.3 mm/s
0.4 V

Flexures, change
balance-coil
separation
Electrostatic motor

Seesaw mechanism
with parallelogram

Balance wheel
rotation

Balance beam
rotation

Interferometer
20 mm?

Flexures, move
balance and coil
together
Servo motor plus fine
adjust piezo
Velocity
40 mm

Secondary magnet
and servo coil
Velocity
30 mm

Auxiliary drive coil


and magnet
Induced voltage
79 mm

Secondary magnet
and coil
Velocity
30 mm

Michelson,
heterodyne

Michelson,
heterodyne

Fabry-Perot

Michelson,
heterodyne (3)

Michelson

20 s

10 s

40 s

15 s

5. EXPERIMENTAL ISSUES
The benefits of any new approaches to Watt balance design are usefully considered in the context of some of the
experimental difficulties and complications encountered by the current Watt balance research groups.
5.1 THE NEED FOR A LARGE REGION OF UNIFORM MAGNETIC FIELD
The vertical extent of the magnet field must be large enough to allow time and distance for the ratio U/ to be measured
with sufficient accuracy in the calibration mode. In principle, instantaneous values are required for U and as the coil
passes through the weighing position, but in practice the magnetic flux and coil can be made so that U/ is almost

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

constant and an average over a finite distance is adequate7. With existing Watt balance experiments, limited data is
recorded with the coil near its weighing mode position and the vertical extent of the magnet field region is much larger
than necessary for the weighing mode measurements. As a consequence, the magnet is not used very efficiently. For
the BNM magnet24, for example, the cross-sectional area of the 600 turns of copper wire in the coil (29.5 mm2) occupies
only 4 % of the cross-sectional area of the gap (765 mm2).
The large range of coil movement in the calibration mode might seem necessary to achieve the desired accuracy in the
measurement of but this does not seem to be the case. Both NIST and NPL report that vibrations are the main source
of noise in the U/ measurements9,11,17 and not the resolution of the measurement of coil velocity . The relative
scatter in the induced voltage values for the NPL Watt balance is about 500 nV/V, equivalent to a length scatter of
10 nm for 20 mm of coil movement. This length scatter can be compared with the 2.5 nm resolution of the NPL
length measurement (see Section 3.1). The effect of the noise in the U/ measurement is reduced by averaging many
repeat calibration mode measurements.
A conclusion from this is that a length measurement resolution of order 0.1 nm per 1 mm range of coil movement - a
relative length resolution of 10-7 - is sufficient and that the averaging necessary to reduce other noise in the U/
measurements can be used to effectively reduce this resolution to 10-8.
5.2 ACHIEVING STRICTLY VERTICAL COIL MOVEMENT
A difficulty with a Watt balance experiment is moving the coil along a strictly vertical path in the calibration mode. All
parts of the movement must be straight and vertical to within 0.1 m per 1 mm. The vertical alignment of the
interferometer laser beam used to measure the movement must also meet this tolerance.
The difficulty of achieving strictly vertical movement is exacerbated by the large movements used in the existing Watt
balances. NPLs beam balance causes the coil to move in an arc, so measurements in both the weighing and calibration
modes must be taken near the point where the coil movement is vertical. The NIST Watt balance uses a wire band and
wheel to move the coil vertically, avoiding the cosine error of a beam, but the coil can experience pendulum and rotational
motion27. Temporary active damping is used to stop the swinging, but the torsional motion must be actively prevented
with an electrostatic motor to maintain the alignment of the laser interferometer measuring the vertical movement of the
coil. The METAS Watt balance uses a rolling arm parallelogram seesaw mechanism to control the vertical motion.
This mechanism appears to suffer from tilt errors that relate to the cleanliness of the rolling interface21. The BNM Watt
balance uses a movement based on flexure strips. While this has yet to be tested as part of a Watt balance measurement,
initial tests show a straightness of 2 m over 30 mm23. The BIPM Watt balance will also use a flexure-based movement
but with dynamic control of the horizontal position and angular alignment.
5.3 TEMPERATURE SENSITIVITY AND POWER DISSIPATION IN THE COIL
A Watt balance can be sensitive to temperature, particularly if a permanent magnet is used to generate the magnetic
field. The temperature coefficient of the magnetic field generated by a permanent magnet is large; 4 104 C for the
Columax magnet used by NPL and 3 104 C for the Sm2Co17 magnets used by BNM and BIPM. NPL manage the
temperature coefficient of their Watt balance magnet by careful temperature control and through its large thermal mass.
The temperature of the magnet only changes by about 0.1 mK per hour8, which is equivalent to a relative change in the
magnetic field strength of 4 108 per hour. NIST use a superconducting magnet which doesnt have a significant
temperature coefficient of magnetic field strength. BNM plan to use iron-nickel alloy flux shunts in parallel with the
magnet ring to shunt a temperature-dependent part of the magnetic flux.
Current I in the coil in the weighing mode dissipates power I2R (where R is the coil resistance) which increases the coil
temperature and consequently the temperature of the permanent magnet. Hence there is benefit in minimising both I
and R.
5.4 OTHER ISSUES
There are many other influences in a Watt balance experiment that are beyond the scope of this paper. These include;
aligning the magnetic field, the influence of I on B via the magnetomotive force nI, magnetostriction effects, dielectric
polarisation effects on the coil, pickup of external signals such as radio frequency interference, stray fields from the
magnet system, velocity noise and thermal voltages in the induced voltage, and ground vibrations. Asymmetries
between the weighing and calibration modes must also be considered. For example, the coil experiences a strong force
and thermal heating due to current I in the weighing mode which are not present in the calibration mode.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

6. NEW APPROACHES TO WATT BALANCE DESIGN


Here we propose two new approaches to Watt balance design. The first proposal is to use low-frequency oscillatory
movement of the coil in the magnetic field for the calibration mode. The second proposal is a Watt balance based on
pressure balances.
6.1 OSCILLATORY CALIBRATION MODE MEASUREMENT
We propose an alternative approach to the measurement of which uses low-frequency oscillatory movement of the
coil in the magnetic field. With this oscillatory calibration mode, which is based on earlier work on accelerometer
calibration28, the amplitude of the oscillatory movement can be much smaller than the coil travel length used for the
traditional constant velocity approach. For example, a 1 mm amplitude oscillation of the coil position at 0.3 Hz has a
peak velocity of 2 mm/s. If applied to the BNM Watt balance, this oscillation would give an induced voltage with a
peak value of 1 V. The amplitude of the oscillatory movement of the coil can be measured using dynamic position
measurement and heterodyne laser interferometry with an uncertainty as small as 0.01 nm28. Dynamic measurements
of the induced voltage can also be recorded simultaneously by measuring the difference between the induced voltage
and a reference voltage from a programmable ac Josephson source in phase with the velocity.
An oscillatory calibration mode measurement has a number of direct advantages.
The value of can be measured directly at the weighing mode coil position and at other coil positions nearby.
The variation in can be better mapped as the coil position for each measurement can be selected. Variations of
can also be measured via weighing mode measurements of F/I at different coil positions as long as the Watt
balance has been designed with this capability, but this may be slower13.
External influences on the measurement of can be reduced in two ways; by selecting the frequency of oscillation
and by calculating from the amplitudes of the Fourier components of the measured values of induced voltage and
coil position (or velocity). A phase sensitive detection approach such as this is a very effective way of reducing
noise, such as that due to vibration. Any frequency dependency of the measured value of can be assessed from
measurements at different frequencies. Frequencies are in likely to be in the range 0.1 Hz to 1 Hz.
The use of an oscillatory calibration mode measurement can have a significant impact on Watt balance design. First, it
alleviates some of the magnet-coil design problems, making it easier to achieve a force difference equivalent to 1 kg
and an induced voltage of 1 V.
The magnet can be used more efficiently. Since the necessary movement is small, the coil and magnet can be
matched to make optimum use of the magnetic field in the gap region. For example, the coil and gap dimensions
can be adjusted to maximise the ratio of the cross-sectional area of the copper wire in the coil to the cross-sectional
area of the gap.
The magnet-coil system can be significantly smaller, leading to a smaller Watt balance. With an oscillatory
calibration mode measurement, the full range of coil movement could be reduced to, say, 10 mm. The
consequences for the BNM magnet (for example) are that the length of the gap could be halved or the diameter of
the gap could be reduced from 275 mm to 100 mm. These reductions also apply to the volume of permanent
magnet material.
Alternatively, a larger coil could be used with a magnet designed for the constant velocity approach to the
calibration mode measurement. More turns could be used to increase U. This could help the BIPM Watt
balance experiment, for example, which must be used with small to accommodate the time constant of the
balance feedback system (the weighing and calibration modes will occur simultaneously with this Watt balance).
Another option is thicker wire so that I and hence U can be increased in the weighing mode without changing the
power dissipation in the coil.
With a smaller range of coil movement, it is easier to make a magnet that meets the requirement that B varies by
less than 10-4 because of the smaller region of uniform magnetic field.
Second, an oscillatory calibration mode measurement facilitates both straight and vertical movement of the coil, and
positioning of the coil relative to the magnet. The smaller range of strictly vertical movement, say 10 mm total
movement range, can be achieved relatively easily using a flexure hinge design. BNM have shown that a flexurebased movement can be used successfully (see Section 5.2). Such a small movement is amenable to a compact
mechanical design which will facilitate alignment of both the vertical movement of the coil, and the position of the coil
relative to the magnet.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

6.2 WATT BALANCE BASED ON PRESSURE BALANCES


Two of the key requirements of a Watt balance are; a weighing device with a relative repeatability of about 10-8 or less,
and a means of moving the coil vertically with a straightness of better 1 m per 10 mm. Both of these requirements
can be met using gas-operated pressure balances. A pressure balance consists of a loaded piston in a closely-matched
cylinder. In operation the piston (or cylinder) rotates, generating strong aerodynamic centring forces that prevent
contact between the piston and cylinder. A pressure balance has a well-defined vertical axis and the floating piston
can operate over a vertical range of about 10 mm.
Two pressure balances together can act as a mass comparator with a relative repeatability of about 10-8. Measurements
with a twin pressure balance system have shown that the average difference in pressure between the two pressure
balances has a short-term stability of about 0.5 mPa (standard deviation) or 5 parts in 109 of the 100 kPa line pressure29.
Also, the region above a pressure balance can be evacuated as required for a Watt balance.
For a Watt balance, one pressure balance is the reference and the second pressure balance supports the coil and test
mass. A schematic diagram of this arrangement is shown in Figure 2. The two pressure balances together perform
the same functions as the mass balance in the NPL and NIST Watt balances, acting as a balance in the weighing mode
and providing the movement of the coil in the calibration mode.

Magnet
Coil

Loading
weights

Test mass

Piston
Cylinder

Pressure difference
Figure 2: A Watt balance using two pressure balances.

In the calibration mode, either the constant velocity or the oscillatory approach could be used to determine as a
function of coil position. For the constant velocity approach, a steady rise or fall rate for the coil can be generated via
controlled gas flow in or out of the region below the floating element. For the oscillatory approach, the floating
element of the pressure balance can be stimulated to oscillate vertically with constant amplitude. A pressure balance is
a damped harmonic oscillator and will oscillate at its natural resonant frequency (typically about 0.5 Hz) when
disturbed. The frequency of oscillation can be varied by changing the volume of gas kept under pressure by the
pressure balance. By chance, this range of frequencies is close to the preferred range for a Watt balance (less than
0.1 Hz to greater than 1 Hz).

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

7. SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION


This paper has reviewed the current Watt balance experiments that are aimed at replacing the present artefact kilogram
with a non-artefact version defined in terms of the Planck constant. The features of these Watt balances have been
compared, and their similarities and differences discussed along with some of the experimental difficulties encountered
by the current Watt balance research groups. This review of existing Watt balance experiments has provided the
context for the two new approaches to Watt balance design that are proposed in this paper.
The first proposal is to use a low-frequency oscillatory method for the calibration mode of the Watt balance experiment.
This ac approach: requires a much smaller range of coil movement than the traditional constant velocity approach, uses
phase sensitive detection to reduce noise in the measurement of (the ratio of induced voltage to coil velocity),
measures directly at the weighing mode coil position, and uses the magnet more efficiently. It is expected to lead to
a smaller and simpler design of Watt balance.
The second proposal is a Watt balance based on pressure balances, taking advantage or the excellent short-term
repeatability of a pressure balance and the well-defined vertical axis and linear movement of the pressure balance
floating element. Two pressure balances together perform the same functions as the mass balance in a Watt balance,
acting as a balance in the weighing mode and providing the movement of the coil in the calibration mode.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The author wishes to acknowledge useful discussions with Ed Williams (NIST), Alain Picard and Michael Stock (both
BIPM), and Laurie Christian, Murray Early, Mark Fitzgerald and Ross Mason of MSL. This work was supported by
the New Zealand Government via the capability funding provided to Industrial Research Limited.

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Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

16. Schwarz J. P., Liu R., Newell D. B., Steiner R. L., Williams E. R., Smith D., Erdemir A., Woodford J., "Hysteresis
and related error mechanisms in the NIST watt balance experiment", Journal of Research of the National Institute
of Standards and Technology 106, pp. 627-640, 2001.
17. Steiner R. L., Williams E. R., Newell D. B., Liu R., "Towards an electronic kilogram: An improved measurement
of the Planck constant and electron mass", Metrologia 42, pp. 431-441, 2005.
18. Eichenberger A., Jeckelmann B., Richard P., "Tracing Planck's constant to the kilogram by electromechanical
methods", Metrologia 40, pp. 356-365, 2003.
19. Beer W., Jeanneret B., Jeckelmann B., Richard P., Courteville A., Salvade Y., Dandliker R., "A proposal for a new
moving-coil experiment", IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement 48, pp. 192-195, 1999.
20. Beer W., Eichenberger A. L., Jeanneret B., Jeckelmann B., Richard P., Schneiter H., Pourzand A. R., Courteville
A., Dandliker R., "The OFMET Watt balance: Progress report", IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and
Measurement 50, pp. 583-586, 2001.
21. Beer W., Eichenberger A. L., Jeanneret B., Jeckelmann B., Pourzand A. R., Richard P., Schwarz J. P., "Status of
the METAS watt balance experiment", IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement 52, pp. 626-630,
2003.
22. Eichenberger A. L., Butty J., Jeanneret B., Jeckelmann B., Joyet A., Krebs T., Richard P., "A new magnet design
for the METAS Watt balance," Conference Digest, CPEM 2004, pp. M3c3, 2004.
23. Geneves G., Gournay P., Gosset A., Lecollinet M., Villar F., Pinot P., Juncar P., Clairon A., Landragin A.,
Holleville D., Dos Santos F. P., David J., Besbes M., Alves F., Chassagne L., Topcu S., "The BNM watt balance
project", IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement 54, pp. 850-853, 2005.
24. Gournay P., Geneves G., Alves F., Besbes M., Villar F., David J., "Magnetic circuit design for the BNM watt
balance experiment", IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement 54, pp. 742-745, 2005.
25. Juncar P., Haddad D., Chassagne L., Topcu S., Alayli Y., "High accuracy velocity control method directly linked to
the speed of light: application to the BNM Watt balance project," Conference Digest, CPEM 2004, pp. Tu4c60,
2004.
26. Picard A., Stock M., Fang H., Witt T. J., Reymann D., "The BIPM watt balance", IEEE Transactions on
Instrumentation and Measurement 56, pp. 538-542, 2007.
27. Gillespie A. D., Fujii K. I., Newell D. B., Olsen P. T., Picard A., Steiner R. L., Stenbakken G. N., Williams E. R.,
"Alignment uncertainties of the NIST watt experiment", IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
46, pp. 605-608, 1997.
28. Sutton C. M., "Accelerometer calibration by dynamic position measurement using heterodyne laser
interferometry", Metrologia 27, pp. 133-138, 1990.
29. Sutton C. M., "The accurate generation of small gauge pressures using twin pressure balances", Metrologia 23, pp.
187-195, 1987.
*corresponding author information: Chris Sutton c.sutton@irl.cri.nz; phone 64 4 931 3499; fax 64 4 931 3117;
Measurement Standards Laboratory, PO Box 31-310, 69 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt 5040, New Zealand.

10

Proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24-25 2007

Calibration of a 1 kg Stainless Steel Standard with respect to a 1 kg


Pt-Ir Prototype: A Survey of Corrections and Their Uncertainties
1
1

Shih Mean LEE, 2Richard DAVIS, 1Lee Kwee LIM

Standards Productivity & Innovation Board (SPRING Singapore)


2
Bureau International des Poids et Measures (BIPM)

ABSTRACT
In the calibration of stainless steel weights with respect to a Pt-Ir reference, numerous factors may influence the
measurement result and its uncertainty. Air buoyancy, thermal gradients, compensation weights, density of the
balance counterweight, balance linearity & sensitivity, and centre-of-gravity differences between test and reference
weights are the main factors considered. Failure to take account of these factors will bias the data and/or lead to an
unnecessarily large dispersion. The effects of air buoyancy and thermal gradients are the most important and,
consequently, have been well studied. Other influences are, perhaps, lest well appreciated. Lists of the various
influence factors are given and correction equations are proposed, as appropriate. An actual measurement was also
carried out in order to compare results obtained at SPRING with those from the BIPM.

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Proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24-25 2007

1.

INTRODUCTION

As is well known, the principal factor affecting the calibration of a 1 kg stainless steel mass using 1 kg platinumiridium (Pt-Ir) prototypes as the reference mass is the difference in their densities. In reality, a number of additional
factors affect the measurement when the densities of the test and reference weights are different. Correction for
these effects has to be taken into account and their effects have to be individually studied. As a practical example,
we discuss comparisons made at SPRING and the BIPM between the national prototype of Singapore (No. 83) and
a kilogram made of stainless steel (OIML Class E1 [1]).

2.

PURPOSE

The purpose of this paper is to:


i. List the necessary corrections and propose equations to formulate the effects related to the calibration of
stainless steel weights using Pt-Ir as the reference.
ii. Apply the corrections individually to a calibration of a stainless steel weight in comparison with measurements
carried out at the BIPM.

3.

THEORY : LIST OF FACTORS & EQUATIONS

3.1

BASIC WEIGHING EQUATION

In an ideal weighing situation, the balance indicated reading should reflect the actual value of the mass differences
between the test and reference weight:

mB mA = d '

(1)

where,
mB

: mass of reference weight


: mass of test weight

d'

: balance indicated difference

mA

Here we follow the A and B notation of [1]


In reality, this is not the case as a number of factors affect the measurement especially when the densities of the test
and reference weights are different. Corrections for the effects of these influencing factors will have to be applied
for measurement precision and accuracy. Some of these factors discussed in this paper are:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.

Effects of balance internal adjustment weights


Effects of counter weights used in the balance
Effects of linearity and sensitivity of the balance
Effects of air buoyancy on the reference and test weights
Effects of height difference in centre of gravity between the reference and test weights
Effects of volumetric thermal expansion in reference and test weights

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Proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24-25 2007

3.2

FACTORS AFFECTING WEIGHING WEIGHTS OF DIFFERENT DENSITIES

(i.)

Effects of Balance Internal Adjustment Weights

We first recall how an electronic mass comparator is designed to operate. SPRING uses the Mettler-Toledo 1
AT1006 balance in the measurement exercise. This balance is provided with an internal adjustment weight with a
nominal mass of 10g and an assumed density of 8000 kg/m3. Having adjusted the balance with this weight, the
relationship between an applied mass on its weighing pan and the indicated reading on the digital display is given by
[1]:


'a

m 1 a = d 1
+C
8000
m

(2)

where,
m

m
a
a

d
C

:
:
:
:
:
:

mass of weight (nominally 1 kg)


density of weight
density of air when the weight is placed on the balance
density of air when the internal calibration is performed
indicated reading
a constant.

Note that (1 - 'a/8000) is not a real buoyancy correction to the balance reading (which is actually derived from an
electromagnetic force transducer). Rather it should be considered as an internal measure of the balance sensitivity
factor, Bi, which converts the balance readings to a convenient SI unit of mass. To be more precise:
B

Bi =

m10g
'
1 a
d10g 8000

(3)

where m10g represents the mass of the internal 10 g adjustment weight and d10g is the change in balance reading when
this weight is added.
In the internal calibration mode, the output of the balance transducer is adjusted automatically so that the numerical
value of m10g/d10g becomes unity. Nevertheless, the units of Bi are g/u where g is the SI unit gram and u is the local
unit in which d is expressed.
B

Put another way, the adjustment weight is a physical object but the balance reading is the electronic output of a force
transducer [2]. Adjusting the scale in this way is very convenient for legal metrology in that, if all weights A and B
have density 8000 kg/m3, the balance readings will be a close approximation to eq. (1). As discussed below,
however, the density of Pt-Ir is of order 21500 kg/m3.

Certain commercial equipment, instruments, or materials are identified in this paper in order to adequately describe the experimental procedure.
Such identification does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the author, nor does it imply that the materials or equipment identified are
the only or best available for the purpose.

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Proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24-25 2007

(ii.)

Effects of Balance Counter Weights

The Mettler-Toledo AT1006 mass comparator is an electronic single pan balance that uses a counter weight to
balance most of the torque produced when a 1 kg weight is placed on the pan. The counter weight has a nominal
density of 8000 kg/m3. The torque relationship between the applied mass and the indicated reading becomes:

m 1 a = m cw 1
+ Bi d + C

8000

(4)

where,
mcw : mass of counter weight (1 kg)
Bi
: the balance sensitivity factor determined internally
C
: an unknown constant
B

Equation (4) is oversimplified in several ways, some of which will be discussed below. Here we point out that eq. (4)
assumes that the balance arms have a ratio of 1, in which case the mass of the counterweight is 1 kg as shown.
Writing the equation for arbitrary arm ratio would add nothing important to the analysis since the counterweight
would still balance a 1 kg mass standard.
We know that the balance zero may drift with time due to many uncontrollable mechanisms. The zero drift will
affect the values of d.
(iii.)

Effects of Balance Linearity & Sensitivity

Calibration of the balance through its internal adjustment weight is a valuable preliminary step. However, in the
measurements described here, only about 100 mg of the on-scale balance range will be used. It might be assumed
that, since the needed range is only 1% of the total, the internal adjustment will ensure the needed accuracy and
linearity. Nevertheless, it is preferable to determine the balance sensitivity by using an external 100 mg standard.
Use of this external standard will provide the definitive balance sensitivity factor, B. The relationship between the
applied mass and the indicated reading thus becomes:


m 1 a = m cw
m

1 8000 + Bd + C

where,

: balance sensitivity factor (determined by using an external 100 mg weight)

The determination of B is discussed further in Section 4.

Page 4 of 13

(5)

Proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24-25 2007

(iv.)

Effects of Air Buoyancy on Weights; Elimination of Linear Drift

When the test weight is calibrated using a reference weight, air buoyancy corrections for the weight densities
differences must be applied. The relationship between the test & standard weight for 1 set of ABA readings is:


mB 1 a 2
B

( a1 + a 3 ) mcw ( a1 + a 3 )

d + d3

a 2 + B d2 1
=
mA 1

2A
2
2

8000

(6)

where,
mA

A
mB

B
a1
a2
a3
d1
d2
d3
mcw
B

:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:

mass of reference weight A


density of reference weight A
mass of test weight B
density of test weight B
air density at 1st weight A reading
air density at weight B reading
air density at 2nd weight A reading
1st R indicated reading
T indicated reading
2nd R indicated reading
mass of counter weight
balance sensitivity factor (determined using external 100 mg weight)

By carrying out a comparison between two weights, the unknown constant, C, is eliminated from the model
equation. As is well known, a symmetric comparison such as ABA also eliminates a linear drift in successive
balance indications. The air buoyancy is determined at the time of each balance reading instead of taking an average
air density for the ABA comparison. The improved algorithm becomes important when weight A and weight B have
very different volume, as is the case when comparing Pt-Ir and stainless-steel standards.
We now see that the term involving the counterweight of the balance will be zero if the density of air is changing
linearly during the three measurements. It is, perhaps, useful to explain why the term involving the counterweight
appears at all. Rather than go through a tedious derivation, let us conduct the following thought experiment. Assume
that we are weighing a 1 kg test weight B whose mass and density are exactly the same as the mass and density of
the counterweight. We further assume that we carry out three successive balance readings involving this weight.
Equation (6) describes this process as long as we realize that weight B and weight A are the same weight. If eq.
(6) is correct, we must of course find that mB mA = 0. Finally, suppose that the air density for reading 3 is the
same as for reading 1 (a1) but that a1 a2. Since both weight B and the counterweight have the same mass and
density, the balance is always in buoyant equilibrium and the readings d1, d2, d3 will be unaffected by changes in the
ambient air density. Therefore, the last term on the right-hand side of eq. (6) must be zero no matter how the air
density changes between measurements. Finally the result of this little thought experiment is
B

m B m"A " = (m B a 2 m"A " a1 + m cw ( a1 a 2 ))

1
.
8000

(6a)

Recall that we have assumed that mB = mA = mcw. Thus we see that including the effect of the counterweight in our
model has ensured that the right-hand side of the equation is zero, as it must be in this example. We emphasize,
however, that the effect of the counterweight is usually small and almost always ignored.
B

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Proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24-25 2007

(v.)

Effects of Height Differences in Centre of Gravity

If there is a difference between the vertical centre of gravity (CG) of the test and reference weights, then a correction
for the CG difference should be applied. As long as the elevation z above sea level is small compared to the radius of
the Earth (6 106 m), the value of acceleration gz due to gravity at height z is sufficiently approximated by [3]:

g z g 0 1 3 .14 10 7 z

(7)

where,
g0

: acceleration due to gravity at sea level


: height in meters (m)

As explained in [2], it is not by chance that the coefficient of z appears to be 10-7 m-1. It should be kept in mind,
however, that experimentally determined height coefficients in basement laboratories are often somewhat smaller in
magnitude than the simple theory predicts. Taking the theoretical value, the height correction is given by:
m h = m ( 3.14 10 7 ) h

(8)

where,
m
h
mh

: nominal mass of weights, in kg


: difference between CG of weight B with respect to CG of weight A, in m
: height correction, in kg

The relationship between the test and the reference weight for one set of ABA readings becomes:

( + a 3 ) mcw ( a1 + a 3 )

d + d3

a 2 + B d 2 1
+ mh
mB 1 a 2 mA 1 a1
=

2
8000
2
2

B
A

(9)

In this equation, mh is positive if the CG of weight B is above the CG of weight A. Platinum-iridium prototypes are
cylindrical with a height of about 39 mm (CG 19.5 mm above the base). Stainless steel 1 kg standards of the
traditional OIML design [1] have a knob at the top. The CG of the test mass discussed here is located 34.5 mm
above its base. Thus the pull of gravity is slightly less on the test mass and so its mass determined from eq. (6) must
be corrected upward, as shown in eq. (9).

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Proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24-25 2007

(vi.)

Effects of volumetric thermal expansion in Reference and Test Weights

Since 1889, the calibrated density of 1 kg Pt-Ir prototypes has been referred to 0 C in BIPM calibration certificates.
The volumetric coefficient of thermal expansion of used to determine the volume of a 1 kg prototype at the balance
temperature, t is given by:

= (25.869 + 0.00565 t ) 10 6 C -1

(10)

where
t

: balance temperature in C, as realized by the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90).

At temperature t, the volume and density of a 1 kg Pt-Ir prototype are:

Vt = V0 (1 + (25.869t + 0.005 65 t 2 )10 6 )

t =

m
Vt

(11)
(12)

where,
m
V0

: mass of the 1 kg Pt-Ir Prototype


: volume of the 1 kg Pt-Ir Prototype at 0 C

It is possible to characterize the thermal expansion of a well-defined binary alloy such as Pt-10%Ir and thus the
same volumetric thermal expansion can be applied to all prototypes made from this alloy.
The volume of the test weight, assumed to be made of a stainless steel alloy, is also a function of temperature. Its
volumetric coefficient of expansion near 20 C is approximately 48 10-6 C-1, depending on the alloy.
If the density of the test weight and the 1 kg Pt-Ir prototype are calculated for each set of readings, based on the
temperature during the comparison, Equation (9) becomes:


mB 1 a 2
B

where,

a1 a 3
1
+ 1

A1

A 2

A
2

= mcw ( a1 + a 3 ) + B d d1 + d3 + m
a2
h
2
8000
2
2

(13)

A1 : density of Pt-Ir Prototype at 1st A reading


A 2 : density of Pt-Ir Prototype at 2nd A reading

The density differences are very small and are usually neglected.
As a convenience, it is can be useful to refer the density of a Pt-Ir prototype to a reference temperature of 20 C, in
which case the quadratic term in the expansion coefficient can generally be neglected. A method for changing the
reference temperature from 0 C to 20 C is shown in the Appendix.

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Proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24-25 2007

4.

DETERMINING BALANCE SENSITIVITY FACTOR (B) USING AN EXTERNAL STANDARD

4.1

IN THEORY

The balance sensitivity factor B can be determined by:


i. First comparing a test weight against a reference weight (both stainless steel weights).
ii. Secondly, place a calibrated sensitivity weight on the test weight and repeat the comparison against the
reference weight.
Using the Mettler-Toledo AT1006 in comparing a 1 kg stainless steel weight against a 1 kg Pt-Ir Prototype, the
weighing difference is about 94 mg. Using a 100mg standard, m, the balance sensitivity factor (B) can be
determined from the difference between measurements (i) and (ii).
'
a 2 '
( a1 '+ a 3 ') ( a1 + a 3 ) mcw a1 '+ a 3 ' a1 a 3

m 1 a 2 + mB a 2
+ a 2 a 2 '
+ mA

8000
2

B
A
m

B=
d1 '+ d3 '
d1 + d3

d2
d 2 '
2
2

where,

(14)

m : mass of sensitivity weight, nominally 100 mg

m : density of the sensitivity weight, kg/m3


The unprimed symbols refer to (i) and the primed symbols to (ii)
By eliminating terms which are normally negligible, the equation may be further simplified as:

'
m 1 a 2
m

B =
d 1 '+ d 3 '
d1 + d 3

d 2 '
d2
2
2

'
m 1 a 2
m

B =
D ' D

(15)

where,

D'
D
B

(16)

: 2nd comparison indicated weighing difference


: 1st comparison indicated weighing difference
: Simplified balance sensitivity factor

An analysis of real data showed that the difference between B and B is orders of magnitude smaller than the relative
combined standard uncertainty of B, 8 10-6 (0.8 g in 100 mg)
(A more common approach to dealing with the balance sensitivity is to add a 100 mg standard to weight B during
the comparisons. Thus weight B weight B, where the measured mass of weight B will be (mB + m) and the
volume of weight B is the sum of the volume of weight B and the volume of the sensitivity weight. Thus the range
of the balance scale that is used is reduced from about 1 % of full scale to less than 0.1 % of full scale. This
procedure has also been used at SPRING but is not discussed further here.)
B

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Proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24-25 2007

4.2

BY EXPERIMENT

Two types of experiments were carried out.


First, the simplified balance sensitivity factor B was measured immediately after an internal scale adjustment using
the internal calibration weight. In principle, this sets the internal balance sensitivity factor to Bi (see eq. (3)). The
alloy from which the sensitivity weight has been constructed has a density of m = 8006 kg/m3 and the air density
will be essentially the same during the short period between internal adjustment and calibration with the external
sensitivity weight. Thus to well within the precision of the balance, we expect that { m } = D ' - D if Bi and B are
equivalent. Here the curly brackets are used to emphasize that it is the numerical value of the test mass that we
expect to equal D ' - D , since the latter quantity is not a mass. The experiment was carried out four times on two
different days. The average result was
B

( D ' - D ) { m } = 1.2 g

(17)

with a standard deviation of 1.3 g (3 degrees of freedom). Thus the type A uncertainty easily accounts for the
observed difference. Note that the type A uncertainty includes effects of the reproducibility of both the internal and
external scale calibrations. There is no evidence that type B uncertainties, such as scale non-linearity or mass of the
internal adjustment weight are significant over this 100 mg range.
In the second experiment, the internal adjustment was made once and then the sensitivity of the balance was
followed for many days using an external sensitivity weight. The results are shown in Figure 1.
Changes in Scale Difference, (D' - D) - {m}
10

Deviation (g)

0
0
(PM)

0.75
(AM)

1
(PM)

1.75
(AM)

2
(PM)

2.75
(AM)

3
(PM)

3.75
(AM)

4
(PM)

6.75
(AM)

7
(PM)

-5

-10

-15

No of Days Since Internal Calibration

Figure 1. Change in scale difference when 100 mg external weight is added. The internal
calibration of the balance was carried out at the start of these measurements.

The uncertainty bars are taken to be 2.6 g, which is the standard deviation of a single measurement as determined
from the first experiment, described above.

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Proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24-25 2007

From the second experiments, it was clear that there was a 1-day cycle in the measurement of B. The environmental
conditions in the laboratory (temperature, pressure, relative humidity, air density) all showed the same 1-day cycle.
However, it appeared that none of these changes in environmental conditions were sufficient to explain the balance
behaviour based on the model presented in this paper or on the manufacturers specifications. Therefore the cyclic
behaviour of the external sensitivity measurements was unexplained.

Average Daily Air Density Fluctuations


1.1940

Air Density (kg/m 3)

1.1920

1.1900

1.1880

1.1860

1.1840

1.1820
AM
(Day 1)

PM

AM
(Day 2)

PM

AM
(Day 3)

PM

AM
(Day 4)

Day & Period (AM or PM)

Figure 2. Average changes in air density showing similar daily cycle.

The balance was calibrated internally in the afternoon (PM; time 0 on the graph). It was noticed that during the first
3 days, the external sensitivity measurements made in the afternoon (PM) agreed very well with the initial internal
calibration. After 3 days, we started to see some scatter. Thus these results served as a warning either to (a)
recalibrate the balance scale at the time of the comparisons or (b) use additional weights so that a small portion of
the balance scale is used during the comparisons.

5.

MEASUREMENT PROCEDURE

An actual comparative measurement was carried out recently with the BIPM to study the effects of these corrections
on the calibration of a 1 kg stainless steel OIML shaped weight [1].
A series of measurements was first made in SPRING Singapore against the Pt-Ir prototype kilogram no. 83 in the
Mettler-Toledo AT1006 balance. The weight was then hand-carried to the BIPM and was calibrated at the BIPM
against BIPM working references. The results obtained were then corrected for all the factors mentioned in this
paper.

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Proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24-25 2007

6.

RESULTS OF MEASUREMENT

The results of measurement are shown in Table 2. The result from the BIPM is also shown for comparison together
with the corrected and uncorrected results from SPRING.
The result with the application of all corrections factors shows a 2 g difference in the mass value between the
measurements in BIPM and SPRING. The measurement results show good agreement with BIPM within the quoted
uncertainty of measurement.

Calibrated by

Mass Correction (mg)

Uncertainty at k = 1 (mg)

Remarks

BIPM

-0.125

0.014

From BIPM Report (2007)

-0.126

0.014

Full correction applied

-93.534

SPRING

Uncorrected results

Table 1. Comparison of measurement results

To recapitulate the effects of the correction factors individually, their contributions are highlighted in Table 2:

Source of effect

Magnitude (g)

i.

Inclusion of balance counterweight in the weighing equation

ii.

Volumetric thermal expansion in reference and test weights

iii. Difference in centre of gravity

iii. Balance sensitivity factor determined from 100 mg external standard, B

14
93000

iv. Air buoyancy effects on weights


Table 2. Effects applied to raw data due to various sources discussed above

In the calibration of weights using Pt-Ir as the reference mass, all but one of the above corrections are significant as
compared with the typical calibration uncertainty (k = 1) of a 1 kg Pt-Ir prototype, uc 5g.
We also remind the reader that determining the air density for each balance reading during an ABA comparison is
also important if the ambient air density is changing and if weight A and weight B are made of different materials
(Pt-Ir and stainless steel). Note in Table 2 that the effect of thermal expansion is very small. This is because the
SPRING measurements were carried out at a nominal temperature at 20.2 C, which is close to the reference
temperature of 20 C. (The BIPM calibration was carried out at a nominal temperature of 21.3 C, which thus
required a correction of order 7 g for the difference in thermal expansion between Pt-Ir and stainless steel.)

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Proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24-25 2007

7.

CONCLUSIONS

In the calibration of stainless steel test masses with respect to a Pt-Ir prototype kilogram used as the reference mass,
a number of corrections have to be applied.
The most important effect is the air buoyancy correction for the enormous difference in density between the test and
reference masses and the best way to do this is by determining the air density at each balance reading.
The metrologist must also be aware that the internal adjustment weight of the balance introduces a balance
sensitivity factor Bi of approximately 0.99985 using the 10 g internal weight. The balance sensitivity factor B,
determined over the 100 mg range of the balance scale used in these comparisons can be determined by using a
100 mg external standard. The more usual practice of adding a 100 mg standard to each of the stainless-steel
unknowns may be less problematic, however. By eliminating some negligible terms, a simplified balance sensitivity
factor B can also be used.
B

The correction for the height difference in the centres of gravity between the stainless steel test mass and the Pt-Ir
reference mass is always the same for a given test mass and can be determined easily. But since this correction is
relatively small, it is especially important to verify that it is applied with the proper sign. Failure to take care in
making all necessary corrections can result in significant errors with unpleasant consequences.
The effect of the balance counterweight is generally negligible and thus traditionally overlooked. We have included
this effect for completeness.
Finally, we have shown in an appendix how to write the volume as a function of temperature of a 1 kg Pt-Ir
prototype based on a reference temperature of 20 C instead of the 0 C reference as given in BIPM certificates.

8.

REFERENCES

[1]

OIML R111, International Recommendation, Weights Of Class E1, E2, F1, F2, M1-2, M2, And M3; Part
1: Metrological And Technical Requirements, International Organization Of Legal Metrology, 2004.

[2]

Richard S. Davis, Mass Metrology, Proceedings of the International School of Physics Enrico Fermi, vol.
146, Recent advances in metrology and fundamental constants, T.J. Quinn, S. Leschiutta and P. Tavella,
eds., IOP Press, Amsterdam, 2001.

[3]

Frank E. Jones, Randall M. Schoonover, Handbook of Mass Measurement, CRC Press, Florida, USA,
2002.

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Proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24-25 2007

9.

APPENDIX

Changing The Reference Temperature from 0 C to 20 C for the Thermal Expansion of a Pt-Ir Prototype.
(R. Davis)

In its calibration certificates, the BIPM gives the volumes of Pt-Ir prototypes at a reference temperature of 0 C. The
coefficient of volumetric expansion is shown above in eq. (11). This Appendix shows how to change the reference
temperature to 20 C, which is the reference normally used in legal metrology [1].
Equation (10) has the form
Vt = V0 (1 + 0 t + 0 t 2 ) .

(A1)

We wish to derive appropriate values for the volume and the thermal expansion coefficients such that
Vt = V20 (1 + 20 (t 20) + 20 (t 20) 2 ) .

(A2)

A simple way to solve for V20, 20 and 20 is first to rewrite eqs. (A1) and (A2) in terms of a new variable,, defined
as = t - 20. Since both eqs. (A1) and (A2) must give the same value of Vt,
V0 (1 + 20 0 + 400 0 ) + V0 ( 0 + 40 0 ) + V0 0 2 = V20 + V20 20 + V20 20 2 .

(A3)

Equation (A3) is valid for arbitrary values of , and thus the coefficients of 0, 1, 2 must be identical on either
side of the equals sign. Consequently, we have three relations which can be used to solve for the three unknowns on
the right-hand side of eq. (A2). The results are:

V20 = V0 (1 + 20 0 + 400 0 )

(A4)

20 =

V0
( 0 + 40 0 )
V20

(A5)

20 =

V0
0
V20

(A6)

Values of the parameters for Pt-Ir at 20 C are:


V20 = 1.0005196V0
20 = 26.081 10-6 C-1
20 = 0.005 65 10-6 C-2
If the quadratic term for the expansion of stainless-steel weights is unknown or not used at a reference temperature
of 20 C, then there is little to be gained by including the quadratic term for Pt-Ir at this reference temperature. In
any case the effect of 20 is negligible in standards laboratories, contributing less than 0.03 mm3 to the change in
volume between 20 C and 30 C.

Page 13 of 13

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

The Development of NIM 1 MN Deadweight Force Standard Machine


Zhang Zhimin, Zhang Yue, Zhou Hong, Wu Kun and Hu Gang
Mechanics and Acoustics Division, National Institute of Metrology, P.R.China

ABSTRACT
1 MN deadweight force standard machine (1MN DWM) has been developed at National Institute of Metrology
(NIM). This machine which has the lever balance system can generates the force in the range of 500 kN1 MN in a
force step of 5 kN. This paper introduces the working principle and mechanical structure of 1 MN DWM. The
uncertainty evaluation and results of performance test and comparison test have been described. The results show that
the repeatability of 1 MN machine is better than 210-5the agreements between NIM 1 MN deadweight machine and
NIMTT(National Institute of Measurement and Test Technology) primary force standard machines are better than
210-5. 1 MN DWM effectively reduces unloading (or loading) during loading (or unloading) and realizes load
keeping during the weights exchanges.
Keywords: Deadweight force standard machine, lever balance system, loading keeping, repeatability, uncertainty

1. INTRODUCTION
In the past fifty years series of force standard machines including 300 N, 1 kN, 6 kN, 300kN deadweight force
standard machines, 60 kN,1 MN lever force standard machines and 5 MN, 20 MN hydraulic force standard machines
have been established at NIM, these force standard machines have played important roles in force dissemination in
China. Among series of force standard machines of NIM there is a lack of 1 MN deadweight force standard machine. In
order to meet the requirements of high accuracy force measurements with capacity up to 1 MN, 1 MN DWM which was
based on DM-100 machine has been developed by NIM. The forces range of 1MN DWM which has the lever balance
system is from 5 kN to 1 MN in a force step of 5 kN, the uncertainty is 210-5(k=3).

2. THE CONSTRUCTION AND WORK PRICIPLE OF 1 MN DWM


1 MN DWM consists of the main unit and control unit. The construction of 1 MN DWM is showed in Fig.1. For the
deadweight force standard machine normally the loading frame is the smallest force realizable. For the smaller forces
the effect of the loading frame must be compensated. 1MN DWM is equipped with compensating lever, the machine
equilibrates the deadweight of the load hanger attachment and weight suspension via counterweights, the horizontal
level of the compensating lever is monitored by displacement sensor and in case of deviation the lever position is
automatically readjusted using the lifting device of traveling beam, the smallest force increment is embodied by the
weight of the smallest mass. 1 MN DWM has 14 pieces of weight which include 9 pieces of 100 kN weight, 1 pieces of
50 kN weight, 2 pieces of 20 kN weight, 1 pieces of 10 kN weight and 1 pieces of 5 kN, the minimum force of 5 kN of
the machine is realized by compensating the deadweight of the load hanger attachment and the weight suspension via
the compensating lever. The traveling beam together with load hanger attachment constitute the test space of the
machine where the specimen to test is mounted, the traveling beam is operated for adjusting the different shapes of the
specimens and compensating the deformation of specimen under load. The selected weights are transported from the
pawls connected to the fixed cage to the weight suspension or vice-versa by the traveling cage, so that the load is
supplied to the specimen. During loading weights could be selected to load optionally. The preloading device is used to

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Fig.1 Construction diagram of 1 MN DWM

generate force via a spindle driven loading cross frame, the generated force is transferred to the specimen under test.
The fully-automatically controlled goal has been realized in 1 MN DWM by using industry control computer as the
central controllerdesigning the complicated control software and using PLC to control the execution components of
the machine.

3. THE PRINCIPLE OF FORCE GENERATION AND SUBSTITUTION OF 1MN DWM


For high accuracy force measurement, while loading force series on test specimen, intermediate Counter-force in the
force direction is not permissible. Therefore the weights are mostly adhered as a forming chain and the applied force to
the specimen under test is generated by stepwise addition of mass.
1MN DWM comprises 14 pieces of weight, the number of weights is considerably reduced in spite of the increase of
force increments within the force range. By making use of output signals of control load cell and displacement sensors
to control the preloading device and the traveling cage system, the machine minimizes unloading (or loading) during
loading (or unloading) and realizes load keeping during the weights exchanges. In order to explain the principle of force
generation and substitution, force increase from 100 kN to 150 kN is outlined in Fig.2 and Fig.3.
Fig.2 and Fig.3 show the loading cycle and outline of force generation and substitution from 100 kN to 150 kN. Each
loading cycle is divide into the intervals A...BCD. Interval A is the initial situation, the weights N which are
engaged to weight suspension embody force step (100 kN). The weights which are not engaged rest on fixed frame
via shifting pawls. The preloading devices is unlinked to weight suspension. Interval B is preloading interval, when
force step (150 kN) is entered, the control motor starts and the preloading devices is linked to the weight suspension,
force is generated mechanically by the preloading device and transferred via the load hanger attachment to the mounted
specimen under test. The increasing force is measured by control load cell. When the increasing force amounts to about
90% of the set point force, the actuating control motor is automatically stopped. Interval C is the substituting interval, in

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Fig 2 the loading cycle from 100 kN to 150 kN

Fig. 3 Outline of force generation and substitution from 100 kN to 150 kN

this phase of the cycle the change-over from mechanically loaded force to standard force generated by the mass of
weights takes place. At the beginning, traveling cage moves up, those engaged weights which are not required for the
force step are lifted off from weight suspension and the weights rested on fixed cage which are required for the force
step are lifted off from fixed cage, Required weights remain settled on weight suspension. In the upper position of
traveling cage, the weights M which embody force step is effected, the corresponding shifting pawls on the fixed
cage are disengaged. While lowering traveling cage the respective weights are smoothly linked in series to the weight
suspension, weights which are not required during force step settle on the engaged pawls of the fixed cage. During
the linkage of each weight control system compensates increase of weight via the preloading devices by decrease of
mechanically generated force. Finally the weights embodying 150 kN are connected to the weight suspension and the
preloading devices is unlinked. Interval D is reading interval of the measured force.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

4EVALUATION OF UNCERTAINTY
The uncertainty evaluation of deadweight force standard machine has been introduced in many papers, therefore the
details about the uncertainty evaluation are not discussed in this paper. The source of uncertainty, probability
distribution, coverage factor and relative standard uncertainty are listed in table 1. For 1 MN DWM is equipped with
lever compensating system, the relative standard uncertainty u 6, r caused by the sensitivity of compensating lever is
added in table 1.
Table 1 The table of uncertainty budget

Relative standard
uncertainty

Source of uncertainty

ui

Probability
distribution

The mass

u1,r

Normal

1.710-6

The gravity acceleration

u 2,r

Normal

6.610-8

The density of the air

u 3, r

Rectangular

3.010-6

The density of the weight


material
The effect of weight
swing
The sensitivity of the
balance lever

u 4,r

Normal

6.610-7

u 5, r

Triangle

1.210-7

u 6,r

Rectangular

1.210-6

The projective error

u 7 ,r

projective

10/3

1.410-8

Coverage factor

The relative combined uncertainty u c ,r is calculated as follow

u c ,r =

u
i =1

2
i ,r

= 3.8 10 6

(1)

Considering the confident level p = 99.73% and the coverage factor t 0.9973 () = 3.00 , the relative expanded
uncertainty U c,r is calculated by equation (2)

U c ,r = t0.9973 () uc ,r = 3uc ,r = 1.2 105

(2)

5. EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION OF THE PERFORMANCE


The performance experiments were carried out to verify the uncertainty of the machine which include repeatability
test, comparison test between NIMs 1 MN DWM and NIMs 6 kN, 300 kN, NIMTTs 100 kN, 1 MN deadweight force
standard machines. The experiments were carried out in the range of 5 kN1 MN. The results of repeatability test are
shown in Fig.4, the results of comparison test are shown in Fig.5. The results indicate the repeatability of 1 MN DWM
is better than 210-5, the agreements between NIMs 1 MN DWM and NIMs 6 kN, 300 kN, NIMTTs 100 kN, 1 MN
deadweight machines are better than 210-5.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Repeatability

2.00E-05
1.60E-05
1.20E-05
8.00E-06
4.00E-06
0.00E+00
0

100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 100
0

5kN
10kN
50kN
100kN
100kN-300kN
200kN-500kN
400kN-1000kN

Force(kN)

(D-D1)/D1

Fig.3

The results of repeatability test

2.50E-05
2.00E-05
1.50E-05
1.00E-05
5.00E-06
0.00E+00
-5.00E-06
-1.00E-05
-1.50E-05
-2.00E-05
-2.50E-05

5kN
10kN
30kN-50kN
100kN
100kN-300kN
300kN-500kN
600kN-1000kN

100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
Force (kN)

Fig.4 The comparison results between NIM 1 MN DWM and NIM 6 kN, 300 kN, NIMTT 100 kN, 1 MN DWM

6. CONCLUTION
By equilibrating the deadweight of the load hanger attachment and weight suspension via compensating lever 1 MN
DWM can generate force from 5 kN to 1 MN in a force step of 5 kN and realize the calibration of force measuring
devices with different capacities; by adopting the force and displacement control technology the machine realizes the
load keeping during weights exchanges and effectively reduces unloading (or loading) during loading (or unloading);
the weights of the machine could be selected to load optionally via the traveling cage system. The experiment results
show that the repeatability of 1MN DWM is better than 210-5the agreements between NIM 1 MN DWM and NIM 6
kN, 300 kN, NIMTT 100 kN, 1 MN DWM force standard machines are better than 210-5. In 2005 and 2007 NIM
participated in CCM.F-K3.a and CCM.F-K3.b force key comparison, the comparison tests were carried out on 1 MN
DWM. As the pilot laboratory NIM will organize APMP.F-K3 force comparison, the comparison tests will be carried
out on 1 MN DWM.

7. REFERENCE
1. NIM research report: Establishment of 1 MN deadweight force standard machine
2. Q.Z.Li, Y.H.Li, Guide to evaluation of uncertainty in measurement on force, torque and hardness, China Metrology
Publishing company, 2003
*corresponding author information: Zhang Zhimin zhiminzhang@nim.ac.cn; phone 86 10 64211631 ext. 2303;
fax 86 10 64218628; National Institute of Metrology, No. 18 Bei San Huan Dong Lu, Beijing, 100013, P.R.China

Improvement of Calibration Reproducibility by Removing Balancing


Mechanism in Dead-Weight Type Force Standard Machine
Toshiyuki Hayashi1, Yoshihisa Katase1, Hiroshi Maejima1, Yukio Yamaguchi1,
Kazunaga Ueda1 and Masao Ueno2
1
National Metrology Institute Japan (NMIJ), AIST, Japan
2
Tokyokoki Seizosho Ltd., Japan
ABSTRACT
Although the balancing mechanism of a dead-weight type force standard machine (DWM) has the advantage of allowing
a small initial force regardless of the loading frame strength, it tends to apply slight eccentric forces and moments to a
force transducer, thus increasing its calibration uncertainty. By removing the balancing mechanism from NMIJ's
DWM, repeatability and reproducibility of calibration results were improved and calibration uncertainty was decreased,
particularly in the case of transducers sensitive to eccentric forces.
Keywords: DWM, reproducibility, linearity, balancing mechanism, eccentric force

1. INTRODUCTION
At present, dead-weight type force standard machines (DWMs) are widely used in many national metrology institutes
for realizing the national measurement standard of force with the smallest uncertainty. When DWMs were initially
introduced, various types of weighing mechanisms were developed. For example, discussions were made on issues
such as the shape of the loading frame, the number of pillars, the location of the supporting point on the loading frame,
whether to use a linkage weight or separate weight, whether to use a linkage weight with an inner or outer joint, the
structure of the joint, the number of weight series, and so forth.
Among the various designs proposed, the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) adopted a balancing mechanism
in one of its DWMs in the 1980s. This mechanism consisted of a mechanical balance and a counter weight which gave
a negative force to cancel the gravitational force of the loading frame. It had the advantage of design freedom; that is,
the mass of the loading frame could be increased to reinforce its strength regardless of the initial force of the DWM,
unlike other types of DWMs whose loading frames need to be made as small as possible to widen the calibration range.
However, vibrations of the balance and the loading frame caused eccentric forces on a force transducer under calibration.
Because some force transducers are quite sensitive to the eccentric forces, the calibration uncertainties of these
transducers become worse.
Recently, with the increasing importance of measurement traceability, it is necessary to minimize calibration uncertainty
in national force standards. In this paper, we describe the results of our work to remove the balancing mechanism from
the NMIJ's DWM to reduce the eccentricity.

2. MODIFICATION
2.1 PREVIOUS STRUCTURE
NMIJ's 20 kN DWM had the mechanical balance and the counter weight as illustrated in Fig. 1. The balance was
installed at the top, and the loading frame and the counter weight were hung from it. The loading frame and the
counter weight both experienced gravitational forces of about 550 N, which were cancelled by the balance. There were
two series of linkage weights: 10 1 kN upper weights and 5 2 kN lower weights. An initial load was applied not by
the loading frame but by the first linkage weight of either series. The height of the loading table was set to be in the
middle of the fitting space, and it was driven up and down to adjust it according to the height of the force transducer.

Counter weight

Balance

Loading
frame

Fitting space
(compressive)
Loading table
(movable)

Tensile
fitting

Upper linkage
weights
(1 kN 10)

Structural
frame

Driving
screw

Lower linkage
weights
(2 kN 5)

Figure 1:

Structure of the previous 20 kN DWM.

The balance remained horizontal if no weight was hung on it because of equilibrium between the loading frame and the
counter weight. However, a slight inclination occurred when weights were hung on the balance, as depicted in Fig. 2.
This slight inclination exerted a small eccentric force on the force transducer under calibration. Although the degree of
inclination could be reduced by using a narrower gap between the loading frame of the DWM and the loading pad of the
force transducer, it was difficult to remove the inclination completely. In ordinary cases, an inclination of 0.5 was
caused by loading, and this inclination affected the deflection by about 0.3 mN, corresponding to the minimum applied
force of 1 kN.
(a)

Balance
Loading frame

Counter weight

Loading pad
Force
transducer
(b)

Calibration force
Figure 2:

Inclination of balance (a) without loading and (b) with loading.

Moreover, the loading frame hanging on the balance was apt to swing horizontally when no load was applied, as
illustrated in Fig. 3. This oscillation caused the contact points between the loading frame and the force transducer to
move. Because of misalignment of the contact points from the axial center, slight eccentric horizontal forces or
bending moments were exerted on the force transducer. As a result, the balancing mechanism degraded the
repeatability and reproducibility of the calibration results.

Pendular vibration

Figure 3:

Undesirable vibration of the loading frame.

Therefore, it was decided to removing the balancing mechanism to minimize calibration uncertainty.
2.2 DESIGN OF LOADING FRAME
Fig. 4 shows a schematic drawing of the DWM after the modification. The balance and the counter weight at the top of
the former DWM were removed. The loading frame itself served as the first load. Because the two pillars of the
loading frame were shortened to adjust the weight to 500 N, the positions of the compressive and tensile spaces for the
force transducers had to be exchanged. The first 1 kN weight of the 10 1 kN series was also replaced with a new 500
N weight. These modifications reduced the force of the first calibration step from 1 kN down to 500 N.

Tensile
fitting

Fitting space
(tensile)

Loading
frame
(500 N)

Loading table
(fixed)
Upper linkage
weights
(500 N 1)
(1 kN 9)

Structural
frame

Lower linkage
weights
(2 kN 5)

Driving
screw

Figure 4:

Structure of the new 20 kN DWM.

2.3 REPLACEMENT OF STRUCTURAL FRAME


As described in section 2.2, the positions of the compressive and tensile spaces for the force transducers were exchanged.
The previous loading table was removed. A new loading table thus needed to be installed at the lower part of the
compressive space, that is, directly on the structural plate. However, the strength and stiffness of the previous plate at
the lower part were insufficient to support a load of up to 20 kN. This is because, in the previous structure, only the
top plate supported the movable loading table through ball screws, and the loading table supported a force transducer
and linkage weights in both cases of compressive and tensile forces. The thickness of the plate at the bottom of the
compressive space was thus increased from 40 mm to 60 mm due to the increased strength requirement. As a result,
the stiffness of the structural frame was improved.
2.4 RENEWAL OF CONTROL CIRCUIT
The previous control circuit was manufactured in 1980, using operational amplifiers and electromagnetic relays. The
operational amplifiers compared the outputs of potentiometers attached to the supporting frame of the linkage weights
with target signals inputted by mechanical pushbutton switches, then controlled electric motors to drive the linkage
weights up and down. At the same time as the structural modifications, the old control system was replaced by a
sequencer. The new control system enabled both automatic control using a personal computer and manual operation
through a handheld panel.

3. EVALUATION PROCEDURE
In order to evaluate the effect of the modification, three high-precision force transducers with a common DMP-40
amplifier were repeatedly calibrated before and after the modification, and calibration results were compared in terms of
sensitivity drift, reproducibility, and linearity. The three force transducers, called transducers 1, 2, and 3, had rated
capacities of 10 kN, 10 kN, and 20 kN, respectively. The calibration procedure was in accordance with ISO 3761, and
its loading pattern is shown in Fig. 5. In this figure, P refers to the preloading cycle and C refers to the calibration
cycle.
PPP

0 position

120 position 240 position


Figure 5:

Loading pattern.

4. RESULTS
4.1 SENSITIVITY DRIFT
Relative changes in the sensitivity before and after the modification were 3.010-5, 5.310-5, and 0.310-5 for the
transducers 1, 2, and 3, respectively. It is quite usual even for high-precision force transducers to exhibit sensitivity
drifts of this magnitude during a time span of several months. Therefore, the sensitivity drift results indicate that there
was essentially no change in the force measurements realized by the DWM before and after the modification.
4.2 REPRODUCIBILITY
Fig. 6 depicts repeatability at the same rotational position and reproducibility with changing rotational positions of the
force transducers. The horizontal axis indicates the rotational position and loading cycle, and the vertical axis indicates
relative deviation. Dotted and solid lines correspond to the results recorded before and after modification, respectively.
All data shown in this figure were recorded at force steps corresponding to the rated capacities of the transducers.
Repeatability can be read from the difference between the 0 1st and 2nd cycles, and reproducibility can be read from
the difference between the 0 1st, 120, 240 positions.

Relative deviation (10 -6 )

(a) Transducer 1
40
= Before the modification
= After the modification

20
0
-20
-40
0 1st

0 2nd
120
Rotational position and cycle

240

0 2nd
120
Rotational position and cycle

240

0 2nd
120
Rotational position and cycle

240

Relative deviation (10 -6 )

(b) Transducer 2
40
20
0
-20
-40
0 1st

Relative deviation (10 -6 )

(c) Transducer 3
40
20
0
-20
-40
0 1st

Figure 6:

Repeatability and reproducibility at the rated capacities.

Repeatability and reproducibility were not significantly changed in the case of transducer 1. However, in the cases of
transducers 2 and 3, they were remarkably improved after the modification. As mentioned in section 2.1, the balancing
mechanism in the previous structure caused oscillations of the loading frame and movement of the loading point on the
top of the force transducer, resulting in slight eccentricity of the applied force. In contrast, after removing the
balancing mechanism, the oscillation was reduced and alignment was easily maintained between the loading frame and
the force transducer, thus reducing the eccentricity. Therefore, improved repeatability and reproducibility could be
clearly observed when calibrating force transducers that were sensitive to the eccentric loading, such as transducers 2
and 3. On the other hand, improvement was not so clear in the case of transducer 1, because that transducer was
already tolerant to eccentric loading.
4.3 LINEARITY
Fig. 7 shows the linearity of the force transducer outputs. The horizontal and the vertical axes indicate calibration
force steps and nonlinearity of readings, respectively. The curves with different symbols indicate different rotational
positions of the force transducers and calibration cycles. Solid and dotted lines correspond to increasing and
decreasing forces, respectively. Reproducibility can be read from the variation at each calibration force step. No
discernable unnatural bumps caused by inaccurate mass adjustment, insufficient stiffness, magnetized weights and so
forth are observed in the force-nonlinearity plots after modification. This indicates that the basic capabilities of the
DWM were maintained even though its mechanical structure was modified.

(a) Before

After
50

Nonlinearity (10 -6 )

Nonlinearity (10 -6 )

50

Decreasing force

-50
= 0 1st
= 0 2nd
= 120
= 240

-100

Increasing force

-150
5
Force (kN)

-100

10

(b) Before

5
Force (kN)

10

5
Force (kN)

10

10
Force (kN)

20

After
100
Nonlinearity (10 -6 )

100
Nonlinearity (10 -6 )

-50

-150
0

-50
0
-50
-100

-50
0
-50
-100

5
Force (kN)

10

(c) Before

After
100
Nonlinearity (10 -6 )

100
Nonlinearity (10 -6 )

0
-100
-200
-300

0
-100
-200
-300

10
Force (kN)

20

Figure 7: Calibration results: force-nonlinearity curves.


(a), (b) and (c) correspond to transducers 1, 2 and 3, respectively.
Left and right drawings correspond to before and after modification, respectively.

Because the eccentric force and bending moment affected the sensitivities of the force transducers to some degree,
curves of force-nonlinearity plots differed from one calibration cycle to another. As can be seen in Fig. 7(c), the
difference was more remarkable at the force steps near the rated capacity of the force transducer than near the zero
point.

5. SUMMARY
A modification of the 20 kN DWM of NMIJ was successfully completed in order to remove the balancing mechanism.
The effects of the modification were clearly confirmed in terms of sensitivity drift, reproducibility, and linearity through
the calibration of three high-precision force transducers. Particularly in cases of force transducers that are sensitive to
eccentricity of the applied force, repeatability and reproducibility of the calibration results were remarkably improved
and calibration uncertainty was reduced.

6. REFERENCES
1.

ISO 376, Metallic materials Calibration of force-proving instruments used for the verification of uniaxial
testing machines : 2004.

*corresponding author information: Toshiyuki Hayashi t-hayashi@aist.go.jp

Application of PC/104 Embedded Controller to Hydraulic


Force Standard Machine

Hu Gang
Mechanics and Acoustics Division, National Institute of Metrology
Beijing, P. R. China

ABSTRACT
The embedded system is a dedicated computer system which is widely applied in many fields. The
PC/104 is a specification that is applied to dedicated and embedded control system. It offers full
architecture, hardware and software compatibility with the PC bus, but in ultra-compact (3.6 by 3.8
inches) stackable modules. Compared with the regular PC bus, PC/104 has its special characteristics,
such as compact form-factor, unique self-stacking bus, relaxed bus drive and so on.
A controller based on PC/104 specification has been designed and developed at NIM. The controller,
along with a jet-pipe electro-hydraulic servo valve, laser displacement transducer and pressure transducer,
composes a servo control system of hydraulic force standard machine. In this paper, the controller is
described in detail and the results of experiments are demonstrated.
The controller has been applied to servo control system of NIM 5MN force machine. The overshoot
is smaller than 2% and force fluctuation is better than 110-4. Automatic weight-exchanging process is
realized. The automatic level of the control system is enhanced and the performance is improved.
Key words: PC/104 Specification, Embedded Control System, Hydraulic Force Standard Machine.

1. INTRODUCTION OF EMBEDDED SYSTEM AND PC/104 SPECIFICATION


Embedded system is a dedicated computer system that is embedded in some special devices. It
features all characteristics of computer system, but it is application-oriented, more compact, hidden in
special devices. More than 98% of processors applied today are in embedded systems, and are no longer
visible to the customer as 'computers' in the ordinary sense. Embedded system is widely applied in many
fields, such as automotive devices, aerospace, medical devices and communications etc.
While the PC and PC/AT architectures have become extremely popular in both general purpose
(desktop) and dedicated (non-dedicated) applications, its use in embedded microcomputer applications
has been limited due to the large size of PC and PC/AT motherboards and expansion cards. A need
therefore arose for a more compact implementation of the PC bus, satisfying the reduced space and
power constraints of embedded control applications. PC/104 was developed in response to this need. It
offers full architecture, hardware and software compatibility with the PC bus, but in ultra-compact (3.6
by 3.8 inches) stackable modules. In 1992, the IEEE began a project to standardize a reduced form-factor
implementation of the IEEE P996 (draft) specification for the PC and PC/AT buses, for embedded
applications. The PC/104 specification has been adopted as the base document for this new IEEE draft
standard, called the P996.1 Standard for Compact Embedded-PC Modules. PC/104 specifies two module

versions8-bit and 16-bit which correspond to PC and PC/AT bus implementations, respectively. The
specification is herein referred to as PC/104, based on the 104 signal contacts on the two bus
connectors (64pins on P1, plus 40 pins on P2).
The key differences between PC/104 and the regular PC bus (IEEE P996) are:
Compact form-factor.

Size is reduced to 3.6 by 3.8 inches.

Unique self-stacking bus. It eliminates the cost and bulk of backplanes and card cages.
Pin-and-socket connectors.

Rugged and reliable 64-and 40-contact male/female headers replace

the standard PCs edgecard connectors.


Relaxed bus drive (6mA).

It lowers power consumption (to 1-2 Watts per module) and

minimizes component count.


Given the above advantages, the PC/104 specification has been widely applied to many control
systems. As far as force measurement is concerned, some controllers for material testing machine adopt
the PC/104 specification. A new controller based on PC/104 specification has been designed and
developed at NIM for servo control system of hydraulic force machine. The application of the controller
improves the performance of the control system and advances the level of automation.

2. THE CONTROLLER BASED ON PC/104 SPECIFICATION FOR HYDRAULIC


FORCE MACHINE

Pressure

Storage devices

transducer signal
32channels 16-bit

Signal filtering and

A/D converter

processing circuit

Displacement
transducer signal
Manual knob signal

PC/104

4channels 16-bit

Standard signal of

D/A converter

manual knob

main board
Drive signal of
4channels V/I
converter

servo valve

Indicator of the displacement


of measuring ram

Indicator of the output current


of servo valve
+12V, +5V

32 channels DIO
card

Figure 1

The block diagram of the controller

Digital signals

The controller that controls the outlet flow of the servo valve is an essential unit of control system in
hydraulic force machine. A controller with good characteristics is important for hydraulic force standard
machine. It has a significant impact on the metrological performance of the force machine, such as force
accuracy and force fluctuation. A new scheme of double loop servo control system was put forward to
improve the performance of the control system of the hydraulic force machine1. Based on the scheme, a
new controller adopted the PC/104 specification has been developed at NIM.
The block diagram of the controller is shown in Figure 1. The displacement of the measuring ram
and the pressure of the hydraulic system are transformed into voltage signals and sent to the controller.
Through signal processing and A/D conversion, the voltage signals are transformed into digital signals.
PI (Proportional and Integral) algorithm is adopted in the controller. Through D/A and V/I conversion,
the output of the controller is transformed into current signal ranging from 20mA to 20mA and sent to
servo valve. The digital signals showing which weight is added onto the loading frame and which one is
not are sent to the controller through a 32 channels DIO card. The embedded controller provides essential
digital interfaces to extend the control system. Additionally, two analogue indicators on the front panel
indicate the displacement of the measuring ram and output current of servo valve respectively. Figure 2
shows the controller and control desk of NIM 5MN force machine.

Figure 2

The controller and control desk of NIM 5MN force machine

Application program of the controller is developed by LabVIEW 7 Express. It is divided into


control module signal input module and signal output module. The control module is the essential part
of the application program. The input and output module are called by control module through Call
Library Function Node. The control module includes displacement and pressure control program. PI
algorithm is applied to both of them. The displacement control program is operational to make the
measuring ram trace its equilibrant position and float at this position steadily. The pressure control
program which brings the hydraulic pressure under control will not work until the weight-exchanging
processi.e. one large weight is loaded onto the loading frame and a number of small weights are

removed from the loading frame in sequencebegins. Application program becomes operational
automatically as soon as the operating system is set to motion. A light in the front panel indicates the

Ram- cylinder and oil pipe system

Servo valve
Controller
K p (1 +

1
Ti s

I
)

sv

K sv
2 sv
)2 +
s +1

sv

1
s

P
s2

h 2

U2

U1

1
A
2 h

Y
s +1

Pressure transducer

K1
Displacement transducer

K2
Figure 3

The transfer function and block diagram of the control system

operating conditions of the application program. A button has to be pressed to shut down the application
program before the controller is powered off.
The controller has been applied to NIM 5MN force machine. The controller, a jet-pipe
electro-hydraulic servo valve, ram- cylinder and oil pipe system, a laser displacement transducer and a
pressure transducer compose servo control system of the hydraulic force machine. The transfer function
and block diagram of the control system are shown in Figure 3.

3. EXPERIMENT RESULTS
Before experiments on the control system, the parameters of the controller have been tuned.
The proportional gain Kp and integral time constant Ti are the essential parameters of the controller.
The respond speed, steady-state error and overshoot of the system have a close relationship with
them. Through simulation and a series of experiments, Kp and Ti are tuned in NIM 5MN force
machine as follows:
Kp=0.4 ~0.5Ti=(10~200)min
Kp=0.8~1.2Ti=(10~100)min

(for displacement control program)


(for pressure control program)

As a result, satisfactory response of both dynamic and steady state has been achieved.
3.1 THE REALIZATION OF AUTOMATIC WEIGHT-EXCHANGING PROCESS
It is necessary to exchange weights for realizing maximum force steps in the definite weights. Take
NIM 5MN force machine for example, it is possible to realize 50 force steps by means of 14 weights
(0.4kN5, 2kN9). When force step changes from 500kN to 800kN, one large weight (2kN) is loaded
onto the loading frame and two small weights (0.4kN) are removed from the loading frame in sequence.
During this process, manual control has to be adopted to prevent applied force from exceeding 800kN.
As a result, man-made factor becomes evident. Similar situation occurs during unloading process from
800kN to 500kN.

As pressure control loop is introduced, the new controller brings the pressure of the hydraulic
system under control automatically during the weight-exchanging process. As a result, applied force

Figure 4 500kN-800kN loading graph

Figure 5 800kN-500kN unloading graph


800

800

750
Force(kN)

Force(kN)

750
700
650

700
650
600

600

550

550

500

500

450
0

20

40
Time( s)

60

80

20

40
Time( s)

60

80

will not exceed the setting value and manual control is avoided. Figure 4 and Figure 5 are loading and
unloading graph respectively. A series of weight-exchanging experiments have been carried out, it is
found that automatic weight-exchanging process is realized and the relative overshoot is smaller than
2%.

3.2 EXPERIMENT RESULTS OF OVERSHOOT AND FORCE FLUCTUATION


Overshoot and force fluctuation are the most important criteria for evaluating control system of
hydraulic force machine. Overshoot means the relative deviation between the maximum value and stable
value of hydraulic pressure during force-changing process. It reflects the dynamic state of the control
system. Force fluctuation means the degree of the force stability during force-keeping process and
reflects the steady state of the control system. It is expressed in the relative experimental standard
deviation of average of the force transducer to be experimented.
A series of the experiments with 1MN, 2MN, 5MN force transducers have been carried out in NIM
5MN force machine. The experiment results are shown in table1. The experiment of the force fluctuation
has been done with a sampling frequency of 5 seconds in 1 minute force-keeping process. It is found that
the overshoot is smaller than 2% and force fluctuation is better than 110-4.

4. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION


The PC/104 embedded controller based on the new scheme of double loop control has been proved to
be more practical and successful. It has been applied to NIM 5MN force machine. The overshoot is
smaller than 2% and force fluctuation is better than 110-4. Automatic weight-exchanging process is
realized. The automatic level of the control system is enhanced and the performance is improved. The
application of the new controller furthers the development of the previous research1. In the future the
PC/104 embedded controller will hopefully be popularized and applied to other hydraulic force machine
in China.
Besides, the controller and the whole control system still call for further improvement. The
application program should be improved and optimized constantly. Oil pump, control valves (including
servo valve) and other components of the control system should be paid more attention. Continued
researches and experiments on them should be carried out.

Table1 The experiment results

1MN

2MN
Force

Force

Overshoot

(kN)

100

1.8

200

5MN
Force

Force

Overshoot

(kN)

1.52

200

1.0

1.0

4.39

400

300

2.0

1.20

400

1.5

500

Force
Force

Overshoot

(kN)

4.13

500

0.4

2.29

1.8

1.12

1000

1.0

2.01

600

2.0

1.79

1500

0.9

1.54

0.24

800

1.2

1.19

2000

0.9

6.05

1.6

0.92

1000

0.7

1.68

2500

0.5

5.02

600

1.7

0.35

1200

0.5

2.27

3000

0.3

5.77

700

1.1

1.00

1400

0.5

4.27

3500

0.3

4.73

800

1.0

0.49

1600

0.8

5.42

4000

0.3

2.50

900

1.1

0.19

1800

0.5

6.91

4500

0.2

4.48

1000

0.8

0.89

2000

0.4

6.43

5000

0.2

0.28

fluctuation
10-5

fluctuation
10-5

fluctuation
10-5

5. REFERENCES
1.

Hu Gang, Li Zhenmin A New Digital Servo Control System for Hydraulic Force Standard
Machine Proceedings of APMF 2005., Jeju, 2005, pp. 105-110.

2.

Hu Gang, The renovation of electro-hydraulic servo control system of hydraulic force standard
machine, NIM research report , August, 2006.

3.

Hu Gang, The research and experiments of the controller based on PC/104 specification in
hydraulic force standard machine, CHINA METROLOGY, 12, pp. 49-50, 2006.

4.

The department of automation of Tsinghua University, The setting-up of embedded system, 2003,
pp. 3-4.

5.

Hu Gang, The application of a new digital servo control system in hydraulic force standard
machine, a dissertation for the degree of master of engineering, June, 2004.

*corresponding author information: Hu Gang hugang@nim.ac.cn; phone 86 10 6421 1631ext2303 or


2317; fax 86 10 6421 8628; National Institute of Metrology, No.18 Bei San Huan Dong Lu, Beijing
100013,China

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

High Accurate Creep Compensation Method for Load Cell


*

Makoto Makabe* and Toru Kohashi *


Research and Development Department, Yamato Scale Co., Ltd, Akashi, Japan
ABSTRACT

Since low capacity or stainless steel load cells are subject to larger creep errors than medium or high capacity aluminum
load cells, the conventional analog compensation method cannot fully cancel out the errors. In particular, the rate of
change with creep is high immediately after load application or removal. While OIML R 60 has no stipulation regarding
changes in creep immediately after load application or removal, it is important and useful for automatic and nonautomatic weighing scales to compensate so as to minimize the creep error during those periods of time. We have
developed an accurate compensation method for creep error that occurs immediately after load application or removal
on load cells.
Keywords: Creep, Load cell, Start point

1. INTRODUCTION
Weighing signals output by a load cell that has a strain gauge bonded to an elastic element made of metal (hereinafter
referred to as load cell) can include errors caused by the material and structure of elastic element. Hysteresis and
creep are listed as typical errors arising from these mechanical factors.
Since the large creep errors occur in the low capacity or stainless steel load cells in particular, the conventional analog
and digital compensation method cannot get high accuracy in the weighing scale used these load cells. Moreover, in the
automatic scale, the high-speed weight measurement such as within from 100 to 300 msec after load application is
frequently required. In this case, highly accurate creep compensation needs to be applied from the timing of
immediately after any creep phenomenon has arisen. To realize this, creep compensation must be conducted based on a
start point determined by identifying the timing of load application rather than that of stable weight measurement. Then,
there is a need for development of an appropriate method of digital compensation.In previous digital creep
compensation studies, no evaluation was made of the characteristics observed immediately after load application to a
load cell, and the characteristics have only been evaluated under stable, static load conditions.
We evaluated creep characteristics observed immediately after load application, and have developed a highly accurate
creep compensation method for automatic weighing scales. The creep start point of a load cell (start points for load
application and removal) was detected by using the amount of load/time (dw/dt) change larger than a predetermined
value. In addition, changes in creep characteristics of a load cell were evaluated for 30 minutes immediately after load
application. This evaluation clarified that the exponential compensation equation described in conventional documents
could not be applied to the characteristics of any fast rise or fall in creep phenomena immediately after load application
or removal.
Therefore, we developed a new compensation equation based on experimental data and statistical techniques to address
the characteristics of that rise and fall, and conducted evaluation by precisely comparing measured data with
compensated data. Creep compensation with the newly developed compensation equation successfully reduced errors to
1/3 - 1/4 over the entire range of 30 minutes immediately after load application or removal in comparison with that
observed before compensation. These results indicate that the compensation method we developed is useful as a method
of creep compensation for automatic scales and effective in achieving higher accuracy.

2. REGARDING OIML R 60
OIML R 60 issued by the International Recommendation includes the following stipulation regarding creep tests.
With constant maximum load, Dmax, between 90% and 100% of Emax, applied to the load cell, the difference between
the initial reading and any reading obtained over the next 30 minutes shall not exceed 0.7 times the absolute value of
mpe (Maximum permissible errors) for the applied load. The difference between the reading obtained at 20 minutes and
the reading obtained at 30 minutes shall not exceed 0.15 times the absolute value of the mpe.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

For initial readings, it is stipulated that loading must take 5 seconds and then a reading must be taken after waiting 5
seconds for a load cell with a rated load of 10 kg. However, this stipulation is no longer useful for weighing scales
because it is now necessary that non-automatic weighing scales also display a stable weight measurement value within 2
to 3 seconds after load application.

3. THE CONVENTIONAL PRACTICAL CREEP ERROR COMPENSATION METHOD


An example of creep error compensating devices and compensation methods is disclosed in the published patent
application H4-12221, Yamato Scale Co., Ltd. This published patent application describes that when load is applied to
an elastic element of weight sensing means (sensor), the elastic elements are strained in response to the load, and the
amount of strain gradually varies over time, similar to the step response of a first order transfer function, because of
creep phenomenon. In order to digitally compensate for creep error, a compensation calculation algorithm is used in the
conventional technology disclosed in the published patent application. This compensation calculation circuit has a
transfer function that essentially has an opposite mode to that of changes over time of the weight signal (measurement
signal) generated with the amount of strain on the elastic element. When a weight signal passes through this
compensation calculation algorithm, creep error is removed from the weight signal.
However, in this published patent applications, the creep characteristics were evaluated only within the range of stable,
static measurement signal conditions that satisfied the OIML R 60 stipulation after the convergence of transient
responses of a load cell. In addition, it was discovered that the exponential compensation equation (1) described in
conventional documents could not be applied to the characteristics of any fast rise and fall in creep edge immediately
after load application or removal.

Wx(t ) = A 1 exp( )
T

(1)

Wx(t): Creep error, A: Final creep value, t: Time, T: Time constant unique to load cells
In addition, the creep error caused by a shock load application or load removal has not been evaluated. Creep
compensation must be conducted based on a creep start point determined by identifying the load timing, particularly in
the fields in which high-speed weighing is required. Therefore, in order to measure a weight with high accuracy at an
early timing immediately after load application, it is necessary to improve the compensation equation regardless of
whether it is an automatic or non-automatic weighing scale.

4. DETERMINING THE COMPENSATION METHOD


4.1 DEFINITIONS OF CREEP START POINT AND RATED LOAD MEASUREMENT POINT
Whether it is an automatic or non-automatic weighing scale. OIML does not stipulate any precise definition regarding the start
point of load application. In this research, we define the creep start point as the time point at which the first peak appears
in a measured load waveform when load is applied to a weighing scale.
dw/dt
Loading
Start point
Thb
t
Tha
t0

Fig. 1 Creep start point.

If the load signal is w, a peak in the load waveform can judge simply by dw/dt = 0. However, it must be taken into
consideration that load w varies over time also at the zero point in weighing scales because of vibration noise, and that a
load application weight signal, etc. may slowly rise depending on how the operator applies the load in the case of nonautomatic weighing scales. Then, this research in order to prevent false detection, a practical threshold value Thb to the

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

dw/dt is set to define the start point as the time point at which, after dw/dt value exceeds Thb once, it crosses Thb again
while moving toward zero. Fig. 1 shows the creep start point as well as the threshold value Tha of load removal.
If the creep start point of this research and that of OIML R 60 are t = t0 = 0 sec and t = tp =5 sec respectively, the final
amount of creep in this research and that of OIML R 60 can be defined as Cr and Cr respectively (see Fig. 2).
Because creep varies even at t = tp, it is difficult to measure the accurate load signal to determine a compensation
equation. In this research, the timing for correctly measuring the rated load for span adjustment was set at t = 30min, at
which the creep response completely converges.
A
(tr , Ar )

Ar

(tp, Ap)

Ap

Cr'
Cr

Ap-A0
A0

tp-t0

0
t0

tr-tp

t
tr
30min

tp

Fig. 2 Definitions of conventional creep start point and creep start point in this study.

t0: Creep start time in this research, tp: Creep start time in OIML, tr: Creep test termination time (30 min)
A0: Load for creep start in this research, Ap: Conventional load for creep start, Ar: Final load for creep response
Cr: Final amount of creep in this research, Cr: Final amount of creep in OIML
4.2 DEFINITION OF CREEP CURVE
In order to digitally compensate for creep characteristics on the basis of the stipulation of OIML, the response curve for
t = tp and later in Fig. 2 is expressed as an equation. In this research, the response curve for t = t0 through to t = tp as well
as the above range is expressed as an equation.
4.3 IDENTIFICATION OF CREEP CHARACTERISTIC FUNCTION
Measurement_e_x2

8000.0
7999.5
7999.0
7998.5
7998.0
7997.5
0

1000

2000

3000
4000
Time (msec)

5000

6000

7000

Fig. 3 Rising curve of creep immediately after


application of the weight (15 times).

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Representative response curve

7998.59

x2
x2

Switching point 1.5


(t1600, w1600)

7999.09

Output (g)

8000.5

Output (g)

AVERAGE

7999.59

1.0
Start point
(t0, w0)
Conventional curve

0.5

New method curve

7998.09

7997.59
-500

0.0

500
1000
Time (msec)

1500

Compensation equation
(g)

Creep Test
(Start Point)
8001.0

-0.5
2000

Fig. 4 Comparison of creep rising curves of the


conventional method and the new method.

An 8-kg load cell was used as a test sample to estimate the characteristic function using a weight of 8 kg. An automatic
loading device was used to conduct the test so that the response would be as consistent as possible after the weight was
applied. Actual measurement values are at random with each load application as shown in Fig. 3. Fig. 4 shows a
smoothed representative response curve determined by calculating the average of 15 measured values for each
measurement time. It is displayed clearly a large change between 0 and 1500 msec.
For the time of to = 0, the creep start point defined above was applied. While a compensation curve determined by
applying the conventional first order transfer function response curve is also shown in Fig. 4, tracking performance was
poor in the period ending at t = approximately 1600 msec. If the equation is determined by the response after 5000msec,
the amount of late tracking at the timing of immediately after load application will become more. For this reason, a
quadratic regression curve determined from the above representative response curve was used as the creep response

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

curve for the period of 0 T1 < 1600 msec. A first order response curve with a different time constant based on the
conventional compensation equation was applied to the period of 1600 to 7000 msec and the period of 7000 msec and
later, in which creep varied slowly, to determine creep response curve equations (2), (3), and (4) for each interval of
time that elapsed after load application. As the case with load application, creep response curves (5), (6), and (7) were
also determined for each interval of time that elapsed after load removal.
For an increase in applied load,

E1 (t ) = (0.3844 10 6 t 1.3488 10 3 )t

E 2 (t ) = 1.761(1 e
E3 (t ) = 1.167(1 e

t 1600

Ta

(0 t < 1600)

(1.6 t < 7000)

(7000 t < 30 min)

t 7000

Tb

(2)
/

(3)
(4)

For a decrease in removed load,

E 4 (t ) = (0.2388 10 6 t 0.9117 10 3 )t
E5 (t ) = 2.929(1 e
E6 (t ) = 2.487(1 e

t 1600

Tc

t 7000
Td

(0 t < 1600)

(1600 t < 7000)

(7000 t < 30 min)

(5)
(6)

(7)

Where Ta = 13097.17, Tb = 45877.63, Tc = 3298.97, and Td = 91779.03. These equations are given so that the
phenomenonin which response is slower in the third interval than the second interval for load application as well as
load removalcan be followed.
The load response curves from the creep characteristics of the 8-kg load cell used in this research are expressed with
above equations (2) to (7), and the amount of creep is roughly proportional to the magnitude of weight throughout the
time period in which creep varies. Therefore, when arbitrary load wx is applied to or removed from a load cell with a
rated load of 8 kg, the creep response characteristics F(t) can be expressed as follows.

w
F (t ) = x E n (t )
8

(8)

4.4 COMPENSATION WHEN USING A WEIGHING SCALE


It is assumed that the time point t = t0 + ts at which ts elapses from the creep start point t = t0 = 0 defined above is the
point at which the weighing scale can measure a weight with an accuracy suitable for its use. If measured weight is ws
at this time point, the correct value of wxin which creep error was canceled at t = tsis determined by estimating the
initial load value and the final creep value Crx for the load applied to the load cell (see Fig. 5).
w

wx

(ts, w s)

Cr x

F(t)=F(t s)

w x0

t0

t0 +ts

ts

Fig. 5 Initial load value and final creep value.

The procedure is as follows. The load value for the time point of t = 0, which is the response start point, (initial load
value wx0) is estimated based on the point of (ts, ws). In addition, the final amount of creep Crx based on the initial load
is estimated with equation (2), (3), (4) with time divided depending amount of elapsed time ts, and correct load wx in
which creep compensation was conducted is determined with the following equation.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

wx = wx 0 + Crx

(9)

In other words, it can be assumed that wx is the real load signal exerted after the creep response based on initial load
wx0 has converged. However, because the correct final load value wx was not obtained at the time of measurement, ws,
which is nearly equal to wx, is substituted into equation (8) to obtain F(t).

w
F ( t ) = s En ( t )
8

(10)

(Note) In order to define equation (10), the evaluation described below in Section 5 was conducted.
Because of elapsed time ts < 1600 msec, t = ts is substituted for E1(t) in equation (2) to determine the amount of change
in creep F(t) = F(ts) over the period t = t0 to t = ts. After F(ts) is determined, initial load wx0 is determined with the
following equation.
wx 0 = ws F (ts )
(11)
For the final amount of creep based on weight Ws, the amounts of creep E1m, E2m, and E3m based on the rated load of
8 kg are determined by substituting t = 1600, t = 7000, and t = 30 60 1000 into equations (2), (3), and (4)
respectively, and are assigned as the initial set values for the calculation algorithm in advance.
The final amount of creep Crx based on any given weight wx, which is nearly equal to ws, is determined with the
following equation.

w
C rx = s (E1m + E 2 m + E3m )
8

(12)

Alternatively, after the amount of change in weight measured over the period of t0 = 0 to 30 min in Fig. 4 is stored at the
time of an evaluation test, it can then be directly applied rather than E1m + E2m + E3m.

5. DIFFERENCE IN THE AMOUNT OF CREEP ARISING FROM DIFFERENCE IN


MAGNITUDE OF APPLIED LOAD
Previous tests covered load application and load removal of the rated load (8 kg). Therefore, the amount of creep
change for the application and removal of 2 kg, 4 kg, and 6 kg were then evaluated and analyzed.
Tests were conducted using different weights under the same conditions as in Section 4. Fig. 6 shows the creep
waveform for the load application of 4 kg and the waveform obtained after digital creep compensation.
Measurement
Calculation

UH361-8kg (+Creep cell)


Creep Test (Load:4kg)
4001

O utput (g)

4000
3999
3998
3997
3996
0

2000

4000

6000

8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000


Time (msec)

Fig. 6 Creep error waveform for load application of 4 kg and creep compensation waveform.

Table 1 shows the results obtained from tests using different weights. The data in Table 1 shows average values for 3
measurements each of 2 kg, 4 kg, 6 kg, and 8 kg.
Table 1 Amount of creep and amount of recovery for each weight (before compensation)

Applied weight (kg)


2
4
6
8

Amount of creep (g)


0.718
1.492
2.537
2.942

Amount of recovery (g)


1.197
2.393
2.846
3.776

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

The creep and recovery amounts measured for each weight show that an increase or decrease in weight is linearly
proportional to the increase or decrease in amount of creep. This indicates that a compensation equation suitable for
each weight can be determined by proportionally calculating a certain constant for the compensation equation shown in
Section 4.3. With different loads applied, compensation effects were also measured for 2 kg to 8 kg. The results are
shown in Table 2.
Table 2 Amount of creep and amount of recovery for each weight (after compensation)

Applied weight (kg)


2
4
6
8

Amount of creep (g)


0.205
0.437
0.619
0.687

Amount of recovery (g)


0.363
0.802
0.813
1.030

As shown in Table 2, creep compensation with the digital creep compensation equation, calculated proportionally for
each weight value, successfully reduced the amount of creep errors to 1/2.984 1/4.282. This result shows that digital
creep compensation can be conducted for any given weight by estimating the final amount of creep using the creep
response equation and the weight value measured after a certain time has lapsed from the start point of load application.

6. TEST FOR TRACKING PERFORMANCE OF COMPENSATION RESULT


Digital compensation using compensation equations determined based on Sections 4.1 and 4.2 was conducted for the
amount of creep measured after a weight was applied to or removed from a sample load cell, and the tracking
performance of the compensation result was evaluated for each response time period. Photo 1 shows the sample load
cell used in the test.

Measurement
Calculation

UH361-8kg (+Creep cell)


Creep Test (Load:8kg)
0.04

Creep Error (%)

0.03
0.02
0.01
0.00
-0.01
-0.02

Start point

-0.03
-0.04
0

Photo.1 Sample load cell

Measurement
Calculation

6000

8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000


Time (msec)

0.04

0.03

0.03

0.02
0.01
0.00
-0.01
-0.02
30min

Measurement
Calculation

UH361-8kg (+Creep cell)


Recovery Test (Load:8kg)

0.04

-0.03

4000

Fig. 7 Creep compensation for application of rated load (0 to 20 s)

R ecovery E rror (%)

C reep Error (%)

UH361-8kg (+Creep cell)


Creep Test (Load:8kg)

2000

0.02
0.01
0.00
-0.01
-0.02

Start point

-0.03
-0.04

-0.04
0

200000 400000 600000 800000 1E+06 1E+06 1E+06 2E+06 2E+06 2E+06
Time (msec)

Fig. 8 Creep compensation for application of rated load (0 to 30 min)

2000

4000

6000

8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000


Time (msec)

Fig. 9 Recovery compensation for removal of rated load (0 to 20 s)

Measurement was started immediately before application or removal of the weight, and the amount of creep of the load
cell was measured for 30 minutes after application or removal. In order to obtain detailed data immediately after the
application or removal of the weight, the measurement was conducted at 1 msec sampling. In addition, compensation
for the measurement result was conducted using the compensation equation shown in Section 4.3, and then evaluated.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

The graphs in Fig.7 and Fig.9 show the 20 sec period after the weight of 8 kg was applied to or removed from a load
cell with a rated capacity of 8 kg. Curve (a) shows the tracking performance of the compensation result for the creep
phenomenon, and curve (b) shows the result of compensation using the compensation equation developed in this
research.
Fig. 8 shows the tracking performance of the compensation result for the creep phenomenon over 30 minutes. A sample
load cell with a large amount of creep was used in order to facilitate evaluation of the effect of compensation. When 8
kg was applied, the average of 3 measurements for the amount of creep over 30 minutes was 2.942 (g). In addition, after
removal of 8 kg, the amount of recovery over 30 minutes was 3.776 (g). As a result of application of the weight, the
creep error observed before compensation was 2.942 (g), but it was reduced to 0.687 (g) after digital creep
compensation. This is approximately 1/4.3 when compared with the creep error observed before compensation. As a
result of removal of the weight, the recovery error observed before compensation was 3.776 (g), but was reduced to
1.030 (g) after compensation. This is approximately 1/3.7 when compared with the recovery error observed before
compensation. The error can be reduced for the entire range from the start point to the convergent point.

7. EFFECT OF SHOCK LOAD ON CREEP


Measurement
Calculation

UH361-8kg (+Creep cell)


Creep Test (Load:8kg)
0.04
0.03

O utput (g)

0.02
0.01
UH361-8kg (+Creep cell)
Creep Test (Load:8kg)

0.00

Measurement
Calculation

0.02

-0.01
0.01

O u tp u t (g)

-0.02
-0.03

0.00

-0.01

-0.04
-0.02

200000 400000 600000 800000 1E+06 1E+06 1E+06 2E+06 2E+06 2E+06
Time (msec)
5000

7000

9000

11000

13000

15000

17000

19000

Time (msec)

Fig. 10 Amount of creep error for impact load applied and amount of error after compensation.
The final amount of creep for a load applied with a large shock force was determined, and was compared with that
found in normal load conditions in conducting evaluation and analysis. The measurement method was the same as that
in Section 5. However, rather than the previous static load application, the rated weight of 8 kg was manually applied
relatively strongly. While the output was unstable immediately after application of the weight, compensation was
conducted by estimating the start point of creep, as shown in Section 4.1. The result is shown in Fig. 10.
This result indicates that even if shock force is applied (except for excessive impact loads), the amount of creep is
equivalent to that under normal load conditions. However, as a little bit late creep response is displayed comparing with
normal load application, it will become a considerable research point after this report.

8. EVALUATION OF REPEATED LOAD APPLICATION


w

F1(t)

(t1, ws1)

a1
b3

b1

w1

w00

(t0, w00)
(t1, w01)

(t3, ws3)
a3

w2

(t2, w02)

w4

a2

b2

t1

t2

F(t)

t3

t
F4(t)

Fig. 11 Repeated load waveform

-w2

+w3

-w4

F3(t)

F1(t)
a1
b3

b1
0

F2(t) (t2, ws2)

w01
t0=0

+w1
F3(t)

b2

F2(t)

a2

a3 t

F4(t)

Fig. 12 Creep response arising from repeated load application

Fig. 11 shows a load waveform including creep responses for load W1 applied at time t = t0 = 0, load W2 removed at
time t = t1, load W3 applied at time Wt = t2, and load W4 removed at time t4. It can be considered that while creep

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

response arising from load application or removal lessens as time passes, it is indefinitely continuous. Fig. 12 shows
only creep response waveforms for load application and load removal of loads W1, W2, and W3.
F1(t) to F4(t) are creep response functions. The time points t1, t2, and others for load application and load removal were
detected using the value of dw/dt. In Fig. 11, it is assumed that the point of load measurement is equal to the time point
of load removal.
It was assumed that the time points of application of loads W1, W2, and W3 were t0 = 0, t1, and t2 respectively, and that
the time points of removal t1, t2, and t3. Because weights cannot be correctly measured at these time points of load
application, transitional loads ws1, ws2, and ws3 during creep response were measured at time points t1, t2, and t3
immediately after load application or load removal. Based on these measured loads, initial loads w00, w01, and w02
exerted at the time points of load application were determined by subtracting creep response values a1, a2, and a3 from
transitional loads ws1, ws2, and ws3 respectively. Values a1, a2, a3, and others were determined using equations (13) to
(16) based on creep response functions F1(t), F2(t), and F3(t).

a1 = F1 (t1 )
a2 = F2 (t2 t1 ) {F1 (t2 ) F1 (t1 )}
a3 = F3 (t3 t2 ) + {F1 (t3 ) F1 (t2 )} {F2 (t3 ) F2 (t2 )}

(13)
/

(14)
(15)

a4 = F4 (t4 t3 ) +

(16)

For example, in the case of a1 = F(t1) and t1 = 17801 msec, it can be calculated using equation (2) as follows.

w
F1 (17801) = s1 {E1 (1600) + E2 (7000) + E3 (17801)}
8
In addition, initial load w00 can be calculated as follows.

w00 = ws1 F1 (17801)

It is considered that the correct value of each load is the value of weight exerted at the time of final creep response
based on the initial load exerted at the time of application or removal of each load.
Final creep response values b1, b2, b3, and others based on application or removal of each load can be expressed with
equations (17) to (20). In these equations, Fn() denotes the 30-minute creep response value.

b1 = F1 ( )
b2 = F2 ( ) {F1 ( ) F1 (t1 )}
b3 = F3 ( ) + {F1 ( ) F1 (t2 )} {F2 ( ) F2 (t2 )}

(17)
(18)
/

b4 = F4 ( ) +

(19)
(20)

In the case of load W1, current load is estimated with the following equation.

W1 = w00 + b1 = ws1 a1 + b1
After each load application or removal, new creep is generated, and accordingly Fn(t) increases. For each function Fn(t)
generated at the time of load application or removal, the start time of creep response is stored. When elapsed time t from
the start of creep exceeds a certain value Te, the amount of change in Fn(t) decreases, and thus becomes negligible in
comparison with the amount of newly generated creep. Therefore, the Fn(t) data for a lapse of Te from start of creep
response is used.
Calculation example for repeated load application.
Creep compensation was conducted for the case where a weight of 8 kg, which was the rated weight, was applied
several times over a fixed interval. Fig. 12 shows a simplified diagram for the case where load was applied twice and
removed once (0 kg 8 kg 0 kg 8 kg). Digital compensation was conducted and the first application, the first
removal, and the second application times were approximately 20 (s), 20 (s), and 30 (min) respectively.
From equations (13) to (15),
a1 = 2.013, a2 = 1.291, a3 = 1.777
Each creep start point (w00 to w02) can be estimated by determining a1 to a3.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

(t0, w00) = (2053, 7997.133), (t1, w01) = (20486, 1.598), (t2, w02) = (41185, 7998.223)
From equations (17) to (19),
b1 = 2.935, b2 = 2.866, b3 = 1.777
Actual measurement point
t1: 19854 msec
ws1: 7999.146 g

30 min
8000 g
b3=1.777

b1=2.935

a3=1.777

a1 =2.013

Estimation point
t0 : 2053 msec
w00: 7997.133 g

Estimation point
t2 : 41185 msec
w02: 7998.223 g

17801 msec
19513 msec

Original point
0g

a2=1.291

b2=2.866

t1' : 20486 msec


w01 : 1.598 g
Estimation point

t2' : 39999 msec


ws2 : 0.307 g
Actual measurement point

Fig. 13 Repeated load application (load application removal load load application)

The weight values obtained by compensation after load application and removal are as follows.
W1 = w00 + b1 = 7997.133 + 2.935 = 8000.068
W2 = W1 - w01 + b2 =8000.068 - 1.598+2.866 = 8001.337
W3 = w02 + b3 = 7998.223 + 1.777 = 8000.000
Based on this result, in consideration of the characteristics observed immediately after rise or fall and the amount of
creep error observed after a lapse of 30 minutes, the amount of creep error observed before creep compensation was
found to be 0.036%, whereas the amount of creep error obtained after creep compensation was 0.0167%.

9. CONSIDERATION
The rated capacity of the sample load cell was 8 kg. When the load of 8 kg was applied, creep error was at least
2.942/8000 = approximately 1/2719 without compensation. As a result of digital creep compensation, creep error was
reduced to 0.687/8000 = approximately 1/11645. In this research, focusing on the characteristics of rises or falls in the
amount of creep or recovery based on normal conditions of load application or removal, in applied different weights,
shock force, repeated load, etc., a compensation equation based on experimental results was successfully established,
and the usefulness of it successfully verified.
However, to determine more correct and practical compensation equation, it may be necessary to proceed more detailed
research about the relation between the shock force level in load application and creep response speed. In addition,
because this research aimed at establishing a compensation equation for use at room temperature conditions only,
verifying digital compensation for the case where changes in temperature occur is a future task.

10. CONCLUSIONS
In this research, creep compensation with a newly developed compensation equation successfully reduced creep error of
the sample product to 1/3 1/4 over the entire range of 30 minutes immediately after load application or removal in
comparison with that observed before compensation. These results indicate that the compensation method we developed
can be useful as a method of creep compensation for automatic and non-automatic scales and sufficiently effective in
achieving higher load measurement accuracy with weighing scales.

11. REFERENCES
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]

OIML R 60, Initial readings International recommendation OIML R 60, OIML, 2000.
OIML R 60, Permissible variation of results International recommendation OIML R 60, OIML, 2000.
Published patent application H2-144942, YamatoScale Co., Ltd.
Published patent application H4-12221, Yamato Scale Co., Ltd.
Published patent application H9-172847, Yamato Scale Co., Ltd.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

The 1000Nm Torque Calibration Device with Reference Transducer


Yin Baojing
Shanghai Institute of Measurement and Testing Technology SIMT China
ABSTRACT
The 1000Nm torque calibration device with reference transducer was developed by the torque lab of SIMT (Shanghai
Institute of Measurement and Testing Technology). It uses the high accurate torque sensor in series structure, virtual
software control system for carrying out automatic loading, holding and automatic concentricity. This paper describes
in detail the devices working theory, structure, characteristics and key technology. Through analyzing and evaluating
the relevant technical data and the verification report of NIM (National Institute of Metrology P.R.C), the uncertainty
which it can reach is U=310-3 (k=2).
Keywords: Torque, Auto-loading, Auto-holding, Auto-concentricity, Uncertainty

1. INTRODUCTION
With the development of modern manufacturing and for improving the quality of production, the physical quantity
torque plays a major role in processing control. With the wide application of many types of torquemeter, torque
measurement will be more important.
To work more effectively and reliably in validating these torquemeters, Shanghai Institute of Measurement and Testing
Technology developed a set of torque calibration devices with a reference transducer.
Although the devices configuration is firm and stable, it can be operated easily. It can calibrate a variety of different
shapes and ranges of torque measuring instruments, such as torque wrench testers. Using multi-functional modules it
provides torque signals which can offer a steady standard torque value to test and calibrate the result through PLC
(power loading control) to realize loading and keeping the torque. Using virtual software (image processing technology)
it can automatically achieve concentricity, which is difficult by manual operation.

2. TECHNICAL SPECTIFICATIONS
Torque measuring range: 50Nm 1000Nm
Uncertainty of output torque: 0.3%
Angle control ability: 0.02
Concentricity ability: coaxiality is 0.04mm
Planeness : 0.02mm.
Torque control ability: 0.1%

3. STRUCTURE
This device is composed of the mainframe and the control system.
3.1 MAINFRAME
Figure1 shows the primary parts in the mainframe.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Figure 1 : Mainframe

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)

Adjusting servomotor (for left, right)


Adjusting servomotor (for front, back )
Angle adjustment device
Loading head
Industrial camera for concentricity inside
Torque sensor
Loading displacement control device
Dynamic loading device
Adjustment screw (upward and downwards)
Rolling operation panel touch screen
Platform

In order to prevent deformation and to effectively guarantee the entire structure with high integrity and safety, all the
parts, such as the platform, crossbeam, guide rail, column, lead screw, air valve and so on, have been carefully
designed, checked and selected.
Following is test result (on the condition of loading 500kg on the platform and loading 1500Nm on the torque):
Carrying capacity of platform: transformation is 0.40mm on the condition of loading 500kg.
Torque bearing ability: transformation is 0.38mm when loading at 1500Nm.
Concentricity ability: coaxiality is 0.04mm
3.2 CONTROL SYSTEM
Control system includes software, computer, manual encoder, touch screen, multi channel signal collecting, standard
square dial, industrial camera and PC camera. The industrial camera and PC camera are used to control the calibration
of the image. The process of loading and all the calculations are done automatically using professional software. With
this control system, the process of operation became more convenient and efficient.
3.3 PROCESSING THE TORQUE SIGNAL

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Beginning

Initialization
(Set the wanted values)

Adjust the position and spatial angle


of test samples automatically

No

No
Whether keep coaxial with
the loading axis or not
Yes

Confirm the range and the


coaxiality

Yes
Tiny feeding by servomotor
No
Reach set range or not
Yes
Get the value
No
Whether the verification of
range is ok or not

Yes
Finishing

Figure 2: Flow chart for using the torque signal

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Under a definite exciting voltage and with a definite torque on the strain torque sensor, it will output a corresponding
electrical signal. Then the precision A-D converter will transfer this into a digital signal. Further processing using highspeed signal and a special data conversion cards increase the signal resolution and by calculation, the control system can
get the corresponding torque. Meanwhile, data processing software will amend and compensate for the non-linearity of
the sensor. Using a PID (proportional plus integral plus derivative) control loop the current exerted torque is changed to
agree with the set torque value by feedback directly to the driver motor for loading until the set torque error signal goes
to zero.

4. KEY TECHNOLOGY
4.1 PRINCIPLE OF AUTOMATIC IMAGE CONCENTRICITY
Introduction of the principle of automatic image concentricity:
Beginning
Adjust
angle sensor

No
=90 ?
Yes

No

Motor translation to x, y
direction

Y
Target in view?
Yes
Rotation of motor on z shaft
axle

No
=90?
Yes
Perpendicular moving on z
shaft axle

No
Focus on?
Yes
Finishing
Figure 3: Flow chart of image automatic concentricity control principle

4.2 IMAGE PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY FOR CONCENTRICITY


Using the 3 mega-pixel industrial camera which surveys the shafting and LABVIEW programming software, the image
processing technology, the device can scan the standard square dials (concentricity accessory) position, adjust the

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

space angle of the dial, and than focus the target. Because of the gap between the loading head and the dial is only
0.02mm, this might ignore the influence from the torque of axial rake. The control system divides equally the 22mm
target into 22362236 parts and so without doing any data processing, it can obtain the high accuracy localization of
less than 1m.
4.3 HIGH PRECISE AND STABLE CONTROL OF LOADING AND HOLDING
To ensure the stability of the torque, the control system can carry out automatic loading and holding according to the
torque value which is pre-set. The effective control of the torque drop is due to the 3600:1 worm wheel and shaft
deceleration unit with self-locking function. In order to prevent an overload caused by the influence of inertia, the
servomotor controlled by the computer feeds tiny increments and approaches the value asymptotically.

5. CONCLUSION
This is the first completely applied in series connection torque equipment in China. The technology of automatic
concentricity is a creative application of advanced technology. It can highly increase the testing and calibrating
efficiency. It is well worth being promoted for further use in the calibration field.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
At first, I should express appreciation to Mr.Tao Zecheng, the manager of Innovative Testing Technology Company in
Kungshan City, near by Shanghai. During this work, especially in design, manufacture and testing, he gave me a lot of
timely and useful advice. I also owe great deal to my colleagues Mr. Cheng Yong and Mr. Shi Wei who have done me a
great favor. They helped me by doing a lot of tests and with these test results I improved the device again and again.
Finally, I must give thanks to Mrs. Zhang Zhimin from National Institute of Metrology (NIM). She helped me to
calibrate this device and supported me in this work.

6. REFERENCES
1. Diedert Peschel, Traceability in Torque Measurement, China Industry System Technical Seminar of Torque
Metrology Technology, Shanghai, 2006 pp.183-192
2. Aimo Pusa and Micheal Sachs, Static, quasistatic and dynamic calibrations with toque reference calibration
machines, China Industry System Technical Seminar of Torque Metrology Technology, Shanghai, 2006 pp202-212
3. Shang Weilu, Modern Torque Measurement Technology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 1999

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Verification Scheme of Measuring Instruments for Torque in China


Guo Bin
National Institute of Metrology, Beijing, P.R.China
ABSTRACT
With the publishing and performing the national verification scheme of measuring instruments for torque in 1990, the
Chinese traceablity system was established. Three torque standard machines of 1kNm, 5kNm and 50Nm were
established in 1987, 1988 and 1994 separately in China. In order to meet the improvements and requirements of torque
traceablity , the verification scheme was reviewed in 2005 and republished in 2006. This paper introduces the evolution
of establishing the traceablity system of torque in China and the structures of new version hierarchy scheme.
Keywords: Traceability, Verification Scheme, Torque, Standard Machine, Working Instrument

1. INTRODUCTION
There are different definitions and explanations of the term traceablity in different standards of nations. It is
acceptable by most nations that the traceablity is characterized by a number of essential elements such as:
- an broken chain of comparisons,;
- measurement uncertainty;
- documentations,;
- competence;
- reference to SI units and recalibrations.
Chinese traceablity of measurements is similar to the international definition. However there are some differences from
others:
- the core activity for each step in the chain is calibrated in international while is verified in China;
- the dissemination direction of physical quantity is form bottom up to the top in calibrating while is from the top
down to the bottom in verifying;
- the calibration is a voluntary activity, the verification is a legal activity.
As the most important performing significant documentation in the traceablity system, national verification scheme is
the calibration/verification hierarchy that stipulates the tasks of national primary torque standard machines, the
procedures of disseminating the torque quantity, technical characteristics and points out the methods of uncertainty
evalution and calibration/verification.
2.

EVOLUTION OF CHINESE TRACEABLITY OF MEASURING INSTRUMENTS OF TORQUE

Primary torque standard machines of 1kNm and 5kNm were built up at NIM in 1980, and 50Nm machine were built up
in 1990 continuously. It was published and performed that the national verification scheme of measuring instruments
for torqueJJG2047-1990in 1990, and the Chinese official traceablity system was established. After that it was
published that some verification regulations for torque standard and working instruments subsequently such as Torsion
Testing Machines (JJG269-1981), Standard Torsionmeters (JJG557-1988), Equipment of Power Measuring (JJG6531990), Torque Standard Machines (JJG769-1992), Torque Wrenches (JJG707-1992), Calibration Instrument for Torque
Wrenches (JJG797-1992), Tacho-Torque Measuring Devices (JJG924-1996), Static Measuring Devices (JJG9952005)etc.
More and more new uses and new types torque instruments are produced with the development of technology. The
quality of products is gradual noticed. The requirements of reliable and accurate measurements are increasing in these
ten years. It was built up that some new standard machines and instruments which have more wider measuring range
and more higher precision in different fields. It is important and necessary to modify and to add some content in these
changes. Therefore the verification scheme was reviewed in 2005 and republished and performed in 2006. The relative
regulations will be reviewed subsequently.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

3. THE ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE FOR VERIFYING TORQUE INSTRUMENTS

Figure 1: The organisational structure for verifying torque instruments


The national primary standards for torque are responsible for the realizing and maintaining the quantity of torque and
for disseminating it through the reference standards. They are maintained in NIM. The national primary standards cover
three torque machines with the capacity of 50Nm. 1kNm and 5kNm. The relative expanded uncertainty is 110-4(k=3)
in the range of 5000 Nm 0.5 Nm, which have the same principles and structures that are realized by lever-mass
system. It can generate the precise torques in clockwise and anti-clockwise by two stacks of masses on each-hand of the
beam. In order to keep the agreement of the torque value in the global range it was carried out that the torque
intercomparison between PTB and NIM in 2001. The comparison result indicates that the agreements between PTB and
NIM torque machines is within 0.008% in range of 100Nm 2kNm, and is within 0.012% in range of 10Nm ~
90Nm for clockwise and anti-clockwise torque in increasing sequence. The agreements were all within the calculated
uncertainties of measurement.
The secondary standards are responsible for disseminating the quantity of torque. They are maintained in provincial
institutes of metrology. They are composed of two types. One is the machine realizing the torque, called the standard
machines. The other is the instruments transferring the torque that easy to schlep. The standard machines have various
structures. Some are dead-weights machines same as the primary standard machines. The relative expanded uncertainty
of them is 0.03% (k=2) and 0.05% (k=2). Some are lever-amplification machines through a device amplifying the
torque in order to achieve larger torque. The relative expanded uncertainty of them is 0.05% (k=2). Some are reference
machines with linking a reference transducer. The relative expanded uncertainty of them is 0.1% (k=2) and 0.3% (k=2).
Some are the devices composed the lever and mass separately. The relative expanded uncertainty of them is 0.1% (k=2)

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

and 0.3% (k=2). There are standard equipments especially for verifying the torque wrenches. The relative expanded
uncertainty of them is 0.3% (k=2), 0.5% (k=2), 1.0% (k=2) and 2.0% (k=2). The standard instruments are the
transducers with high precision and long term stability. The class of them is 0.03, 0.05, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5.
The transfer standards are used to transfer the standard torque from higher precision devices to lower precision devices.
The class of them are 0.03, 0.05, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5.
The working instruments are responsible for measuring the quantity of torque. They are maintained in the laboratories
of company. The working instruments have various structures, types, uses and so on. For example, the torsion test
machine is used to test the characteristics of torsion; torque wrench is used to tighten the screws. So the quantity of
them is very large.

4. THE TRACING RELATIONS FOR TORQUE INSTRUMENTS

Figure 2: The tracing relations for torque instruments

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Figure 2 is listed the Chinese tracing relations of verification scheme. There are some explanations of it:
- the class of standards is usually 3 times higher than measured instruments when verifying. That is the class 0.03 and
lower of reference standard is verified by primary standard. The class 0.1 and lower standard is verified by the class
0.03 reference standard.
- the primary standard machines should trace to the basic physical quantity of mass, length and time and estimate of the
major components of uncertainty. Furthermore it should compare periodically with different countries to keep the
agreement of the torque value.
- the standard equipments out of the range of primary standard should be traceable to the basic physical quantity, and
estimate the uncertainty.
- all kinds of instruments or equipments not involved in the verification scheme should be traced according to this
scheme.

5. DEVELOPMENT IN THE FUTURE


As the highest authorities in metrology, NIM are responsible for researching the torque measuring technology,
maintaining the standard machines and disseminating the torque value to all over the country. It was almost twenty
years from establishing the first standard machine of torque. With the development of metrological science and
international cooperation, the structure, the capacity and the accuracy of the national primary standard machines can not
meet the requirements of torque traceablity. We are developing the new standard machine with the higher accuracy and
larger capacity. We will strengthen the communication with other countries to make the traceablity of torque
measurements systematized.

6. REFERENCES
1.
2.

Z.M.Zhang, Y Zhang, B. Guo, D. Peschel, T. Bruns Torque Intercomparison between PTB and NIM ,
Proceedings of the 6th Asia-Pacific Symposium on Measurement of Mass, Force and Torque, Page 123-128
ILAC-G2:1994 Traceability of Measurements.

*Contact point:
Guo Bin, National Institute of Metrology
No. 18 Bei San Huan Dong Lu, Beijing 100013 P.R.China
Telephone:86-10-64211631 ext 2313
E-mail: guob@nim.ac.cn

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

The research for the immersing effect in the solid density


measurement
Sheau-shi Pan, Feng-Yu Yang, Sheng-Jui Chen and Jiong-Shiun Hsu
Center for Measurement Standards (CMS), Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI),
Hsinchu, Taiwan, R.O.C.

ABSTRACT
The suspension devices used for below-weighing in the solid density system is, placing the weight holder under the
liquid below the balance to perform the hydrostatic weight comparison where the connection between the weight holder
and the balance is connected by a thin wire, rod or thick metal strip. According to OIML R111 (2004), the uncertainty
due to the surface tension effect on the suspension wire should be taken into account and is assumed that a wire having
a diameter of 1 mm may have the maximum effect of 23 mg proportionally. The research here is to discuss this effect.
There will be a restoring force applied to the suspension mechanism almost to restore the indicator of the weighing unit
to its original position when using the electric-magnetic force compensation balance. Here we measure the difference of
the mark position on the suspension rod used between the test mass unloaded and the test mass loaded, and then the
immersing effect can be evaluated and compared to the value recommended by OIML R111. The result in this research
for the uncertainty evaluated is approximately at least 200 times less than the estimated uncertainty recommended in
OIML R111.
Keywords: Solid density measurement, OIML R111 (2004) Test method A, Hydrostatic comparison, Surface tension,
Suspension device

1. INTRODUCTION
As mentioned in the OIML R111 recommendation (2004) [1], suspension devices are used in the most accurate method
A for determining density. With the suspension devices associated with the weighing system, a hydrostatic technique is
used to perform the density measurement, which is the Archimedess principle. In accordance with the method
described in OIML R111, the illustration of the method can be seen in Fig. 1. The fine suspension wire (e.g. Cr-Pt wire
with 25-m diameter) is used to connect the weight holder with the below-balance weighing hanger located on the
bottom of the balance and pass through the interface between air and liquid at a right angle. According to the OIML
R111 description, the suspension wire is subject to an extra force due to the surface tension of the liquid at the interface
between air and liquid and the effect of surface tension increases with the radius of the suspension wire. But in this
study, the uncertainty due to the surface tension effect on the suspension wire during weighing in liquid can be taken
into consideration as the ability of zero-point restoration for the magnetic compensation under the assumption that the
suspension wire or rod is uniform. The immersing effect is evaluated by means of measuring the difference of the
height of the weight holder immersed into the liquid between the weight unloaded and loaded in this research

2. PRINCIPLES
According to the method of OIML-R111, the density of the unknown weight, t is defined by:

t =

l (Ca mt + mwa ) a (Cl mr + mwl )


a
mr l
+ mwa mwl
r

(1)

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Figure 1 : The illustration of the method

where Ca = 1

a
r

; Cl = 1

l
r

; mwa = (I ta I ra )C s ; mwl = (I tl I rl )C s ; C s = 1

as
s

The uncertainty of the density t of the unknown weight at temperature t is:

[u ] = [c
2

a a

] + [c
2

] [

] [

] [

] [

] [

ul + c r u r + cmr umr + cmwa umwa + cmwl umwl + cmwl umcap

(2)

Because the reference temperature for a density statement is 20 C, the density should be recalculated for 20 C. Then
the uncertainty of the density t of the unknown weight at reference temperature tref is (tmeas = t):
ref

[u ] = [c
2

t ref

where

tmeas

utmeas

] + [c
2

] [
2

tmeas

utmeas + ctref utref

(3)

ctmeas = 1 + (tmeas tref ) ; ctmeas = tmeas ; ctref = tmeas .

To obtain the expanded uncertainty, the effective degree of freedom is to be calculated by:
4

eff =

[c

] +[

tmeasutmeas

u
tref
ctmeasutmeas 4

meas

tmeas

] + [c

tref utref

tref

(4)

And the coverage factor k can be obtained at the required level of confidence 95 % by the table of the critical values of
the students t distribution with the effective degree of freedom, then the expanded uncertainty [2] is:

U t = k utref

(5)

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

The definitions of all symbols are defined in OIML R111.


The term umcap is the uncertainty due to the surface tension effect mcap on the suspension wire during weighing in
liquid. Because the effect will affect mwl, the uncertainty for that is to be evaluated. It is recommended in OIML R111
that with a wire having a diameter of 1 mm, the maximum effect may be 23 mg; and with a wire having a diameter of
0.1 mm, the effect may be 2.3 mg. Because this is the maximum effect recommended by OIML R111, the rectangular
distribution is a reasonable description in probability for the input quantity and the uncertainty is the value of the effect
estimated divided by 2 3 .
In this paper, we assumed the surface tensions are the same in each part of the suspension wire or rod, so we measured
the change of immersing portion of the wire or rod during weighing. Then the mwl can be obtained and expressed as:

mwl = l R 2 l

(6)

where R is the radius of wire or rod , l is the difference of the immersing depth during the measurements and l is the
density of liquid [4].

3. EXPERIMENT METHOD AND APPARATUS


Because the change of immersing portion of the wire or rod during weighing may be extremely small, we therefore used
a laser interferometer to measure the position of the weight holder with and without the mass loaded. The scheme of the
experimental apparatus is shown as in figures 2 and the photos of the experimental apparatus are shown as in figures 3
to 6.
Polarizing Beam Splitter, PBS

receiver

Excell frequency stabilized laser


Corner cube 1
/4 waveplate

Corner cube 2
Balance pan
Suspension wire (rod)

Height mark

Weight
holder
Liquid

Weight

Support Stand

Figure 2 : The scheme of the experiment apparatus

The frequency stabilized laser and single beam interferometer can be seen in figures 5, it is at the upper portion of the
system. From figures 2 we can see that the vertical light beam from the laser strikes a reflecting corner cube on the
weighing pan of the electronic balance and the weight holder is connected by the suspension rod below the balance. The
laser interferometer can detect any upward or downward displacement when a load is applied to the weight holder. The
resolution of the laser interferometer was set at 20 nm when measurements were performed, and one displacement
measurement was performed every 0.5 second during weighing.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Figure 3 : The experimental apparatus (1)

Figure 4 : The experimental apparatus (2)

Figure 5 : The experimental apparatus (3)

Figure 6 : The experimental apparatus (4)

The weighing instrument used here is Sartorius ME235S mass comparator which is an electronic mass comparator with
230-g maximum weighing range and 0.01-mg readability (refer to figures 6) [3]. Mechanism to load and unload the
weight holder in liquid is used as seen in figures 4. The immersion liquid is ASTM type I ultra-pure water. During
measurement, the environment temperature is kept at 20 C 1.5 C, temperature deviation per hour is kept less than
0.5 C, relative humidity is kept as well within 50 % 10 % and the temperature of liquid used is kept at 20 C 0.2
C. The weights to be measured are Mettler E1 class weights with nominal values of 10 g , 20 g, 50 g and 100 g.
With the mechanism in figures 4, we can do the measurement easily under unloading and loading conditions. From
figures 7 we can observe that the pan will sink to lower position when the weight is loaded. Data of the readout from the
frequency stabilized laser and mass comparator are collected synchronously during the measurement from the unloaded
status to the loaded status. The uncertainty of the measurements is calculated to compare with the uncertainty calculated
by the method recommended in OIML R111.

4. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
Under the assumption that the suspension wire or rod has uniform radius, the effect of surface tension should not
change before and after a load is applied. As mentioned in last section, 4 nominal values of 10 g , 20 g, 50 g and 100 g
are used to weighing separately and we measure 9 times for each nominal value (n = 9). The results of the measurement
are shown in figures 8 to figures 11. The lower part of each figure is the readings from the mass comparator to indicate

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

the unloaded status to the loaded status and the upper part is the corresponding readings of the frequency stabilized laser
to indicate the change of the position of the suspension devices. The average values of the peak and trough of wave for
the last 200 stable data in the figures are defined as the position of the weight holder under the unload and load
conditions. It can be seen from figures 8 for 10 g that, when the weight is loaded, the reference point on the suspension
mechanism does not return to the original position after 100 second duration, but is still displaced by approximately 1.4
m. The situations for the other nominal values are similar and the observation results are listed in the Table 1.
Corner cube
Balance pan
Suspension
wire (rod)

Height mark

Weight
holder

Liquid

Weight

Unloaded

Loading

Loaded

Support Stand

Figure 7 : The scheme of the movement during measurement


0.006
0.004

Reading (mm)

0.002
0
-0.002

Laser

-0.004
-0.006
-0.008
-0.01
10.00
9.00
8.00

Balance

6.00
5.00
4.00
3.00

Nominal
value :
10 g

2.00
1.00

Figure 8 : The results of the measurement for 10g

5400

5200

5000

4800

4600

4400

4200

4000

3800

3600

3400

3200

3000

2800

2600

2400

2200

2000

1800

1600

1400

1200

800

1000

600

400

0.00
200

Reading (g)

7.00

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

0.015

0.01

Reading (mm)

0.005

Laser

-0.005

-0.01

-0.015
20.00
18.00
16.00

Reading (g)

14.00

Balance

12.00
10.00
8.00
6.00

Nominal
value :
20 g

4.00
2.00
5600

5400

5200

5000

4800

4600

4400

4200

4000

3800

3600

3400

3200

3000

2800

2600

2400

2200

2000

1800

1600

1400

1200

800

1000

600

400

200

0.00

Figure 9 : The results of the measurement for 20g


0.02
0.015
0.01

Reading (mm)

0.005
0
-0.005

Laser

-0.01
-0.015
-0.02
-0.025
-0.03
50.00

45.00
40.00

Balance

30.00
25.00
20.00
15.00

Nominal
value :
50 g

10.00
5.00

Figure 10 : The results of the measurement for 50g

6000

5800

5600

5400

5200

5000

4800

4600

4400

4200

4000

3800

3600

3400

3200

3000

2800

2600

2400

2200

2000

1800

1600

1400

1200

1000

800

600

400

0.00
200

Reading (g)

35.00

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

0.03
0.02

Reading (mm)

0.01
0
-0.01

Laser

-0.02
-0.03
-0.04

-0.05
100.00
90.00
80.00

Reading (g)

70.00
60.00

Balance

50.00
40.00
30.00
20.00
10.00
5000

4800

4600

4400

4200

4000

3800

3600

3400

3200

3000

2800

2600

2400

2200

2000

1800

1600

1400

1200

800

1000

600

400

200

0.00

Nominal
value :
100 g

Figure 11 : The results of the measurement for 100g

Using the results of the measurement obtained above, we can calculate the uncertainty due to the effect with equation
(6) and compare the results of the calculation with the uncertainty calculated using the method recommended in OIML
R111. The comparisons between these results are listed in the Table 1. As recommended in OIML R111, the maximum
effect may be 23 mg with a wire having a diameter of 1 mm. Here the radius of the suspension wire (rod) used is 1.2
mm, so the uncertainty is estimated to be 15.9349 mg. The results obtained from the measurement are 0.0065 mg to
0.0673 mg respectively.
Table 1 : The results of the measurement

Nominal values

10 g

20 g

50 g

100 g

Final position (m)

1.4

2.9

7.5

14.9

l (mm)

0.00143

0.00289

0.00752

0.01487

Variation of l (mm) (n = 9)

3.264E-08

1.211E-07

1.660E-07

5.063E-07

Mass uncertainty for OIML (mg) * [A]

15.9349

15.9349

15.9349

15.9349

Mass uncertainty in this research (mg) * [B]

0.0065

0.0131

0.0340

0.0673

Ratio of uncertainty calculated [A/B]

2461

1218

469

237

Density uncertainty for OIML (g/cm3)*

0.1020

0.0510

0.0204

0.0102

Density uncertainty in this research (g/cm3)*

0.0414E-03

0.0887E-03

0.0435E-03

0.0429E-03

* Uncertainty here means standard uncertainty due to surface tension effect.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

5. CONCLUSION
In this research, we can obtain that the uncertainty due to the surface tension effect can be approximately at least 200
times less than the estimated uncertainty recommended in OIML R111. In the future, we will measure the immersed
volume change of suspension wire (rod) for the use of the evaluation in our density measurement system to minimize
the uncertainty contribution than recommended by OIML R111.

6. REFERENCES
1.
2.
3.
4.

Weights of classes E1, E2, F1, F2, M1, M12, M2, M23 and M3, Part 1: Metrological and technical requirements,
OIML R111-1(E), 2004, pp. 42-49.
Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement, ISO, 1995.
Sartorius ME and SE Series ME and SE Models from 2005 and Later Electronic Analytical Balances and Semimicro-, Micro- and Ultra-Microbalances Operating Instructions, Sartorius, 98648-008-84, P.N.:WME6001-e05031.
M. Tanaka, G. Girard, R. Davis, A. Peuto & N. Bignell, Recommended table for the density of water between 0
C and 40 C based on recent experimental reports, Metrologia 38, pp. 301-309, 2001.

METTLER TOLEDO
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For more information

62

Technical Sessions
Thursday 25th Oct 2007

30

Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force, Torque and Density (APMF 2007)

31

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Evaluation of the magnetic properties of weights at NMIJ


Masaaki Ueki, Jian-Xin Sun and Kazunaga Ueda
Mass and Force Standards Section, National Metrology Institute of Japan, AIST, Japan
ABSTRACT
A facility for evaluating the magnetic properties of weights has been installed at the NMIJ/AIST. The magnetic
properties of the weights are determined before their mass calibration to ensure that the magnetic interactions are
negligible. The facility consists of two sets of BIPM type susceptometers and an apparatus using Gaussmeter. The
susceptometer allows absolute measurements of the susceptibility and the magnetization of a weight simultaneously.
Two sets of BIPM type susceptometers were installed to determine the magnetic properties of weighs ranging from 1 g
to 20 kg. The apparatus for measuring the low magnetization of a weight was developed. It aims at measuring the
magnetization of a weight less than 2.5 T, in the background magnetic field of several 10 T including the magnetic
field of the earth. The measurement of the magnetic field of a 1 kg weight has been attained with a standard deviation of
0.11 T. This paper describes the features of the facility and presents the results of evaluation of the reliability of
measuring the magnetic properties of weights.
Keywords: mass standard, weight, magnetic susceptibility, magnetization

1. INTRODUCTION
The National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), AIST maintains reference standard weight sets based on the
Japanese copy of Prototype Kilogram and disseminates the mass standards to varieties of users including accredited
weight calibration laboratories under the Japan Calibration Service System, and hence contributes to establish the
traceability of the mass measurement in Japan. The magnetic properties of the weights which realize the mass standards
are important characteristics to be evaluated, since mass comparators of electronic type with electromagnetic force
compensation are nowadays replacing those of mechanical type. According to the OIML R111-1 Edition 2004(E) [1],
the magnetic properties of a 1 kg weight are required to be, for example, less than the limit of 0.02 in the magnetic
susceptibility and the limit of 2.5 T in the magnetization for the highest class E1, and less than 0.07 in the
susceptibility and 8 T in the magnetization for the class E2. In order to evaluate these characteristics of weights, two
sets of BIPM type susceptometers, and an apparatus using Gaussmeter have been installed in the weight calibration lab
of the NMIJ. The susceptometer, which was originally invented by R. Davis of the International Bureau of Weights and
Measures (BIPM) [2], allows absolute measurements of the susceptibility and the magnetization of a weight
simultaneously. The BIPM type susceptometers have been set up at the NMIJ to measure the magnetic properties of
weighs ranging from 1 g to 20 kg. The apparatus is used for measuring the low magnetic field generated by the
magnetization of a weight less than 2.5 T without any influence of the earths and other ambient magnetic sources. A
test weight place on the automatic stage is moved against a fixed three-axial probe, and the magnetic field distribution
on the plane and curved surfaces of the cylindrical weight is automatically measured. This paper describes the facility
and presents the results of evaluation of the reliability of measuring the magnetic properties of weights.

2. BIPM TYPE SUSCEPTOMETER


2.1 MEASURING PRINCIPLE AND APPARATUS
The measuring principle is based on the BIPM type susceptometer. The measuring apparatus consists mainly of an
electronic balance, a weight table, a magnet pedestal and a magnet with a known magnetic moment, as shown in Figure
1. The magnet pedestal made of non-magnetic material is placed on a weighing pan of the electronic balance. The
magnet is placed on the magnet pedestal, and a weight is then arranged with a certain distance above the magnet. The
force exerted on the magnet due to the magnetism of the weight is measured by the balance. The magnetic susceptibility
and the magnetization Mz of the weight are given by equation (1) and equation (2), respectively.
=

Fa 64 Z 04
3 0 md2 I a

(1),

Mz =

Fb
H EZ
md 0

Ib
Z 0 4

( 2)

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Weight

1 kg weight

20 kg weight

Rw

Height
gauge

Table

Weight table
Z0

Magnet

Magnet

Pedestal
Gauge block

Balance

(1) For weights of 1 g to 1 kg

Electronic balance
Figure 1 : Schematic drawing of
the BIPM type susceptometer

(2) For weights of 2 kg to 20 kg

Figure 2 : Photograph of two


BIPM type susceptometers

Here, Fa, b is the average force measured by the balance, Z0 is the distance from the center of the magnet to the bottom
weight, 0 (= 410-7 N/A2) is the magnetic permeability of vacuum, md is the magnetic moment of the magnet, Ia, b is
the geometric correction factor for the dimension and shape of the weight, and HEZ is the vertical component of the
ambient magnetic field. The detailed explanation is given in the OIML R111 [1]. As clearly seen in the equations, the
three parameters of the force acting to the magnet F and the two instrument constants, Z0 and md, are the essential
factors to determine the reliability of this measuring method, being carefully considered. The measuring apparatus is
provided with an electronic balance with electromagnetic force compensation having a maximum capacity of 5.1 g and
a readability of 0.1 g and a cylindrical neodymium magnet of 5 mm in the diameter and 5mm in the height. The
magnet pedestal is a hollow cylinder of 10 mm diameter and 0.5 mm thickness, which has a sufficient geometric
accuracy and a stiffness to ensure the stability of the balance reading for masses less than 2 g. Two kinds of the
magnetic pedestals are prepared, whose heights are different by 5 mm each other. The weight table is supported by three
legs with spherical end surfaces so as to be adjustable in the horizontal and the height of its top surface. Two kinds of
the weight tables are prepared for weights of 1 g to 1 kg and for those of 2 kg to 20 kg, respectively. Both weight tables
are designed to have sufficient strengths so that the depression of the table surfaces at the maximum loading would be
confined within 0.1 mm. The magnet pedestals and the weight tables are all made of non-magnetic aluminum alloy.
Figure 2 shows whole views of two sets of the BIPM type susceptometers.
2.2 UNCERTAINTY OF THE SUSCEPTIBILITY MEASUREMENT
The uncertainty estimation for a measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of a 1 kg cylindrical weight using the
BIPM type susceptometer is given in Table 1. The force exerted on the magnet, Fa, is measured by taking the readings
of the balance respectively for a magnet arrangement with its N-pole upward and for another reversed and multiplying
the average of the two readings by the acceleration due to gravity. The uncertainty of this force is estimated as 3.610-8
N from the standard deviation of the balance reading. The distance Z0 was fixed to 27.5 mm using a height gauge with a
resolution of 0.01 mm. Its uncertainty is estimated as 0.3 mm. For the magnetic permeability of vacuum, its uncertainty
is regarded to be negligibly small. The magnetic moment of the magnet has been determined by the measuring method
that uses three magnets of the same specification, as described later, with an uncertainty of 6.510-4 Am2. The
geometric correction factor Ia for a weight has been calculated from the dimensional measurements using a caliper with
a resolution of 0.1 mm, and its uncertainty is estimated as 0.008. As a result, the combined standard uncertainty of
measuring the magnetic susceptibility is evaluated to be 0.00023.
Table 1 : Uncertainty in measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of a 1 kg cylindrical weight
Typical value
Uncertainty
Source
Uncertainty
Sensitivity
Probability
Divisor
xi
u (x i )
Symbol
in u i
coefficient c i
distribution
3.6E-08 N
normal
1
4.9E+03
0.00018
Magnetic force F a 6.59E-07 N
Distance Z 0

27.5 mm

0.3 mm
2

Magnetic constant 0

1.26E-06 N/A

------- N/A

Magnetic moment m d

Correction factor I a

0.0871 Am
0.821
0.00323

6.5E-04 Am
0.008

Degrees of
freedom
4

normal

4.8E-04

0.00014

-----

-----

-----

0.00000

50

normal

4.77E-04

0.00003

normal

-3.9E-03

-0.00003

14

u c ()

0.00023

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

2.3 DISCUSSION OF THE RELIABILITY


In Table 1, the most dominant factor that contributes to the combined standard uncertainty is the force Fa exerted on the
magnet, and its uncertainty results from the standard deviation of the balance reading, that is, 3.7 g. This standard
deviation is much greater than the readability of 0.1 g of the balance and the uncertainty of absolute measurement of
the acceleration due to gravity. It is not due to the performance of the susceptometer, but is inherent dispersion
depending on the uniformity of the magnetic properties of a weight. An experimenter places a weight on the weight
table so as to be in line with the central axis of the magnet, but there is some dispersion in its position at every
placement within a few millimeters. When a weight is locally magnetized inside, the magnetic force Fa varies
depending on the positional relation between the weight and the magnet. If the magnetization is uniform in a weight, the
effect of the positional dispersion is decreased, and it can be possible to make the force measurement within a standard
deviation of 1.0 g.
2.3.1 EVALUATION OF THE DISTANCE Z0
The distance from the center of the magnet to the bottom of a weight, Z0, is fixed by adjusting the heights of three legs
of the weight table with keeping the horizontal of the top surface and setting Z0 to 27.5 mm with use of a height gauge.
To confirm the reliability of the distance Z0, experiments to investigate the dependency of the magnetic susceptibility on
the distance have been made [3]. The distance Z0 is increased by a known value, placing gauge blocks under the three
legs, and the magnetic susceptibility is measured for these distances. Figure 3 shows an example of the experimental
results obtained by using the susceptometer shown in Fig. 2, (1). The gauge blocks used are of 5 mm, 10 mm, 15 mm
and 20 mm in the nominal length and of JIS class 1 made of non-magnetic ceramics. For a 1 kg cylindrical weight, three
replicate measurements, R1, R2 and R3, are made at 5 steps of Z0. Consequently, the overall average of the measured
susceptibility is 0.0455, and its combined standard uncertainty uc is 0.00021. As seen in Fig. 3, dependency of the
magnetization on the distance is not observed, and it confirms that the distance Z0 is correctly set to 27.5 mm.
2.3.2 LONG TERM HISTORY OF THE MAGNETIC MOMENT
The magnetic moment of the magnet has been measured by the method described in the paper [2], using three magnets
of the same specifications. The magnetic forces, FAB, FAC and FBC, interacting between three magnets, A, B and C, are
measured by the susceptometer. By solving simultaneous equations expressing these three relationships of the
interactions, the magnetic moments of the three magnets, mA, mB and mC, are determined respectively by the following
equations.

F F 4 Z 0' + L / 2
mA = AB AC
6 0
FBC

1/ 2

mB =

( 3),

FBC
mA
FAC

( 4 ),

mC =

FAC 4 Z 0' + L / 2
6 0
mA

(5)

Here, the subscripts, A, B and C, denote the three magnets and L is the height of the magnets. Since large forces act in
this measurements compared in the case of a weight, three gauge blocks of 50 mm are placed under the legs of the
weight table and the distance between the magnets is adjusted to 80 mm (= Z0'+L/2 = 27.5+50+2.5).

R2

R3

Susceptibility

0.047

+uc

1 kg cylindrical weight

0.046
0.045
0.044

-uc

0.043
22.5 27.5 32.5 37.5 42.5 47.5 52.5
Z 0 [mm]
Figure 3 : Dependency of the magnetic susceptibility
on the distance Z0

R1
0.048

Magnetic moment [Am ]

In order to maintain the magnetic moments of the magnets with a high reliability, nine cylindrical neodymium magnets
have been prepared and maintained as a magnet group, having the identification symbols of M1 to M9 each. Figure 4
shows the measurement history of the magnetic moments of the nine magnets. The measurements were made five times
0.090
0.089
0.088
0.087
0.086
0.085
Jun-03 Aug-04 Sep-05 Oct-06 Nov-07

M1
M2
M3
M4
M5
M6
M7
M8
M9

Date [month-year]
Figure 4 : Measurement history of the magnetic moments
of the nine magnets

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

in September 2003, March 2004, December 2004, February 2006 and June 2007. The combinations of [M1, M2, M3],
[M4, M5, M6] and [M7, M8, M9] were always taken for the measurements. As a result, the three magnets of M2, M3
and M6 have stable magnetic moments and the other few magnets show significant decreases in the magnetic moment.
The combined standard uncertainty of these magnetic moment measurements is estimated as 6.510-4 Am2, having a
dominant dispersion in the balance indication. The nine magnets are kept in a store case, placed in the calibration lab,
being separated by more than 30 mm each other. The cause why the magnets have been maintained with a good stability
is unknown, but these magnets will be used to measure the magnetic properties of weights, and the observations of their
stability will be continued in the future.

3. MEASUREMENT OF LOW MAGNETIZATION


3.1 APPARATUS
The construction of the apparatus developed in this work is schematically shown in Figure 5 and its photograph in
Figure 6. The magnetization of a weight is estimated from a measurement, with a Gaussmeter, of the magnetic field
close to the weight. A three-channel Gaussmeter, Model 7030 of F. W. Bell, is used to measure the magnetic field. By
means of a three-axis probe using Hall sensor, the three components, BX, BY and BZ, of the magnetic field B are
independently measured, and its vector summation result B is given by the following equation (6). The directional
angles of the magnetic field with the three coordinate axes, X, Y, and Z are also calculated by the equation (7).

BX
1 B
1 B
(7)
, Y = cos Y , Z = cos Z
B
B


B
With these relations, the magnetic field of unknown direction is evaluated. The Gaussmeter measures the magnetic field
with a readability of 0.01 T in a 3 mT measuring range. Its specification assures the DC mode accuracy of (0.05%
of reading + 0.01% of measuring range). On its display, the measured values of the components, BX, BY, BZ, and the
vector summation result, B, are independently given at periodic intervals of 0.2 s in the shortest. The Gaussmeter is
connected to a personal computer for control through GPIB, and results of measurement are recorded on the PC. Its
three-axis probe is of a temperature-compensated type having linearity better than 0.25 %, according to the
manufacturers specification. The probe has a cylindrical bar of about 200 mm in length and about 8 mm in diameter,
and the active area of the Hall sensor is positioned at 2 mm from the top.

(6),

B = BX2 + BY2 + BZ2

X = cos1

In usual cases of measuring the magnetization of a weight, the Hall sensor probe scans on a measuring plane, and the
maximum observed value is taken as the final result. As this work is aiming at measuring magnetic field below that of
the earth, a test weight is moved relative to the fixed probe to measure the magnetic field distribution, taking the effect
of the directional magnetic field of the earth into account. For this purpose, the test weight is set on an automatic stage
driven by stepping motors. The automatic stage is composed of an X-stage which has a travel range of 100 mm and a
resolution of 0.004 mm and a rotary stage of a resolution of 0.004 . The positions of the probe in the Y- and Zdirections are manually adjusted. An automatic scanning of the whole surfaces of the cylindrical test weight, including
plane surfaces (top and bottom surfaces) and curved surfaces (circumferential direction on the side) is thus made
Z
10 kg weight
Y
Three-channel
Gaussmeter
GPIB
Personal
computer

Three-axis probe

Probe
stand

Double wall shield box


Three-axis probe
Test
weight

X- stage

GPIB
Stage
controller

Rotary stage
Rotary stage
X-stage
Base plate

Figure 5 : Schematic drawing of the apparatus

Without the shield box [birds-eye view ]


Figure 6 : Photograph of the apparatus

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

possible. A controller for the automatic stage is connected to the control PC through GPIB. Both the X- and rotary
stages have the respective original positions, and the relative positions between the probe and the test weight are
calculated from the numbers of pulses generated by the stages on moving.
The control program for the apparatus performs, (a) setting of measuring parameters of the Gaussmeter, (b) position
controls of the X- and rotary stages, and (c) acquisition and filing of measurement results of the Gaussmeter. For the
measuring parameters, units, measuring range, filtering and measurement intervals are set. For the motion of the
automatic stage, moving velocities and starting and stopping positions are set respectively for the two component motor
stages. Two motor stages move the weight in order to contour the whole surfaces of the weight. Sets of six kinds of
data, that is, results of measurement of BX, BY, BZ and B and X- and rotational coordinates at measured positions, are
recorded in a file continuously at specified periodic intervals. In this file, date and time of the measurement, nominal
value of the weight, identification symbol, and setting values of the above items (a) and (b) are also recorded as header
information, as well as the maximum and minimum values of the magnetic field in a series of measurements, along with
coordinates of the measuring points, are recorded as footer information. To eliminate the influence of ambient magnetic
field caused by stepping motors, the earth, and so on, the test weight is housed in an electromagnetic shield box. The
shield box is made of 1 mm thick Permalloy plate and has a double-wall construction with a space from 4 to 12 mm,
and it provides high shielding effect. The apparatus can measure automatically the magnetization of cylindrical weighs,
up to 240 mm in height, 160 mm in diameter and 20 kg in nominal mass.
3.2 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

To ensure that the effect of this driving of the stepping motors is negligibly small, variations in the background
magnetic field in the shield box have been measured. Firstly, the effect of the X-stage driving was evaluated.
Underneath the fixed probe, the X-stage without any weight was moved from -80 mm to 80 mm with a velocity of 1
mm/s and a magnitude B of the magnetic field was observed. During this movement, indications of the Gaussmeter
were recorded at every movement of 1 mm. In Figure 7, the results of five series of repeated measurements of the
background magnetic field are shown. In the case, the probe was fixed at the Z-position of 80 mm, supposing the height
of a 1 kg weight. As a results, the variation in the background magnetic field caused by a movement of the X-stage from
-80 mm to 80 mm was evaluated to be within 0.20 T. Secondly, for the effect of the rotary-stage driving, the
variation in the background magnetic field was observed in the same manner, with the prove fixed at a position of X = 47 mm, Y = -25 mm and Z = 50 mm, supposing the position of the curved surface of a 1 kg weight. As a result, the
variation width of the background magnetic field in the shield box, while the rotary stage was driven with an angular
velocity of 2 /s, was within 0.20 T. For the clockwise and counter clockwise of the rotary stage, no significant
difference was observed. In addition, the combined effect of simultaneous drivings of the X- and rotary stages was also
observed. In this experiment, the prove was fixed at a position of X = 0 mm, Y = 0 mm and Z = 80 mm, and underneath
it, the X- and rotary stages were simultaneously driven, from 0 to -50 mm with a velocity of 1 mm/s and from 0 to 360
with an angular velocity of 2 /s, respectively. Under these conditions, the variation in the background magnetic field
was evaluated to be within 0.20 T. According to these experiments, the uniformity of the background magnetic field
in the shield box, required for measuring low magnetizations, was confirmed.

R1
0.4

R2

R3

R4

R5

R1
1.4

Magnetic filed [T]

Magnetic field [T]

The magnetizations of two 1 kg weights with identification symbol of 61 and 62 have been measured using this
apparatus. The 1 kg weights made of austenitic stainless steel have a cylindrical shape with a lifting knob, which is 80
mm in height and 48 mm in cylinder diameter as specified in the OIML R111 [1]. Figure 8 gives the results of

0.2
0.0
-0.2
-0.4
-80

-40

40

80

X-position (mm)
Figure 7 : Magnetic field in the shield box
( Y-position : 0 mm, Z-position : 80 mm, )

R2

R3

R4

61 SD:0.06T

R5

R6

62 SD:0.11T

0.7
0.0

-0.7
-1.4
0

90 180 270
-position [deg]

360

90
180 270
-position [deg]

Figure 8 : Repeated measurements of the magnetic field


on the curved surface of 1 kg weights (Z-position : 50 mm)

360

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

measurements of the magnetic field on the curved surface of the weights. The position of the fixed probe was at X = -47
mm, Y = -25 mm and Z = 50 mm, and the test weight was rotated with an angular velocity of 2 /s. Indications of the
Gaussmeter were recorded at every rotation of 2 , and a series of measurements were repeated 6 times. The mean
values of the standard deviations of 6 measured values of the magnetic field at each point are less than 0.11 T, and
show a good repeatability.
Figure 9 gives the results of measurement of the magnetic field on the top surface of the 500 g OIML type weights with
identification symbol of 01 and 61. The 500 g weights made from different material have a cylindrical shape with a
lifting knob of about 65 mm in height and 34 mm in knob diameter. While the probe was fixed at a position of Y = 0
mm and Z = 73 mm, the X- and rotary stages were simultaneously driven, from 0 to -17 mm with a velocity of 2 mm/s
and from 0 to 360 with an angular velocity of 10 /s, respectively. Indications of the Gaussmeter were recorded at
every rotational movement of 20 . As a result, the central part of the top surface of the weight was observed to have a
locally-distributed magnetization. The magnetizations of the weights were measured using the BIPM type
susceptometer before this work and found to be 1.3 T and 141 T, respectively.

4. SUMMARY
The BIPM type susceptometers have been newly set up at the NMIJ to measure the magnetic properties of weighs. This
apparatus has made possible to measure the magnetic susceptibility of weights from 1 g to 20 kg, and for a 1 kg weight,
the measurement of its magnetic susceptibility of 0.00323 has been attained with a combined standard uncertainty of
0.00023. The distance between the magnet and the center of a weight, Z0, and the magnetic moment md that are both the
important instrument constants have been confirmed to be reliable.
A test weight on the automatic stage is moved against a fixed three-axial prove, and the magnetic field distribution on
the plane and curved surfaces of the weight is automatically measured. The magnetic field in the shield box has been
confirmed to be uniform within 0.20 T, during the movement of the automatic stage. The measurements of the
magnetic field of two 1 kg weights have been attained with a standard deviation of 0.11 T, showing a good
repeatability. It is concluded that the developed apparatus can measure the low magnetic field distribution generated by
the magnetization of a class E1 weight less than 2.5 T without any influence of the earths and other ambient magnetic
sources.

5. REFERENCES
1.
2.
3.

OIML R111-1 2004(E), Weights of classes E1, E2, F1, F2, M1, M1-2, M2, M2-3 and M3 , 2005.
Davis R., Determining the magnetic properties of 1 kg mass standards, J. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol., 100-3, pp.
209-225, 1995.
Chung J.W., et al. , Effect of the earth's magnetic field on measurement of volume magnetic susceptibility of
mass, Metrologia, 37, pp65-70, 2000.

1.7

01

Magnetic field (T)

Magnetic field (T)

*corresponding author information: Masaaki Ueki m.ueki@aist.go.jp; phone 81 29 861 4153; fax 81 29 861 4399;
National Metrology Institute of Japan, AIST, Central 3, 1-1-1, Umezono, Tsukuba, 305-8563, Japan

1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
-20

-10

-10

0
0
10
10
x
y
20 20
[mm]
[mm]

-20

90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
-20

61

-10

-10

0
0
10
10
x
y
20 20
[mm]
[mm]

Figure 9 : Magnetic field distribution on the top surface of 500 g weights (Diameter:34 mm)

-20

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Rooms and equipment of the LNE's new mass laboratory


1

Tanguy MADEC1, Andr GOSSET1, Paul-Andr MEURY1 and Jacques COURAUD1


Mass, Volume, Density and Viscosity Group, Division of Mechanical Metrology, LNE, France

ABSTRACT
The LNE is the national metrology organization of France. Recently, using the opportunity of the transfer of its acoustic
metrology group, it set up its new mass laboratory on the exceptional foundations of its old anechoic laboratory. Four
metrological rooms, two locks and an air-conditioned room were installed in an area of about 160m2. In the main
laboratory, are maintained environmental conditions such as a temperature of (200.1)C, a mean air speed of 0.07m.s-1
and a cleanness ISO 6 (# class 1000).
The rooms were built in order to insulate the mass comparators from interior and exterior sources of vibrations. A
specific process was defined to assure the maintenance of the cleanness level when people and materials enter and
leave.
These laboratories are intended for mass dissemination from the French national prototype in platinum/iridium to
working mass standards ranging from 100g up to 50kg (calibrations beyond 50kg up to 5 tonnes are performed in
another laboratory).
The mass chain of LNE counts no fewer than 500 units. For its calibration, 27 comparators or balances are used. Air
density artefacts complete this equipment.
These new laboratories are also intended for studies of mass and density standards and their traceability to the mass
unit. In particular, they were especially equipped with a new mass comparator appropriate for study of the evolution of
the mass standards used in the watt balance experiment during vacuum-air transfer. The objectives are to find the best
material to embody the mass unit in the future definition and also the best alloy for the standards used for dissemination.
Keywords: Mass laboratory, dissemination of kilogram, traceability diagram, mass standard

1. INTRODUCTION
The Laboratoire National de Mtrologie et dEssais (LNE) has two main sites, one in Paris (near the Porte de Versailles
fairgrounds) and the other in Trappes, in the south-western suburbs of Paris. In the latter, it is developing a watt balance
experiment that is aimed at linking the mass unit to electrical constants and needs a reference mass standard linked with
high accuracy to the international prototype. LNE's mass laboratory, in the Paris facility, was more than 30 years old. Its
design, metrological characteristics, equipment, and size no longer satisfied either the LNE's own needs or the growing
demand of French research and French industry for calibrations of masses, and were also unsuitable for studying new
materials with which to produce a mass standard for the watt balance experiment or to replace the current stainless steel
references. It was decided for these reasons to rebuild it.
One objective in the design of these new mass laboratories was to have both very low air speeds (<0.1m.s-1 in the
reference laboratory) and a very stable temperature, in order to minimize perturbations due to air movements, which are
very detrimental to mass comparisons. This was accomplished by: doubling the air flow rates while making the crosssections of the air ducts oversize (>1m2), blowing through the entire plenum, and finally greatly increasing the number
of return registers in the floor. In this way, all rooms are scavenged by a quiet, laminar, flow in which the rate of
renewal is reduced. In addition, steps are taken to keep extraneous sources of heat to a minimum (portable computer
rather than desktop PC, loads handled using counterweights, manually rather than by motors, etc.).

2. DESIGN OF THE ROOMS OF THE LNE'S MASS LABORATORY


2.1 THE SITE CHOSEN
The LNE took the opportunity provided by the transfer of its acoustic division to the Trappes site to locate its new mass
reference laboratories on an exceptional structure on which the anechoic chamber had been installed. This structure,

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

which weighs more than 1,000 tonnes, is by design isolated from the rest of the building. It comprises a network of
reinforced-concrete beams resting on stringers on shafts 2 to 3 metres in diameter.

Figure 1 & 2: Beams on which the anechoic chamber had been built

2.2 ANALYSIS OF VIBRATION LEVEL


To confirm the choice of site, the vibration level of the foundation was first investigated.
Given the impossibility of defining a priori the vibration level acceptable for a mass comparator, it was decided to
compare the level in the old laboratory, 20 metres underground, which was satisfactory in this respect, to the vibration
level of the foundation on which it was planned to build the new laboratory.
This comparison was performed for 36 hours running, using a battery of 18 Hall Sears HS-20 Geospace velocity sensors
having an eigenfrequency of 1 Hz connected to a computer by means of suitable acquisition boards. The results of
analysis of some 520 recorded files (cf. table 1) show that the RMS vibration velocities are very low and can be
regarded as equivalent at the various measured locations. These results validated the chosen location in terms of
vibrations.
Direction of vibration

Z
(vertical)

L
(longitudinal)

T
(tangential)

Old laboratory: Measurement points placed


on the planes of support of the comparators (in m/sec)

2.0

6.0

4.5

New laboratory: Measurement points placed


on the beams of the foundation (in m/sec)

2.0

3.0

5.0

Table 1: Maximum of the mean RMS velocities in the daytime period (excluding peaks)
at the various points measured
2.3 COMPOSITION OF THE NEW LABORATORIES
The new mass metrology laboratories, which have a total area of 160m, comprise 5 rooms and 2 access
locks, broken down as follows:
A reference laboratory dedicated to studies, to the platinum/stainless steel transfer, to the
dissemination, from the kilogram, to masses from 1mg to 10kg, and to transfer to accredited
laboratories and foreign reference laboratories.
A calibration laboratory for class E2 masses
A calibration laboratory for 20kg and 50kg masses
A densimetry laboratory for the calibration of volume standards
A preparation room to condition the masses and everything that enters the clean rooms.
Table 2 specifies the metrological characteristics of each room

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Laboratory

Mass
reference

masses E2
calibration

20-50kg
calibration

Densimetry
reference

Conditioned
room

Mass
airlock

Densimetry
airlock

Temperature

(200.1)C

(200.2)C

(200.2)C

(200.2)C

(202)C

(201)C

(201)C

Hygrometry

(505)%

(505)%

(505)%

(505)%

Air speed

< 0.07 m/s

< 0.20 m/s

< 0.20 m/s

Cleaning class

ISO 6 (*)

ISO 7

ISO 7

ISO 7

ISO 8

ISO 8

ISO 8

Overpressure

25 Pa

20 Pa

20 Pa

17.5 Pa

12.5 Pa

10 Pa

10 Pa

Area

48m

45m

20m

20m

15m

8m

4m

Table 2: Metrological characteristics of each room (*) # class 1000

Figure 3 & 4: Arrangements of the rooms and Mass reference room

2.4 LAYOUT OF THE COMPARATORS


The mass comparator layout study was aimed mainly at optimising the foundation blocks and anti-vibration tables that
would support the comparators, given the constraints imposed by the passage of the air ducts, by the positions of the
foundation shafts, and by the layout of the existing beams. The installation of the M-ONE comparator was studied with
special care.
Special precautions were taken in the implementation of the whole at all levels to ensure the isolation of the
comparators in these laboratories from both external and internal influences.
Concrete foundation blocks, poured in each room, hold the comparator tables. They are designed to take out a large
share of the difference of level between the floor slab and the floor assembly.
These foundation blocks are supported by columns that pass directly through the floor slabs of the rooms, without rigid
junctions, and bear on the primary beams of the building. Shims are placed between the foundation blocks and their
respective supporting columns to allow for the possibility of replacing them with vibration dampers.
The anti-vibration tables, made entirely of granite and ranging in weight from 700kg to more than a tonne, comprise
the following elements:
a jamb (made up of 2 vertical plates) that bears directly on the concrete foundation block
a spacer, located above the technical floor, that maintains the spacing of the plates of the jamb
a horizontal slab holding the comparator.
A tarred foam joins the jamb to the concrete foundation block. The spacer, sandwiched between the plates of the jamb,
is glued with resin. The horizontal slab rests on three pieces of lead (in the shape of slugs) placed on the tops of the
plates of the jamb.
The assembly so constituted is directly connected only to the primary beams of the building; the only contact is a
flexible sealing cord between the columns and the floor slab where they pass through it.
Power is supplied to the comparators by means of small columns that hold the 220V outlets and the computer
connectors, which are attached to the foundation blocks but do not touch the raised floor through which they pass.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Figure 5 & 6: Diagram of installation of the marble tables of the comparators


and picture taken when they were being installed

2.5 THE FLOOR ASSEMBLY


To confine the vibrations caused by people moving about in the laboratories, the floor assembly is isolated. Its design is
as follows:
A low perimeter wall surrounds each room. It supports the main 200x200mm structural shapes on which rest the
secondary structural shapes that in turn support the floor assembly. This last comprises an assembly of solid and
perforated 600x600x40mm slabs. To isolate the floor from the walls of the rooms, vibration dampers are interposed
between the low wall and the primary structural shapes. All of this is dimensioned to bear 200kg.m-2. In the reference
laboratory, the safe in which the reference standards are stored is mounted on a machine-welded support to isolate it
from the floor assembly.
2.6 PARTICULAR ADAPTATIONS OF THE SUPPORT FUNCTIONS OF SOME COMPARATORS
The mass changer of the C50 000S comparator, which moves two 50kg masses linearly, is mounted on a support that
rests on the floor slab. This support takes out the loads of the mass changer and decouples the linear 2-position load
alternator from the weighing cell and from the floor assembly.
The two vacuum pumps of the M-ONE comparator are, for their part, isolated from the comparators. One is
turbomolecular and is mounted under the comparator, below the floor assembly, on a support that straddles the concrete
foundation block and is itself coupled to the floor slab (isolation on the M-ONE side is by an accordion sleeve). The
other pump is farther away - placed directly on the floor slab of one of the locks.
2.7 THE AIR-CONDITIONING INSTALLATION
The definition and layout of the air conditioning equipment posed difficult problems, given the performance desired, the
need to have the premises comply with the regulations in force, and the constraints inherent in an existing building.
Solutions to these difficulties were found.
The purpose of the air-conditioning installation is to maintain the temperature and the relative humidity of the air,
which circulates in the various rooms at a speed as low as possible (so as not to perturb the comparators), while at the
same time creating a hierarchy of excess pressures, decreasing from the reference room to the entry/exit locks (to
protect from dust), all with the minimum input of new air.
The overall management of the regulation loops and of the operating automation is handled by a Honeywell UCM 800
programmable controller.
The new air comes from the laboratory's general production unit, where it is pre-treated. It is then filtered (light
extinction of 0.5m at 95%) and its relative humidity adjusted in an air treatment plant equipped with a steam
humidifier and a cooling/condensation battery to which ice water is fed by the laboratory network.
The air is recycled by two Air Handling Units (AHU), one for the reference room alone and the other for the other
metrological rooms. The treated new air, as we have already seen, is injected upstream of the recycling AHUs and
ensures an excess pressure of 25 Pa in the former and an excess pressure of 20 Pa in the latter.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

The conditioned air is fed into the rooms from the AHUs via a network of ducts with silencers, fire valves, and dampers
leading to diffusers equipped with "absolute" filters, light extinction of 0.3m at 99.999%. Spoilers (Plexiglas plates)
deflect the air from the diffusers before it passes through a distribution plenum - a porous nonwoven medium that
allows directional diffusion of the air.
Perforated slabs in the raised floor and a network of return ducts convey the air back to the AHUs. Before it is recycled,
this air is filtered (light extinction of 0.5m at 95%).
The air is recycled by two Air Handling Units (AHU), one for the reference room alone and the other for the other
metrological rooms. The treated new air, as we have already seen, is injected upstream of the recycling AHUs and
ensures an excess pressure of 25 Pa in the former and an excess pressure of 20 Pa in the latter.
The conditioned air is fed into the rooms from the AHUs via a network of ducts with silencers, fire valves, and dampers
leading to diffusers equipped with "absolute" filters, light extinction of 0.3m at 99.999%. Spoilers (Plexiglas plates)
deflect the air from the diffusers before it passes through a distribution plenum - a porous nonwoven medium that
allows directional diffusion of the air.
Perforated slabs in the raised floor and a network of return ducts convey the air back to the AHUs. Before it is recycled,
this air is filtered (light extinction of 0.5m at 95%).
PT100 temperature probes are placed in the plenum of each room. The regulator uses the information from them,
acting proportionally either on a valve supplying an ice water battery, for cooling, or on a proportional interface
controlling a set of electric heaters.
The distribution principle is the same, but simplified, for the other rooms, namely the locks and the preparation room.
The production equipment is grouped in a utility room. The three air treatment plants (one for new air and two for
recycling) deliver a total of 37,000m3/h.
The rooms are illuminated by a network of fluorescent lamps in boxes. Air is extracted from each box to remove the
heat given off.
2.8 THE PERSONNEL
The personnel of the Mass, Volume, Density, and Viscosity activities consists of a team of 9 people (not counting
trainees), two of them engineers. Five of them work directly in the clean rooms.
2.9 THE CIRCULATION OF PERSONNEL AND EQUIPMENT
A specific organisation has been set in place to ensure that the level of cleanliness is preserved when personnel and
equipment enter and leave.
Each time they enter the rooms, the personnel systematically don throwaway lab coats, overshoes, headcoverings, and,
for those with beards, beard coverings.
All of the equipment used in the rooms is specific to them. It is carefully cleaned before it is conveyed into the rooms
and, except is cases of extreme necessity, remains there. This includes the equipment used for the calibration and the
handling of the masses (trolleys, plastic boxes, etc.) and for the servicing and maintenance of the rooms (tools, ladder,
vacuum cleaner with three levels of filtration, etc.).
The mass standards that are to be calibrated in the rooms are taken out of their packaging (cartons, paper, etc.), then
transferred in plastic boxes to the preparation room, where their wooden or plastic boxes are cleaned. Then, placed in
plastic boxes for use inside the clean rooms, they are transferred to their destinations.
2.10 QUALIFICATION OF THE ROOMS
Once the new rooms intended to house mass metrology were completed, they underwent acceptance testing.
The performance of the air-conditioning system was qualified by a campaign of measurements that concerned:
the temperature
the level of filtration, by particle counts
vibrations
air velocities
the pressure differences between the rooms.

3. THE EQUIPMENT
3.1 COMPARATORS

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

3.1.1 Comparators dedicated to studies


Mettler Toledo M-one
The type M-one comparator manufactured by Metrotec has 4 stations. It is housed in an enclosure in which it is possible
to maintain a constant environment, from atmospheric pressure to a moderate vacuum (10-2 Pa). The air can be replaced
by an atmosphere saturated with a pure gas (nitrogen, for example). The comparator enclosure also has a transfer lock
allowing the introduction and withdrawal of standards from the weighing pan without perturbing the atmosphere of the
enclosure when it is at a pressure lower than atmospheric, thanks to two independent pumping systems each comprising
a primary pump and a turbomolecular pump. A guillotine valve isolates the transfer lock from the enclosure of the Mone. All of this equipment is placed on a marble slab decoupled from the floor of the clean room (ISO 6) in order to
avoid perturbations due to vibrations insofar as possible. For the same reasons, the two primary pumps are located as far
as possible from the comparator. The standard deviation of a determination of the mass/standard difference, at 1kg, is
0.17g in air and 0.13g in the vacuum.

Figure 7, 8 & 9: M-one comparator equipped with an enclosure and a load-lock


and details of the entrance load-lock (left) and the weighing chamber (right)

Sartorius CCL1007
This equipment is covered by an agreement between the INM and the LNE (DRST) that calls for its installation in the
LNE's mass clean rooms. This equipment, one of which was recently installed at the BIPM, is essential very-high-level
equipment that will make it possible to take in hand a large share of the studies undertaken on the standard of the Watt
balance, such as those linked to the development of a new generation of mass standards of higher metrological quality,
especially in terms of stability. Main characteristics: 8 stations available, enclosure that can be used for measurements
in an ultravacuum, access to perform analyses in parallel.
3.1.2 Comparators for dissemination and class E1 mass calibrations
The comparators used for dissemination from the kilogram to the calibration of class E1 masses are basically automatic
comparators. The purpose of recourse to automatic equipment is to perform the calibrations off-line, in the absence of
any personnel, at the best time (night or weekend), in order to obtain the best results.
Mettler A5 automatic comparator having a capacity of 5g and a resolution of 0.1g. The comparator was
delivered at the end of 2004. It has been installed in the mass reference room, attached to a granite slab
specially designed to hold it. It is equipped with a robot and software that make it possible to perform both
mass-to-mass comparisons and comparisons of combinations of masses automatically. It can be used for the
dissemination of sub-multiples of 5g down to 1mg in a closed series, without manual intervention, and thereby
improve the uncertainties of the references in this domain.
Mettler UMX5 manual comparator having a capacity of 5g and a resolution of 0.1g, used when the masses to
be calibrated are not compatible with the A5 comparator
Mettler AT106H automatic comparator having a capacity of 100g and a resolution of 1g, with a 4-station
mass exchange system
Sartorius C1000S automatic comparator having a capacity of 1kg and a resolution of 1g, with a 4-station
mass exchange system
Sartorius CC10 000UL automatic comparator having a capacity of 10kg and a resolution of 10g, with a 4station mass exchange system
Sartorius C50 000S automatic comparator having a capacity of 55kg and a resolution of 1mg, with a 2-station
mass exchange system

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

LNE-DH rotating-piston comparator (based on piston-cylinder assembly principle used in pressure standard)
having a capacity of 5t and a resolution of 50mg at 1t and 100mg at 5t
Comparator
nominal value
repeatability /g

A5
1mg to 1g 1g to 2g
0.15

0.25

AT106

CC10000UL

2g to 5g

10g

20g

50g

100g

2kg

5kg

10kg

0.4

0.43

0.26

0.39

0.55

16

20

28

Table 3: repeatability of comparators

3.1.3 Other comparators (including those outside the clean rooms)


In order to perform its mission of transfer of mass quantities to industry, the LNE has a broad range of comparators,
capable of performing calibrations from 1mg to 5t, namely:
1 LNE-DH rotating-piston comparator (based piston-cylinder assembly principle used in pressure
standard) having a capacity of 5t and a resolution of 50mg at 1t and 100mg at 5t
14 electronic comparators
16 electronic balances
5 mechanical balances
6 mechanical beam balances
3.2 MEANS OF MEASUREMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERS
3.2.1 Equipment of the M-one comparator
The comparator is equipped at all times with instrumentation to measure the principal quantities of influence of air
density, namely: temperature, pressure, and relative humidity. A portable PC manages these parameters.
Temperature
For the temperature measurement, the enclosure of the M-one comparator has 3 Pt 100 probes that flank the weighing
zone, distributed symmetrically in altitude so as to reveal any vertical gradient. These probes have been calibrated by
the LNE with an expanded uncertainty (k= 2) of 8mK; the drift observed at 1 year on the 3 probes is not more than 23mK.
A new temperature chain has been acquired and calibrated. It comprises 6 4-wire Pt 100 temperature probes specially
developed to the LNE's specifications by the ATEXIS company. Their 1/10 B DIN sensing element was chosen for its
low time constant. A long (400mm) glass sleeve matching the shape of the sensor has been designed by the
manufacturer for each probe. It allows calibration in the baths of the thermometry laboratory with no risk of introducing
moisture into the electrical connections: the ceramic sensing element is left uncoated so as not to impair its short
response time. The multimeter was manufactured by the TELNA company to supply the 8 available channels at all
times. In addition, its reading current is limited to 0.25mA (not the usual 1mA), dividing the power in each probe by 16;
thanks to the use of very-high-performance components, this was accomplished without compromising the resolution of
the instrument. Moreover, this makes any self-heating negligible, allowing a reading with a stabilisation time of about a
second rather than the 30 sec (at least) necessary with the previous temperature chain.
Pressure
The pressure is measured using a DPM1 digital manometer, which has a resolution of 0.1 Pa and has been calibrated by
the LNE with an expanded uncertainty (k=2) of 2.7 Pa.
Relative humidity
The equipment consists of an MBW DP3 dew point hygrometer calibrated with an expanded uncertainty (k=2) of
0.20C at the LNE and 0.04C at the NPL. It is completed by a Rotronic HTS22D capacitive hygrometer having a
resolution of 0.01% to monitor the relative humidity continuously.
A new hygrometer based on an optical device developed by the INM is being built. It will make it possible to track the
relative humidity during the transition from air to vacuum.
Molar fraction of CO2
The CO2 measurement is performed by the LNE's Chemical Metrology unit. For this purpose, the base of the M-one
comparator has a tap and an isolating valve, used to sample the air directly at the level of the calibrated mass just before
the enclosure is closed.
3.2.2 Measurement of air density by gravimetric method

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

The LNE has acquired a pair of artefacts for the direct determination of air density. The artefacts have the same mass
and same surface area, but very different volumes. During the platinum - stainless steel transfer, they are placed on two
of the four stations of the M-one comparator and allow direct determination of the air density in the course of the
calibration, and so improve the uncertainty on it. They have been qualified, and an article for the journal Metrologia is
being written.
The characteristics of the pair of artefacts are the following:
Mass 1kg
Surface area
300cm2
st
410cm3
Volume of 1 artefact
nd
125cm3
Volume of 2 artefact
3.2.3 Weather stations
The LNE's Mass laboratories have 6 weather stations that measure environmental parameters (pressure, temperature,
and relative humidity). Four of them are permanently installed in the clean rooms. In addition to temperature probes
recording the mean temperature of the room at 4 or 2 points (depending on the size of the room), each comparator has
its own probe. This probe is used to determine more accurately the density in the enclosure of the comparator in
question. The information is recorded and is available on the LNE's intranet.
The instruments of the weather stations are:
Vaisala HMP233 hygrometer having a resolution of 0.1%,
Vaisala PTB220 digital manometer having a resolution of 0.1Pa,
16- or 8-channel TELNA multimeter with Atexis Pt100 temperature probes having a resolution of
1mK.
In addition to the fixed stations, two mobile weather stations are available for varied uses.
3.2.4 Means of characterisation of the mass standards
Measurement of magnetic susceptibility
The LNE has a Davis susceptometer completed by a set of 3 susceptibility standards, including one reference calibrated
by the BIPM.
Measurement of magnetic field
The LNE has a Lakeshore 460-10 teslameter with a tri-axis Hall effect probe having a resolution of 0.1T.
The instrument is calibrated by the electrical metrology division.
Cleaning of the standards
BIPM method: The LNE has a cleaning installation using the BIPM method. The horizontal and helical
movements have been motorised.
Soxhlet: The LNE also has a cleaning installation using a Soxhlet.
UV/ozone: The LNE has recently acquired an enclosure allowing cleaning by UV radiation and ozone
production.
3.2.5 Measurement of the density of the mass standards
A densimetry installation in a clean room is used to determine the volumes of masses from 10g to 10kg by hydrostatic
weighing. It has two comparators, one (AX504) for masses up to 500g and the other (PR10003) up to 10kg (their
characteristics are summarised in the table below).
3.2.6 Reference water production
The LNE has 2 installations for the production of bi-distilled water, a quartz column, and a Milliport type installation
providing ultra-pure water. In addition, a deionised water network supplies most of the laboratories.

4. DISSEMINATION AND TRACEABILITY


4.1 FOREWORD
Given the essential requirements in the matter of traceability to the national prototype, of the desired level of
uncertainty, and of the reliability of the results and of the uncertainties, the calibration of the reference and internal and
external transfer mass standards calls for recourse to specific methods and resources, explained in this section. The
LNE's calibration chain covers a range of standards having nominal values from 100g to 5t. In this chain of more than
500 standards, only 164 standards are concerned. They are used for dissemination from the national prototype to the

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

calibration of the external transfer standards, which are in turn used only for transfers to external standards of a high
metrological level (inter-laboratory comparison standards or reference standards of clients of class E1 or higher).
They are called "first-category mass standards" in what follows.
4.1 THE FIRST-CATEGORY MASS STANDARDS
4.1.1 The various types of standards used
The standards making up the chain of first-category mass standards are of different types according to their role. The
following are distinguished:
cylindrical platinum-iridium standards of the same type as K
type OIML standards, either with a handling knob (from 1g to 50kg) or made of wire (below 1g)
type HR (height=radius) cylindrical standards, which can be stacked,
standard plates (thick discs), used to hold several mass standards,
"Compound" type standards with base and hanging shafts that can be simply combined to compose high-mass
standards (> 50kg up to 5t).
4.1.2 The various functions of the standards used
Reference mass standard
In a given context, for a given nominal mass, this standard represents the mass at the highest metrological level. There
can be several equivalent reference standards for a single nominal mass. As a general rule, there are two reference
standards per nominal value.
Monitoring mass standard
Standard of the same metrological level as a reference standard; ensures the survival of the latter by replacing it if
necessary.
Internal transfer mass standard
This standard can be added to other standards of the same metrological level to determine a reference standard of
greater mass.
External transfer mass standard (working standard)
This standard is used to calibrate inter-laboratory comparison travelling standards or to calibrate the reference standards
of clients with accredited uncertainties, from the CMC to class E1 masses. As a general rule, there are two external
transfer standards per nominal value between 1g and 50kg. Below 1g, there are three transfer standards. Above 50kg,
one.
4.1.3 Description of the calibration chain
The identifications of standards that appear in the rest of the text refer to the traceability diagram in appendices A, B
and C. The notation and the symbols used are explained in 4.4.
Platinum-iridium standards
There are two of these. One (no. 35) is the national prototype of France and the other (no. IV) is a transfer standard. The
latter is the only one in the chain that is compared to the national prototype. It is then used for the platinum-stainless
steel transfer.
The platinum-stainless steel transfer
Three stainless steel standards (nos. 1, 3, and 4) are compared with platinum. Two are used as reference for the
dissemination of the kilogram; the third is a control that is normally never used as a standard. In the course of this
calibration, the air density is determined using artefacts (cf. 3.2.2.)
Internal transfer standards
Dissemination to values smaller than the kilogram is done starting from two specialised 1kg standards (nos. 2 and 5).
These standards are used to calibrate six 1kg standards (nos. 10 to 15); a combination of five of them is used for the
transfer to 5kg, and 10kg using two 5kg trays (cf. fig. 4).
Two 10kg trays are used in combination with three 10kg standards for the transfer to 50kg
Sub-multiples of the kilogram from 500g to 1g
> The reference standards (refs. G & H) from 500g to 20g (two per nominal value) are of the HR type (cf. 4.1.1).
They can thus readily be combined to be calibrated from two 1kg standards (nos. 2 & 5). Between 10g and 1g, the
reference standards (B & B) are of the OIML type; the A5 comparator and the AT106 comparator (for 10g) allow the
placement of a combination of standards of standard shape on their trays, side by side.
> The working standards (Y & Z) from 500g to 1g (two per nominal value) are all of the OIML type. Each pair is
calibrated from the pair of standards having the same nominal value.
Sub-multiples of the kilogram from 500mg to 1mg

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

> The reference standards (refs. B & B) from 500mg to 1mg (two per nominal value) are wires. The tray of the A5
comparator has a davit that can hold several wires at once.
> In the case of the working standards (refs. J, AJ, & AG) from 500mg to 1mg, there are three per nominal value. The
comparisons defined for their traceability to the references are such that a confusion between standards is impossible.
Sub-multiples of the kilogram from 500g to 100g
Two sets of standards (AN & AN) have been made of aluminium wire containing 1% silicon, one as reference
standards and the other as working standards. The 2 sets comprise 3 standards of the following nominal values: 500g,
200g, and 100g. They have been calibrated together from two 1mg standards (AJ & AG) in order not to increase the
uncertainty of calibration of the working series
Multiples of the kilogram from 2kg to 50kg
The reference and internal and external transfer standards from 2kg to 50kg have been made in four groups. Each
standard of a group was taken from the same blank of material in order to have the same characteristics. Several
samples were taken in each of the blanks to determine the density and the magnetic susceptibility of its component
material. These four groups are the following: 2kg standards - 5 and 10kg standards - 20kg standards and 5kg trays 50kg standards and 10kg trays.
2kg standards
The 2kg reference standards (nos. 5 & 6) are calibrated from 2 pairs of 1kg standards (nos. 11 to 14) on the
CC10000UL comparator. This comparator can hold standards side by side.
The working standards (no. 7 & 8) are calibrated from these references.
5kg and 10kg standards
The 5kg reference standards (nos. 4 & 5) and 10kg reference standards (nos. 1 & 3) are calibrated at the same time from
five 1kg standards (nos. 10 to 14) and using two 5kg trays (nos. 2 & 3).
The 5kg working standards (nos. 2 & 3) are calibrated from the 5kg references (nos. 4 & 5).
The 10kg working standards (nos. 5 & 9) are calibrated from the 10kg references (nos. 1 & 3).
The 10kg internal transfer standards (nos. 2 & 4) and the trays (nos. 2 & 3) are also calibrated from the 10kg references
(nos. 1 & 3).
20kg standards
The 20kg reference standards (no. 3) and the first working standard (no. 6) are calibrated from two 10kg OIML
standards (nos. 5 & 9), each associated with a 10kg tray (nos. 2 & 3).
These two 20kg standards are then used to calibrate the second 20kg working standard (no. 2). This way of proceeding
is aimed at reducing the uncertainty on the 20kg working standard, because the resolution of the comparator used
(C50000S) is 1mg.
50kg standards
The 50kg reference standards (no. 4) and the working standard (no. 5) are calibrated at the same time from the
association of four 10kg OIML standards (nos. 2, 5, 4, & 9) and one 10kg tray (no. 3).
Multiples of the kilogram from 50kg to 5t
The 1t standard
This comprises twenty two 50kg discs (each made in one piece) and a suspension system (base, shafts, clevis). It is used
to compose a standard from 50kg to 1t in 50kg steps. The 50kg discs are calibrated from reference standard no. 5.
The 5t standard
This comprises three 50kg discs, five 200kg discs, four 1t discs, and a suspension system. It is used to compose a
standard from 50kg to 5t in 50kg steps.
The 50kg discs of the 1t reference standard are used to calibrate the 50kg, 200kg, and 1t discs of the 5t standard. The
30kg bases are calibrated from a 10kg tray (no. 3) associated with a 20kg standard (no. 2).

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Figure 10, 11 & 12: [1kg OIML] vs [500g+200g+200g+100g HR type] - the A5 pan with 200mg+200mg+100mg
- and [five 1kg + 5kg tray] vs [10kg OIML] or vs [5kg OIML + 5kg tray]

4.2 METHOD OF CALIBRATION OF FIRST-CATEGORY STANDARDS


4.2.1 Principle of the method
The least squares method using weighing designs was used to calibrate the first-category standards. In this method, far
more comparisons than are strictly necessary are made in order to make allowance for the defects of reproducibility of
the measurements. The number of comparisons is therefore greater than the number of standard masses to be calibrated.
A standard mass to be determined can be compared not only to different standard masses, but also to another unknown
standard mass. In that way the method ensures that the solution is overdetermined and, consequently, the quality of the
calibration can be checked. Moreover, uncertainties can be determined by a matrix calculation in which variances and
covariances are taken into account directly (for more details see [1] and [2]).
Each transfer for which there is a weighing design is identified as follows:
first, the 2 letters SF
the nominal value of the standard masses compared and its unit if there is only one, otherwise the range of
nominal values (maximum value - minimum value)
a serial letter (the letter A is reserved for the calibration of reference standard masses of a given nominal
value).
Example: SF10kgA or SF2g-1mgA
4.2.2 Weighing design
The comparisons of a given traceability step are defined in a weighing design. The weighing design takes the form of a
matrix in which:
each row represents a comparison, identified by its serial number.
the columns contain the standard masses, named by a simplified reference.
The table is read as follows:
For the ith comparison, the standard mass(es) of coefficient 1 of the ith row are compared to the standard mass(es) of
coefficient -1 of the same row.
Weighing design

SF1kgC

Nominal value(s)

1kg

Standard weight(s)

12/15

Calibrated weight(s)

16/17

Comparator

C1000S/P

Fig. 13 Example of weighing design: The third row (highlighted in yellow) indicates that standard mass 16 is compared to
standard mass 15

4.3 PROCESSING OF THE RESULTS


All comparisons performed and included in the weighing design undergo a single analysis in a closed series by the
generalised least squares method using the SERIFERM software program.
The result of a comparison is given in the form of the difference between the two masses compared.
The value so obtained for each of the comparisons is entered in the "Result" column of the weighing design.
The matrix of comparisons is completed by the value of the standards.
The following are also entered in the computation model:
the variances-covariances of the readings,
the variances-covariances of the sensitivities,
the variances-covariances of the standards,
the variances-covariances of the density of the masses and of the standards,
the variances-covariances of the air density.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

The processing done yields:


the adjusted value of the masses,
the matrix of variances-covariances of the masses.
4.4 THE TRACEABILITY DIAGRAM
The traceability diagram for the standards of this category is divided into three parts:
the kilogram and its multiples up to 50kg,
sub-multiples of the kilogram,
multiples of the kilogram greater than 50kg.
In this diagram, each standard is represented by an identified square. "Pt 35" identifies the national prototype attributed
to France. "Pt IV" identifies the platinum standard used for transfer to standards not made of platinum.
For the other standard masses, the identification comprises:
a principal number corresponding to the nominal value of the standard mass in question,
a subscript number or letter identifying the standard mass,
possibly, a superscript letter in front the principal number indicating as applicable whether it is a reference
("R") or a standard mass in the form of a tray that can hold other standard masses ("P").
R

Example: 105
10kg reference standard mass of serial
number 5

R10
5

Figure 14: Example of identification and symbolic representation of a standard mass in the traceability diagram

At each stage, one or more standard masses are calibrated by one or more standard masses. This transfer is symbolised
by two coloured oblongs linked by a directional arrow. The first oblong surrounds the standard masses used as standard,
the second oblong the standard masses that are calibrated. The arrow joining the two oblongs bears the reference of the
transfer (characterized by a given weighing design named : SF).
Example of calibration:
The 2kg standard masses
having serial numbers 7 and 8
are calibrated from the
2kg reference standard masses
having serial numbers 5 and 6

R2
5

R2
6

27

28

SF2kgB

Figure 15: Principle of symbolic representation of a calibration of standard masses in the traceability diagram

The transfer to standard masses external to the LNE is symbolised by a double arrow from the oblong of the standard
masses to the indication of the nominal value concerned, as shown by fig. X.

16

17

1 kg

Figure 16: Principle of symbolic representation of an external transfer of standard masses

The three parts of the traceability diagram are shown in appendices to this article (appendices A to C), namely: the
kilogram and its multiples up to 50kg, sub-multiples of the kilogram, and multiples of the kilogram greater than 50kg.

5. THE STUDIES

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Research in mass section at LNE is divided into four main studies: selection of materials for the realisation of mass
standards for the watt balance experiment [3] or to replace the actual references in stainless steel, development of
standards with nominal values below 1mg and improvement of the determination of the air density. The two first were
begun within the PA Meury PhD [4] and the others were developed in 2006 [5][6].

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

6. CONCLUSION
The LNE, in building a new mass laboratory having outstanding characteristics and fitting it out with equipment of the
highest quality (in particular the mass comparators), has given itself a powerful tool with which both to satisfy research
needs and to transfer mass standards to industry.

7. REFERENCES
1. Bich W., Variances, Covariances and Restraints in Mass Metroloy, Metrologia, 27, 1990, 111-116
2. Bich W. and Cox M.G., Uncertainty Modelling in Mass Comparisons, Metrologia, 30, 1993, 495-502
3. http://www.euromet.org/cgi-bin/projectfile.pl?prefno=734
4. Meury P.A., "Alliages mtalliques pour l'talon de la balance du watt et des rfrences secondaires", 2005, Thesis
ENSMP, Fr.
5. Madec T., Mann G., Meury P.A., Rabault R., Micro-mass standards to calibrate the sensitivity of comparators,
Metrologia 44, 2007, to be published
6. Madec T., Meury P.A., Sutour C, Rabault T., Zerbib S.,. Gosset A, Determination of air density: a comparison of
the CIPM thermodynamic formula and the gravimetric method, Metrologia, to be published

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

APPENDIX A
DISSEMINATION OF LNE MASS STANDARDS FROM NATIONAL PROTOTYPE UP TO 50kg
Pt 35
RAC1

Pt IV
SF1kgA

R1
2

11

R1
3

SF1kgB

SF1kgD

14

SF1kgE

15
SF1kgC

SF1kgF
+ tares PE511 et
PE512

110

111

112

113

114

115

16

17

1 kg

SF2kgA
SF10kgA
R5
4

R5

R2
5

R2

27

28

SF5kgB

SF2kgB
P

52

R10
1

53

R10
3

52

2 kg

53

5 kg

SF10kgB

SF10kgD

102

104

105

109

SF10kgC

10 kg
P10
2

P10
3

SF50kgA
SF20kgA

R20
3

206

20 kg

504

SF20kgB

505

202
50 kg

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

APPENDIX B
DISSEMINATION OF LNE MASS STANDARDS FROM 1 kg DOWN TO 1mg

14

R100
G

500G

15

200G

SF500gB

500Y

500Z

500 g

200H

SF200gB

200Y

200Z

200 g

R100
H

SF100gB

100Y

100Z

100 g

500H

SF500-50gA

50G

50H

SF50gB

50Y

50Z

50 g

20G

20H

SF20gB

20Y

20Z

20 g

SF10gB

10Y

10Z

10 g

5H

SF5gB

5Y

5Z

5g

2B'

SF2gB

2Y

2Z

2g

1B'

SF1gB

1Y

1Z

1g

500B'

SF500mgB

500J

500AJ

500AG

500 mg

B'

SF200mgB

200J

200AJ

200AG

200 mg

100B'

SF100mgB

100J

100AJ

100AG

100 mg

R50
B

R50
B'

SF50mgB

50J

50AJ

50AG

50 mg

SF20mgB

20J

20AJ

20AG

20 mg

SF10mgB

10J

10AJ

10AG

10 mg

SF20-5gA

10G

10H

5G

2B

SF2g-1mgA

1B

500B

R200

100B

20B

10B

R200

20B'

10B'

5B'

SF5mgB

5J

5AJ

5AG

5 mg

R2
B

R2
B'

SF2mgB

2J

2AJ

2AG

2 mg

SF1mgB

1J

1AJ

1AG

1 mg

500AN

500AN'

500 g

200AN

200AN'

200 g

100AN

100AN'

100 g

5B

1B

SF500-100gA

1B'

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

APPENDIX C
DISSEMINATION OF LNE MASS STANDARDS ABOVE 50kg

505

SF50kgB

100

RAC2

501

5017

5016

D50
11

D50
12

D50
13

D50
14

D50
15

503

5018

507

508

5019

509

5020

100 kg
to
1t

5022

502

D50

5021

5010

504

SF50kgC

D50
6

SF1tB
P

SF200kgB

103

202

SF30kgB

301

2001

302

2002

11

501

2003

12

502

2004

13

503

2005

14

100 kg
to
5t

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Volume Measurement of Weights


Yao Hong1
Huang Jian2
1
Mass Standard Lab, Mechanical and Acoustic Metrology Division, NIM, China
2
Mechanical Metrology Division, YITM, China

ABSTRACT
According to the requirements in International Recommendation R111 (Ver.2004) and the Chinese
Verification Regulation on Weights, the volume should be determined for Class E1 weights, Class E2
weights, above 20g, and Class F1 weights, above 50 g, which are used at the altitude over 800 m.
Regarding those weights, whose nominal values are less than 20 g, or 50 g, their volumes may be
calculated from the measured volumes in the same set.
Up to now, there are two methods used to determine the volume of weight. One is hydrostatic
weighing, using water density as the primary standard.

The other one is volume comparison, using a

solid density as the primary standard.


In this paper, both methods will be thoroughly discussed.
Key words: volume of weight, density of water, solid density, measurement

1. INTRODUCTION
The density of a body is its mass divided by its volume, given by the formula,

m
. According to
V

the Archimedes Principle: The only hydrostatic resultant force exerted by the fluid on an immersed
body is vertical and acts upwards, its value is equal to the weight of the displaced fluid. When weights
are measured in air an air buoyancy correction must be made to determine the mass of the weights.
Therefore, to determine the mass of a weight, we should determine its volume first.
Up to now, there are two different methods both based on hydrostatic weighing to measure the volume
of a weight. The first method is to assume a standard value for the liquid density. The tripledistilled
water is used in China because its density is a wellknown function of temperature from published
sources and its purity is easy to control. The buoyancy of the test weight, immersed in the water is
measured by a balance.

The volume of the test weight is equal to its buoyancy divided by the liquid

density.
The second method uses a solid density standard.

First of all, the solid density standard is used to

determine the density of the liquid, and then the volume comparison is made in the liquid of which the
density has just been measured. The measurement made by the balance depends on the buoyancy and
hence on the density of the liquid. This method is then similar to the first method using water as the
density standard.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Due to the restrictions on Chinese technical level and finance capacity, the first method was widely
used in the Provencal Institutes to determine the volume of weight. Only the National Institute of
Metrology has these two facilities to measure the volume weights.

2. TESTING EQUIPMENTS
The first method: measuring method based on the known density of water.
Currently there are three weight volume measuring pieces of equipment in Mass Standard Lab, NIM.
The main parts of this equipment are the equal arm mechanical balances whose capacities go from 50 g
to 20 kg for Class E2 and below one piece weights.

The technical specifications (weighing

range/readability in air) of these three balances are: 200 g/0.1 mg, 1 kg/0.1 mg and 20 kg/10 mg
respectively.
The left weighing pan for the equal arm balance is used for the tare weights, and the right weighing pan
is used for supporting the tested weight in air and in liquid during the measurement.

Therefore, under

the right weighing pan, there are a weight holder and suspension wire for hanging the tested weight
when it is immersed in the liquid.
During the measurement, the hanging system under the right weighing pan is always immersed the
liquid. Due to the effects caused by the buoyancy and resistance from the liquid, the sensitivity of a
balance is changed compared with that in air. For instance for the 1kg balance, the sensitivity is 0.3mg
in water and 40mg for the 20 kg balance. See fig.1.
The temperature is important during the measurement, not only of the air but of the liquid as well. In
order to determine the temperature and make the temperature correction to 20 C, two mercury
thermometers are used in air and in liquid.

Its readability is 0.1 K.

Fig 2Volume comparator based on


Fig 1Equipment based on density of water

solid density standard

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

The second method: volume comparison based on the solid density standard.
A weight volume comparator was imported by the World Bank Loan project in the year 1998 in the
Mass Standards Laboratory of NIM, see fig.2. The technical specification of this equipment is: Max.
capacity 1109 g, readability 0.01 mg, four weighing positions , weighing range of weights 1 kg 1 g,
the accuracy on volume measurement for 1 kg weight is better than 1mm3.

To measure the

temperature of the weight a thermometer of sensitivity 0.1 mK is used.


As the project to set up the primary standard using solid density is now completed, the volume
determination for weights is being changed from the density of water to the solid density standard.
For this volume comparison, similar to the mass dissemination, a set of weights from 1 kg to 1 g of
standard volume

have been determined for the measurement of lower accuracy weights.

3. TESTING PROCEDURE
For the first method, the measuring procedure is similar to method A3, recommended in OIML R111
[1] (See Annex B.7.4.4). That is
a) First weighing (test weight in air): weigh the test weight (mta) in air (of density a), record the
indication (Ita), and remove test weight (mta) carefully;
b) Second weighing (test weight in liquid): weigh the test weight (mtl) in liquid (of density l),
compensate the buoyancy caused the test weight in liquid with the standard weights (mra) in air, record
the indication (Itl);
c) Third weighing: determine the sensitivity of the balance by a small sensitivity weight, remove the
test weight (mtl) in liquid and standard weights (mra) in air carefully.
The different points, comparing OIML R111, with the Chinese method are that when the equal arm
balance is used to measure the volume of weight, due to the limit of reading range, the standard
weights have to be used to compensate the buoyancy caused by the first weighing and second
weighing.

The other difference is that since the measurement is carried out in water, the sensitivity of

the balance will be changed by the effect of water.


step.

The sensitivity should be determined on the third

The true mass of the standard weights for the compensation is used for calculation.

measuring data sheet is as follows [2] :

Customer

Temperature

Accuracy & Nominal


value of test weight

In air

In liquid

Accuracy of
standard weights
p

hPa rh

% a

mg/cm3

The

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Equilibrium indication of balance:


Formatted Table

No.

r+ms

Reading

Difference

Note
ms=

( I

mcs
)=
I s

mg

mg

r
Nominal

Correction

Volume

/g

/mg

/cm3

Density of water=

l a =

g/cm3 Vra a =

mra Vra a (I

mcs
) 103 =
I s

mra Vra a (I
Vtmeas =

g/cm3

mcs
) 10 3
I s

l a

Vtref = Vtmeas [1 + (t ref t meas )] =

mra
g

= cm3

cm3

(=Vra)

Verification person

Check person

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

The measuring procedures for the second method are similar to the mass dissemination. But the mass
measurement is carried out in air, and the volume determination is made in liquid.

By determining the

buoyancy difference between the standard volume and test weight in liquid, the volume difference
could be calculated, and the volume of test weight can be calculated.
In order to develop the measuring accuracy, the first weighing is to determine the density of the liquid
using the solid density standard. The second weighing is to make the volume comparison.
Density of liquid determination:
Liquid density determination: When a weight (mass m2, volume V2) in fluid of density (l) is
compared with a weight (mass m1volume V1) in air of density (a), and the weighing difference is,
the corresponding force equation becomes:

(m2 l V2 ) (m1 a V1 ) = mw'


Where:

(1)

m w' = B m w is the corrected weighing difference,


B is the balances internal calibration factor.

According to the Operating Instruction of

1 a
1.2
i

Volume Comparator [3], B = 1
; c=8000 kg/m3, i is the density of balance internal
1
.
2

c 1

calibration weights, 7996 kg/m .


Replace the masses with the conventional masses:

l =

(mc 2 mc1 ) (1 1.2 / 8000) V1 ( a 1.2) m w'


+

+ 1.2 (kg/m3)
V2
V2
V2

(2)

Test weight volume determination:


During the weighing measurement, a comparison between the volume reference (mass mr, volume Vr)
and the test weight (mass mt, volume Vt) is carried out in the determined fluid (l).

The equation is:

mt mr (Vt Vr ) l = mw B = mw'

(3)

Replace the masses with the conventional masses, the volume difference between the test weight and
volume reference is:

V =

(mct mcr ) (1 1.2 / 8000)


m w'

l 1.2
l 1.2

(4)

Then the volume of the test weight can be determined by adding the volume of the reference.

4. CONCLUSION
Due to the financial restrictions in China, the liquid used for determining the volume to weight is
triple-distilled water. Care must be taken in the storage and use of triple-distilled water,to avoid
affecting the accuracy of its density.
For the volume comparison based on the solid density standard, the finance budget is the big problem
not only for the measuring equipment, but for the volume standard as well.

So its the responsibility

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

of the National Institute of Metrology to develop new measuring methods in mass, volume and other
fields, and to recommend them for use all over the country. The volume measurement is one of them.

5. REFERENCE
1.

OIML Recommendation 111Weights of Class E1E2F1F2M1M1-2M2M2-3


M3(Ver2004E)

2.

National Verification Regulation of Weights, JJG992006

3.

Operating Instructions of Volume ComparatorVC1005, Ver2.4

Automated Mass System for the Avogadro Project


Angelo Cella-Sartor, Simon Dignan
National Measurement Institute, Australia
Abstract
The Atomic Kilogram Project (also known as the Avogadro Project) aims to redefine the kilogram by linking the
molar volume to atomic volume of atoms in a single crystal silicon sphere. Molar volume is molar mass divided
by density and measurement of the mass and volume of the sphere is required to determine density. NMIA has
developed a fully automated system to determine the mass of silicon spheres which improves the measurement
by reducing operator influences and also allows for results to be gathered and processed quickly and efficiently.
Two of the main sources of error when prolonged weighing of an object in air is attempted are the effect of air
buoyancy and possible convection currents due to temperature gradients caused by heat sources such as the body
of the operator. An automated system can assist greatly by reducing these effects with measurements conducted
over extended periods, without an operator, particularly during non-working hours when conditions are often
most stable.
Automation of the weighing process necessitated the design and construction of a precision mechanical loading
system with appropriate control and measurement software. Labview software has been designed to control and
monitor parameters such as balance readings and environmental conditions and record these at regular intervals
for later examination. An analysis program has been developed to process the large amounts of data collected,
perform the calculations and produce a final report. This program also graphically represents measured and
calculated quantities allowing for the sensitivity of the final result to its input parameters to be viewed,
understood and quantified.
Keywords: Avogadro Project, Automation, Silicon Sphere

1. Introduction
Since the French revolution a standard system of
weights and measures has been defined. In 1875
several European countries signed the Convention of
the metre and the metric system became the legal
and practical system of units in those countries.
Australia became a signatory in 1947. Since 1960 the
kilogram is the only SI unit that is defined in terms
of an artefact (a Pt/Ir cylinder 39mm diameter and
39mm high). Since then there have been 3 periodic
weighings of the international prototype where a
mass change of 50g [1] has been observed. It has
been proposed to obtain a new definition for the
kilogram in terms of a fundamental constant and to
eliminate the need for an artefact. Three routes are
being pursued by the Bureau International des Poids
et Mesures (BIPM) and a number of metrology
laboratories throughout the world to seek a
relationship between the kilogram and a fundamental
constant. The Atomic Kilogram Project is an
international collaboration which aims to redefine
the kilogram in terms of the Avogadro Constant and
replace the existing platinum iridium artefact, and
achieve a relative uncertainty of 2x10-8 [2] by linking
the number of atoms in a single crystal with the mass
of atoms. The single crystal material used is high
purity silicon, due to its properties that have been
well studied for its use in the semi-conductor

industry, its stability and ease of manufacture. The


best form for this object is a sphere as cubes and
cylinders have sharp edges that can be easily
damaged, so the chosen artefact would be a high
purity silicon sphere with a mass of 1kg.
To redefine the kilogram in relation to a silicon
sphere requires several key parameters to be
measured if the required relative uncertainty is to be
achieved. The production of an ultra-pure single
crystal silicon boule to be fabricated into a very high
precision sphere is the starting point. Measurement
of the molar mass, variations in lattice parameter,
surface structure, sphere diameter and mass are also
required. At NMI the diameter and mass
measurements are the focus. This paper focuses on
the improvement of the manually operated mass
measurement system by developing a fully
automated system to determine the mass of a silicon
sphere.
2. Determination of the True Mass of Spheres
The measurand is defined as the true mass of a
silicon sphere determined in air at known
atmospheric conditions. This value comprises the
mass of silicon, mass of the outer oxide layer and
mass of any water absorbed on the surface of the

sphere and involves comparing the weight of a


reference mass A with that of a sphere B using
the extended weighing scheme A-B-B-A
determined by (1).
a
b
b
Mb = f (Ib I a ) + Ma Cbuoy
+ Cbuoy
+ Cgrav

where:
Mb
f
Ib
Ia
Ma
a
C buoy

b
C buoy

b
C grav

(1)

= True mass value of B


=Balance sensitivity coefficient
to correct Ib
= Balance reading b
= Balance reading a
= True mass value of known A
= Buoyancy correction of known a
(= volume of a air density)
= Buoyancy correction of unknown b

The NMI system addresses all of the above issues


using a mechanism to perform high precision loading
and unloading and control, software to control the
motion of the mechanism which also collects and
stores all relevant data. The collected data is then
analysed and reports are produced with little operator
intervention.
4. Loading Mechanism
A novel design that has a small foot-print, which is
based around a rotary ball spline (Fig 1) providing
nearly friction free linear motion, while
simultaneously transmitting torsional loads so a
sensitive response is obtained, has been constructed
in a unit that eliminates many moving parts.

(= volume of b air density)


= Centre of gravity correction of b
( = 3.1412 10-10 h, h in mm)

With corrections applied for the effects of air


buoyancy corrections that are equal to air density
multiplied by volume where air density is
determined as a function of temperature, pressure,
relative humidity and CO2 content [3]. The value of
gravity does not need to be known however a
correction is applied to compensate for the height
difference of the centre of gravity of the two
artefacts.
The extended weighing scheme used allows the
mean difference between A and B to be
determined at the same point in time together with
the mean value of the other measured quantities,
indicated above.
3. The Need for Automation
Fig. 1 Rotary Ball Spline.

Measurements of this type at NMI were conducted


manually [4] where an operator performs the
weighing, records measurements of environmental
parameters and subsequently calculates a result. Not
only is this method extremely labour intensive but
measurements are often limited to the endurance of
the operator, usually around 2 - 3 hours. Other
significant effects include temperature changes due
to the presence of an operator, timing of
measurement cycles and rates of loading/unloading,
which are often inconsistent. Manually collating and
analysing data is also error prone.
The brief for the design of the automated system was
to :
reduce measurement uncertainty
achieve high loading and positioning
accuracy
use automatic data collection / calculation
use existing 2kg mass comparator
minimise cost

The rotary ball spline, a one piece design, integrates


the spline nut and support bearing into one unit
enabling a precise and compact design in a
lightweight structure with little inertia.
Both the rotary and linear functions of the ball spline
are driven via high precision ball screws controlled
with stepper motors. The ball screws are C3 rated (a
positional accuracy of 5m and friction factor
coefficient of 0.005 and are typically used in high
end positional applications such as accurate robotics
for circuit board manufacture).
The ball screw for the rotational movement is
attached to the ball spline via a rotary arm (Fig. 2)
while the linear ball screw for the vertical movement
is attached to the spline and mounted inside the
housing with the stepper motor attached on the end.
Both the stepper motors are fitted with 500 count
encoders and the software uses micro stepping for
positioning accuracy.
All the mechanical parts that manipulate the rotary
ball spline are attached to a 20mm thick one piece

aluminium base. The base is secured under the


45mm thick slate bench with integral rubber
dampeners to reduce any residual vibrations that
could be transmitted through the bench affecting the
repeatability and stability of the measurement data.
A specially designed rigid loading arm (Fig. 3) can
accommodate two removable mass carriers. For this
application the carriers have been specifically made
to hold a S.S. mass standard of class E1 [3]
(traceable to the Australian Pt/Ir primary standard
copy 44) and a 1kg single crystal silicon sphere.

The loading arm is attached to the top of the spline


on the automated mechanism (Fig. 3) and is indexed
rotationally with the first ball screw allowing the
mass standard and sphere to be located above the
balance pan. The second precision ball screw raises
and lowers the centre spline to add or remove the
sphere or reference mass from the scale pan. High
level of repeatable positioning accuracy is essential
for precise measurements and to avoid damage to the
sphere or 1kg mass standard. This is achieved with a
combination of the mechanical components, encoded
stepper motors and the control software. The
positioning accuracy was determined to be 5m.
Limit switches, both software & hardware, are
monitored and designed for failsafe operation to
protect the balance and artefacts being measured.
The system has also been designed to be used with
other artefacts and balances with a variety of loading
arms.
5. Measurement Enclosure
The 2kg mass comparator is encased in an
aluminium box (Fig. 4) which is covered by 8mm
thick insulating astro-foil to minimise heat transfer to
the interior of the chamber.

Fig. 2 Under view showing ball screw for rotational


arm, pc interface & limit switches.

The weighing pan of the comparator has also been


modified with a specially machined delrin seat to
locate and hold the mass standard and silicon sphere
during the measurement process. Both the carriers
and pan seat are adjustable and have been set to
allow minimum movement of the weighing pan
during the loading / unloading cycle.

Fig. 4 Sphere & 1kg standard loaded prior to


measurement.

Fig. 3 Loading arm with positions for 1kg mass


standard & silicon sphere.

Several platinum resistance thermometer (PRT)


probes are located in the measurement enclosure and
monitor the temperature during a measurement
cycle. Relative humidity & barometric pressure are
also measured during this cycle.
Labview software (described later) records this data
while controlling the indexing of the loading
mechanism.

Convection currents due to temperature gradients are


a cause of error that can be minimised by the
reduction in heat sources. All possible mechanical
and electrical heat sources along with the precision
thermometry bridge, stepper motor power amplifier,
and controlling pc are located in an adjacent room.
The automation of the loading mechanism removes
the need for a human operator which was by far the
largest influence on the temperature stability of
measurements over an extended period.

7. Analysis Software
The Analysis Software program (see Fig. 6) is used
to post process the typically large amounts of data
generated from the control and data capture software.

6. Control and Data Capture Software


Motion is provided via stepper motors controlled by
a Labview program. All parameters relating to the
measurement cycle, such as loading/unloading rates,
settling time and number and timing of balance
readings, are fully configurable. An animation can
be viewed once the cycles are underway, as shown in
figure 5.
Fig. 6 Analysis software program.

This processing includes performing calculations,


graphically displaying measured and calculated
quantities and producing a final report. All this can
be done in a fraction of the time taken using manual
methods and the graphical representation of data
allows for the sensitivity of the final result to its
input parameters to be easily viewed, understood and
quantified.
8. Results

Fig. 5 Control and Data Capture Program

Limit switches are constantly monitored and the


program halted if unwarranted movement is
detected. Fine tuning of the mechanism motion,
including velocity and acceleration profiles, can be
done using a utility developed as part of the
software. Balance readings, temperature, pressure
and relative humidity and associated timing
information are captured at regular intervals and
calibration corrections applied where appropriate.
All captured data is saved to four separate data files
each containing sufficient information to be able to
fully validate each recorded result.

The automated system eliminates temperature


increases of approximately 0.1 C/hour due to the
presence of an operator. The standard deviation of
the final calculated result has been improved from
40 g to better than 25g.
The sensitivity of the measurand to its inputs can be
viewed and explained. For example, Fig. 7 shows a
rise and fall in the calculated true mass of the sphere
between hours 15 and 20 and the same trend in
chamber air temperature over the same period (Fig.
8). A possible reason for this that the sphere surface
temperature lags the chamber air temperature,
causing the air density in the immediate vicinity of
the sphere to be slightly different to that in the
chamber air. Given that the buoyancy correction is
calculated using chamber air temperature, it is likely
we are not applying the correct buoyancy correction
at these times and thus observe the rise and fall in the
calculated value of the true mass value. If, on the
other hand, temperature changes slowly, as it has
from the beginning of the test, the applied buoyancy
correction is a better estimate as the sphere surface
temperature and surrounding air temperature are
approximately the same.
This highlights the
importance of minimising changes in temperature.
In the future, surface temperature measurements of

the sphere and reference weight (or samples of each)


will be made to further investigate this effect.
TRUE MASS OF SPHERE
1001.40745

1001.4074

1001.40735

Air pressure is the main determinant of air density as


shown by comparing Fig. 9 and Fig. 10. Sudden
increases and decreases in air pressure also
correspond to apparent changes in true mass. This
effect is being investigated. One possibility is that
the method of averaging inputs to the calculation of
the buoyancy correction has the effect of damping
the responsiveness of the correction.

1001.4073

Mass (g)

TRUE MASS OF SPHERE

1001.40725

1001.4124

1001.4072
1001.41235

1001.40715
0

10

Time
(hours)

15

20

25
1001.4123

Fig. 7 True Mass of Sphere vs Time

Mass (g)
1001.41225

TEMPERATURE
21.4
1001.4122

21.38

Temperature (Deg C)

21.36
1001.41215

21.34

10

Time
(hours)

15

20

25

Fig. 11 True Mass of Sphere (volume increased) vs Time

21.32
21.3
21.28
21.26
21.24
21.22
0

10

Time
(hours)

15

20

25

15

20

25

Fig. 8 Temperature vs Time


PRESSURE
1020
1018
1016

Pressure (hPa)

1014
1012
1010
1008
1006
1004
1002
1000

10

Time
(hours)

Fig 7 is the true mass calculation for a sphere of


volume=430.7cm3 (diameter 93.7mm). Artificially
increasing the volume by 1% to 434.9cm3
(diameter=94.0mm) and recalculating the true mass
of the sphere results in fig 11. The effect of the
incorrect volume is clearly seen as the trend in true
mass value follows that of air density indicating we
are overestimating the buoyancy. This phenomenon
becomes increasing evident the larger the change in
air density over the duration of the test and could be
used to determine the approximate volume of a
sphere to within 0.1mm diameter.
Also, the
approximately even distribution of values above and
below the mean true value in fig 7 indicates that
buoyancy correction is applied correctly for the
range of environmental conditions experienced
during the calibration.
9. Conclusion

Fig. 9 Pressure vs Time

The automated system has improved the mass


measurement of spheres by reducing temperature
effects of the operator, reducing the man hours
required to perform a calibration and process results
and increasing positional and timing accuracy
associated with each measurement cycle. These
improvements result in a lower uncertainty in the
determination of the true mass of spheres.

AIR DENSITY
1.2
1.198
1.196
1.194
1.192
1.19
Air density ( kg/m3)
1.188
1.186
1.184
1.182
1.18
1.178
0

10

Fig. 10 Air Density vs Time

Time
(hours)

15

20

25

10. Acknowledgements
A mention must go to Walter Giardini and Noel
Bignell for their professional input and guidance and
the contribution by Brad Ward in the design and
manufacture has also been indispensable. The
authors gratefully acknowledge their contributions.

11. References

[1] Girard G, 1988-1992, The Third Periodic


Verification of National Prototypes of the Kilogram
G44 Table III
[2] Tanaka. M, Oct 2005 President of the
Consultative Committee for Mass and Related
Quantaties (CCM), in: 94th meeting Comit
International des Poids et Mesures. 7.5.3 pp 181-184.
[3] Equation for the Determination of Density of
Moist Air (1981/1991)
[4] K.Fen, B.R. Ward, M.J.Kenny, D.L.Northcote
Mass Measurement of Silicon Sphere 5th Asia
Pacific Symposium on Measurement of Force, Mass
and Torque 2000 pp37-40
[5] OIML R111, Weights of classes E1, E2, F1, F2,
M1, M2, M3, Edition 2004

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Calibration of Moisture Meters with Weighing and Temperature


Method
Su Yi
Mass Lab, Institute of Mechanic and Manufacture Metrology Technology, SIMT, China
ABSTRACT
This paper emphasizes on the calibration of moisture meters for cereal grain and oilseeds using the weighing and
temperature method. This kind of moisture meter is based on heating a sample of known mass for a prescribed period of
time (or until the sample no longer loses mass) at a prescribed temperature and measuring the loss of mass. The mass
lost is assumed to be the amount of water that was present in the sample. Up to now the air oven method is the most
common rapid reference method for grain moisture determinations. Temperature and mass are the two most important
metrological requirements for this kind of moisture meter. Therefore the calibration of the moisture meters is divided
into two parts. One is the calibration of weighing and the other is the calibration of temperature. The weighting part of
moisture meter calibration is the same as the electronic balance and its calibration according to OIML R76. The
calibration of the heating part is less straight forward and harder to realize. Through several examinations, by
comparing different types of moisture meters and analysis of the test results this paper deals with a reasonable method
for calibrating this part. According to OIML R59 I can easily get the moisture content with two parts calibration results.
Keywords: Moisture, grain, air, oven weighing, heating, calibration

1. INTRODUCTION
Moisture content is one of the most critical grain quality measurements because of the direct economic significance of
the fraction of the total product weight that is water and because moisture content largely determines the rates at which
the grain will degrade during handling and storage. If the moisture content is above the level that ensures safe storage,
the grain must be dried to a suitable level. On the other hand overly dry grain sells at an effectively discounted price
using the normal weight basis and so its value reduces. Accurate moisture meters serve as the basis for appropriate price
adjustments. Because of its significance, moisture content is determined virtually every time grain is bought and sold.
An air oven method is the most common rapid reference method for grain moisture meters. According to the
assumption, the amount of nonaqueous material driven off is equal to the amount of water that remains after drying.
This is what the difference between the air oven method and other more basic (and more difficult) methods such as the
phosphorous pentoxide (P2O5) method or the Karl Fischer method is. In this paper I just discuss moisture meters and the
air oven method.2
In the past ten years, moisture meters were mainly used in agriculture and mostly for grain and oilseeds. But now, with
the development of technology, moisture meters play a great role in agriculture, medicine, food, light industry and many
other fields. Furthermore, the structure and the principle of these moisture meters are of different kinds. It is important
to find a common way to calibrate different moisture meters to and establish a canonical and justices market of them.
The most important parts of moisture meters are the weighing part and the heating part. Calibration of them is the
emphasis of this thesis.

2. TYPES OF MOISTURE METERS


2.1 CHARACTERISATION OF MOISTURE METERS -- WEIGHING
According to the structure of the weighing part, moisture meters can be divided into two types: moisture meters with
mechanical structure and moisture meters with electronic structure.
The weighing part of moisture meters with mechanical structure is based on the principle of mechanical equilibrium.
The weighing part is similar to that of the mechanical balance. The precision of weighing is 5 mg and the precision of
the moisture content is 0.2 %.The range of the temperature is from 0 to 160 .A typical type is SH10A.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

The weighing part of moisture meters with electronic structure is based on sensors. The weighing part is similar to that
of the electronic balance. The precision of its weighing part is varies (for example 1 mg, 5 mg) and the precision of the
moisture content is 0.05 % on condition that the weight of the sample is heavier than 5 g. The range of the
temperature is from 0 to 230 .Typical types are MA100, HB73, MA45, MB35 etc.
In the 1980s, moisture meters with mechanical structure took a great role on the Chinese grain market. Currently,
moisture meters with electronic structure are developing rapidly and now take up nearly 80 % of the market.
Comparing the two types I can list the advantages and disadvantages of them. (Table1). According to them, I found
moisture meters with electronic structure have better capability and may take the place of the moisture meters with
mechanical structure in the future.
Type

Advantage

Moisture meters with


mechanical structure
Moisture meters with
electronic structure

Disadvantage

Low price;
Installation and operation are complex;
Get the moisture content of the sample
Cant be connected to a computer or a printer;
directly;
Installation and operation are easy;
Get the moisture content of the sample
directly;
High price;
Can be connected to the computer and
printer
Table1: The advantages and disadvantages of the two types:

2.2 CHARACTERISATION OF MOISTURE METERS -- HEATING


According to the heating part, moisture meters can be divided into several types: moisture meters using a tube oven for
drying, moisture meters using infrared drying, moisture meters using quartz drying, moisture meters using halogen lamp
drying, moisture meters using laser drying. Tube oven drying is a traditional technology of heating and today it is
scarcely used. Laser drying is the best method of heating. It heats quickly, evenly, and accurately. However, this
technology costs so much that it is still not taken into consideration. Infrared drying, quartz drying and halogen lamp
drying are the three commonest techniques currently used for heating. Table 2 lists the type of drying used by different
models of moisture meters.
Heating part

Model of moisture meters

Infrared drying

SH10,SH10A,MA45,MA145,MB35,MB45,MA50,MA100

Quartz dry

MA45,MA145,MB35,MB45

Halogen lamp drying

MA50,MA100,HR73,HR83

Table2: The model of moisture meters with different kind of heating part

3. CALIBRATION OF WEIGHING PART


It is known that different kinds of moisture meters have different kinds of weighing part structure. And different
weighing part structures have different methods of calibration. Therefore in this thesis Id like to introduce two different
calibrations according to the different weighing part structures.
3.1 CALIBRATION OF MOISTURE METERS WITH MECHANICAL STRUCTURE
According to the verification regulation for moisture meters for cereal grain, the weighing part of moisture meters
with mechanical structure should take the following calibration.
3.1.1 Calibration of the scale
Put the moisture meter on a stable table and keep it plane. Then put 10 g standard weights in the sample box and adjust
the knob of equilibrium in order to make the marker point to zero. Take the weights away from the sample box one by

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

one and record the results of the scale. The number of results must more than five. The maximum permissible errors
(MPES) of the results are1d where d is the actual interval.1
3.1.2 Calibration of discrimination
When the weighing part is in equilibrium, put on (or take away) a standard weight which is equal to an actual interval,
the movement of the pointer should be more than 7/10 interval. 1
3.1.3 Calibration of repeatability
Take away 1 g standard weight from the sample box when there are 10 g standard weights in it and record the result of
the scale. Repeat this step three times. The difference between the maximum and minimum should less than one actual
interval. 1
3.2 CALIBRATION OF MOISTURE METERS WITH ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE
The weighing part of this kind of moisture meters is similar to that of an electronic balance. The calibration of it refers
to OIML R76. Linearity and repeatability must be calibrated. Eccentricity error neednt be considered here because all
samples are put in to the sample pan equably.
3.2.1 Calibration of linearity
Put the moisture meter on a stable table and keep it plane. At first, lets do external calibration by a standard weight.
Then according to OIML R76 the linearity is calibrated by a series of standard weights (more than 6 points). And the
moisture meter should give a warning sign when the weighing part is overloaded. Table 3 shows the maximum
permissible errors (MPEs) of linearity. 3
3.2.2 Calibration of repeatability
Load weights (Max or 1/2 Max) on the weighing part of the moisture meters repeatedly and the difference between the
maximum and minimum is the repeatability. The maximum permissible errors (MPEs) of repeatability are according to
the absolute value of MPEs at that load. (See in table 3) If the result of the repeatability is standard deviation, the
permissible error of it should be less than 1/3 MPEs. 3
Maximum permissible errors
unit: e
everification interval

Load
m
unit: e
everification interval

First calibration

Following
calibration

II

III

0.5

0m5103

0m5102

1.0

5103m2104

5102m2103

1.5

2104m

2103m

Table 3: MPEs of moisture meters with electronic structure

4. CALIBRATION OF HEATING PART


Heating part plays a great role in the testing of moisture content. The rate of the increase in the temperature, the highest
temperature, the accuracy of the temperature and the time of heating all affect the result of moisture content. However,
it is hard to deal with the problem. To solve this problem, some current manufacturers have designed a temperature
adjustment set to calibrate the temperature. Its a good way for moisture meters with electric structure, but it isnt a
common way. It cant calibrate moisture meters with mechanical structure. Further more, different manufacturers have
designed different kinds of temperature adjustment sets and these sets can only be used separately. In this paper, I
describe a standard material of known moisture content that is calibrated the heating part by it. The standard materials
are varied such as grain powder, 5% sodium chloride solution or sodium chloride saturated solution. Since grain powder

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

is difficult to get, the following is mainly about the method of calibration of moisture meters using sodium chloride
solution.
4.1 CALIBRATION OF MOISTURE METERS BY 5% SODIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTION.
Weigh 5 g sodium chloride (or salt) and 95 g distilled water on a balance which readability is 0.1 mg. Then put the
sodium chloride (or salt) into distilled water and get 5% sodium chloride solution. Take a piece of fiberglass paper and
preheat it for a few minutes. Different types of moisture meters have different preheat times. (Table 4)
Type heating part

Temperature

Speed of losing moisture content

Preheat time

Oven (readability: 0.1)

105

10 minutes

Moisture meters with


mechanical structure

105

1 mg/90 s

Nearly 2 minutes

Moisture meters with


electronic structure

105

1 mg/90 s

Nearly 2 minutes

Table 4: Preheat times for different types of heating part

Then drip 5 ml solution into this preheated fiberglass paper equably by a liquid handling product and heat this fiberglass
paper to 105 again. For oven the heating time of 5 ml solution is nearly an hour and for moisture meters of
mechanical structure with infrared dryers the heating time of 1ml solution is nearly 10minutes. However, for moisture
meters with other dryers I get the result of moisture content at the same speed of losing moisture content (such as 1
mg/90 s). Record the first result of moisture content and redo it with another fiberglass paper in the same shape. Record
the second result of moisture content too. If the difference between these two results is less than 0.1%, the measurement
is a success. Calculate the average of these two results of the same moisture meter and compare it with the standard
average of oven (nearly 95%). The maximum permissible error (MPES) of the difference between them is 0.2%.
Table5 shows the experimental results for different moisture meters.
Typical type of moisture meters

Sample 1

Sample 2

Average

SH10

95.22%

95.32%

95.27%

MA100

95.12%

95.08%

95.10%

HR83

95.02%

94.98%

95.00%

oven

95.07%

94.97%

95.02%

Table5: results of different moisture meters

From table 5, I can see that though the temperature influence is hard to be calibrated directly, calibrate the heating part
of moisture meters indirectly by 5% sodium chloride solution is a considerable method. This method is very easy and
common. Moreover the accuracy of moisture content can reflect the influence of the rate of the increase of temperature,
the accuracy of temperature and the time of heating process indirectly.
4.2 CALIBRATION OF MOISTURE METERS BY SODIUM CHLORIDE SATURATED SOLUTION
Another important method is using sodium chloride saturated solution. Instead of 5% sodium chloride solution, sodium
chloride saturated solution is easier to get and store. Look at figure 6, from 0 to 100 the curve of the solubility
of sodium chloride (NaCl) is a straight line.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

The solubility of NaCl

Weight of NaCl

44
40

The weight of NaCl in


100g distilled water
(g)
The weight of NaCl in
100g sodium chloride
solution (g)

36
32
28
24
20
0

10

20

30 40

50

60 70

80

90

100

Temperature

Figure6: The solubility of sodium chloride

Therefore in calibration, people just test the temperature of the sodium chloride saturated solution by a thermometer and
then refer to the table of the solubility of sodium chloride (Table 7). The standard moisture content of samples (sodium
chloride saturated solution) is easier to get. Well, lets heat two samples in the same way by moisture meters and
compare the average result of two samples with the standard moisture content. The difference between them must be in
the range of MPEs.
Temperature

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

The weight of NaCl in 100 g


distilled water (g)

35.7

35.8

36.0

36.3

36.6

37.0

37.3

37.8

38.4

39.0

39.8

The weight of NaCl in 100 g


sodium chloride solution (g)

26.31

26.36

26.47

26.63

26.79

27.01

27.17

27.43

27.75

28.06

28.47

Table 7: The solubility of sodium chloride in saturated solutions

5. CONCLUSION
From above, I can conclude that temperature and mass are both important metrological requirements for all kinds of
moisture meters for cereal grain and oil seeds. Therefore the calibration of the moisture meters is divided into two parts.
One is the calibration of weighing and the other is the calibration of temperature.
The weighting part of this kind of moisture meter is the same as a balance. According to different structures of weighing
parts I choose different methods of calibration. Just refer to OIML R76.
The calibration of the heating part is varies and is harder to realize directly. Through many examinations, by comparing
different types of moisture meters and analyzing the test results, in this paper I introduce two methods of calibration
5% sodium chloride solution or sodium chloride saturated solution worth consideration. These methods are easier to
use. They can reflect most influences on the accuracy of the heating part.
According to OIML R59 I can easily get the moisture content with a two part calibration. Though the calibration of
moisture meters referred to is easy and common, it still has its shortcomings. For example this calibration depends on a
kind of standard material. The precision of the standard material will affect the result of calibration directly. And the
calibration result of moisture content by sodium chloride solution just reflects the influences of temperature but cannot
give the exact related figures to calculate them. Furthermore, influences of the top temperature reached cannot be
accounted for yet. I hope better ways can be found to calibrate this kind of moisture meters in the future.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
First of all, I should thank Mr Hui for his book Verification Regulation for Moisture Meters for Cereal Grain written
in 1990, some methods of calibration I have referred to come from it and he has also given me much help in writing this
paper. Secondly, I owe a great deal to Mr Zhu and Ms Yang who have given me a lot of useful advice on the calibration
of moisture meters and they both have done many experiments with me. Thirdly, I appreciate it that those who work in
the physical and chemical analysis lab of SIMT are helpful in choosing standard materials and provided a few standard

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

materials for experiments. Finally, I must acknowledge some companies such as Shanghai exact scientific instruments
company, METTLER TOLEDO company and SARTORIUS company, manufacturers of moisture meters and they all
have given me much help.

6. REFERENCES
1. Hui. Chenzhi, Verification Regulation for Moisture Meters for Cereal Grain, Shanghai, 1990,pp.2~6,
2. Moisture Meters for Cereal Grain and Oilseeds, Recommendation 59 OIML TC17/SC1, 2006, pp.7-22
3. Non-automatic weighing instruments, Recommendation 76 OIML, 2004, pp.22-76

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Test of a Microbalance below 1 mg Using the Electrostatic Load and


Micro Weights
Min-Seok Kim1, Jae-Hyuk Choi2, and Yon-Kyu Park1
1
Mass and Force Group, Division of Physical Metrology, KRISS, Korea
2
Quantum Application SI Laboratory, Division of Physical Metrology, KRISS, Korea
ABSTRACT
In response to increasing needs for small force and mass metrology below 1 mg, we have tested a commercial
microbalance using the electrostatic force generation ranging from 0.05 mg to 2 mg. In addition, since the balance was
already tested using the calibrated micro weight set in our previous research, we have been able to compare the
mechanical force (deadweight produced by the micro weight set) and the electrical force indirectly through the balance,
which has been used as a mass (or force) comparator. The preliminary measurements reported here agree to within
0.2% after including all known correction factors.
Keywords: Micro weight, nano force, micro force, balance

1. INTRODUCTION
The needs for accurate measurement of small force and mass below 10 N (or 1 mg) are increasing among researchers
and industry, especially in the field of nano-mechanical testing, bio-mechanical testing, and a biosensor. Compared to
these growing needs, unfortunately, standards of small force and mass that are traceable to the International System of
Units (SI) have not developed yet. Several national metrology institutes around the globe have sought new
methodologies and one of them is using the electrostatic force to link sub-micronewton or sub-nanonewton force to SI.
For realization, NIST1, NPL2 and PTB3 have developed electrostatic force balances with their own design. On the other
hand, KRISS has introduced an atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever calibration system (the Nano Force
Calibrator, or simply NFC) based on an electromagnetic force balance with 5 g capacity and 0.1 g resolution4. The
NFC has demonstrated that it can calibrate various AFM cantilevers ranging from 0.06 N m-1 to 42 N m-1 with
traceability to SI5. The traceability of the forces used in calibrations could be achieved by using a set of calibrated
weights and has been extended to as low as 0.5 N (corresponding to 0.05 mg) through a handcrafted weight set5.
Previously, we tested the precision balance of the NFC in the range from 0.05 mg to 100 mg but, we were constrained
by decreasing size and increasing uncertainty of the weights with the decrease in mass. Here, we seek to address this
limitation, and present new test method using an electrostatic force below 1 mg. In addition, this experiment will be the
first comparison not performed before between deadweight and electrostatic force below 1 mg.

2. METHODOLOGY
Compared to the electromagnetic force, the electrostatic force can be generated with high accuracy and SI-traceability
using a well-designed capacitor with the help of precision capacitance and dimensional metrology. So, we have tried to
apply the small electrostatic force to the balance instead of the deadweight to test the balance performance in the range
from 0.05 mg (0.5 N) to 2 mg (20 N). Experimental setup for testing is shown in the photo of figure 1(a) and
schematically in the drawing of figure 1(b). A capacitor generating the electrostatic force consists of two coaxial
cylinder electrodes, similar in capacitor arrangement at NIST6. The outer diameter of the inner cylinder is 15 mm and
the inner diameter of the outer cylinder is 15.8 mm. With this geometry, capacitance gradient is calculated as 1 pF/mm,
assuming a pair of infinite concentric cylinders. We have modified a weighing pan of the balance so that it can be an
inner electrode of the capacitor. The outer electrode is held in a tip-tilt laser mount to facilitate alignment to the
direction of the gravity. The assembly of the outer electrode and the laser mount is installed on three axis position stage
for fine positioning of the device with respect to the inner electrode. A laser beam has been used to align the axes of
both electrodes to the gravity direction with an uncertainty of less than 4 mrad.
Activating the outer electrode by applying a voltage on it generates the electrostatic force, which is given by7

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Fe =

1 dC
(V + Vs ) 2
2 dz

(1)

where, dC/dz is the capacitance gradient, V is the voltage applied to the outer electrode, and Vs is the potential
difference between the electrodes resulting from surface field effects. Changing the polarity of the voltage on the outer
electrode, generating the force again and averaging two forces can eliminate the surface voltage effect.
Laser beam

Outer electrode
Tilting stage

Threeaxis
stage
with a
z-axis
cap.
sensor

Gravity
direction

Inner electrode
(modified weighing pan)

High precision balance


Guard
(a)
(b)
Figure 1: Experimental setup for the electrostatic force generation; (a) a photo (b) a schematic diagram

To determine the capacitance gradient, we moved the outer electrode in a vertical direction using the motorized z-axis
of the three axis stage and capacitive displacement sensor for position feedback control while the inner electrode
remains stationary. The capacitance and displacement between fixed and moving electrodes are recorded at a series of
set-points. The recorded capacitance and displacement data set are fitted into a straight line, of which the slope
represents the local capacitance gradient.
The electrostatic force always drives the inner electrodes to move toward the outer electrodes in our capacitor
arrangement, so that the balance output decrease as a voltage is applied. Thus, we put a reference weight of 2 mg inside
the inner electrode as a tare weight.
Test of the balance has been performed in a following way. Firstly, a reference weight of 2 mg was put on the modified
weighing pan (i.e. inner electrode) and the balance indication was recorded. This procedure is to check the feasibility of
using the modified weighing pan and to confirm the alignment of the inner electrode to the gravity. Then, the outer
electrode and a shield for electrical isolation in capacitance measurement were assembled, and the alignment procedure
was performed using the three-axis stage and the tip-tilt laser mount so that the outer electrode is positioned coaxial
with the inner electrode. After completing the alignment, the measurement of the capacitive gradient began. The next
step was applying a voltage to the outer electrode to produce the electrostatic force. The applied voltage was controlled
such that the balance indication reaches the target mass, e.g. 1 mg. Finally, the capacitance gradient was measured,
again to correct for linear drift. The mean of two neighboring capacitance gradients was used for each weighing. The
electrostatic force calculated by equation (1) and the balance indication was compared at each target mass. Further
more, the balance was weighed using the calibrated weight at each target mass, so as to compare the electrostatic force
and the corresponding deadweight.

3. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
The capacitance gradient was measured with a nominal vertical overlap between two electrodes of 5 mm. The outer
electrode was moved vertically and repeatedly over a selected range and step size. A specific range of 50 m (centered
on the weighing position) with a step size of 20 m was selected. Figure 3 shows a typical dC/dz set measured over
approximately one hour, having 10 cycles of five-point sweeps. Each point within the sweep is averaged for about 10
seconds. The capacitance was measured by a precise capacitance bridge and the displacement by a capacitive sensor
with a resolution of 1 nm. We have found observable drift of the dC/dz value at the beginning (dotted ellipse region),

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

but after five sets of dC/dz measurements, the mean value of each set has been stabilized with the standard deviation of
less than 0.15%. We suspect that such a variation is mainly due to the mechanical instability of the capacitor
arrangement along with environmental changes, which in consequence, make the capacitance vary. The experimental
setup is installed in an isolated box. Figure 3 shows the temperature variation acquired at the same time. You might
notice that the temperature goes up steeply during the first five hours. That means the capacitance gradient has a
dependence on the temperature changes.
Temp
0.9464

22.64

22.60

0.9456

Temp (deg)

Capacitance Gradient (pF/mm)

0.9460

0.9452
0.9448

22.56

22.52

0.9444

22.48

0.9440
0.9436

-2
0

10

15

20

25

30

10

12

14

16

18

Time (hour)

Time (hour)

Figure 2: A typical data run showing the uncorrected


capacitance gradients. Error bars stand for 1 standard
deviation of each set of measurements

Figure 3: Temperature variation around the experimental


setup.

It should be noted that a correction was made for the measured dC/dz to compensate incomplete alignment of the axis
of the capacitive sensor and the z-axis of the stage to the axis of the capacitor. During the scanning for the
determination of dC/dz, the z motion is measured by the capacitive sensor, which operates along axis zc. Moreover, the
stage axis in z-direction, zs is different from the capacitor axis, z. Consequently, the dC/dz is underestimated by cos
sccos s, where sc and s are the angle deviation between the axis of the stage and the capacitive sensor, and between
the axis of the stage and the capacitor, respectively.
Thus, the corrected electrostatic force can be written as follows;

Fe =

1 dC
(V + Vs ) 2 (1 + sc2 / 2 + s2 / 2)
2 dzc

(2)

We use small angle approximation to derive equation (2). This electrostatic force has been compared with a mechanical
force derived from the mass change in the balance indication and a local acceleration of gravity, which is given by

Fm = ( m2 m1 ) g cos g

(3)

where, m1 and m2 are the readings of the balance before and after applying a voltage, respectively and g is the angle of
the weighing pan axis with respect to gravity.
The test of the balance has been performed several times at six different weights, 0.05 mg, 0.1 mg, 0.2 mg, 0.5 mg, 1
mg, and 2 mg. As mentioned previously, the balance was also tested using the calibrated weight set5. The standard
uncertainties of the balance and corresponding data at six weights are listed in table 1. As you might expect to be, as the
mass indication gets smaller, the uncertainty is dominated by that of the mass artifact. At the 0.05 mg indication, the
relative uncertainty of the test weight of 0.05 mg is 0.4% and the relative uncertainty of the balance indication is the
almost same of 0.44%.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Table 1 Uncertainty of the balance indication over 6 discrete loads


Indication m (mg)

0.05

0.1

0.2

0.5

0.1
0.1

0.1
0.2

0.6
0.3

0.2
0.5
negligible

0.5

0.5

Uncertainty in g

Uncertainty source
Correction
Repeatability
Test weights
Weight buoyancy
Combined uncertainty
uc(m)
Relative uncertainty
uc(m)/m in %

0.1
0.1

0.1
0.1
0.2

-0.2
0.1
0.2

0.22

0.22

0.22

0.51

0.54

0.58

0.44

0.22

0.11

0.10

0.05

0.03

The balance test results with their corresponding uncertainties are listed in table 2. The data include all the known
corrections and uncertainties from table 3. All uncertainties are reported as standard uncertainties (coverage factor,
k=1). The relative difference between the electrical force and the mechanical force is defined as (Fe-Fm)/Fm. The relative
differences are ranging from -0.02 % to -0.16% and all relative differences are less than the relative uncertainty for all
masses. Also we found that the mechanical force derived from the balance readings is bigger than the electrical force.
Table 2 Test results of the balance over 6 discrete loads
Nominal mass
(mg)

Electrical force
(N)

Mechanical
force (N)

Number of
comparisons

Relative
difference (%)

Relative
uncertainty (%)

20.37182

20.39219

10

-0.10

0.16

9.96079

9.96856

10

-0.08

0.16

0.5

4.96250

4.96367

10

-0.02

0.16

0.2

1.98446

1.98530

10

-0.04

0.16

0.1

0.99548

0.99593

10

-0.05

0.18

0.05

0.49830

0.49908

10

-0.16

0.20

Table 3 Relative standard uncertainties of the test results using the electrostatic force
Uncertainty Sources
Repeatability
C
z

dC/dz

2sc/2

Correction
(%)

Uncertainty type
A
B
B

0.15
0.001
0.05
0.01

0.01

0.01

0.03

0.01

0.02

s/2
g/2
V

Weighing

Relative
uncertainty (%)

2 mg
1 mg
0.5 mg
0.2 mg
0.1 mg
0.05 mg

0.001

0.01
0.01
0.01
0.04
0.08
0.12

A
A
A
A
A
A

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

The linearity of the balance output seems to be good in consideration of its resolution of 0.1 g ( 1 nN). The relative
uncertainty at 0.05 mg in table 2 (0.2%) is a factor of two smaller than that in table 1(0.44%) whereas the relative
uncertainty at 2 mg in table 2 (0.16%) is much bigger than that in table 1 (0.03%). As of now, the electrostatic load is
advantageous over the deadweight load when testing the balance only at 0.1 mg and 0.05 mg. To achieve good
agreement at higher load (more than 1 mg), we have to reduce the most contributing uncertainty source of dC/dz
measurement by refining our experimental setup.

3. CONCLUSION
We have tested the balance output using the electrostatic force at the sub-milligram level, which is so low as compared
to its capacity of 5 g. The mechanical force derived from the balance output and the electrical force derived from
electrostatic force have a good agreement of less than 0.2% with an uncertainty of 0.2% at 0.05 mg ( 500 nN). Since
the resolution of the balance is 0.0001 mg, this agreement of 0.2% at 0.05 mg corresponds to the resolution. Thus, we
have concluded that the balance has a very good linearity even at the very small range below 1 mg. However, relatively
large uncertainty in electrostatic load generation has to be solved in the future. Refinements of the experimental setup
are underway which are expected to further reduce the uncertainty of dC/dz measurements to less than 0.005%.

4. REFERENCES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Pratt J.R., Kramar J. A., Newell D.B., and Smith D.T., Review of SI traceable force metrology for instrumented
indentation and atomic force microscopy, Meas. Sci. Tech. 16, pp. 2129-2137, 2005.
Leach R., Chetwynd D., Blunt L., Haycocks J., Harris P., Jackson K., Oldfield S. and Reilly S., Recent advances
in traceable nanoscale dimension and force metrology in the UK, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, pp. 467-476, 2006.
Vladimir N., Facility and methods for the measurement of micro and nano forces in the range below 10-5 N with a
resolution of 10-12 N (development concept), Meas. Sci. Tech. 18, pp. 360-366, 2007.
Kim M. S., Choi J. H., Park Y. K. and Kim J. H., Atomic Force Microscope Cantilever Calibration Device for
Quantified Force Metrology at Micro- or Nano-scale Regime: Nano Force Calibrator (NFC), Metrologia 43, pp.
389-395, 2006.
Kim M. S., Choi J. H., Kim J. H., and Park Y. K., SI-traceable determination of spring constants of various atomic
force microscope cantilevers with a small uncertainty of 1%, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, pp. 3351-3358, 2007.
Newell, D.B., Pratt, J.R., Kramar, J.A., Smith, D.T., Feeney, L.A., and Williams, E.R., SI traceability of force at
the nanonewton level, 200l NCSL International Workshop and Symposium Proceedings, Washington D.C., 2001.
Pratt, J.R., and Kramar, J.A., SI realization of small forces using an electrostatic force balance, Proc. XVIII
IMEKO World Congress, Rio de Janeiro, 2006.

*corresponding author information: Min-Seok Kim, minsk@kriss.re.kr; phone 82 42 868 5242; fax 82 42 868 5249;
Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Science Town, Daejeon, 305-340, South Korea

LOAD CELL FAILURE PREDICTION BASED ON GREY THEORY


IN A WEIGHING SYSTEM

Dr. Zhu Zijian


Mettler-Toledo (Changzhou) Scale & System Ltd.
Changzhou, Jiangsu, China

213125

Abstract:
The reliability of weighing systems is becoming more and more important in recent years. This
paper deals with a new approach to load cell soft failure prediction by the application of Grey
theory. Grey theory is a theory which studies poor information and sets up a math model to simulate
and predict a system behavior. By collecting the historical data of zero and sensitivity drift to set up
a grey model GM (1.1) the system can not only simulate the zero and sensitivity drifts but also
calculate their possible values in the near future. Therefore, prior action could be taken before zero
and sensitivity run out of the acceptable range.
Using this method it is hoped to be able to improve the reliability of a system and have a
potential future in the field of measurement.

Key words:
Grey theory, Prediction, load cell, soft failure

1. BACKGROUND
In the actual weighing application, the
system not only requires high precision but also
expects to have higher dependability. The load
cell plays a central role in the system and its
drift will cause the system to crash in the case
when some critical values exceed the limit. So
far, there is no method to predict load cell
failure in the market. If we knew the load cell
was getting bad in advance, and then

appropriate action might be taken to avoid the


crash. This paper aims to present a method
based on grey theory predicting load cell zero
and sensitivity drift to meet these requirements.

2. GREY THEORY
Grey theory, first proposed by professor
Deng Julong in the 80s of 20th century and
developed in recent years, has been applied to
many prediction fields including some with

industrial applications.
According to Grey theorythe
representation of each objective system is
extremely complicated, and seems to be
disorderly and unsystematic. But it surely has
some hidden inherent law within the system.,
and this system with some known information
and some unknown information is called grey
system, whose models are called the grey
model, abbreviated as GM model
The general procedure to get the initial data
is by accumulating or iterative reducing. The
purpose for this is to reduce the randomness in
the information in the original data in order to
form a strong regular (law) data array. After
accumulation for several times, the data array is
approximately fitted with a linear continuous
differential equation. Solve this differential
equation, finally reducing into a primitive array
with iteratively reducing the array. By this
primitive array, we can calculate the proper
output for the next interval; therefore, it can
predict the output in the near future. The most
typical one is the GM (1.1) model.
To summarise in addition, Grey System
studies the lacked data with uncertainty while
Probability & Statistics theory focuses
on Large samples with uncertainty and Fuzzy
Sets Theory investigates in "The cognition
uncertainty".

Then,
z (1) ( 2)
(1)
z (3)
B=
L
L
(1)
z ( n )

x ( 0 ) ( 2)
1

(0)

1
x (3)

Y =

(0)
U =

1
x ( n )
u

Solving the linear-equation Y = BU

by

Least squares method



U = = ( B T B ) 1 B T Y

2.3 Set up the time response equation (model)


Introduce the and to the time response
equation,
u
u
x (1) (k + 1) = ( x (1) (1) )e ak +
a
a

Reverting above algorithm to the following,


x ( 0) (i ) = x (1) (i ) x (1) (i 1),

i = 2.3,..., N

2.4 Accuracy verification


The absolute error is
q ( k ) = x ( 0 ) ( k ) x ( 0 ) ( k ),
The relative error is

( k ) = q( k ) / x ( 0 ) ( k )

2.0 PROCEDURE OF MODELING


2.1Generating the accumulated array
( 0)
( 0)
( 0)
( 0)
Assume x = ( x (1), x ( 2),..., x ( n ))

After accumulating, a new array is formed,


i

x (1) (i) = x ( 0 ) ( j )
that is

j =1

2.2Building the data matrix and data vector


Let
z (1) ( k ) = 0.5 x (1) ( k ) + 0.5 x (1) ( k 1) k = 2,3, L , n
Assume B is data matrix while Y is data vector

3.

LOAD

CELL

FAILURE

PREDICTION
3.1 Description
In our current weighing system, the
system crashes can be sorted into two kinds,
one is called hard crash, which refers to a
sudden damage in the system. It is impossible
to foretell and take the corresponding measures
in advance. Another is called soft crash, which
means the system breaks down due to some
drifts in the system. From the point of view of
data processing, it is possible to use the historic

data to find out the rule for the drift. Therefore,


it can be known whether the system might
malfunction and when that will happen. In this
paper, the soft crash for weighing system could
be regarded as load cell zero and sensitivity
drift. For zero drift, the indicator could read the
zero balance periodically. But it is hard to get
the individual load cell sensitivity data in the
actual application. Thus, it is assumed that the
rate of which one cells output against the total
output of the system could be represented to the
sensitivity, so-called distribution rate. In
another word, we can chase that rate to predict
calculation.
Following are the examples for load cell
zero and distribution rate drift mathematics
modeling.
3.1 Zero drift prediction
For zero data collection, it can be set to the
same situation (it neednt be the zero, can be a
certain weight) to acquire the zero data starting
from the system setup with data taken once
every two months. With 4 data ready, the
prediction could start
For example for a 3t bulk scale, the zero of
1# load cell:
Initial zero:
Table 1 Initial array
times
1
2
3
4
X(0)
2341
2143 2242 2876
Accumulate the initial data:
Table 2 produced array
Series
1
2
3
4
X(1)
2341
4484
6726
9602
Setup data matrix B,Yn

1 (1)
(1)
2 ( x (2) + x (1)) 1

1 (1)
(1)

B = ( x (3) + x (2)) 1.

1
( x (1) (4) + x (1) (3)) 1

2

3412.5 1
5605 1

8164 1
Y = ( x ( 0 ) (2), x ( 0 ) (3),..., x ( 0) ( N )) T
= (2143,2242,2876) T
Calculate the constant array
- 0.156851

U = = ( B T B ) 1 B T Y =

1522.02160 6

Set up differential equation


dx (1)
0.156851x (1) = 1522.021606
dt
Build the exponential function
u
u
x (1) ( k + 1) = ( x (1) (1) )e ak +
a
a
= 12044 .61528e 0.156851k 9703 .61528

Reverting
x ( 0) (i) = x (1) (i ) x (1) (i 1),

i = 2.3,..., N

Table 3 model verification


Actual calculated
Absolute
initial data data after
error
reverting
2341
2341
0
2143
2045.43 -97.57
2242
2392.79 150.79
2876
2799.14 -76.86
average

Relatively
error%
0
-4.553
6.726
-2.673
4.65038

Conclusion: the error for this response


functions is less than10thus, it meets the
accuracy requirement and needs no absolute
error modification.
x (1) (k + 1)
= 12044 .61528e 0.156851k 9703 .61528

According to this model, the zero for the


next two months is as follows.
X(2)={3274,3830,4481,5242}

0.3
0.25

zero

3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0

0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0

calculated value

Time

Time

calculated value

actual value

Figure 1 Comparison of calculated zero and


actual zero
If zero is exceeding the preset value stored in
terminal, then a warning message will be sent
out to notify the user of this failure tendency.
3.2 The prediction for distributed rate drift
For a newly installed weighing system,
acquire the data in every certain period. The
data is the rate of one cell output occupying the
total output.
For example, one 6-load cells system,
employ the model GM1.1to predict the
tendency of distributed rate. If the rate changes
35% of the initial value, then a warning
message will be sent out.

actual value

Figure 2 Comparison of calculated value


and actual value
Conclusion: Table 4 shows that the relative
errors are all less than 0.3% which means the
accuracy of the model is acceptable. According
to the calculation of the distributed rate for next
two months with this model, it will be 0.272,
and changes to 37.4% of initial rate. The
changes are exceeding the limit (35%), so a
proper method may be taken to prevent the
possible failure.

4 CONCLUSION:
A prediction method of load cell soft
failure based on grey theory is introduced for

ti Actual
m rate
e

Calculate
rate

Absolute
error

Relatively
error%

1
2
3
4

0.198
0.23124
0.24435
0.25820

0
0.000247
-0.000648
0.000201

0
0.10691
-0.26429
0.07781

0.198
0.231
0.245
0.258

x (1) (k + 1) = 4.080352 e 0.055126 k 3.882352


After two month the rate will be0.272
The change is
(0.272-0.198 )/0.198=37.4%

the first time. By building up the mathematical


model to calculate the future zero and
distributed rate for the weigh system (here, the
distributed rate is representing the sensitivity
of a load cell), a prior notice of a load cell
failure plays a role in raising the reliability of
a system. (This model uses MATLAB for
realization)

5 REFERENCES:

Table 4 Model verification


1.

Huang ShiuhJer .Huang ChienLo. Control

of an inverted pendulum using grey prediction

mode

JIEEE Trans on Industrial Application200036


2452458

2.

Deng julongThe course on grey System theory

MHuazhong University of Science and


TechnologyWuhan HUST Press1990.
3.

Yuan mingyou, Xiao xianyong , grey theory

based load for power supply prediction model and


applicationJournal of Sichuan university (Science
Edition)2002, Vol.34 No.4

A method of upgrading the analogue reading


device of a mechanical balance
Feng Ruidong1, KuiNa2, and Li Zhanhong1
1
Mass Group, Division of Mechanics and Acoustics, NIM, P.R.China
2

Beijing kedong electric power control system Co., Ltd, CEPRI, P.R.China

ABSTRACT
Because of the high precision and stability of the mechanical balance, they are widely used in
metrology and in the mass-measurement industry.. However there are some disadvantages, for example,
the sensitivity to disturbances, the longer time taken for weighing and some error due to the uploading
and downloading of weights frequently, which expands the measurement uncertainty. We should
consider how to reserve the inherent merits of mechanical balances and combine them with new
electronic technology to improve the whole performance of them. This paper explains how to convert
an analogue reading device of a mechanical balance to a digital one. The displacement transducer used
is based on the theory of the differential transformer to convert the displacement to an electrical signal.
The strong point of the system includes two parts: one is that we improve the present pointer reading
device to a digital reading device, which reduces the disturbance from artificial factors and obviously
improves the efficiency; the other is that we can adopt software technology to implement the function
of the real time trend curve and automatic access to data. So we can comprehend the working-condition
of balance better.
Keywords: Mechanic balance, OIML R76, Reading device

1. INTRODUCTION
According to the description of OIML R76 Non-automatic weighing instruments, balances, as
types of weighing instruments, are divided into four classes1: special accuracy, high accuracy, medium
accuracy, ordinary accuracy. In general, in the field of metrology, we have used the class special
accuracy to conduct the dissemination of weights of high accuracy. Early mechanical balances to
current new-type electronic balances are used widely, especially in the field of high accuracy
measurement. Mass comparators have begun to be used widely in industry for mass measurement. The
mechanical balance (for short balance) has the merit of both high accuracy and stability, and has
been widely used in metrology institutions and in the high precision measurement industry. But we
cannot avoid the disadvantages of artificial disturbances during the operation, longer weighing time
because of beam swinging which introduce some measurement error and the increase in the
measurement uncertainty.

2. PRINCIPLES
Based on these reasons, we should not only keep its intrinsic merit but also combine current new
electronic technology and automation knowledge to improve its performance. In this paper, we
introduce a way of transforming an analogue (pointer) reading device (Figure 1 (a) and (b)) into a digital
reading device (digital instrument or computer terminal) of a mechanical balance.

a)

b)
Figure 1 analogue (finger) reading device

Figure 2

sensitivity ring

For large mass mechanical balances, the, test officer often needs to firstly adjust the sensitivity
ring (Figure 2 ) so as to keep its sensitivity and stability for the different loads on the balance; secondly,

for the manner of pointer reading , the length of the pointer and the space between each graduation on
the dial are affected by the volume of balance, which reduces the resolution of reading; and more, when
the beam of balance is close to the state of equilibrium, the pointer will move slowly and could take a
long time near the equilibrium, which reduces the efficiency of testing. Based on the reason above, this
paper introduces new type digital reading device including secondary instruments and computer
terminal.
The digital reading device uses a displacement transducer based on the theory of the differential
transformer. Its basic structure (see Figure3) consists of a primary winding and two secondary windings
wound on the former and a movable core. When the primary winding is energised , the two secondary
windings will produce voltages V1 and V2. If the core is in the middle position of the winding, the
mutual induction values between the two assistant windings and the primary winding are equal to each
other. The AC voltages produced by the two secondary windings are separately demodulated by the
circuit, and the difference between these two DC voltages gives an output voltage of zero. When the
core moves up, the mutual induction between the primary and top secondary winding increases and on
the other side, decreases that is, V1>V2. We will get the output voltage V>0, contrariwise V<0. We
also know that the voltage is linear with the displacement of the core in a certain range.

R1
E21

I1
U1

U2

L21
L1
E22

Figure 3

the structure of differential transformer

A 5-ton mechanical balance in the mass and density laboratory in NIM, China, is an equal-arm balance
with double pans, moreover it has multiple loads: 500kg, 1000kg and 5000kg. In the past, for different
loads, we need to adjust the position of the sensitivity ring that changes the centre of mass of the
balance so as to change the sensitivity. This balance has been used for dissemination for the special
weights in a force machine and weights of lower class such as class F2 and M1. Its performance
characteristics are given in Table 1.

Table 1

load
5000kg

1000kg

500kg

5.0g/scale

1.4g~1.6g/scale

1.2g~1.4g/scale

performance
scale (S)

3. THE REALIZATION OF THE DEVICE


We applied displacement technology based on the theory of the differential transformer for the
5-ton mechanical balance, aiming at realizing transformation of the signal of displacement into an
electrical signal. We designed the structure of the displacement sensor (see Figure 4). When the beam of
the balance is swaying, the core (pontil) attached to the end of the pointer will move in the magnetic
field produced by the excitation voltage. Different displacements correspond to different analog voltage
signals. Because it is still an analog signal, we need to use an A/D converter to transform it into a
digital signal and add the function of filtering-waves, magnifying, etc. The digital reading is displayed
by the instrument. These functions not only realize the conversion from pointer reading to digital
reading, but also magnifies the signal 20~50 times. When the amplitude of the swing of the pointer is
very small, we can still see the digital readings clearly on the instrument and record them.

output
220AC

Frame coiled by winding

Pontil like fork shape

Figure 4 the structure of displacement sensor

Figure 5 computer terminal

In order to observe the real-time data better, we introduced the computer terminal (Figure 5). A
second instrument is able to communicate the data through the com port like RS232 and RS485, etc.
On the screen of the computer terminal, we can observe the real-time trend drawing (see Figure 6). It is
easy to record automatically the real-time trend drawing and save all the data in the computer, which
can be seen in figure 5. The computer terminal performs the function of second instrument further. We
can operate the balance according to the right approach to get the sensitivity of the balance that the
testing officer pays attention to specially. Another merit of the recordable software is that, we can
determine whether it is working correctly by the real-time trend of the pointer swing.

Figure 6

By plenty of testing data, we obtain the following data (see table 2):
Table2

load
5000kg

1000kg

500kg

5.0g/scale

1.0g/scale

1.0g/scale

performance
scale (S)

4. CONCLUSION
This paper shows the application of a digital reading device of a balance based on the technology
of the displacement transducer using a differential transformer. The system transformed the pointer
reading device into a digital reading device, whose merit is to decrease the disturbance from artificial
factors and to improve the efficiency due to a reduction in the amplitude of swing of the pointer, to
record the data and save the real-time plot automatically, which makes for analyzing the data to
determine the working condition of the balance. This work will establish a firm basis for further
automatic operation of the 5t balance.

5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I will give thanks to our colleague: Liu Jianming, a senior Engineer and Liu Zhiyong, the director
of Volume Laboratory.

6. REFERENCES
1.

OIML R76 Non-automatic weighing instrument1992 (E), pp.19.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Length Measurement on Belt Conveyor by Image Processing


(2nd report)
Akihiro Watanabe1, Takanori Yamazaki2, Hideo Ohnishi3, Masaaki Kobayashi3, Shigeru Kurosu4
1
Department of Environmental Engineering, Utsunomiya University, Japan
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Oyama National College of Technology, Japan
3
Shinko Denshi Co. Ltd., Japan
4
Reserach Inst., Crotech, Japan
ABSTRACT
This paper presents an entirely new method which achieves precise length measurement of products on conveyor belt at
high speed. Recently, the automatic length and mass measurement of products in motion is coming to assume greater
importance in some industrial fields. Of particular interest to us is how to measure length of products at a stationary
state. Then, making the best use of the conventional length measurement on a conveyor, we proposed a new length
estimation method for moving products with a digital image taken by a handy digital camera in the previous paper. The
advantage of using a handy digital camera is very cheap and is easy to use. We gave a brief explanation of the length
measurement with a digital image and discussed some technical problems in obtaining length measurement with high
accuracy. In this paper, we demonstrate the results obtained by applying our calibration method to digital images
having different dimensions.
Keywords: Length measurement, Digital image, Moving product, Conveyor belt

1. INTRODUCTION
In recent years, many studies on mass and length measurement of moving products on a conveyer belt have been made
energetically in distribution and food industries. In the mass and length measurement of products on a conveyor belt,
the mass and dimension of products are generally random. Long, short, high, low heavy and light products are passed
over a conveyor belt at a high-speed.
Through previous papers on multi-stage conveyor belt, the continuous weighing method has been established with
satisfactory performance. In the multi-stage conveyor belt so far presented, not only a mass of a product, but also a
length of the product should be measured with high accuracy demands. The length measurement of moving products
has been still remained unsolved. The control thrust of our study is a length measurement of static products, not
dynamic.
So, we will propose a new measuring method for static products. Our aim is to establish a highly accurate length
measurement of static products with a digital image taken by a handy camera. The advantage of using a handy digital
camera is very cheap and is easy to use. In this paper, of particular interest to us is how to estimate the length under the
consideration of spherical aberration in a lens.

2. LENGTH MEASUREMENT
The fundamental configuration of the length measurement system with a digital camera may be represented schematically as shown in Figure 1. Design specifications are the length of product: 100~1200 mm, the width of product:
100~900 mm, the height of product: 30~900 mm, and the color: not specified. A product to be measured is transported
from an input side conveyor (right) into a multi-stage conveyor having a length of 1400 mm and after measurement the
product is transported onto an output side conveyor (left). And the accuracy of length 5 mm is required. The
transportation speed ranges from 20 m/min to 80 m/min in practice. The transportation speed affects the performance of
measurement, but the existence of such speed cannot be taken into account because of preliminary tests in this study.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Start

product to be measured
W

End

1 2 3 4 5 6

Center

Figure 1: Length measurement system

Figure 2: The digital image of length


of 100 mm in length direction

Figure 3: The enlarged digital image


of a part of Fig. 2

A digital image consists of a set of dots, called pixels. In this study, we use the digital iamge that constitutes
22401488 pixels, defining by the number of the vertical pixels and the horizontal pixels that represent the pV and the
pH, respectively. For convenience, the colors of product and background are chosen as white and black to make the
border line between a product and back ground of product clear. The graduation sequence between light and shade is
classified to 8 bits (or 256) for one pixel. The graduation sequence 0 means deep black, and 255 does pure white. In
our image-processing unit, the threshold value set to 60. When the graduation sequence gets to greater than 60, it is
assumed to be white. Basically, an estimated length can be obtained from multiplying the counted number of the pixels
by the reference unit pixel. The unit pixel represents length per unit pixel. If you need more exact explanations, please
refer to our previous report1), 2).

3. CALIBRATION FOR SPHERICAL ABERRARTION


3.1 DERIVATION OF CALIBTATION FORMULA
Though the accuracy for a digital image at present is said to be higher degree because of recent technical innovation of
a digital image, it is evident that the spherical aberration of a lens should be calibrated for the exact length
measurement. Through our previous papers, the experiments showed that the spherical aberration of a lens increases
concentrically. And we have been obtained the results by using six kinds of unit pixels for different reference lengths of
200 mm, 400 mm, 600 mm, 800 mm, 1000 mm and 1200 mm. As the reference length is increased, the estimated error
tends to be positive and the error span is decreased. Now, we will develop the calibration method of spherical
aberration of a lens by using the measured data.
In the calibration method of spherical aberration of a lens we proposed in the previous paper, it needed to calculate the
number of pixels from the center of a lens to formulate the calibration formula. To obtain an exact length of product, we
propose the calibration method. The calibration formula can be made by using several unit pixels in the following steps:
(1) Take pictures of a product at every width of 100 mm.
(2) Calculate the unit pixels for each product in the length direction.
(3) Plot the unit pixels obtained from each product.
(4) Derive the approximate liner function by applying the least squares method to data.
Figure 2 shows an illustrative example of digital images for obtaining the calibration formula. The pure white products
are 100 mm in length and are arranged at intervals of 50 mm. Figure 3 shows an example of enlarged digital image of
products shown in Figure 2. Assuming that the central part of a digital image is free of aberration of a lens, distortions
of a digital image increase with increasing the distance between the center of a lens and the product. The number of
pixels can be started to count when the front edge of product is detected and can be ended to count when the back edge
is detected. The central position of a product can be obtained by averaging number of pixels between starting point and
ending one. The length of a product can be given by difference of pixel numbers between starting point and ending one.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Table 1: Results of products of 100 mm for calibration method


Number of pixels px
Num. Starting Ending
point
point

Center of
product

Num. of pixels
Counted

Unit pixel
mm/px

16

143

79.5

128

0.7813

209

334

271.5

126

0.7937

398

520

459.0

123

0.8130

583

702

642.5

120

0.8333

762

879

820.5

118

0.8475

938

1053

995.5

116

0.8621

plf

pl

pls

pw
py
l

(0, 0)
px

Unit pixels mm/px

Product

pwf
pws

0.85

Pixel

0.8

Spherical aberration

Figure 5: The image of spherical aberration


u = 9.13610-5p+0.7721

0.75

500

1000

Number of pixels px
Figure 4: Relation between unit pixels and center of products

For six kinds of products having 100 mm in length as shown in Figure 2, Table 1 summarizes the experimental results
obtained. It can be seen from Table 1 that the number of pixels is 128 px in the vicinity of the center and it decreases to
116 px at the edge of a digital image. That is to say, the number of pixels may be varied with the distance from the
central position to some extent. Since the number of pixels decreases with increasing the distance from the central
position, it is clear that the unit pixel should be varied with the distance from the central position.
Figure 4 shows the experimental results, where the horizontal axis and the vertical axis depict the number of pixels and
the unit pixel, respectively. The method of least square may be used for determining the linear function for fitting data.
Thus, the approximated function is
u = 9.13610-5 p+0.7721

(3)

as the solid line shown in Figure 4. Using this function, we propose an entirely new estimation method for measuring
length of products. The length of the product can be estimated by the following integral:
x=

u dp.

(4)

3.2 CALIBRATION
The calibration method discussed in the previous section has been proposed assuming that the products were set to the
central position in the length direction. The central position means that the product is positioned on horizontal axis or
vertical axis. So, in case that the products are put at any position, this method cannot be directly applicable. However,
on the information that the spherical aberration can be increased concentrically, the length to be measured can be
corrected by counting the pixels from the center of a digital image. Let us define the coordinate in a digital image. The
coordinates in the upper left point and the lower right point are (0, 0) and (2240, 1488), respectively. Thus, the origin of
a digital image becomes (1120, 744) and the pixels from the origin (called the central position) are needed to calculate
the length to be measured. Figure 5 shows an illustrative example in case that the product is not positioned on the
coordinate axes. The variables can be defined in the following:

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Column
2 3 4 5
1
2

Width direction

Table 2: The number of pixels counted at each position


Row

(a) Length direction

(b) Width direction

4
Column
1

Row
Length direction

Column
4

125 124 122 120

120

127 125 122 119

118

128 126 123 120

118

129 126 121 119

117

Row

121 121 121 120 121

123 124 123 123 121

127 126 125 124 123

128 127 126 125 124

Figure 6: The digital image of products


(product: 100 mm squared)

pl: the number of pixels for product in the length direction,


pls: the starting pixel of product in the length direction,
plf: the ending pixel of product in the length direction,
pw: the number of pixels for product in the width direction,
pws: the starting pixel of product in the width direction,
pwf: the ending pixel of product in the width direction,
w: the position in the width direction to count the number of pixels in the length direction,
l: the position in the length direction to count the number of pixels in the width direction,
px: the pixels from center position on digital image in the length direction (pls px plf),
py: the pixels from center position on digital image in the width direction (pws py pwf).
The number of pixels for use the calibration method can be calculated as equation 5. Finally, the number of pixels for
calibration can be obtained as:
p=

px + p y

(5)

The procedures to estimate the length of products in he the length direction are summarized as:
(1) w is kept fixed.
(2) Count the number of pixels from pls to plf along the line on w.
(3) Calculate the length to be measured by the integration and the calibration formula.
Similarly, the length of products in the width direction can be easily estimated.

3.3 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS


We will present illustrative example for estimation of the length of the product at the 2nd row and the 4th column as
shown in Figure 6. You can see the shape of products that it looks just like a round ball as the distance from the center
(or the origin) is increased. Table 2 (a) and (b) provides the results of the number of pixels counted at every position,
where (a) depicts the results in the length direction and (b) does those in the width direction. It is obvious that the
number of pixels varies with the position of the product. That is to say that the number of pixels tends to be decreased
as the position of the product approaches the edge of a digital image.
We will give a brief explanation for estimation of the length of a product in the length direction. Figure 7 presents the
enlarged digital image of a part in Figure 6. In this figure, w can be determined as 250 px that passes through the center
of the product. Figure 8 shows the records of the graduation sequence with respect to the number of pixels. From the
figure, the length to the product (the 4th column) ranges within the starting pixel pls = 1818 px and the ending pixel plf
= 1936 px. It is easily found that the length for this case can be given by

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

4 th column

200

lf = 1936 px

lf = 1936 px

150

2nd
row
w = 250 px

Graduation sequence

Graduation sequence

250

wf = 210 px

ls = 1818 px

ls = 1818 px

100

ws = 331 px

50
0
0

l = 1880 px

500

1000

1500

250
200

ws = 210px

150

wf = 331 px

100
50
0
0

2000

Figure: 7 The digital image


enlarged a part of Fig. 6
at 2nd row and 4th column

500

1000

Number of pixels px

Number of pixels px
(a) Length direction(2nd row)

(b) Width direction(4th column)

Figure 8: Relationship between the number of pixels and graduation sequence on


2nd row and 4th column

xl = udp =
pl

plf

ps

(9.136 10

-5

p + 0.7721 dp .

(7)

As a result, the length of the product in the length direction can be estimated as 101.7 mm which satisfy the required
accuracy. Similarly, the length of the product in the width direction can be estimated as 105.0 mm which is significantly
close to the upper limit of the required accuracy.
Figure 9 shows the comparison between the results with calibration and those with no calibration. Figure 9 (a) presents
the estimated errors for every row in the length direction. It can be seen that as the product goes from the 4th row (near
the center) to the 1st row (near the edge), or the distance from the horizontal axis to the product increases. The error
tends to be positive and the accuracy gets to worse. Similarly, Figure 9 (b) presents the estimated errors for every
column in the width direction. It also can be seen that as the product goes from the 1st column (near the center) to the
5th column (near the center) the error tends to be positive and the accuracy gets to worse.
In our experiments, the length for 20 pieces of products have been estimated. For results with no calibration, 63% of all
products were satisfied with the accuracy. On the other hands, for results with calibration, 88% of all products were
satisfied with the accuracy. The accuracy has been improved 40%. As a result, the calibration method has been
successfully accomplished.

Estimated error mm

5
No calibration
1st
2nd
3rd
4th

0
-5

-10
0

200

400

600

800

Number of pixels px
(a) Length direction

1000

Each column
Calibration
1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
No calibration
1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th

10

Estimated error mm

Each row
Calibration
1st
2nd
4th
3rd

10

5
0
-5
-10
0

200

400

600

Number of pixels px
(b) Width direction

Figure 9: The comparison between the results with calibration and with no calibration

800

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

The estimated errors tend to be positive (+) in both length and width directions equally, If there are different tendencies
in both directions, the assumption that the spherical aberration increases concentrically cannot be validated. Fortunately,
there exists the equivalent tendency in both directions. The growing tendency toward positive means that the estimated
errors can be overcompensated by the calibration formula. To relax the effects of the spherical aberration on the
estimated errors, the position of the product should be determined exactly and the calibration formula should be revised
and improved.
However, since digital images may be distorted due to the spherical aberration in a lens, it can be expected that the
spherical aberration effects the center of the image. What the center of the image is will be a future work in this study.
A more detailed investigations will be conducted under more considerations that need to improve an accuracy of length
measurement.

4. CONCLUSIONS
This paper proposed a new length measurement method for products on conveyor belt by using of a digital image taken
by a handy digital camera. In preliminary tests, the calibration method has been proposed to compensate the spherical
aberration in a lens and the length measurement of static products has been successfully achieved by the calibration
method.
The results obtained in this study are summarized in the following:
(1) The accuracy has been improved 40% after with calibration. As a result, the calibration method has been
successfully accomplished.
(2) As the result of length and width direction, the estimated length of products that is positioned neat the edge tends to
positive position. It may be caused by setting the plotting point as center position of product.

5. REFERENCES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

A. Watanabe, T. Yamazaki H. Ohnishi, M. Kobayashi and S. Kurosu, Length measurement for moving products
on conveyor belt, Proceedings of SICE Annual Conference 2007, Kagawa, 2007, pp. 373-377.
A. Watanabe, T. Yamazaki H. Ohnishi, M. Kobayashi and S. Kurosu, Development of mass and length
measurement system on conveyor belt, Proceedings of JSME Kanto branch, Saitama, 2006, pp. 513-514.
S. Ojima, T. Yamazaki H. Ohnishi, M. Kobayashi and S. Kurosu, Length measurement on belt conveyor by image
processing, Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2005), Jeju, 2005, pp.
124-129.
K. Taniguchi, et al., Engineering of image processing, Kyouritu-shuppan, 1996.
J. Toriwaki, Digital image Processing for Image Understanding, Shoko-do, 1987.
T. Kisihikawa, Introduction to optronics, Optronics Co., Ltd., 1990.
H. Guan, K. Shiraishi, K. Watanabe, H. Fukuoka, K. Ohashi, Digital Image Correcting Method for Digital
Camera, Ricoh Technical Report, 31, pp. 103-110, 2005.
H. Guan, S. Aoki, K. Ejiri, A New Method for Correcting Geometric Distortion in Digital Images and Its
Application to Panorama Image Composition, Ricoh Technical Report, 23, pp. 45-52, 1997.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Stability of prototype kilograms and the stainless steel kilogram


standards at NMIA
Kitty Fen
Mass, Acoustics and Temperature Section, Division of Physical Metrology, NMI, Australia
ABSTRACT
International Prototype Kilogram copy no. 44 has been the Australian national standard of mass since 1949. It is kept at
the NMIA and is used to compare with one kilogram stainless steel secondary standards and they in turn are used to
calibrate our two one kilogram stainless steel working standards. These standards are then used to disseminate mass
standards from 20 kg to 1 mg. In this paper, the mass comparisons between copy no. 44 and eight of NMIAs secondary
standards during the period of 1993 and 2006 are presented. The result shows that mass changes of the stainless steel
secondary standards vary from 23 g to 126 g over 13 years even though they were kept under the same
environmental conditions. In 2004, NMIA acquired another prototype kilogram copy no. 87 from BIPM and copy no.
44 was returned to BIPM for recalibration in early 2005. The result showed that the mass of copy no. 44 was
overestimated by about 7 g at the time of recalibration. In this paper the mass comparison between copy no. 44 and
copy no. 87 in the period of 2004 to 2007 is also presented. It shows that copy 87 is relatively more stable than copy 44
at the early stage of the comparison.
Keywords: mass standard, prototype

1. INTRODUCTION
The primary standard of mass is the International Prototype Kilogram, a platinum-iridium cylinder held at the
international bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM), Sevres, France. Copy no. 44 (PI44) of it is the National
Standard of mass in Australia. NMIA maintains a set of 1 kg stainless steel standards calibrated against the National
Standard, which in turn is used to calibrate sets of standards comprising masses from 1 mg to 20 kg. PI44 was sent back
to BIPM four times for recalibration between 1949 and 1988. In 1989 it was sent to BIPM for the third periodic
verification of national prototypes of the kilogram. During this verification a special cleaning and washing method was
used for all the national prototypes and the changes of mass of these prototypes were estimated. According to the report
[1] PI44 showed a rate of change about 0.9 g per year since the second periodic verification in the 1950s. The value is
greater than the average 0.25 g per year for well stored, carefully-used national prototypes copies No.1 to 40 except a
few damaged or peculiar ones. As PI44 is scheduled to be sent to BIPM every ten years for recalibration, it is necessary
to monitor its relative mass changes during the ten-year period by comparing it with 1 kg stainless steel secondary
standards. At NMIA, the measurements were carried out every two years to coincide with the recalibration of our two
sets of OIML class E1 working standards from 1 mg to 20 kg.
In 2004 NMIA acquired a new copy no. 87, PI87, of the prototype kilogram. This prototype was manufactured using a
new diamond turning method. After we received PI87, PI44 was sent to BIPM for recalibration in 2005. Mass
comparisons were conducted among PI44, PI87 and two 1 kg stainless steel secondary standards before and after PI44s
recalibration.

2. INSTRUMENT USED FOR THE COMPARISON


In 1991 NMIA installed a HK1000MC four position automatic balance for 1 kg mass comparison as shown in figure 1.
Since then the prototype kilogram copy no. 44 has been directly compared against three 1 kg stainless steel secondary
mass standards, Stan, Chy1 and Chy2 every two years. Five stainless steel secondary mass standards ChyS, K, L, M, N
were then compared with Stan and Chy2. Stan has been kept at NMIA since the 1960s and the other standards were
obtained in the 1970s and 1980s. All of these stainless steel secondary standards have been kept at NMIA for more than
20 years. Figure 2 shows the eight secondary standards.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Figure 1. 1 kg automatic comparator.

Stan

Chy1, ChyS

Chy2

K,L,M,N

Figure 2. Eight 1 kg stainless steel secondary standards.

3. PROTOTYPE COMPARED WITH ONE KILOGRAM SECONDARY STANDARDS


Mass comparisons were performed between PI44, Stan, Chy1 and Chy2 from 1993 to 2006. Due to the large buoyancy
difference between PI44 and the stainless steel standards, the conventional mass difference indicated on the balance is
more than 100 mg. In order to reduce possible errors due to the linearity of the balance, a 100 mg poise weight was put
on top of each stainless steel weight so that the mass reading obtained from the balance did not differ by more than 3
mg. The standard deviations of these comparisons were less than 2.5 g.
For each calibration, 560 mass comparisons between PI44 and the three secondary standards were carried out over a
period of seven days. In the following month 240 mass comparisons among each set of the stainless steel secondary
mass standards were conducted. Temperature, relative humidity and pressure were measured using a platinum
resistance thermometer, a capacitive thin film polymer relative humidity sensor and a resonant silicon pressure sensor.
The comparisons were all done in air and air densities were calculated during the measurements. The concentration of
carbon dioxide in the laboratory was monitored with a typical reading of 390 ppm 20 ppm. The density and the
volume of these standards were determined using hydrostatic weighing in 1991.
The mass of a secondary standard S (in this case Stan, Chy1, Chy2) calibrated in terms of PI44, denoted as P, is given
by equation (1)
g
ms = m p + a1 (Vs 20 V p 20 ) + a1 (t1 20)(Vs 20 s V p 20 p ) 1kg.g 1 (hs h p ) + Y1 p s
(1)
h

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

where
ms: Mass of S
mp: Mass of P
a1: Density of air during calibration of S in terms of P
Vs20 : Volume of S at 20C (typically 127 cm3)
Vp20 : Volume of P at 20C (46.5 cm3)
t1 : Balance chamber temperature during calibration of S in terms of P (typically 22C)
s : Volumetric coefficient of expansion for S (45x10-6 K-1)
p : Volumetric coefficient of expansion for P (26x10-6 K-1)
g : Acceleration due to gravity
hs : height of the centre of mass of S above its base
hp : Height of the centre of mass of P above its base
Y1 : Balance reading for S minus balance reading for P
ps : Mass of poise weight added to S during calibration (nominally 100mg)
hs-hp = 11.2 mm and the relative gravity gradient g/h is taken to be 3.1x10-7 m-1
The mass variations of PI44, Stan, Chy1 and Chy2 from 1993 to 2006 are shown in figure 3. The results show that the
variations of the mass values of the secondary standards followed similar trends and varied close to the estimated
uncertainties of 30 g. The two secondary standards, Stan and Chy2, used to calibrate high quality 1 kg standards had a
variation of 32 g and 25 g respectively. This may be due to the calculation of air buoyancy during the comparisons.
After the third periodic verification of national prototypes of the kilogram in 1991 when most of the national prototypes
were sent to BIPM for calibration, a report [1] was published on the results. In [1] PI44 was estimated to increase in
mass by 1 g per month for the first six months after cleaning and washing and then increase by 1 g every year from
1991 onwards. In figure 3, the mass of the PI44 was taken to be zero in January 1993 and increases accordingly. The
estimated mass of PI44 at NMIA in 2005 was 1 kg + 0.307 mg. After PI44 was recalibrated in 2005, the BIPM
calibration certificate showed that the mass value of the prototype was 1 kg + 0.300 mg. A decrease in mass is therefore
noted in figure 3. The mass of PI44 was overestimated by 7 g in 2005.

20

Mass with offset (ug)

0
-20
PI44

-40

Stan
Chy1

-60

Chy2

-80
-100
May-90

Jan-93

Oct-95

Jul-98

Apr-01

Jan-04

Oct-06

Jul-09

Date

Figure 3. Mass of 1 kg stainless steel secondary standards, Stan, Chy1 and Chy2 when compared with PI44 from 1993 to
2006. The mass value of each standard has been given a constant offset.

Figure 4 shows the result of comparisons between the 1 kg stainless steel standard, Stan and other secondary stainless
steel standards. The set of secondary standards K, L, M and N were made of the same material at the same time and
were stored in the same weight box since they were made in the 1970s. The stabilities of weights K and L as shown in
figure 4 are different from that of M and N. Standard M shows a bigger drop in mass from 1993 to 1995 and it
continued to decrease in the following ten years. Since 1993, the mass of M has decreased by 126 g while for standard
N, the mass change was rather small; the maximum difference was only 25 g.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

300
250

Mass with offset (ug)

200
M
N

150

100

L
ChyS

50

stan
0
-50
-100
May-90

Jan-93

Oct-95

Jul-98

Apr-01

Jan-04

Oct-06

Jul-09

Date

Figure 4. Mass of 1 kg stainless steel secondary standards M, N, K, L and ChyS compared with Stan. The mass
value of each standard has been given a constant offset.

4. PI44 COMPARED AGAINST PI87

Figure 5. Prototype of kilogram copy no.87, PI87.

NMIA acquired a second platinum-iridium prototype copy no. 87 in 2004. Figure 5 shows the prototype in a double
layer glass bell jar. The history of calibration results of PI44 is shown in Figure 6. In 1979 and 1991 it was weighed
before it was cleaned and washed and the mass differences between its before and after cleaning values were 21 g and
31 g respectively. After cleaning, the mass of the prototype was 1 kg + 0.283 mg in 1979 and 1 kg + 0.287 mg in
1991. The difference was within 4 g. PI44 was then returned to BIPM for recalibration in 2005. Unlike the two
previous calibrations (1979, 1991), no cleaning and washing of the prototype was carried out. The mass, 1 kg + 0.300
mg, obtained from the BIPM certificate in 2005, resembled the before cleaning mass values 1 kg + 0.302 mg in 1979.
It was decided that no washing and cleaning would be done in the 2005 recalibration to allow the rate of mass change of
the prototype to be carefully monitored over the next 10 years using PI87.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Mass in excess of 1 kg (mg)

0.33
before
cleaning

0.32

no
cleaning

0.31
0.3
0.29
0.28
after cleaning

0.27
0.26
0.25
1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

2010

Date
1946
after cleaning

1979
before or without cleaning

Figure 6. Mass of PI44 from 1946 to 2005 on BIPM certificate.

Mass comparisons were done between PI44 and PI87 when PI87 arrived at NMIA in 2004. Figure 7 shows the
measurement results during the period 2004 to 2007. PI44 was at BIPM for recalibration between April and October
2005. The mass difference between PI44 and PI87 increased during the period February to March 2005. Variations such
as exchanging the weighing positions on the weighing pans and re-centering of the prototypes on the pans after each set
of comparisons were tried to test if the increasing observation was true. The measurement results stayed the same.
Figure 8 shows the comparison results of PI44 and PI87 against Stan, the 1 kg secondary standard. An increase of mass
difference between PI44 and Stan was observed during Feb and March 2005 but there was no such increase with PI87
versus Stan. The result suggested that there might be a genuine mass change of PI44 during this period. The PI44 was
then sent back to BIPM. After PI44 was recalibrated and returned, a series of measurements was conducted and two
small loops were observed in Dec 2005 and March 2006 as shown in Figure 7. These two loops seemed to be rectified
when re-centering was performed after each set of comparisons. The mass difference between the two prototypes
seemed to settle down so that the variation of mass difference between PI44 and PI87 has been within 7 g since March
2006.

0.160

PI44 at BIPM
0.140

Mass diff. (mg)

0.120
0.100

PI44-PI87

0.080
Chy2 - Stan
0.060
0.040
0.020
0.000
Aug-2004

Feb-2005

Sep-2005

Mar-2006

Oct-2006

Apr-2007

Nov-2007

Date

Figure 7. Mass difference between PI87 and PI44 and mass difference between two 1 kg stainless steel secondary standards,
Chy2 and Stan from 2004 to 2007.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

0.100
PI87 - Stan

Mass diff. (mg)

0.080

PI44 at BIPM
PI44 - Stan

0.060
0.040
0.020
0.000
-0.020
-0.040
Aug-04

Nov-04

Feb-05

May-05

Sep-05

Dec-05

Mar-06

Jul-06

Oct-06

Date

Figure 8. PI87 and PI44 compared against the stainless steel standard Stan. There is constant offset for each mass difference.

5. CONCLUSION
Over the last thirteen years, mass comparisons were conducted between PI44 and the 1 kg stainless steel secondary
standards every two years. Results show that some stainless steel standards have better stabilities than others and the
mass changes vary from 23 g to 126 g and most of the variations were close to the measurement uncertainties.
Results show that the two stainless steel secondary standards, Stan and Chy2, have variations of 32 g and 25 g
respectively over thirteen years which is considered stable enough to be used to calibrate high quality 1 kg standards.
After PI44 was recalibrated in 2005 without cleaning and washing, it was found that its mass was overestimated by
about 7 g using the formula suggested in [1]. The mass value was close to the before-cleaning value in 1979. As PI44
was not cleaned in this calibration, we expect the rate of change of mass may be smaller until the next calibration in
2015. The mass of PI44 is now monitored by comparing with PI87 which is believed to have better surface finishing as
improved technology was used during manufacturing. During February and March 2005, PI44 showed instability when
compared with PI87, which was confirmed by comparison with the stainless steel standard Stan. PI44 seemed to have a
genuine mass change during that period. Since 2006, the variation of mass difference between PI44 and PI87 has settled
down to within 7 g.
There were a few sets of measurement results in late 2005 and early 2006 which might be due to a centering problem of
the prototypes on the weighing pans of the HK1000MC automatic balance. The problem seemed to be solved by recentering both prototypes after each set of the comparisons.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
In this paper, that covers sets of measurement results over fourteen years, it must be noted that Dr. E. Morris did all the
measurements during 1993 and 1997. I would like to express my appreciation of Dr. Morriss work and his detailed
records of all the measurements.

5. REFERENCES
1.

G. Girard, The Third Periodic Verification of National Prototypes of the Kilogram (1988-1992), Metrologia 31,
pp. 317-336, 1994.

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62

Poster Session
Thursday 25th Oct 2007
13:30 15:30

42

Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force, Torque and Density (APMF 2007)

43

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Study On the Results of Korea-Japan inter-laboratory comparison


Using the Artifacts (E1 Class 1 kg Weights)
Sung Ho Yoo , Min-Soo Lee, Jae Hoon Choi
Measurement & Calibration Center, KTL, Korea
ABSTRACT
This is the results of an inter-laboratory comparison on the artifacts (two Weights for 1 kg) by seven laboratories
accredited by the International Accreditation Japan (IAJapan). This program was the first Korea-Japan inter-laboratory
comparison. The circulation of the artifacts commenced in April 2005 and finished in January 2006. Korea Testing
Laboratory (KTL) acted as the Reference Laboratory, deriving the reference values from the calibration of the artifacts.
The reference values for the artifacts are derived from mean of the four times calibration carried out by the KTL (two
times before the circulation and two times after the circulation).The majority of the instabilities of the artifacts during
their circulation were insignificant. They have been considered for the evaluation of the results. Table 4 shows the
results reported by the participating laboratories. In accordance with international practice, measurement performance
has been assessed on the basis of an En ratio for each measurement. The En ratios are calculated using a standard
statistical technique for comparing values. The En ratios show that the measurement results and uncertainties of
participating laboratories are adequate. All participants submissions had no problem.
Keywords: Inter-laboratory comparisons, mass, uncertainty, En ratio, weight.

1. INTRODUCTION
This program was coordinated by the Korea Accreditation Scheme, Korea(KOLAS) and funded by the Ministry of
Commerce, Industry and Energy, Korea. The inter-laboratory comparisons are used to determine the performance of
individual laboratories for specific tests or measurement. One of main aims of this inter-laboratory comparison program
was to build up and maintain mutual confidence in the technical competence of Korea-Japan members. The secondary
aim was to assess the participants ability to estimate their uncertainty of measurement. The program was designed to
test the participants ability to perform calibration of two weights for 1 kg and to obtain values within their accredited
uncertainties of measurement. Two weights for 1 kg have been chosen, because 1 kg weight covers the range of weight
mostly used in practice. This inter-laboratory comparison program involved the single loop circulation of the artifacts
around the group of participating laboratories. These laboratories are accredited for various levels of accuracy as
defined in their scope of accreditation. To maintain confidentiality, participating laboratories were assigned random lab
code numbers. Table 1 shows the circulation schedule of participating laboratories.
Table 1. Circulation schedule for the participating laboratories
Participants

Measurement date

Technical Service Division,


Mettler-Toledo K.K.

2005. 7. 4 ~ 2005. 7. 14

Measurement Division Shikatsu Branch, Chubu Testing Center,


Japan Quality Assurance Organization

2005. 7. 19 ~ 2005. 7. 28

Kyushu Testing Office,


Japan Quality Assurance Organization

2005. 8. 3 ~ 2005. 8. 5

Measurement Equipment Verification Division,


Kansai Testing Center

2005. 8. 16 ~ 2005. 8.18

Hokuriku Calibration Center, Toyamakouki

2005. 8. 26 ~ 2005. 8. 29

Calibration Center, A & D Co. Ltd.

2005. 9. 20 ~ 2005. 9. 22

Measurement Division Measurement and Calibration center,


Japan Quality Assurance Organization

2005. 9. 2 ~ 2005. 10. 4

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

2. DESCRIPTION OF THE ARTIFACTS


The artifacts are made of non-magnetic stainless steel and have the form and quality recommended by OIML for
weights of accuracy class E1[1]. They had been purchased by KTL in 2002. For transportation, the artifacts were kept
inside a box and fixed in appropriate holes just by being wrapped in low-fluffy paper. The box was carried by a
conventional traveling bag. No remarkable incident or damage of the artifacts has been occurred.

3. SUMMARY OF THE RESULTS


3.1 STABLILITY OF THE ARTIFACTS
Table 2 and Table 3 show the results of mass measured by mass comparator at the KTL before and after circulation.
The changes of the artifacts are small below the measurement uncertainties. The KTL measured the artifacts against its
reference standards, which have essentially the same shape and quality and have been calibrated by KRISS before and
after the circulation. They have been stored under bell jars all the time between the comparisons with the artifacts.
Because the maximum differences of the mass is within the uncertainties, the reference values by the KTL didnt
change significantly during the inter-comparison.
Table 2. Results of the artifact(No.1) at the KTL.
Measurement
Date

Mass
(g)

Uncertainty(k=2)
(mg)

Note

2005. 4. 12
2005. 5. 14
2006. 1. 14
2006. 1. 18

999.999 888
999.999 907
999.999 926
999.999 947

0.07
0.07
0.07
0.07

R1
R2
R3
R4

Table 3. Results of the artifact(No.2) at the KTL.


Measurement
Date

Mass
(g)

Uncertainty(k=2)
(mg)

Note

2005. 4. 12
2005. 5. 14
2006. 1. 14
2006. 1. 18

999.999 779
999.999 838
999.999 809
999.999 810

0.07
0.07
0.07
0.07

R1
R2
R3
R4

3.2 VALUES OF MASS AND EXPANDED UNCERTAINTY


The basic model describing the measurements of each participant is given in equation (1).

M S (1
MT =

dS

) m X (1

(1

dT

d mS

)
(1)

Where, MS is mass of the reference standard(g), dS is density of the reference standard(g/), MT is mass of the
artifact(g), dT is density of the artifact(g/), mX is the observed differences in mass between the artifact and
reference standard(g), d m is density of the sensitivity weight (g/), and is density of the air(g/).
S

Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 show the results and the expanded uncertainties with a level of confidence of approximately 95 % as
given by the participating laboratories. For comparing the results of participating laboratories, we have to link them to
the reference data of the KTL. The best way is to calculate the difference between the mass determined by the

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

participating laboratory and that determined by the KTL. The best estimate of the references mass value is the average
of the four results before and after the circulation, because we dont know when the change between these four values
has occurred, and have been calculated as follows:

ms =

mR1 + mR 2 + mR 3 + mR 4
4

(2)

This assumption can be made for all data, because there is no sign for a sudden change at some instant or a significant
drift(see Table 2 and 3).The mass difference between a participating laboratory A and the reference laboratory R is then
calculated, for example:

m A, R = m A
0 . 0 0 1 0

0 . 0 0 0 8

0 . 0 0 0 6

0 . 0 0 0 4

0 . 0 0 0 2

0 . 0 0 0 0

- 0 . 0 0 0 2

- 0 . 0 0 0 4

- 0 . 0 0 0 6

- 0 . 0 0 0 8

- 0 . 0 0 1 0

S T D

- 1

mR1 + mR 2 + mR 3 + mR 4
4

- 2

- 3

- 4

(3)

- 5

- 6

- 7

Fig. 1 Differences between Ref. and Lab. for No.1 artifact

0 .0 0 1 0

0 .0 0 0 8

0 .0 0 0 6

0 .0 0 0 4

0 .0 0 0 2

0 .0 0 0 0

- 0 .0 0 0 2

- 0 .0 0 0 4

- 0 .0 0 0 6

- 0 .0 0 0 8

- 0 .0 0 1 0

S TD

W - 1

W - 2

W - 3

W - 4

W - 5

W - 6

W - 7

Fig. 2 Difference between Ref. and Lab. for No.2 artifact

3.3 EN RATIO
Proficiency test results often need to be transformed into a performance statistic, to aid interpretation and to allow
comparison with defined goals. The objective is measure the deviation from the assigned value in a manner that allows
comparison with performance criteria. En ratio is used to evaluate the performance of the participating laboratories and
is then calculated as follows[4]:

En =

Where,

Lab.result R ef .value
2
2
U lab
+ U ref

(4)

U lab is the uncertainty of a participating laboratorys result, and U ref is the uncertainty of the reference

laboratorys assigned value.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

En 1 is satisfactory, and En > 1 is unsatisfactory, requires investigation and corrective action by both the
laboratory concerned and its accreditation body, The data are shown in Table 4, Fig. 3, and Fig. 4.
Table 4. The summary of reported results
Uncertainty
(confidence level
approximately 95 %, k=2)

Measured Value

Code

No.1

No.2

No.1
0.07 mg

En ratio

No.2

No.1

No.2

0.07 mg

KTL

999.999 917 g

999.999 824 g

W-1

999.999 900 g

999.999 800 g

0.9

mg

0.9 mg

-0.018

-0.026

W-2

999.999 930 g

999.999 860 g

0.23

mg

0.23 mg

0.054

0.014

W-3

999.999 900 g

999.999 900 g

0.6

mg

0.6 mg

-0.028

0.125

W-4

999.999 940 g

999.999 860 g

0.22

mg

0.22 mg

0.099

0.155

W-5

999.999 780 g

999.999 730 g

0.4

mg

0.4 mg

-0.337

-0.231

W-6

1 000.000 000 g

999.999 940 g

0.54

mg

0.54 mg

0.152

0.231

W-7

999.999 950 g

999.999 850 g

0.4

mg

0.4 mg

0.081

0.064

0 .2 0

0 .1 0

0 .0 0
W -1

W -2

W -3

W -4

W -5

W -6

W -7

W -6

W -7

-0 .1 0

-0 .2 0

-0 .3 0

-0 .4 0

Fig. 3 En ratios for No.1 artifact


0 .3 0

0 .2 0

0 .1 0

0 .0 0
W -1

W -2

W -3

W -4

W -5

-0 .1 0

-0 .2 0

-0 .3 0

Fig. 4 En ratios for No.1 artifact

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

4. RESULT AND CONCLUSION


Inter-laboratory comparisons provide objective evidence that laboratories are competent that they can achieve the level
of accuracy for which they are accredited. They also provide a means for improving the quality and performance of
laboratories throughout the region. Maximum variation for No.1 and No.2 artifacts were found to be 0.059 mg during
circulation conducted at the KTL. It was within the uncertainty(k=2). The stability of the artifacts were observed by the
KTL during the circulation and found they were sufficient for the inter-comparison. The table of En ratios shows that
the measurement results and uncertainties of participating laboratories are mostly adequate. All participating
laboratories obtained each presented an excellent performance with En ratios less than unity for measurement. No
corrective action was required for the participating laboratories.

5. REFERENCES
1.
2.
3.
4.

Weights of classes E1, E2, F1, F2, M1, M1-2, M2, M2-3, M3, OIML R 111-1, OIML, 2004
Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement, ISO, 1993
Expression of the uncertainty of measurement in calibration, EA-4/02, 1999
Proficiency testing by inter-laboratory comparisons, ISO Guide 43-1, Guide 43-2, 1997

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Fr equency Analysis Method using an Adaptive Algorithm with


Application to Dynamic Mass Measur ement
Yuuki SASAMOTO1, and Toshitaka UMEMOTO1
and Motoyuki ADACHI2, and Yoichiro KAGAWA2
1
Osaka Prefectural College of Technology, Japan
2
Yamato Scale Co., Ltd., Japan
ABSTRACT
With increased automation in the manufacturing industry, the demand for a quick and accurate mass measurement
system is growing. Currently, an active belt conveyer is in demand by many enterprises. However, there is a problem
that the active belt conveyer causes mechanical noises. The main noises are three kinds, which are the natural
oscillation of measurement conveyer, oscillation by rotation of motor and belt pulley. They cause observable signals
within the active belt environment. Therefore, we have to remove those noises to acquire a greater accuracy. In the
current mass measurement system, the moving average method is used to remove those noises. Unfortunately, it is not
able in the current system to give a method for more quick and accurate measurements.
In this paper, we propose a frequency analysis method using the LMS algorithm. Moreover, we develop the system
using this method and the moving average method. Finally, we use a device actually marketed in order to verify the
utility of the system by comparative experiment between current system and proposed system.
Keywor ds: Dynamic Mass Measurement, Spectra analysis, LMS Algorithm

1. INTRODUCTION
In order to measure mass with accuracy, the measurement needs long time and has to be done under noise-free
conditions of completely free from any noises. However, it is difficult to make such ideal surroundings in most cases of
industrial mass measurements, such as the automatic system for weighing and sorting objects[1] [2] [3] [4]. The system is
generally called the Checkweigher, which is developed for examining and sorting the weight of all products on the
production line. Checkweigher has to carry products sent from the previous conveyer to the next conveyer and also to
exclude some defective products, lightweight or overweight, from the production line. Both tasks must be done at the
same time. In other words, it is necessary to analyze not only the measurement method but also the conveyance method
in order to develop the Checkweighers. The required conditions that the conveyance method must achieve are three of
the following.
1) A stable and reliable weighing result
2) A high conveying speed
3) A simple and flexible operation mechanism
Currently, as the conveyance method which meets the above three requirements, the active belt conveyer is widely
adopted in industry. However, since the mass detector of the active belt conveyer is composed of the built-in drive, it is
impossible to avoid mechanical noises caused by motion of the conveyer. These noises must be removed in order to
make the measurement accurate enough to meet the needs of users. In the current system, these noises are removed by
the simple moving average method. This method can remove the noises completely if interval cycle of the noises
synchronizes with the moving average time. However, increasing number of users now demands a machine which can
quickly measure more variety of shapes of objects. In order to meet these demands, the machine needs to measure the
bigger objects with higher conveying speed. However, this means a reduction in the time that objects are on the
measurement conveyer. Consequently, the machine is unable to obtain enough measurement time to match the cycle of
the noises with the moving average time. As a result, all noises are not removed. It means that even if the specification
of the system makes remarkable progress, the accuracy of measuring the object is not improved because of the nature of
the simple moving average method.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Therefore, in this paper, we would like to propose an adaptive notch filter after we generalize our resent research of
the frequency analysis method of serial processing type by using Least Mean-Squares LMS algorism[5] [6] [7]. Moreover,
we also propose the system that combines an adaptive notch filter with the simple moving average method. Finally, we
use device actually marketed in order to verify the utility of the system by comparative experiment between current
system and proposed system. Samples used in comparative experiment are either in standard specification or outside
standard specification.

2. PROBLEM SETTING
2.1 OUTLINE OF MEASUREMENT SYSTEM
The Checkweigher stated in this paper is the mass measurement system of CSH22L type made in Yamato Scale Co.,
Ltd, which is shown in Fig.1. Also, its hardware system is shown in Fig.2, and its specification is shown in Table 1. As
Fig.2 shows, the equipment is composed of three conveyers; two conveyers for carrying and the other conveyer for
measurement, which is called the measurement conveyer. In the measurement conveyer, Load Cell is used as mass
measurement sensor. The objects are carried from the other two conveyers to the measurement conveyer, and then Load
Cell is distorted under the weight of the object. Its strain value is outputted as voltage value. The mass of object is
calculated from its voltage value.
2.2 NOISY ELEMENTS CAUSED IN THE EQUIPMENT
As shown in chapter 1, the problem is that the active belt conveyer is caused by mechanical noises. The main noises
are three kinds, which are the natural oscillation of measurement conveyer, oscillations by rotation of motor, and belt
pulley. Two noises, oscillations by rotation of motor and belt pulley, are calculated from conveyer speed. If the
conveyer speed is set at vc , the rotation of belt pulley is shown to the following.

fp

vc
dp

(1)

Where, d p is the diameter of belt pulley. Also, the rotation of motor, fm , is calculated by the proportion of the
number of motors teeth, M m , to the number of pulleys teeth, M p . Its equation is shown to the following.

fm

Mm
fp
Mp

(2)

Therefore, the elements of frequencies are determined by using these equations when users set conveyer speed. Then,
the natural oscillation cause by a shape phase determines how frequent the noise occurs. In this paper, we use the
equipment which noise frequency is 28.75 Hz.
In this paper, we use two kinds of samples, either over or under the standard specification size. It is shown in Table 2.
The condition of experiment is shown in Table 3. Noisy elements calculated by equation (1) and equation (2) are shown
in Table 4. Table 4 shows that the noisy elements are lower frequencies.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Control
Panel

Light Source

Feed-in
Conveyer

Measurement
Conveyer

Light Switch

Feed-out
Conveyer

Load
Cell

LCD
AD
Converter

Observed Signal

Computer

Movement of Goods

Control Signal

Fig. 1: Checkweigher

Fig. 2: Har dwar e system of Checkweigher

Table 1: Specification of Equipment

Table 2: Size of Sample

Name

S pec

Scope of M easurement

202200 [g]

Max Speed of Conveyer

220 [piece/min]

Sampling Period

2 [msec]

Length of Conveyer for Measurement

435 [mm]

Number of
Sample

Size [mm]

L300W100H15

160.8

L400W250H15

1003.0

Table 3: Condition for Experiment


Weighing
Speed
[piece/min]

Conveyer
Speed
[m/min]

Measur eme
nt Time
[sec]

80

35

0.24

120

52

0.14

49

21

0.1

62

27

0.08

74

32

0.06

Number of
Experiment

Number
of Sample

4
5

Table 4: Analysis Fr equency for Experiment


Analysis Fr equency [Hz]

Number of
Experiment

Motor

13.75

6.88

20.43

10.22

8.25

4.13

10.61

5.31

12.58

6.29

Belt Pulley

Natur al
Oscillation

28.75

Weight
[g]

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

2.3 MEASUREMENT TIME AND LENGTH OF FILTER


The time when objects are carried on the measurement conveyer is called Measurement time. The mass of object have
to be measured while its time. Measurement time, , is shown to the following.
L0 L
vc

(3)

Where, L0 is the length of measurement conveyer, and L is the length of sample. From this equation, measurement
time is concerned with the conveyer speed and the length of sample. Therefore, increasing the conveyer speed or the
length of sample causes the reduction of measurement time. However, since the noisy elements are low frequencies, in
the current method, the simple moving average method, all noises are not removed as showed in the preceding chapter.

3. ADAPTIVE NOTCH FILTER


3.1 FREQUENCY ANALYSIS METHOD
In this paper, we propose a new adaptive notch filter, using the extended an adaptive discrete Fourier transform [7].
First, the frequency analysis system is shown in Fig.3. In this figure, G (k ) and X (k ) show Fourier coefficient and
input signal respectively in the time kT . Here, T is sampling period, and is abbreviated as from next. If the analysis
frequency is set F , the input signal is the complex exponential function, as follow:

X (k )

exp( j 2 FkT )

(4)

The error signal (k) required for adaptation is defined as the difference between the desired response d (k ) and
the output y(k) , as follows:

(k )

d ( k)

y( k)

d ( k) {G (k ) X ( k) G ( k) X (k )}

Fig.3: Spectr a Analysis System with the LMS Algor ithm

(5)

Fig.4: Block Diagram for the Noise r ejection

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

350000

Count Value

340000
330000
320000
310000
300000
290000
280000
270000
0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

Time [sec]
Fig.5: Frequency char acter istics of LMS Algor ithm

Fig.6: Example of Count Value

Where, G (k ) and X (k ) are conjugate complex number of G (k ) and X (k ) respectively. In this paper, we use
the LMS algorithm[8] proposed by B.Widrow. The LMS algorithm minimizes the mean-square error 2 (k ) by
recursively altering the Fourier coefficient G (k ) at each sampling instant according to the expression
G (k 1)
Where,

G (k ) 4

(k ) X ( k)

(6)

is a convergence factor controlling stability and adaptation.

3.2 PROPERTIES OF ADAPTIVE NOTCHFILTER


Our research purpose is to derive an adaptive algorithm to remove noise. Then, we think as a system in Fig.4. In this
figure, we think about the desired response d (k ) and the error signal (k) as input signal and output signal
respectively. The transfer function of Fig.4 is shown to the following.

H ( z)

E ( z)
D ( z)

1
1 H R ( z) H j ( z)

(7)

When we use that input signal X (k ) is a complex exponential function, equation (6) is shown to the following.

G (k 1) X (k 1)
G(k 1) X( k 1) 4 i (k) X( k) X (k 1)
G (k) X (k ) X (1) 4 (k ) X (1)
Where, we can define w(k ) as w(k )

(8)

G (k ) X (k ) . Equation (8) is shown to the following.


w(k 1)

w(k) X (1) 4

(k ) X (1)

(9)

The transfer function of this equation is shown to the following.

H R ( z)

W ( z)
E ( z)

4 X (1)
z X (1)

(10)

To similar, the transfer function of H J (z) is shown to the following.

H R ( z)

W ( z)
E ( z)

4 X (1)

(11)

z X (1)

Substituting equation and equation(11) into equation(7), we can obtain the following the transfer function H (z) .

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

z2

H ( z)
z

( X (1)

(1 4 )( X (1)

X (1)) z 1

(12)

X (1)) z 1 8

The frequency characteristics of an adaptive notch filter for removing the natural oscillation is shown inFig.5. In this
graph,
is 0.09, and T is 2msec. From this property, the Gain near the analysis frequency is greatly reduced.
Hence, in the system proposed, only the specific frequency elements are removed.

4. DYNAMIC MASS MEASUREMENT EXPERIMENT


4.1 OUTLINE OF EXPERIMENT
In this paper, we propose the system composed of an adaptive notch filter and the simple moving average method.
Moreover we verify the utility of the system by comparative experiment between current system and proposed system.
In the experiment, samples are either in standard specification or outside standard specification. As showed in chapter 2,
the conditions of samples and conveyer speed are shown in Table2 and Table3.
4.2 EXPERIMENT WITH THE CURRENT SYSTEM
First of all, we examined the current system, which is using simple average method. In Checkweigher used with this
paper, a size of filter automatically obtained from sample size and conveyer speed. Then, the simple moving average is
applied to signals obtained from the road cell. In this experiment, these processing results are taken into a computer.
They are called count value C . An example of count value is shown in Fig.6. The mass of objects is calculated from
the following equation.
M

CI

MS
CS

(13)

Where, C I is standard count value. M S is standard weight. C S is count value at standard weight.
4.3 EXPERIMENT WITH THE PROPOSED SYSTEM
Next, the proposed system is examined by using the signal obtained at the previous experiment. In this experiment, in
order to remove three kinds of noises explained in chapter 2, three kinds of an adaptive notch filter for each noise are
connected in series. The noisy frequencies shown in Table 4 are used as analysis frequencies.
4.3.1 EXPERIMENT FOR SELECTING STEP SIZE PARAMETER
First, we examined a method to select step size parameter of each condition. Especially, we directed our attention to
the relation between step size parameter and analysis frequency. Therefore, we used data of experiment No.3-5 shown
in Table 3, and estimate step size parameter from the best value which gives the highest accuracy. This result is shown
in Table 5 and Fig.7. In Fig.7, two kinds of approximation curve were drawn, one is polynomial, and another is liner.
These curves are shown to the following. Where, f is analysis frequency and
is step size parameter.

0.000137 f 3 - 0.001755 f 2 + 0.007964 f - 0.011898


(f
0.0029 f + 0.0009
(f

10)

10)

(14)

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Table 5: Relation between step size par ameter


and analysis fr equency
Analysis
frequency [Hz]

S tep size
parameter

4.13

0.000735

5.31

0.00147

6.29

0.00294

8.25

0.0115

10.61

0.0230

12.58

0.0460

28.75

0.082

Table 6: Step Size Par ameter


S tep S ize Parameter

Number of
Experiment

0.084

0.041

0.0044

2
3

0.084
0.084

0.060
0.011

0.0324
0.0007

4
5

0.084
0.084

0.032
0.037

0.0014
0.0028

0.09

342500

Current System
Proposed System

0.08
0.07

Count Value

Step size parameter

342000

0.06
0.05

y 0.0029x 0.0009

0.04
0.03
0.02

0.00
0

10

15

20

25

341000

340500

340000

y 0.000137 x3 0.001755 x2
0.007964 x 0.011898

0.01

341500

339500
30

10

15

20

25

30

Number of Data

Analysis frequency [Hz]

Fig.7: Relation between step size par ameter and analysis fr equency

Fig.8: Example of r esult

In this experiment, we used equation (14) to calculate step size parameter on each condition. The calculation result of
step size parameter is shown in Table 6. In this table, 1 is the value for natural oscillation. 2 is the value for
oscillation of motor. 3 is the value for oscillation of belt pulley. In Table 3, the minimum measurement time obtain at
the previous experiment is 0.06sec. Because the sampling time is 2msec, the number of data is 30 points. So, we set to
process only 30 points by an adaptive notch filter.
4.4 RESULT OF EXPERIMENTS
The accuracy is compared between the current system and proposed system by repeating the experiment 60 times
under the same condition. In the equipment, the timing to output a signal is determined from length of sample and speed
of conveyer. Its timing is called measurement timing point. In the experiment, mass of object is calculated from the
signal at measurement timing point, and the accuracy is evaluated by three times of standard deviation. The result of
experiment is shown in Table 7, and an example of results is shown in Fig.8. As a result, when enough accuracy is
obtained by using only the simple moving average method, the accuracy of proposed system is not improved very well.
However, when inadequate accuracy is obtained by using only the simple moving average method, the accuracy of
proposed system is greatly improved. The progress rate is 66 percent at the maximum. From Table 3, the minimum
measurement time obtain from these experiments is 0.06sec. This time corresponds to 30 points as a number of data.
From this reason, we set to process only 30 points by an adaptive notch filter. In a word, the proposed system has the
great possibility to improve the current specification even in case of less measurement time.

5. CONCLUSION
At present, Checkweigher is widely used in the field of industrial measurement. However, when we use
Checkweigher, it is impossible to avoid mechanical noises because of its structure. To remove these noises, the simple
moving average method can be applied. However, in order to remove noises, the simple moving average method needs

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Table 7: Result of Compar ative Exper iment


3 standar d deviation [g]
Cur r ent
Method

Pr oposed
Method

pr ogr ess
r ate
[% ]

0.77

0.68

12.4

1.06

0.81

24.1

5.01

2.79

44.3

10.79

5.27

51.2

25.26

8.40

66.7

Number of
Experiment

to gather many numbers of dates, and also it can only be applied in the noisy elements with low frequency.
Accordingly, even if the performance of the equipment is improved, the progress in accuracy is not able to be expected.
Therefore, in this paper, we focus the frequency analysis method by using LMS algorism, and consider the system in
which an input is d (k ) and an output is (k) . First, we showed that an adaptive notch filter is composed by
inspecting its transfer function and frequency characteristics. Next, we proposed the system, using an adaptive notch
filter and the simple moving average method, and we tested to verify the utility of the system by comparative
experiment between current system and proposed system with using device actually marketed. In the experiment, two
kinds of samples under and over the standard specification size were used, and five kinds of conditions were set. As a
result, we found that the proposed system can decrease the measurement error to one third of the existing system makes.
In other words, the proposed system has the great possibility to improve the current specification.
Therefore, the system and method to select step size parameter proposed in this paper is effective for Checkweigher to
measure an object more accurate and is expected to make progress in its performance.

6. REFERENCES
[1] Ono, T., Basic points of dynamic mass measurement, Proceedings of SICE Annual Conference 1999, (1999.8)
pp.43-44
[2] Ono, T., Dynamic Mass Measurement, Journal of Japan Society for Design Engineering, Vol.38, No.10 (2003.10)
pp. 489-495
[3] Kurosu, S. et al., Continuous Mass Measurement on Conveyor Belt, Transactions of the Institute of Electrical
Engineers of Japan C,Vol.126,No.2, (2006.2) pp.264-269,20060201
[4] Kurosu, S. et al., Improved Continuous Weighing by Multi-stage Conveyor Belt Scale, Transactions of the Society
of Instrument and Control Engineers, Vol.40-12 (2004) pp. 1205-1210
[5] Umemoto T. and Aoshima H., The Adaptive Spectrum Analysis for Transcription, Transactions of the Society of
Instrument and Control Engineers, Vol.28 No.5 (1992.5)pp.619-625
[6] Umemoto T. and Aoshima H., Selection of Step Size Parameter of the Adaptive Filter for Spectrum Analysis,
Transactions of the Society of Instrument and Control Engineers, Vol.28 No.10 (1992.10)pp.1257-1262
[7] Umemoto T. and Aoshima H., Adaptive DFT and its Application, Transactions of the Society of Instrument and
Control Engineers, Vol.30 No.8 (1994.8)pp.959-965
[8]B. Widrow and S. D. Stearns. Adaptive Signal Processing. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.(1985)

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Trend of JCSS (Japan Calibration Service System)


Yoshikazu Watabe
Laboratory Business Unit of Mettler-Toledo K.K., Japan
ABSTRACT
JCSS (Japan Calibration Service System) is an accreditation system operated by IAJapan (International Accreditation
Japan) in line with ISO/IEC 17025 as accreditation criteria. This paper introduces the latest information about JCSS,
Tendency of its activities and requirements of its users.
Key words: Laboratory Accreditation, ISO/IEC 17025, MRA and Calibration Certificate

1. INTRODUCTION
JCSS is an accreditation program operated by IAJapan in line with ISO/IEC 17025 as accreditation criteria and the
Japanese Measurement Law. JCSS involves the national measurement standards provision system and the calibration
laboratory accreditation system after amendment of the Measurement Law in November 1993. JCSS was established for
the purpose of ensuring the high precision measurement and confidence of quality control. JCSS calibration certificates
are essential for the establishment of traceability system for measurement. Recently, both the number of JCSS
accredited laboratories and issuing JCSS calibration certificates issued is increasing rapidly.

2. SYSTEM
2.1 Outline of IAJapan
IAJapan (International Accreditation Japan), plays as the accreditation body of JCSS and conducts accreditation process
with the system conforming to ISO/IEC 17011 and relevant international criteria. IAJapan was established in April
2002, according to a comprehensive review of the accreditation programs of testing laboratories and calibration
laboratories operated by National Institute of Technology and Evaluation (NITE). The establishment of IAJapan is
based on the perception that it is the duty of governmental accreditation body to respond to requests from industry,
academies, and governmental administration to establish a scheme where private accreditation bodies are unable to
cope with these needs. IAJapan operates the following 4 programs.
- JCSS (Japan Calibration Service System)
- MLAP (Specified Measurement Laboratory Accreditation Program)
- JNLA (Japan National Laboratory Accreditation System)
- ASNITE (Accreditation System of NITE)
JCSS, JNLA, and ASNITE accreditation programs are within the scope of the ILAC or APLAC/MRA and MLAP is out
of the scope.
2.2 Testing/Calibration Laboratory Accreditation System
Laboratory accreditation is a scheme in which an authoritative accreditation body approves laboratories that conform to
relevant requirements for their competence to conduct test and calibration in specific technical areas. The aim is to
assure the confidence and reliability of the data measured, tested, and calibrated by laboratories. In the most countries in
Europe and USA purchasers (users) require suppliers (manufacturers) to attach the test data to products and a lot of
suppliers use the data tested by the third-party laboratories independent from relevant parties. In these cases, test reports
issued by accredited testing laboratories are value-adding and useful for purchasers and suppliers to effective trade.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

2.3 One-Stop-Testing
One-Stop-Testing generally means the system under which test data obtained from one testing laboratory are accepted
as valid worldwide. If this One-stop testing is once established globally, it may eliminate duplicating testing in
international trade. As a result, we will be able to enjoy various merits, such as; it can lower the cost of production and
can shorten the time for products to come into the market. For the realization of the One-stop Testing, it is essential that
laboratory accreditation system of each country should be conducted using the same international standards (criteria)
throughout over the world.

Figure 1: One-stop Testing

2. 4 Outline of ISO/IEC 17025


ISO/IEC 17025:2005(JIS Q17025:2005) stipulates general requirements for testing and calibration laboratories to be
accredited as competent ones performing specific testing/calibration services.
This standard consists of management system requirements and technical requirements. Especially, technical
requirements (except those for personnel) are very unique to the standard, not required by ISO 9000 series. Structures of
the standards are as follows.
Management System requirements (Section 4 of ISO/IEC 17025)
Organization
Management system
Document control
Review of requests, tenders and contracts
Subcontracting of tests and calibrations
Purchasing services and supplies
Service to the customer
Complaints
Control of nonconforming test and/or calibration work
Improvement
Corrective action
Preventive action
Control of records
Internal audits
Managements reviews
Technical requirements (Section 5 of ISO/IEC 17025)
General
Personnel
Accommodation and environmental conditions
Test and calibration methods and method validation
Equipment
Measurement traceability
Sampling
Handling of test and calibration items
Assuring the quality of test and calibration results
Reporting the results

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

2.5 Outline of ISO/IEC 17011


ISO/IEC 17011:2004 (JIS Q17011:2005) sets out the general requirements for the operation of a system for
accreditation of conformity assessment bodies including calibration and/or testing laboratories so that the accreditations
granted and the services covered by the accreditations may be recognized at a national or an international level and the
body operating the accreditation system may be recognized at national or international level as competent and reliable.
2.6 Mutual Recognition Arrangements (MRA) for Laboratory Accreditation
In general, the conformity and competence of the accreditation program operated by an accreditation body to
international standards and guides is recognized and assured by being a signatory to mutual recognition arrangements
(MRA). To be a signatory is subject to a thorough peer evaluation by an international team which consist of members
from accreditation bodies other MRA signatories. Even after being a signatory, the accreditation body must be reevaluated periodically in order to confirm its conformity and competence continuously. MRA signatories are obliged to
recognize the equivalence of management system, competence, and the results of conformity assessment by the other
MRA signatories as those of their own and to promote the use of the test results of the other signatories to users or
regulatory sectors within the economy. IAJapan is a signatory to MRA of Asia Pacific Laboratory Accreditation
Cooperation (APLAC) as well as International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (ILAC). Among the accreditation
programs operated by IAJapan, MRA recognition status covers Japan Calibration Service System (JCSS), Japan
National Laboratory Accreditation System (JNLA), and Accreditation System of National Institute of Technology and
Evaluation (ASNITE) (at present, excluding RMPs and PCBs). Therefore, certificates/reports with respective
accreditation symbols of JCSS, JNLA (with contracts of surveillance and other services), and ASNITE are more often
accepted as competent to relevant users or regulators in overseas.
2.7 Asia Pacific Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (APLAC)
When accreditation bodies become signatories to MRA recognizing the equivalence among signatory
countries/economies, the test results of accredited laboratories become more reliable and appealing. This does not lead
directly to remove TBT (technical barriers to trade) but it would be significant and helpful information for importers to
evaluate whether the test result of exporters' countries/economies is acceptable. APLAC is a cooperative organization
among laboratory accreditation bodies in Asia Pacific Region. APLAC operates an MRA among membership of
accreditation bodies, so that the test results and calibration certificates by accredited laboratories of a MRA signatory
are recognized as equivalent among economies of MRA signatories. As of May 2006, 24 members are signatories to
MRA for APLAC. APLAC/MRA signatories (26 organizations from 17 economies as of September, 2006) are as
follows.
Australia, Canada, P.R. China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Mexico,
New Zealand, Singapore, Chinese Taipei, Thailand, USA, Vietnam
2.8 International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (ILAC)
ILAC is a global cooperative organization amongst laboratory accreditation bodies recognized in their nations and
Regions. It started its MRA operation in November 2000. ILAC/MRA signatories (57 organizations from 45 economies
as of January, 2007) are as follows.
Argentina, Austria, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Costa Rica, Hong Kong, P.R.China, Cuba, Czech Republic,
Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea,
Malaysia, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore,
Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Chinese Taipei, Thailand, Turkey, United Kingdom,
USA, Vietnam

3. JCSS
3.1 Outline of JCSS
Japan Calibration Service System (JCSS) consists of the National standards provision system and the Calibration
laboratory accreditation system introduced by the amended Measurement Law enforced in November, 1993. Under the

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

JCSS of calibration laboratory accreditation system, calibration laboratories are assessed and accredited as Accredited
Calibration Laboratories to meet the requirements of the Measurement Law, relevant regulations and ISO/IEC 17025.
IAJapan of NITE plays as the accreditation body of JCSS and conducts accreditation process with the system
conforming to ISO/IEC 17011 and relevant international criteria. JCSS, Accredited Calibration Laboratories meet the
requirements laid down in the Measurement Law as well as those of ISO/IEC 17025. Calibration certificates with the
under JCSS symbol issued by Accredited Calibration Laboratories assure the traceability to National Measurement
Standards as well as a laboratory's technical and operational competence and are acceptable in the world through the
ILAC and APLAC MRA.

Figure 2: JCSS Symbol

3.2 National Measurement Standards Provision System


METI designates National Primary Standards or Reference Materials, which are the source of calibration in response to
industrial needs and the provision scheme of national measurement standards based on the Measurement Law.
National Metrology Institute Japan of National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science & Technology (NMIJ/AIST),
Japan Electric Meters Inspection Corporation (JEMIC) and METI-Designated Calibration Laboratories calibrate and
evaluate the reference standards of Accredited Calibration Laboratories (i.e. Secondary Standards) with their National
Primary Standards. From April 2001, these Accredited Calibration Laboratories could provide calibration services to
the other Accredited Calibration Laboratories in the lower level of traceability hierarchy. This expansion of JCSS
Scheme realizes and ensures the traceability of measurement to measuring instruments or testing machines used in the
working level. The traceability system of measurement under JCSS is as follows.

Figure 3: Traceability system of measurement under JCSS

3.3 Scope of Accreditation


The accreditation scope covers 24 calibration fields. Furthermore, responding to various situation or needs, new fields
will be added in future.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)

Length
Mass
Time & Frequency
Temperature
Photometry
Angle
Volume

8) Flow rate
9) Acceleration
10) Electricity (Direct Current & Low Frequency)
11) Electricity (High Frequency)
12) Density & Reflective Index
13) Force
14) Torque

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

15)
16)
17)
18)
19)

Pressure
Viscosity
Heat
Thermal Conductivity
Acoustics

20) Concentration
21) Radiation & Radioactivity
22) Hardness
23) Impact
24) Humidity

3.4 Accreditation Process of JCSS


The typical flow accreditation process of JCSS is as follows.

Figure 4: Outline of Process from application to accreditation (typical case)

3.5 Publication Documents


There are many Japanese publication documents on General Requirements and guidance documents as follows.
General Requirements for Accreditation of JCSS Calibration Laboratories (JCRP21)
JCSS Application Procedures (JCRP22)
Procedures for Making JCSS Application Document (JCRP22-01S1)
IAJapan Policy on Traceability of Measurement (URP23)
Understanding JIS Q 17025 (ASG101)
Guide of Making Quality Manual (ASG102)
ISO/IEC 17025 Checklist (ASG103)
Beginners' Guide on Uncertainty of Measurement (ASG104)
Guide of Internal Audit (ASG105)
Guide of Management Review (ASG106)
Metrology in Short (ASG107)
In addition to the above, 56 Specific Application Documents for the application of ISO/IEC17025 to each calibration
field and 22 guidances of calibration methods and estimation of Measurement Uncertainty for each calibration field are
prepared

4. REQUIREMENTS OF USERS
4.1 Necessity of Calibration Certificate with Measurement Uncertainty
To meet the requirements of various International Standard related to measurements such as ISO9001, ISO14001, GLP,
GMP, HACCP, ISO/IEC 17025, ISO/IEC TS 16949, traceability with measurement uncertainty is must because
certificates and test reports should include not only calibration/testing results but also its measurements uncertainties
under the following cases.
Calibration/Testing Certificates issued by Calibration/Testing Laboratories
International Comparison and Cooperation study
Papers and Documents for the certificates

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Documents related to Business Transaction and Certification


Measurement Control of Production and Inspection Record of Products
Therefore, Users of JCSS Calibration Certificate want to have a reliable and convenient laboratory besides at their sites.
To provide such calibration service and to provide users with reliable/timely certificate, laboratories accredited by JCSS
of IAJapan program should be located nationwide.
So, users are requesting the expansion of JCSS nation wide and also expiation of its filed and decreasing calibration
charge. To realize them JCSS laboratories need to expand demands of JCSS calibration certificates.
4.2 Mass Standard Supply System in Japan
In Japan there are two kinds of mass standards supply systems currently. One is JCSS and another is legal metrology,
however, Measurement Uncertainty is shown in a calibration certificate issued by JCSS only. So, we should have JCSS
certificate to prove mass traceability. Now, IAJapan and JCSS calibration laboratories are promoting JCSS aggressively
with help of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI). As a result, the number of JCSS accreditation
laboratory is increasing nation wide and the numbers of Calibration Certificate issued by JCSS laboratories is
increasing, too.

JCSS

Legal Metrology
Equality

Prototype

Prototype

Primary
Standard 1

Primary
Standard 1
Primary Standard 2
OIML E2

Primary Standard 2
OIML E1

Standard weight
OIML F1

Working Standards
OIML E2, F1
Customer Weights
OIML E2, F1, F2, M1, M2

Standard weight
OIML F2, M1, M2

Non-automatic Weighing
Instruments

Non-automatic Weighing Instruments

Figure 5: Mass standard supply system

5. TENDENCY OF JCSS LABORATORIES AND CERTIFICATES


Thanks to the aggressive promotion of JCSS by IAJapan, the numbers of JCSS laboratories accredited by IAJapan and
calibration certificates issued by the JCSS accredited laboratories are increasing rapidly.
300
250
200
150
100
50
0

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

Figure 6: Number of JCSS accredited Laboratories

2005

2006

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

2002
2003

25000

2004

20000

2005
2006

15000
10000
5000
0
g th
Le n

ss
Ma

per
Te m

re
a tu

ce
For

ty
ns i
De

e t ry
tom
Pho
ctr
El e

&
DC
y(
ici t

LF

)
c t ri
E le

city

)
(HF

R ad

2002
2003

300

2004

250

2005
2006

200

re
s su
P re

340000
320000

iati

on

&

d io
Ra

iv i
act

ty

2002
2003
2004
2005
2006

300000
150

280000

100

260000

50
0

240000
Flow rate

Humidity

Reference Materials

Figure 7: Tendency of JCSS certificates issued 2002-2006

7. CONCLUSION
In accordance with the request of International Standards, the necessity of Calibration/Testing Laboratories accredited
by JCSS program will be increased day by day. Meanwhile, the promotion of JCSS to end users and assessors of
International Standards related to Measurements has carried out taking any occasion by not only IAJapan but also all
persons concerned in order to realize world-wide One-Stop Testing which aims at the global acceptance by ensuring the
reliable calibration/testing service and measurement traceability. To meet the requirements of users of JCSS Calibration
Certificate, JCSS need to expand its scope and the role of JCSS has become important increasingly.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The author is grateful to Mr. Masafumi Tsuruga of IAJapan and Mr. Robert Russell of Mettler-Toledo Japan for their
persistent support during the preparation of this paper.

8. REFERENCES
1.
2.
3.
4.

JCSS
IAJapan
APLAC
ILAC

http://www.iajapan.nite.go.jp/jcss/
http://www.iajapan.nite.go.jp/iajapan/
http://www.aplac.org/
http://www.ilac.org/

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

5. Yoshikazu Watabe, Tendency of JCSS (Japan Calibration Service System), Proceeding of Asia Pacific
Symposium on Mass, Force, and Torque (APMF2005) page 41, Aug.30-Sept. 3, 2005
*corresponding author information: Yoshikazu Watabe yoshikazu.watabe@mt.com; phone +81 3 3222 7111; fax +81
3 3222 7115; Laboratory Business Unit of Mettler-Toledo K.K., 4F Izumikan Sanbancho Bldg., 3-8 Sanbancho,
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102 0075, Japan

A Bilateral Comparison of Force Standards Between NIMT and NMIJ


Kittipong Chaemthet1, Chanchai Amornsakun1, Noppadol Sumyong1, Veera Tulasombut1,
Toshiyuki Hayashi2 and Kazunaga Ueda2
1
National Institute of Metrology, Thailand (NIMT), Thailand
2
National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), AIST, Japan
ABSTRACT
A 100 kN dead-weight type force standard machine (DWM) has been newly installed at the National Institute of
Metrology, Thailand (NIMT). In order to verify the performance of this new machine, a bilateral comparison was
carried out between the new machine and the 20 kN, 54 kN and 540 kN DWMs of the National Metrology Institute of
Japan using four force measuring devices of 10 kN, 20 kN, 50 kN and 100 kN rated capacities as traveling standards.
In spite of some limitation due to the traveling standards' performance, deviations of the measurement results between
the two Institutes turned to be well within the comparison uncertainty at all of the force steps, proving the equivalence of
the force standards of the two Institutes in this force range.
Keywords: Bilateral comparison, Force standard, DWM, Traceability, Traveling standard, Creep

1. INTRODUCTION
Recently, Thailand's economy has been growing remarkably. For instance, approximately 1.2 million automobiles
were produced in 2006, almost triple the production level in 2000.1 Economic growth and industrial development
inevitably demand the establishment of transparent quality management systems complying with international standards
and regulations, resulting in an increased need for ensuring measurement traceability and performing calibrations of
various kinds of measuring instruments. Force metrology is no exception to this trend.
To meet the demands from Thai industry, the National Institute of Metrology, Thailand (NIMT) has established a new
dead-weight type force standard machine (DWM) of 100 kN rated capacity as a backbone of the national measurement
standard of force. The new DWM ensures traceability of the basic quantities of mass, length, and time. The masses
of the dead-weights are traceable to the national mass standard of Japan, and gravitational acceleration at the location of
the DWM is traceable to the national length and time standards of China through absolute measurement of gravity on
site. In addition to securing traceability to national standards of basic quantities at the time of installation, it is
necessary for any national metrology institute (NMI) to demonstrate the equivalence of its standards to those of other
NMIs in foreign countries.
To this end, a bilateral comparison has been carried out between the newly implemented 100 kN DWM of NIMT and
the DWMs of the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) having 20 kN, 54 kN and 540 kN rated capacities.
This paper outlines the procedure and results of the bilateral comparison.

2. DESCRIPTION OF FORCE STANDARD MACHINES


2.1 100 kN DWM OF NIMT
The 100 kN force standard machine in NIMT, as shown in Fig. 1, has a loading frame acting as a 1 kN weight and a
series of linkage weights consisting of thirteen 1 kN weights, four 2 kN weights, a 3 kN weight, seven 5 kN weights, and
five 10 kN weights. It can calibrate force transducers and test pieces of four rated capacities, namely, 10 kN, 20 kN,
50 kN, and 100 kN, each having ten force steps of equal increments. A 10 % overloading test can also be performed
for these ranges; that is, the maximum load of this DWM is 110 kN.
When the loading frame is at rest, it is supported on a fixed slab, and its alignment is maintained by an automatic
centering jig provided on the slab. The force transducer or the test piece under calibration is set at the center of the
compression table, or is hung at the center of the tensile fitting. The compression table and the tensile fitting move as

one and lift the force transducer and the loading frame together. Thus, the loading frame is separated from the
centering jig, and the first load is applied to the force transducer. After the compression table and the tensile fitting
stop moving, the crossbeam, which supports the other linkage weights, moves down to apply required forces one by one.

Figure 1:

Photographs of NIMT's 100 kN DWM.

2.2 540 kN, 54 kN AND 20 kN DWMS OF NMIJ


The 540 kN force standard machine of NMIJ, as shown in Fig. 2, has a loading frame acting as a 29.4 kN (3000 kgf)
weight and two series of linkage weights. The upper series consists of ten 4.9 kN (500 kgf) weights and the lower one
has a 19.6 kN (2000 kgf) weight and nine 49 kN (5000 kgf) weights. The upper and lower linkage weights are placed
on crossbeams of each weight supporter. They are connected to a hydraulic motor through a chain link and to a
hydraulic jack through a pair of lifting rods. The hydraulic jack is placed at the top of the framework of the DWM, and
it drives the loading frame and the lower linkage weights up and down. The hydraulic motor is installed just below the
loading table.

Figure 2:

A photograph of NMIJ's 540 kN DWM.

The 54 kN force standard machine, as shown in Fig. 3, has a loading frame acting as a 9.8 kN (1000 kgf) weight and a

series of linkage weights consisting of nine 4.9 kN (500 kgf) weights. The linkage weights are placed on a crossbeam
of a weight supporter which is connected to a hydraulic jack through a pair of lifting rods. The hydraulic jack is placed
at the top of the framework of the DWM, and it drives the loading frame and the linkage weights up and down.

Figure 3:

A photograph of NMIJ's 54 kN DWM.

The 20 kN force standard machine, as shown in Fig. 4, has a loading frame acting as a 500 N weight and two series of
linkage weights. The upper series consists of a 500 kN weight and nine 1 kN-weights, and the lower one has five 2 kN
weights. The two series of the linkage weights are placed on crossbeams of weight supporters and can be moved up
and down independently by driving each of the weight supporters using motors.

Figure 4:

A photograph of NMIJ's 20 kN DWM.

Each DWM has a computer controlled driving system and it can perform calibrations automatically, provided that an
object to be calibrated is equipped with a popular type of digital amplifier/indicator commonly available in
marketplace.2

3. COMPARISON PROCEDURE
For this bilateral comparison, four force transducers and a high-precision amplifier (DMP-40) were prepared by NIMT
as traveling standards. The initial and the final measurements were carried out at NIMT, and the weighted mean of
these results was compared with the reference measurements at NMIJ. The same DMP-40 was used for all
measurements at both laboratories. The reference temperature was chosen to be 23 C.
The force steps were 5, 6, 8, and 10 kN for the 10 kN traveling standard; 10, 12, 16, and 20 kN for the 20 kN traveling
standard; 20, 30, 40, and 50 kN for the 50 kN traveling standard; and 50, 60, 80, and 100 kN for the 100 kN traveling
standard. In NIMT, all of the traveling standards were measured using the new 100 kN DWM. In NMIJ,
measurements were carried out on the 10 kN and 20 kN traveling standards using the 20 kN DWM, on the 50 kN
traveling standard using the 54 kN DWM, and on the 100 kN traveling standard using the 540 kN DWM.
For each of the four traveling standards, the measurement procedure consisted of three initial preloading cycles and
three measurement cycles at 0 degree orientation of the force transducer, and one preloading cycle and one measurement
cycle at each of 90, 180 and 270 degree orientations.

Force

The time interval was decided as described in Fig. 5, with a view to minimizing the creep effect seen in traveling
standards.3,4 Since all of the DWMs of NIMT and NMIJ have one or two linkage weights, it takes several minutes to
load up to and to unload down from the rated capacity. Therefore, the time intervals between zero and the rated
capacity and between zero and half of the rated capacity were extended to 360 seconds and 270 seconds, respectively,
instead of the usual intervals of 180 seconds.

Maximum
3rd step
2nd step
1st step

0 preloadings

0 measurements

90
(pre.)

270
(meas.) 360 for checking

Zero
0 6 12

24

36

55.5

40.5 43.5 46.5 49.5

Figure 5:

75

94.5

114

211.5

238.5

Time (minutes)

Time interval of readings.

Filled circles indicate readings.

4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


As described in the previous section, the same measurement interval was adopted at both NIMT and NMIJ. Even
though the time intervals were the same in the measurements at both institutes, some corrections were needed for the
creep effect. The reasons for this are twofold. First, there is quite a large difference in force interval between NIMT's
and NMIJ's DWMs. For example, only two steps are needed for the 540 kN DWM of NMIJ to apply 50 kN from 0 kN,
whereas many small weights have to be loaded sequentially using the 100 kN DWM of NIMT. In this case, the loading
time between 0 kN and 50 kN in NMIJ was 45 seconds, whereas that in NIMT was 213 seconds. Second, some
traveling standards do not have ideal creep characteristics. While maintaining the applied force at a certain value,
readings of the 100 kN traveling standard relatively shifted by about 3.510-5 in 168 seconds. For these reasons,
relative correction for a creep of 2.010-6 was needed in most cases, and for 3.510-5 in some exceptional cases. In the
following paragraphs, the creep corrections have already been applied to the values of the relative deviations.
Fig. 6 and Table 1 show the relative deviations between NIMT and NMIJ. In Fig. 6, the horizontal axis indicates
comparison force steps, and the vertical axis indicates relative deviation. The horizontal axis is divided into four parts
corresponding to each traveling standard. Zero on the vertical axis refers to the reference values at NMIJ. Curves
indicate relative deviations of measurement results of NIMT with respect to the reference values. Circular symbols on
dotted lines, triangular symbols on dotted lines, and square symbols on solid lines indicate relative deviations of the
initial measurement, the final measurement, and their weighted mean, respectively. Measurement uncertainties of the
initial and final measurements were used as weights in calculating the weighted mean. Bars at each comparison step
show comparison uncertainty, described below.

Relative deviation (10 -6 )

80
60
40
20
0
-20
-40
-60
-80

5 6 8 10 1012 1620 203040 50 50 6080100


Force (kN)
Figure 6:

Table 1:
Rated capacity of
traveling standard
(kN)
10

20

50

100

Deviation between NIMT and NMIJ.

Comparison results between NIMT and NMIJ.

Comparison
force step
(kN)
5
6
8
10
10
12
16
20
20
30
40
50
50
60
80
100

Weighted mean of
relative deviation
(10-6)
-7.7
-0.7
-0.2
-1.6
31.5
5.8
5.5
-9.4
-3.4
14.3
16.4
22.3
3.2
-10.0
-5.3
0.2

Relative comparison
measurement uncertainty (k = 2) En number
(10-6)
17.2
-0.45
17.0
-0.04
17.0
-0.01
17.1
-0.09
41.3
0.76
38.9
0.15
37.2
0.15
35.8
-0.26
114.3
-0.03
121.1
0.12
134.3
0.12
133.8
0.17
31.2
0.10
29.8
-0.34
31.1
-0.17
32.2
0.01

Averages of readings, repeatability, reproducibility, resolution, temperature fluctuation, sensitivity drift between the
initial and final measurements at NIMT, and extrapolation at the 54 kN and 540 kN DWMs of NMIJ were taken into
account when estimating the uncertainty of the comparison measurements. Every ten readings at each force step were
averaged and were regarded as a normal distribution to estimate the uncertainty. Repeatability and reproducibility
were estimated as a type-A evaluation. Resolution, temperature fluctuation, and sensitivity drift were assumed to be
rectangular distributions. Uncertainty arising from extrapolation from the force unit of kilogram force to Newton were
estimated up to a relative value of about 3.010-6 following a previously described estimation procedure.5 En numbers
were calculated to evaluate the comparison results according to ISO/IEC Guide 43-1.6
As shown in Fig. 6 and Table 1, relative deviations between the results of NIMT and NMIJ were small and satisfactory
at all of the force steps, except for the 10 kN force step using the 20 kN traveling standard. This exception could be
attributed to the insufficient stability of the 20 kN traveling standard. As shown in Fig. 6, relatively large drift in
sensitivity was found between the initial and final measurements on the 20 kN traveling standard at NIMT. In addition,
sensitivity drift and reproducibility were considerably large in the results of the 50 kN traveling standard.

Consequently, with the force steps using the 50 kN traveling standards, the comparison uncertainties were too large to
prove the Calibration and Measurement Capabilities (CMCs) of both NIMT and NMIJ; the uncertainties were 2.010-5
in these force ranges for both NMIs. The comparison uncertainties were also not small enough to demonstrate the
CMCs with the force steps using the 20 kN traveling standards. In contrast, the 10 kN and 100 kN traveling standards
showed good stability and reproducibility, and the comparison uncertainties were sufficiently small, including those of
the 10 kN and 50 kN force steps, to confirm the CMCs of both NMIs. Although it was not possible to use force
transducers having optimal quality for the traveling standards due to the restrictions of cost and time, and it was not
possible to obtain small comparison uncertainties on some of the force steps, nevertheless, all of the En numbers never
exceeded unity. Therefore, it can be concluded that the complete equivalence of these DWMs of NIMT and NMIJ was
confirmed in the high and low force ranges and that a certain degree of equivalence was confirmed in the middle force
range of the 100 kN DWM of NIMT.

5. SUMMARY
A bilateral comparison has been successfully carried out between the newly installed 100 kN DWM of NIMT and the 20
kN, 54 kN and 540 kN DWMs of NMIJ using NIMT's four force-measuring devices of 10 kN, 20 kN, 50 kN and 100
kN rated capacities as traveling standards, in order to verify the performance of this new machine.
Some measures were needed to account for the creep effect and sensitivity drift of the traveling standards because they
do not always have the best characteristics. In spite of some limitation due to the traveling standards' characteristics,
deviations of the measurement results between the two NMIs turned to be well within the comparison uncertainty at all
of the force steps from 5 kN to 100 kN, proving the equivalence of the force standards of the two NMIs in this force
range.

6. REFERENCES
1.
2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Bank of Thailand, Economic and Financial Statistics. A database of production of manufactured goods in
Thailand. Available from: < http://www.bot.or.th/bothomepage/databank/EconData/EconFinance/tab66e.asp>.
T. Hayashi, Y. Katase, H. Maejima, Y. Yamaguchi, K. Ueda, Loading system improvements for NMIJ's dead
weight type force standard machines, Proc. 6th Asia-Pacific Symposium on Measurement of Mass, Force and
Torque (APMF 2003), Shanghai, Nov. 3-6, 2003, pp.91-94.
R. Kumme, L. Brito, Investigation of the measurement uncertainty of the force standard machines of IPQ by
intercomparison measurements with PTB, Proc. 17th Int. Conf. on Force, Mass, Torque and Pressure
Measurements (IMEKO TC3), Istanbul, Sep. 17-21, 2001, pp. 58-65.
Y.-K. Park, H.-K. Song, D.-I. Kang, T. Hayashi, H. Maejima, Y. Katase, Y. Yamaguchi, K. Ueda, International
comparison of force standards between Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS) and The
National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), Proc. Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque
(APMF 2005), Jeju, Aug. 30- Sep. 3, 2005, pp. 253-258.
T. Hayashi, Y. Katase, H. Maejima, Y. Yamaguchi, K. Ueda, Comparison of force standard machines by a buildup type force transducer consist of three load cells, Preliminary report of 20th Annual conference of
measurement division of the Society of Instrument and Control Engineers (SICE), Tokyo, Sep. 16-17, 2003,
pp. 239-242 (in Japanese).
ISO/IEC Guide 43-1, Proficiency testing by interlaboratory comparisons Part 1: Development and operation
of proficiency testing schemes, p. 12, 1997.

*corresponding author information: Kittipong Chaemthet ch_kittipong@yahoo.com, and Toshiyuki Hayashi


t-hayashi@aist.go.jp

Development of a 200 N Deadweight Force Standard Machine


Yon-Kyu Park, Min-Seok Kim, Jong-Ho Kim, Hou-Keun Song and Dae-Im Kang
Mechnical Metrology Group, Div. of Physical Metrology, KRISS, Rep. of Korea

ABSTRACT
The increase of precision industry needs more accurate measurement of small force down to several
Newton. In order to respond to this need, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science(KRISS) has
developed a small capacity deadweight force standard machine of which capacity is 200 N. The machine
has a loading frame, a weight support, 10 deadweights of 5 N, 6 deadweights of 10 N and 5 deadweights
of 20 N. Both the loading frame and the weight support can generate gravitational force of 5 N separately.
The loading frame was made of titanium steel to fit the condition to generate gravitational force of 5 N
with sufficient stiffness to endure 220 N. The machine can generate force from 5 N to 220 N. The force
standard machine can be operated automatically. According to the uncertainty estimation of the machine,
its relative expanded uncertainty was declared as 2 10-5. The 200 N deadweight force standard machine
was compared with a 5 kN deadweight force standard machine in KRISS. The relative deviation of the
intercomparison was less than 3x10-5 that is the combined uncertainty of the deadweight force standard
machines.

Keywords : Force, Force standard machine, Uncertainty, Evaluation

1. Introduction
National metrology institutes in the world maintain their national force standards by several methods,
such as deadweight force standard machine, hydraulic force standard machine, lever amplification force
standard machine, build-up force standard machine, etc. Among them, deadweight force standard
machine using deadweights and gravitational acceleration, is the most accurate way to generate force. The
unit of force is realized by deadweights of standard masses subjected to the effect of the local
gravitational field. Because of their high accuracy, deadweight force standard machines are widely used
at most national metrology institutes, to provide national standards for forces in the range of 50 N - 4.5
MN.[1]
Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science(KRISS) has established 4 deadweight force standard
machines of which capacities are 5 kN, 20 kN, 100 kN and 500 kN respectively. Using the deadweight

force standard machines, KRISS has maintained force standards from 50 N to 500 kN with the relative
uncertainty of 2 10-5.
With the development of precision industry, the need of more accurate measurement of small force down
to several Newton is increasing. In order to respond to this demand, KRISS has developed a small
capacity deadweight force standard machine of which capacity is 200 N. This paper describes
development of the machine. The structure of the machine will be described briefly. Shape of the loading
frame, combination of deadweights, operating control system of the force machine will be explained.
Uncertainty estimation is also described. And an internal intercomparison to check the accuracy level of
the machine will be explained.

2. 200 N Deadweight Force Standard Machine


Figure 1 shows the photograph of the 200 N deadweight force standard machine. The machine consists of
a main frame, a loading frame, a weight stack, a motor, and a control system. The loading frame is made
of titanium steel to reduce its mass to fit the first force step of 5 N. The loading frame has three columns
to increase stability.

Figure 1. 200 N deadweight force standard machine

The combinations of deadweights in the stack is as follows.


- 1 5 N (loading frame)
- 1 5 N (weight support)
- 10 5 N
- 6 10 N
- 5 20 N
The force standard machine has 21 weights made of stainless steel. In the unloaded condition, the weights
rest on a base plate. When the base plate is moved down, the weights are loaded from upper to lower. The
vertical motion of the base plate is activated by a stepping motor. In the loaded condition, each weight is
loaded to its upper one by contacting three points. Figure 2 shows the weight stack of the force machine.

Figure 2. Weight stack of the 200 N deadweight force standard machine

The force standard machine is operated manually or semi-automatically from a control panel. The
machine can also be operated semi-automatically or automatically depending on the specific software
controlling the systems PC.
The control system consists of a control panel, a PLC, a supervising PC and custom software. The control
panel controls the power, mode selection, and manual motor operation. It has a screen with a schematic

diagram that shows any error messages and indicates the setting conditions and any emergencies. Table 1
shows the specification of the control system.

Table 1. Specification of the control system


Part

Specification
- 200 kHz Sampling frequency, 16 bit, 16 channels/AI

Analog Input
Multifunction Board

- 16 bit, 2 channels/AO
- 8 digital I/O
- 24-bit Counters

Motion Control Board


(for Stepping Motor
Control)

- Max. pulse rate : 4 MHz (full, half, and micro step)


- Min. pulse width : 120 ns at >2 MHZ
- Step output mode : Step and direction or cw / ccw
- Voltage range : 0 ~ 5V
- 32 Isolated Digital Input Channels

Isolated Digital I/O Board

- 32 Isolated Digital output Channels


- Channel-Freeze Function for Output Channels

Signal Filter & Transducer


Board

- Isolated 1 channel to 2 channels Output Type


- Max. : 8 channels

3. Uncertainty Evaluation of the 200 N Deadweight Force Standard Machine


The force realization by using a deadweight force machine can be represented as follows:


F = m g loc 1 a
w

(1 )
i

(1)

i =1

where m is the mass of deadweight, gloc is the local gravitational acceleration, a is the density of air, w is
the density of deadweight, and i ( i = 1, , n ) is the relative error component caused by the structure of
the force standard machine, such as the error caused by an inclined baseplate of the machine or by
oscillations of the deadweights.[2] In order to estimate the uncertainty of a deadweight force machine, the
standard uncertainty due to each component in Eq. (1) should be estimated.
The deadweights in the 200 N force standard machine were calibrated using precision balances and
standard masses that are traceable to national mass standard No. 72. The relative standard uncertainty of
the calibration of deadweights, wm, was 2.45 106.
The gravitational acceleration at the site of the deadweight force standard machine was 9.7982994 m/s2.
The maximum error in the acceleration due to time variation, height difference, and acceleration
measurement was 1.0 105 m/s2. By assuming a uniform probability distribution of the error in the
gravitational acceleration, the relative standard uncertainty due to the gravitational acceleration, wg, can

be represented as follows:
1 g
1 1.0 105
=
= 5.89 107
3 g
3 9.7982994

wg =

(2)

where g is the error in the gravitational acceleration.


The density of air can be estimated as follows:
0.464554 p h(0.00252T 0.020582)
T + 273.15

a =

(3)

where, p (mm Hg) = atmospheric pressure


h (%RH) = relative humidity
T (C) = temperature.
At the site of the 200 N deadweight force machine, the atmospheric pressure varied from 745.7 mmHg to
765.6 mmHg, the relative humidity varied from 35.2 %RH to 73.0 %RH, and the temperature varied from
18.3 C to 22.3 C over the period of a year. From this information and by using Eq. (3), the maximum
variation of the air density can be estimated as 0.05 kg/m3. By assuming a uniform probability
distribution for the variation in the air density, the relative standard uncertainty due to air density, wa, can
be represented as follows:
wa =

1 a
3 a

1 0.05
= 2.45 10 2
1
.
18
3

(4)

where a is the variation of air density.


By assuming a relative error of 1% in the density of deadweight and a uniform probability distribution of
this error, the relative standard uncertainty due to deadweights density, ww, can be estimated as
ww =

1
3

0.01 = 5.77 103 .

(5)

To calibrate a force transducer, it should be mounted on the baseplate of a deadweight force machine. The
baseplate should be installed horizontally; however, it is usually slightly inclined due to manufacturing
limitations and mounting techniques. We assumed that the inclination angle was 0.01. Because the
inclination angle is constant, it is not necessary to consider any probability distribution in its value.
Therefore, the relative standard uncertainty due to the inclined baseplate, wp, can be represented as
follows:

w p = 1 cos(0.01o ) = 1.52 10 8 .

(6)

The deadweights of a force machine often exhibit oscillatory motion that may slightly influence the
applied force. By assuming the maximum swing angle is 0.03 with a uniform probability distribution, the
relative standard uncertainty, ws, can be estimated as follows:
ws =

1 cos(0.03o )
3

= 7.91 108 .

(7)

From the mathematical model of force, Eq. (1), the relative combined uncertainty of the deadweight force
machine can be represented as follows:
1

1 F 2 2
wc =
u xi
F xi

(8)

where F is the force generated by the force machine, and uxi implies an absolute standard uncertainty
component due to variation of xi, which is one of the independent variables in Eq. (1), such as m, gloc, etc.
By substituting Eq. (1) into Eq. (8), the relative combined uncertainty can be represented as follows:
wc = (

n
u
u
um 2 u g 2
a
2
) + ( ) + [( a ) 2 + ( w ) 2 ] (
) 2 + w
m
g
a
w
w a
i =1
i

= wm + wg + [ wa + ww ] (
2

w a

) + w p + ws
2

(9)

From Eq. (9), the relative combined uncertainty was calculated as 4.8 106. By increasing the relative
combined uncertainty by a factor of 2, the relative expanded uncertainty of the deadweight force standard
machine was estimated as 9.6 106.
There are additional uncertainty components that have not been considered in this uncertainty evaluation,
such as the interaction between the force transducer and the force machine. By considering these
unknown uncertainty components, the relative expanded uncertainty of the 200 N deadweight force
standard machine was declared as 2 105 with a confidence limit of approximately 95 %.

4. Internal Comparison with a 5 kN Deadweight Force Machine


The 200 N deadweight force standard machine was compared with a 5 kN deadweight force machines at
KRISS.
One strain-gauge-type force transducer having capacity of 200 N was used in the intercomparison as a
transfer standard.

A three minute time interval was used to minimize the creep effect of the force

transducer. The output of the force transducer was measured at four positions relative to the axis of the
machine (0, 90, 180, and 270). The loads selected for the intercomparison of the machines were 50 N,
100 N and 200 N. The first measurement was done in the 5 kN force machine, then the second
measurement was performed in the 200 N machine. And the final measurement was repeated in the 5 kN
machine to check the stability of the transfer standard.
Figure 3 represents the relative deviation between the 200 N force machine and the 5 kN force machine,
where the reference is the 5 kN force machine. The mean value of the two measurements at the 5 kN
force machine was used as the reference value. The relative deviation is less than 3 105 for all the force
steps. From this internal intercomparison, we could confirm that the 200 N force machine was in good

agreement with the 5 kN force machine within the range 50 N to 200 N.

2.0x10

-5

Relative Deviation

Deviation between 200 N & 5 kN DFSM


Drift between two measurements in 5 kN DFSM

0.0

-2.0x10

-5

-4.0x10

-5

50

100

150

200

Force (N)
Figure 3. Relative deviation between 200 N and 5 kN deadweight force machines

5. Conclusions
In this work, we have developed a 200 N deadweight force standard machine. It can generate forces from
5 N to 220 N with the relative expanded uncertainty of 2 105. The machine has a sequential type
weight stack. It can be operated almost fully automatically.
The relative expanded uncertainty of the force machine was estimated. The 200 N force standard machine
was compared with a 5 kN deadweight force standard machine at KRISS. The relative deviation was less
than 3 105, and we conclude that the 200 N force standard machine has a sufficient level of accuracy,
as predicted from the evaluation of its uncertainty.

References
1. Park Y.K. and Kang D.I., Pendulum motion of a deadweight force-standard machine, Meas. Sci.
Technol. 11, pp. 1766~1771, 2000
2. Park Y.K., Kim M.S., Kim J.H., Kang D.I. and Song H.K., 100 kN deadweight force standard
machine and evaluation, KSME Int. J. 20, pp.961-971, 2006

Measurement of Finger Muscular Force to set up a Standard


for Intelligent Artificial Arms
Jeong Tae Lee1, Han Wook Song1, Yon Kyu Park1 and Cheong Hwan Oh2
1

Mechanical Metrology Group, Div. of Physical Metrology, KRISS, South Korea


2
Chungnam National University
ABSTRACT

Various forms of artificial arms are now in use for arm amputees. Most of artificial arms, however,
simply assume the outward similitude of human arms with a limited or no function of human fingers.
With the development of a new technique in human form robots, various attempts to develop artificial
hands with complex functions are actively underway, and, as a result, new researches for intelligent
artificial arms, which can copy complex functions of human hands, are also currently in progress. In this
study, we made two forms of measuring devices (Device 1 and Device 2) in order to measure the
muscular strength of fingers of Koreans. Device 1 it is an instrument to measure the strength of an index
finger when it is bent, which used a strain-gauge style strength measuring device with the capacity of 100
N. Device 2 is an instrument to measure the strength of grasping power of two fingers, thumb and index
finger, which used a strain-gauge style strength measuring instrument with the capacity of 500 N. The
special devices show the repeatability uncertainty within 5% for each muscular strength. The result of
measuring 30 men and 30 women is like this. For men, the average of the muscular strength of finger
bending is 30.9 N with its standard deviation 5.9 N, and for picking strength, the average muscular
strength was 66.7 N with its standard deviation 13.1 N. For women, the average of the muscular strength
of finger bending was 20.8 N with its standard deviation 5.2 N, and for picking strength, the average
muscular strength was 52.5 N with its standard deviation 11.3 N. And from a perspective of repeatability
uncertainty, for men, the maximum muscular strength of bending showed 6.2%, and the maximum
strength of picking showed 5.4%, while for women, the maximum muscular strength of bending was
7.7%, and the maximum strength of picking showed 6.8%. It is expected that the standard value for
Koreans' bending and picking strengths of fingers will be established if we increase the number of people
to be measured in the future.

Keyword : Finger, Muscular force, Bending, Picking

1.

INTRODUCTION

Various forms of artificial arms are now in use for arm amputees. Most of artificial arms, however, simply
assume the outward similitude of human arms with a limited or no function of human fingers. With the
development of a new technique in human form robots, various attempts to develop artificial hands with
complex functions are actively underway, and, as a result, new researches for intelligent artificial arms,
which can copy complex functions of human hands, are also currently in progress. While researches for
intelligent artificial arms have been done so far from a kinematic point of view, there needs a new
research which reflects dynamic characteristics of human hands to copy functions of human hands more
accurately. And in recent years, I believe, this kind of research is being launched. In order to measure the
strength exactly accrued from using the force in action, Force Sensitive Application (FSA) system is now
in use; yet it is true that understanding the measuring capacity of this system is quite lacking. Instruments
like NK dynamometer (NK BioTechnical Co.), Lafayette hand dynamometer (Lafayette Instrument), and
Jamar hydraulic hand dynamometer (Sammons Preston) also have a limitation in applying them to
various forms of grasping power in the object. FSA system, developed to make up for the weaknesses of
these instruments, does not interfere with the finger actions, and can be applied to the analysis of finger
manipulation that handles various forms of working objects. Nevertheless, it lacks evaluation information
regarding the measuring capacity.
As a step prior to getting the information, there should be established a standard for kinetic characteristics,
muscular strength, and grasping power of a human hand. This paper handles among them the measuring
of the muscular strength. It also describes a method, standard to measure the muscular strength, and the
result of the measurement.

2. EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP
For this study, we made two forms of measuring devices (Device 1 and Device 2) in order to measure the
muscular strength of fingers of Koreans. As for Device 1 as shown in Figure 1-(a), it is an instrument to
measure the strength of an index finger when it is bent, which used a strain-gauge style strength
measuring device with the capacity of 100 N. The device used is a full bridge style, using 4 strain gauges
with the output of 2.0 mV/V. The detailed design of the instrument is shown in Figure 2-(a). As for
Device 2 shown in Figure 2-(a), it is to measure the strength of grasping power of two fingers, thumb and
index finger, which used a strain-gauge style strength measuring instrument with the capacity of 500 N.
The device used is a full bridge style, using 4 strain gauges with the output of 0.9 mV/V. The detailed
design of the device is shown in Figure 2-(c). Measured data from both instruments were collected
through the indicator (model CTI-11--A). As for each strength measuring device, a weight is installed for
correction as in Figure 3. For Device 1, weights 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 N were suspended for correction, and

Table 1. Data of the relative expended uncertainty (a) device 1, (b) device 2
Relative
expanded

Relative
Uncertainty

Real weight (N)

expanded

Uncertainty into

uncertainty

force(N)

Real weight (N)


uncertainty

into force(N)

(Wi, %)

(Wi, %)

0.00

0.00

20

0.581

0.115

20

0.414

0.082

30

0.386

0.114

40

0.164

0.065

40

0.262

0.103

60

0.098

0.058

50

0.165

0.081

80

0.082

0.065

60

0.239

0.141

100

0.059

0.058

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 1. Measuring device and its design for muscular strength of finger bending

for Device 2, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 N were suspended for correction. Each device was pressed and corrected
according to the standard calibration procedure of electric force measuring devices, and the relative
expended uncertainty of the real load-style device used as a standard is within 0.005% (confidence level
about 95%, k=2). Data of the relative expended uncertainty for each device is shown in Table 1.

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 2. Measuring device and its design for muscular strength of finger grasping

Figure 3. Correction of the device by using weights

3.

RESULT and ANALYSIS

Before measuring the muscular strength of fingers of Koreans, a person's grasping strength of thumb and
index fingers was measured 10 times repeatedly in order to test the reproducibility of the devices. For the
bending strength, the maximum strength accrued from bending the first two knuckles of the right index
finger which were inserted into the hole as shown in Figure 4-(a) was measured.
For the muscular strength of picking, the maximum strength accrued from picking up the sensor with the
thumb and index fingers as shown in Figure 4-(a) was measured. Table 2 shows the result of the
measurement. As for the repeatability uncertainty, the bending and picking strengths show 4.8% and
4.6% of repeatability uncertainty respectively, which makes us to believe that the devices have the
measuring reliability.
In the same manner as mentioned above, bending and picking strengths of 30 men and 30 women were
measured. For each individual, bending and picking strengths were measured 3 times respectively. Table
3 shows the distribution of age of the object persons measured, and Figure 5 shows the result of
measuring. For men, the average of the muscular strength of finger bending is 30.9 N with its standard
deviation 5.9 N, and for picking strength, the average muscular strength was 66.7 N with its standard
deviation 13.1 N. For women, the average of the muscular strength of finger bending was 20.8 N with its
standard deviation 5.2 N, and for picking strength, the average muscular strength was 52.5 N with its
standard deviation 11.3 N. And from a perspective of repeatability uncertainty, for men, the maximum
muscular strength of bending showed 6.2%, and the maximum strength of picking showed 5.4%, while
for women, the maximum muscular strength of bending was 7.7%, and the maximum strength of picking
showed 6.8%. As indicated in Figure 5, the muscular strength has little to do with age from 20's to 50's.
Interestingly enough, it is not always true that those with strong bending muscular strength also have the
strong picking strength. It is expected that the standard value in each age group will be established if we
increase the number of people in each age group to be measured in the future.

(a)

(b)

Figure 4. Test of Reproducibility of the Devices

Table 2. Repeatability uncertainty by measuring 10 times


Measuring times

Repeatability

Force(N)

uncertainty
1

10

Bending

30.4

33.3

30.4

32.9

32.6

31.4

33.1

30.2

30.7

31.0

3.8

Picking

69.9

64.2

66.0

64.9

65.5

63.4

61.9

68.8

67.5

64.9

3.7

(%)

Table 3. Distribution of age groups


Age

20

30

40

50

Male

13

Female

13

4.

CONCLUSION

This study was performed to measure the muscular strength of Korean's fingers by using the strength
measuring devices. Especially, the bending and picking strengths were measured by using a right thumb
and an index finger. The special devices show the repeatability uncertainty within 5% for each muscular
strength. The result of measuring 30 men and 30 women is like this. For men, the average of the muscular
strength of finger bending is 30.9 N with its standard deviation 5.9 N, and for picking strength, the
average muscular strength was 66.7 N with its standard deviation 13.1 N. For women, the average of the
muscular strength of finger bending was 20.8 N with its standard deviation 5.2 N, and for picking strength,
the average muscular strength was 52.5 N with its standard deviation 11.3 N. And from a perspective of
repeatability uncertainty, for men, the maximum muscular strength of bending showed 6.2%, and the
maximum strength of picking showed 5.4%, while for women, the maximum muscular strength of
bending was 7.7%, and the maximum strength of picking showed 6.8%. It is expected that the standard
value for Koreans' bending and picking strengths of fingers will be established if we increase the number
of people to be measured in the future.

100. 0

45. 0

90. 0

40. 0

80. 0

35. 0

70. 0

30. 0

Fo rc e (N)

F o rc e ( N )

50. 0

25. 0
20. 0
15. 0
10. 0

60. 0
50. 0
40. 0
30. 0
20. 0

5. 0
10. 0

0. 0
15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

0. 0

60

15

Age

20

25

30

35

(a)

45

50

55

60

(b)

35. 0

80. 0

30. 0

70. 0
60. 0

Fo rc e (N)

25. 0

F o rc e ( N )

40

Age

20. 0

15. 0

50. 0
40. 0
30. 0

10. 0
20. 0

5. 0

10. 0

0. 0

0. 0

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

15

20

25

Age

30

35

40

45

50

55

Age

(c)

(d)

Figure 5. (a) Men's bending strength by age, (b) Picking strength, (c) Women's bending strength, (d) Picking
strength

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This work was funded by the project of Development of diagnosis systems using the senses(No.
10028423) from Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy.

5. REFERENCE
1. Bernstein, N. A., On the Construction of Movements, Medgiz: M, 1947
2. Bernstein, N. A., The Coordination and Regulation of Movements, Pergamon Press: Oxford, 1967.
3. Buchholz, B., Armstrong, T. J. and Goldstein, S. A, Anthropometric Data for Describing the
Kinematics of the Human Hand, Ergonomics 35(3), pp.261-273, 1992.

4. Jung K.H., You H.C and Kwon O.C, Evaluation of the FSA Han Force Measurement System,
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea 24(2), pp.45-49, 2005
5. Kim Y.H, Kim S.Y., Kim K.S. and Kwon Y.H., A study on Mutiple Relationship between Finger
Force and Neural Command, Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea 25(1), pp.35-41, 2006
6. KRISS, Standard Calibration Procedure of Electric Force Measuring Devices (c-07-1-0040-2002),
KRISS, 2002

A Study on Solid Density Primary Standard

A Study on the Absolute Measurement of Density of Silicon Crystals


for determination of Avogadro constant
Luo Zhiyong Yang Lifeng Gu Yingzi Guo Ligong Ding Jingan
National Institute of Metrology Beijing 100013
Abstract: The accuracy of solid density primary standard is decided mainly by the accuracy of the diameter measurement of
silicon sphere. With traditional five-interferogram Algorithm to unwrap phase for diameter measurement, the phase steps
should be equal to /2 exactly, but this is almost impossible to achieve in nanometer positioning technique. In order to
overcome this defect, we have derived an improved five-interferogram algorithm, which not only keeps the high accuracy of
traditional Five-Interferogram algorithm, but also does not require absolute equal step to unwrap phase. Instead, the improved
five-interferogram algorithm only needs measuring phase shifting. Based on the improved algorithm, we have developed a
novel interferometer with special etalon, and the cavity length of this etalon can be changed by pressure from vertical
direction to realize phase shifting. The accuracy of this interferometer is better than 3nm and can be improved in future
research.
Keywords: density primary standard, five-interferogram algorithm, mono-crystal silicon sphere, phase-shifting algorithm,
Etalon

1Introduction
Recently, the CIPM (centre international de posie Marseille) suggests redefining the kilogram (mass unit),
ampere(electric current unit), kelvin(temperature unit), and mole(molar quantity unit), and will vote on this suggestion
in the next metrology congress in 2011. Avogadro constant (NA) is a basic physical constant and a main latency way to
redefine mass unit kilogram, and Avogadro constant itself is the basic quantity--- mole(one of the seven basic quantities).
The main method for measuring Avogadro constant is the XRCD (x-ray crystal density) method. The formula to calculate
Avogadro constant is expressed as follows.

where M is the molar mass, is the density of the artifact, and it is calculated with mass m (measured based on the current
definition) divided by volume V of artifact. V0 is the unit cell volume, n is the number of atoms in one cell, thats to say, NA
is equal to the molar volume divided by the atomic volume. In this article, we will study how to determine the volume and
mass of artifact for determination of Avogadro constant and establishment of solid density primary standard.
For determination of Avogadro constant, the silicon crystal is the first choice due to its regular crystal structure,
excellent dynamic strength and stability of the physical and chemic characteristics. And the artifact of spherical shape is
chosen as the measuring object because it is easy to be made perfectly and measured precisely. So the single crystal silicon
sphere is chosen as a measuring object to determine Avogadro constant and establish solid density primary standard. Two
methods are often used to determine density of the single crystal sphere. One is the Cock Method, which transfers density
quantity from density standard to the object being measured by direct comparison method. Another is absolute measuring
method: the density of silicon sphere is determined from the original definition of density--- mass divided by volume. The
former method is difficult to improve accuracy because its accuracy depends on the accuracy of upper standard; the latter is
an accurate method which traces density quantity to the mass and length primary standard directly. We will use the absolute
measuring method to determine the density of silicon sphere in our study.
With the absolute measuring method, NIST first established the solid density primary standard with uncertainty of 1
10-6 (k = 2) in 1970s. After that, the solid density primary standard was established in PTB (Germany), IMGC (Italy), CSIRO
(Australia), NMIJ (Japan) etc[1~4].
Until the end of the 1990s, good laser diode with high frequency stability in a wide tunable range was not
commercially available. The light source for the interferometer was gas lasers with fixed frequencies. In order to analyze the
1

A Study on Solid Density Primary Standard


static fringes, an optical scanner was used at the IMGC to automatically measure the intensity changes along the diameter of
the concentric circular fringes. At the NMIJ, in order to avoid the difficulty in analyzing the static fringes, a mechanical
scanning method was developed in 1992[2]. In this measuring system, the sphere is placed in a fused-quartz etalon, and the
etalon is placed on a translation stage of a monolithic flexure hinge mechanism so that the etalon can be scanned relative to
the sphere. In 1995, the NMIJ first succeeded in measuring the diameters and volumes of silicon sphere in a vacuum with the
mechanical scanning method[4]. In 2001, the CSIRO implemented a tunable laser diode as the light source for measuring the
diameter of the silicon sphere with phase-shifting method. In 2003, the NMIJ also implemented a tunable laser diode as the
light source of the interferometer, and the measuring accuracy of diameter of crystal silicon sphere reached to 4nm. A new
principle with a sphere reference plate and a spherical wave was developed at the PTB in 1997. This is called Fizeau
interferometer because the observed interference fringes produced by the reflections from the sphere and spherical etalon are
identical to those from two plat plates. This principle has an advantage that 3600 points of the sphere can be analyzed by one
measurement. The disadvantage is that the wave front aberration will cause a significant error in the accuracy of diameter
measurement.
2 A breakthrough at phase-shifting algorithm
The two kinds of traditional measuring methods---mechanical scanning method and tunable laser diode method
---have their own defects so it is difficulty to make a substantial breakthrough in diameter measurement of silicon sphere.
Based on a research of new technical principle and measuring method, we have got a significant breakthrough in diameter
measurement of silicon sphere [5].
2.1 An improved five-interferogram algorithm
The traditional five-interferogram algorithm is a commonly used algorithm in precision length measurement [6]. But
this algorithm requires each shifting step be equal to /2 exactly, which is almost impossible to realize in nanometer
positioning technique. The serious algorithm error is caused by the positioning error of shifting step, which deviates from /2
and will increase rapidly with the error of the shifting step. Aiming to overcome this defect of the traditional
five-interferogram algorithm, we present an improved five-interferogram algorithm which not only keeps the high accuracy
of traditional five-interferogram algorithm, but also does not use absolute equal step to unwrap phase. The following is the
formula[6]:

tan( ) =
where k =

2k + k (cos k1 + cos k4 ) + sin k2 sin k3


cos k2 + cos k3 + k (sin k4 sin k1 )

(I 2 I 4 )
. I ,I ,I ,I ,I are intensity signals of five-interferogram produced by CCD camera. The phase signal
2 I 3 I 5 I1 1 2 3 4 5

in each interferogram is respectively expressed as: -2-k1--k2++k3+2+k4, where is the shifting step, and
equal to /2[7], k1,k2,k3,k4 are positioning deviations of shifting step. According to formula (1), the phase can be unwrapped
if intensity signals I1,I2,I3,I4,I5 and shifting steps k1,k2,k3,k4 can be got. So, for unwrapping the phase , we only need
precisely measuring the shifting steps k1,k2,k3,k4. And it is unnecessary to keep them equal to one another. The improved
five-interferogram algorithm possesses the following characteristics [8]:

When the intensity measuring error is less than 0.5%, and the measuring error of shifting step is less than 0.8nm,
the phase error of the improved five-interferogram algorithm is less than 0.05% phase period. Thus, the uncertainty
of length measurement with 633 laser can reach to 0.2nm when using this algorithm to unwrap phase.

Improved immunity to the random signal shift of I1,I2,I3,I4,I5;

Based on the improved algorithm and the stabilized He-Ne laser with wavelength of 633nm, this system can be
used to calibrate the precise position sensor on line with an accuracy of 0.1nm.

2.2 Adjustment of the original phase difference between two-interference beams


The phase error may be caused by ignorance of multiply-beam interference, measuring error of interferogram intensity,
positioning error of shifting step and so on. And it strongly depends on the original phase difference between two-interference
beams. When the original phase difference between two-interference beams is in the range of /4<<3/4 or 5/4<<7/4,
the phase error due to various error sources will reach to the maximum value [7]. Consequently, we have designed the F-P
Etalon with changeable cavity for adjusting the distance between two standard plates to avoid the original phase difference
2

A Study on Solid Density Primary Standard


between two interference beams from being in the range of /4<<3/4 or 5/4<<7/4.
3The apparatus for diameter measurement of silicon sphere
The diameter measuring system
of single silicon sphere consists of the
following components:
The
system
for
micro-displacement generation, the
direction controlling system of silicon
sphere, the temperature controlling and
measuring system in vacuum cavity, the
optical system of F-P interferometer
and the data processing system. The
structural diagram of this apparatus is
shown in Fig. 1.
3.1 Realization
scanning method

of

pressure

The F-P Etalon with changeable


cavity
for
micro-displacement
generation is a key technique for length
measurement. The basic principle is
shown in Fig.2. The point C is for
fixing the precision position sensor to
measure the movement of Etalon
standard plate. The point A is for fixing
pressure generator---precision PZT
(piezoelectricity transducer). According
to geometric construction of the Etalon,
when a pressure is put on both sides of
Etalon, the distance between two
standard plates will be prolonged. The phase shifting will be realized if the displacement of Etalon standard plate is up to
1m. Another key factor for realizing
diameter measurement is the ability of
returning to the original distance
between the two standard plates.
According to calculation[8], the
comeback ability of this Etalon is better
than 10-3nm. For validating the
characteristic of this Etalon, we have
done the following experiments. First,
change the length of the etalon cavity
to about 1m by pressing two sides of
Etalon from vertical direction. Then,
get back the Etalon cavity by removing
the pressure. This procedure will take
about 10 minutes for one experiment.
The following data are the experiment results by 12 times of repetitions (unit: m):
6.61986.61986.61976.61986.61976.6199
6.61976.61966.61966.61996.61996.6199
The experiment result shows the variation of replacement ability of Etalon is about 0.1nm. Actually, this variation includes
repeatability of precision displacement sensor, which is the main factor to influence these experiment results.
3

A Study on Solid Density Primary Standard


3.2 The temperature controlling and measuring system

The heat insulation and constant temperature are two important factors to improve measuring accuracy of temperature
distribution around silicon sphere in the vacuum cavity. In this article, for keeping excellent temperature stability, two-class
thermostat, two-class vacuum pump and two layer vacuum cavities with constant temperature cover are established. By
means of two-class vacuum pump we can make vacuum degree of 10-2Pa. The two-class thermostat consists of thermostat
F32-HE and F34-HE. Both of them are made in Germany. The vacuum cavity is made of stainless steel plate and shown in
Fig. 3. The point A in the four directions is the window for interference light passing through, the point B is the position to
place the silicon sphere, and there are 8 sensors of standard Pt resistance around the silicon sphere. The temperature
controlling and measuring system includes the high precision resistance comparator 1590, the multi-channel switch 2590, and
8 standard Pt resistances. The temperature field distribution in the vacuum cavity is shown in Fig. 4. There exists a
homogeneous temperature field area of a 200mm diameter in the center of the vacuum cavity where the silicon sphere is
placed.
Fig. 5 is the curve of temperature controlling effect in the period of 2 hours. The temperature stability is better than
0.5mK in that period.

3.3 The optical system of F-P interferometer


The equipment of F-P interferometer consists of a high frequency stabilized laser (Melles Griot 05-STP-903 633), two
CCD cameras with a gray degree of 12 bits, a series of lenses, prisms and other optical components. Fig. 6 is the optical
system diagram for diameter measurement of silicon sphere. The light beam reflected from standard plate converges to the
focal point Fe and the light beam reflected from surface of silicon sphere converges to the focal point Fs. The amplitude of
light beam reflected from standard plate at CCD screen can be expressed in complex number:
4

A Study on Solid Density Primary Standard


Ae = A0

f jt
e
Re

where Re is the distance between Fe and CCD screen, and f is the focus of lens. According to the geometric relationship of
Fig. 6, the point O is close to the middle of this diameter. The distances from O to surface of silicon sphere and to the lens
are L1 and L2, respectively, and the distance from point Fs to CCD screen is Rs. The amplitude of light beam reflected from
surface of silicon sphere at the CCD screen can be expressed as below:

As = A0e jt (1 )
2

fL1
1

2e ( L2 f ) Rs
j

The ratio of amplitude modulus

As
Re L1

1
(1 )
=

4
( L2 f ) Rs
Ae
1 + 4

For good visibility of interferogram, let


1

According to Gaussian theorem, L2

As
=1
Ae

1
1
=
f + Re Rs
f

then

Re =

Rs =

K=

f2
( L2 f KL1 )

KL1
f2

( L2 f ) ( L2 f KL1 )

1
(1 )
4
1 + 4

where
, for best visibility of interferogram, the optical parameter of this system should
meet the requirements of formula (4) and formula (5). Based on the optimum construction and parameter of optical system,
the experiment results of this interferometer show good visibility. Under identical experiment conditions, the intensity
repeatability at the identical point of interferogram is better than 0.1%.
4 Mass determination of silicon sphere
The measuring uncertainty of mass of silicon sphere is as important as the volume uncertainty of silicon sphere. The
mass of silicon sphere is about 1 kilogram so we can use mass prototype to determine the mass quantity directly for
improving measuring accuracy.
In this article, the 1kg precision vacuum comparator: M-one with division of 0.1 g and the copy prototype are used
to determine the mass of silicon sphere. The mass uncertainty of silicon sphere arising from this procedure is better than
22g.
5 Uncertainty Evaluation
The error sources of density of single crystal silicon come from several factors: the error from diameter measurement,
temperature error, error in mass measurement, the variation by random factor, etc. The following table is the uncertainty
budget of density measurement of silicon sphere.
Uncertainty evaluation for density measurement of silicon sphere
Uncertainty components in diameter
No.

Sources of error

Sub-standard uncertainty

Uncertainty in diameter
nm

A Study on Solid Density Primary Standard


1

Variation

Less than 0.8 phase period

2.8

Intensity error

0.2%

0.633

Alignment of light beam

110-5rad

0.5

Gaussian beam

0.00024rad

Improved algorithm

0.01%

Laser wavelength

710-9

Temperature

5mk

0.8

Pressure correction

2kPa

0.6

Composite uncertainty in volume

3nm

Uncertainty components in density


No.

Components

Sub-standard uncertainty

Uncertainty in density
(relative)

Volume calculation

110-11

Volume

3nm

0.910-7

Mass

22g

2.210-8

Composite standard uncertainty


(relative)

110-7

This table shows the relative composite standard uncertainty of 110-7 in density of silicon sphere (except the
measuring error of oxide layer thickness). In this table, the measuring variation is the main error source in density of silicon
sphere. By theoretic analysis, the reason for such a measuring variation is the light beam diffraction by the edge of prism or
the particle in the light road. For reducing this variation, the following approach is implemented before experiment:

Cleaning the surface of all optical components in the light road carefully to avoid particle diffraction;

Making sure there is no edge diffraction of prisms or other optical components by adjusting the optical system;

Keeping air stable in laboratory by means of air cover.

6 Conclusions
Determination of Avogadro constant is a great complex subject with many difficulties. The article focuses on the subject
of Avogadro constant determination ---density measurement of silicon crystal. We use the M-one vacuum comparator and
copy prototype at NIM(National Institute of Metrology, China) to determine mass of silicon sphere with standard uncertainty
better than 22g. In order to determine the volume of silicon sphere with phase-shifting method, an improved
five-interferogram algorithm has been established with an accuracy of 0.05% phase period (if measuring error of interference
intensity is 0.5% and measuring error of each shifting step is 0.8nm). Based on the improved algorithm, we have developed a
novel interferometer with special etalon. The length of this etalon can be changed by pressure in vertical direction to realize
phase-shifting, and can be replaced with an accuracy better than 0.1nm when pressure is removed. The measurement standard
uncertainty of diameter of silicon sphere is better than 3nm, and measurement standard uncertainty of silicon crystal density
is 110-7.

References
1.

R A Nicolaus and Fujii. Primary calibration of the volume of silicon spheres, Meas.Sci.Technol.17(2006)2527
2539

A Study on Solid Density Primary Standard


2.

Naoki Kuramoto and Kenichi Fujii. Volume Determination of Silicon Sphere Using an Improved Interferometer with
Optical Frequency Tuning, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement,Vol.54 No.2, 868871,April
2005

3.

R A Nicolaus and G Bonsch. Absolute volume determination of a silicon sphere with the spherical interferometer of
PTB, Metrologia, 42(2005) 2431

4.

Fujii K., Tanaka M., Nezu Y., Nakayama K., Fujimoto Y., De Bivre P., Valkiers S., Determination of the Avogadro
constant from accurate measurement of the molar volume of a siliconcrystal, Metrologia, 1999, 36, 455464.

5.

Luo Z. Yang L. Chen Y. A Precision Measuring System for the Diameter of Single Crystal Silicon Sphere Acta
Metrologica Sinica 2005.4 (in Chinese)

6.

Luo Z. etc. Five-Bucket Phase-Shifting Algorithm Based on Numerical Simulation Acta Optica Sinica 2006
26.11:15191523.(in Chinese)

7.

Luo Z. Yang L. Chen Y. Phase-shift algorithm research based on multiple-beam interference principle, Acta Physica
Sinica 200554730513057.(in Chinese)

8.

Luo Z. Yang L. Chen Y.

Error Evaluation of Cosine Dependent Algorithm in Precision Interference Measurement

Acta Optica Sinica 2005 25.12:16291633.(in Chinese)

Comparison of three different methods for determining the


density of weights used in pressure balance
Sam-yong Woo, Han-wook Song, Yong-jae Lee, In-Mook Choi, Boo-Shik Kim
Mechanical Metrology Group, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science,
Republic of Korea

ABSTRACT
When using a pressure balance to measure pressure, it is necessary to measure the exact density
of masses contributing to the load on the piston for minimizing uncertainty of pressure.
However, most mass values of weights are determined by weighing in air against mass
standards of density 8000 kgm-3 and given as conventional mass values. For pressure balance
working in the absolute mode, that is where the weights are operating in vacuum, the
conventional mass values are far from true values. It is therefore necessary to know the true
density of the loading weights of the pressure balance in order that their true masses can be
calculated. In this paper, we propose a new method to measure the density of weights. The
performance of the proposed method is illustrated by comparing the results with a hydrostatic
weighing method and a dimensional method.
Keywords: True density, weight, pressure balance, conventional mass, vacuum vessel

1.

INTRODUCTION

Pressure balances have been widely used as a fundamental instrument of pressure measurement
because they are robust, portable, convenient and able to measure pressure over a wide range. Basically, a
pressure balance consists of a piston mounted vertically in a close-fitting cylinder filled with a gas or oil.
The piston is equipped with a weight-loading table on which weights of known mass can be placed. The
pressure to be measured is applied to the base of the piston generating an upward vertical force. This
force is balanced by the downward gravitational force generated by weights acting on the piston.
The mass of weights is generally calibrated by weighing in air against standard weights of known
density and mass. As it is not always practical to measure the densities, a convention is widely adopted
throughout the world to assign the mass value of a weight in terms of standard weight which is based on
the values of weight density and air density to be 8000 kgm-3 and 1.2 kgm-3 respectively. The relative
error arising in the calculation of the downward force using the conventional mass values with the
assumed values of air density instead of the true mass and actual air density can be expressed by equation
(1),

e = ( a 1.2)(
'

where

1
)
8000

m is the density of a test weight and a '

(1)
is the air density at the time of the mass measurement.

This reveals that the error will be zero if either the density of the air is 1.2 kgm-3 or the density of the test
weight is 8000 kgm-3. Therefore, when a pressure balance operates in vacuum, where air density is very
close to zero, a large error will arise if material property of the test weight is very different from stainless
steel. This means that it is necessary to know the true mass value instead of conventional mass value to
minimize the errors in the calculation of the applied load. In this paper, we introduce a new method to
determine the density of the weight used in the pressure balance.
The proposed method has an advantage to determine the density easily without immersing the sample in the liquid.
We also compared the density values obtained from this new method to the other two different methods
which are available easily in the calibration laboratory.

2.

PRINCIPLES AND APPARATUS

A hydrostatic weighing apparatus is the most accurate method to measure the density of solids. This
apparatus is composed of a carrier to load the samples on the immersion pan in liquid, and a balance to
measure the apparent mass of the samples on the pan. The picture on the left-hand side in figure 1 shows a
hydrostatic weighing system at the KRISS. The picture on the right-hand side shows the weighing pan and sample disks
immersed in the liquid during measurement. Generally, Tridecane is used as the liquid for generating buoyancy. The
balance (Mettler-Toledo Co., Model XP2004S) has a capacity of 2 kg and a readability of 0.1 mg. The uncertainty of the
hydrostatic weighing system is much below 0.001 g/cm3 (k=2, 95% confidence level).

Figure 1. Hydrostatic weighing apparatus at KRISS (left) and the samples loaded on the immersion pan (right).

For this work, we made three pairs of samples. Each pair was made from brass, aluminum and stainless
steel, respectively. The samples are cylindrical with a height of 30 mm and a diameter of 45 mm. This
cylindrical shape enables to calculate the volume of samples easily.
Following is the new proposed method in order to measure the density of weights easily for the
pressure balance. A typical hydrostatic weighing method uses buoyancy difference between liquid and
air. However, this new method uses the buoyancy difference between vacuum and air. Figure 2 shows
the schematic for density measurement proposed for deadweight.

Figure 2. Schematic for density measurement proposed for dead weight.

The detailed measurement procedures are as follows.


1) By operating a vacuum pump, the vessel is evacuated. Put the vessel on the balance and read the mass value.
2) After breaking the vacuum, the sample to be measured is inserted in the vessel and the vessel is evacuated again. Put
the vessel on the balance and read the value. The difference between two readings is a true mass.
3) At ambient condition, put the empty vessel on the balance and read the value.
4) After inserting the sample inside the vessel, read the value.
5) Calculate the air density from the equation using the room temperature, humidity, and ambient pressure.
6) Using the air density and true mass of sample, calculate the volume of sample.
7) Calculate the density of the sample (mass of the sample in step 2 is divided by volume in step 6).

3. EXPERIMENTS AND DISCUSSION


In case of simple cylindrical samples, the easiest and simplest way to determine the density is a
dimensional method. Table 1 shows the calculated densities of the samples using a dimensional method.

Table 1 Calculated densities of the samples using a dimensional method.


Sample

D (mm)

H(mm)

V (mm3)

density(g/cm3)

Al #1

45.00

29.98

47681

2.699

Al #2

44.98

29.96

47607

2.698

Brass#1

45.01

30.01

47750

8.450

Brass#2

45.00

29.98

47681

8.456

SUS#1

44.99

30.02

47724

7.890

SUS#2

44.97

30.00

47649

7.899

The uncertainty of this method is estimated below 0.5 % of reading since it results from the simple cylindrical geometry.

Using the hydrostatic weighing method, we obtained the reference density values of six samples. The uncertainty of the
measurement is below 0.01% of reading. Table 2 shows the summary of three different methods.

Table 2 Results of three different methods (unit: g/cm3).


Sample
Brass #1
Brass #2
SUS #1
SUS #2
Al #1
Al #2

Hydrostatic weighing
8.460
8.460
7.895
7.895
2.701
2.701

Dimensional method
8.456
8.450
7.899
7.890
2.699
2.698

Vacuum method
8.38
8.35
7.81
7.78
2.68
2.66

As shown in the table 2, the hydrostatic weighing and dimensional method coincides well within the difference of
0.15 % of reading. This agreement is partly due to the simple shapes of samples. However, most of deadweights used in a
pressure balance have complex structures and it is difficult to know the exact dimension of them. That is the reason why
we proposed a new method which can be easily applicable to the complex structures. The proposed method has an
advantage to determine the density easily without immersing the sample in the liquid. In order to keep the sample in
vacuum, we manufactured a small vessel made from aluminum. We investigated the possible leak of the vessel and
measured the mass change after closing a valve, commercial Swagelok ball valve. The reading of mass was not changed
for 15 minutes and the leak level was estimated below 0.01 mg/min. Figure 3 compares the experimental results of the
new proposed method to the hydrostatic weighing method as reference value. The deviations between two methods were
1.6 %, 1.4 %, and 1.3 % for the aluminum, stateless steel, and brass, respectively. It also shows that the repeatability of
measurements was less than 0.6 % of the reading. This is very encouraging result considering that the typical uncertainty
of density for deadweight is 5 % of reading. This method can be very useful for composite material or assembled part
where the approximate density is not well known.

Relative Difference (% of Reading)

4.5

3.0

1.5

0.0

-1.5

-3.0

-4.5

Al

SUS

Brass

Figure 3. Relative difference of the density values obtained from the proposed method. The reference
values are from hydrostatic weighing method.

4. CONCLUSION
We have developed an efficient method for measuring the density of the deadweight used in pressure
balance. A density measuring unit adopting the new method consists of a vacuum vessel and a ball valve.
It gives a convenient and relatively precise means of measuring the density of deadweight. The
performance of the proposed method was verified by comparing the measuring results with those
obtained using the hydrostatic weighing method and the dimensional method.

5. REFERENCES
[1] S.Y.Woo et al, Metrologia, 41, 8 (2004).
[2] K.H.Chang, Meas.Sci.Technol, 18, 1622 (2007).

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Design and Component Evaluation of the 10 Nm Dead-Weight


Torque Standard Machine
Atsuhiro NISHINO, Koji OHGUSHI and Kazunaga UEDA
National Metrology Institute of Japan, AIST
ABSTRACT
Various torque measuring devices (TMDs) and small-rated-capacity torque tools have been used in the industry. To
make sure of accuracy, security and reliability in the above TMDs, hand torque wrenches and hand torque screwdrivers,
it is imperative that a torque standard of small capacity is established and disseminated throughout the industry. A 10
Nm deadweight torque standard machine (10 Nm-DWSTM) has been designed and developed since 2006 at the
National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) in the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
(AIST). This paper describes the overview of the 10 Nm-DWTSM. Evaluations of some components, such as a
coefficient of thermal expansion and length of the moment-arm, and sensitivity limit at the fulcrum were also
conducted. The apparent coefficient of thermal expansion was 1.1 10-6 K-1 and the moment-arm lengths are 510.2711
mm for the right side and 510.2583 mm for the left side. The sensitivity at the fulcrum was sufficient in the mass range
from 0.1 mg to 1 mg.
Keywords: Torque standard, Sensitivity

1. INTRODUCTION
In recent years, there has been a demand for various precision devices such as CD and DVD drives, printers, hard
disk recorders, audio-visual equipment, and office equipment that are lightweight, have multiple functions, and have
low power consumption. A key element in meeting these requirements is fine torque control of rotational drive parts, as
well as fastening bolts and screws used for assembling these precision devices. Therefore, precise torque measuring
devices (TMDs) of small rated capacity are required.
Two deadweight torque standard machines (TSMs), rated capacities of which are 1 kNm and 20 kNm (1 kNmDWTSM and 20 kNm-DWTSM), have been completed and a torque standard has been disseminated to Japanese
industry in the range from 5 Nm to 20 kNm since 2004, at the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) in the
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST). However, this dissemination range of torque
standard is insufficient for the demand of the industry. Many torque tools as well as TMDs of rated capacity of less than
5 Nm are being used. Thus, the torque standard of small capacity has to be established as soon as possible.
Under such circumstances, a 10 Nm deadweight torque standard machine (10 Nm-DWTSM) has been designed and
developed since 2006 at the NMIJ. This paper describes the overview of the 10 Nm-DWTSM. Evaluations of some
components, such as a coefficient of thermal expansion and length of the moment-arm, and sensitivity limit at the
fulcrum were also investigated.

2. OVEWVIEW OF THE 10 NM-DWTSM


A schematic representation of the 10 Nm-DWTSM is shown in Fig. 1. The basic components of the 10 NmDWTSM are: (1) a moment-arm component, (2) weight loading components, (3) a counter bearing component, (4) an
installation component for a torque transducer, (5) a pedestal component, and (6) a windshield. These components are
introduced below.
2.1 MOMENT-ARM COMPONENT
The moment-arm component consists of an aerostatic bearing as the fulcrum, moment-arms, metal bands, the
measurement system of inclined level and the clamp control system. Figure 2 shows a photograph of the moment-arm

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Counter bearing component


Torque transducer
Installation component for a torque transducer

Moment-arm component

{
Windshield

Pedestal component

Weight loading components

Figure 1: Schematic representation of the 10 Nm-DWTSM

Windshield
Aerostatic bearing

Moment arm

Figure 2: The moment-arm component

component. A schematic representation of the moment-arm component is shown in Fig. 3. Figure 4 shows a schematic
front view for the moment-arm and enlarged view at the one of metal bands. The moment-arm component is symmetric
with respect to the axial direction.
The aerostatic bearing was adopted as the fulcrum supporting the moment-arm to minimize the rotational friction.
The designed pressure of compressed air supplied to the aerostatic bearing is 0.5 MPa. Dust and moisture are eliminated
from the compressed air by two kinds of fine filters and an air dryer unit. Compressed air at 0.1 MPa is supplied to the
aerostatic bearing for 24 hours. In doing so, the aerostatic bearing is protected from the influence of dust and moisture.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Metal band

Aerostatic bearing

Moment-arm
Clamp control system

Linear scale

Figure 3: Schematic representation of the moment-arm component in the 10 Nm-DWTSM


L0
Moment-arm

Aerostatic bearing
L
L0
Lu

Fixing plate 2

tw

h1

Fixing plate 1

Metal band

Figure 4: Dimension definition of the moment-arm

When the 10 Nm-DWTSM is operated, it is necessary to change the pressure of the compressed air to 0.5 MPa at least
1 hour in advance.
The main parts of the moment-arm are made from low thermal-expansion alloy (super INVAR). The fixing plates
attached at the edges of the main parts are made from austenitic stainless steel (SUS304). The total nominal length of
the main parts is 1 000 mm and thickness is 10 mm.
The thin metal bands are supported by the fixing plate 1 and 2 which are made from SUS304 and the metal bands are
also made from SUS304. The thickness of the metal bands is 10 m, and it was assumed that the loading point was at
the center of the metal band in the thickness direction.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

The measurement system of inclined level consists of linear scales (photoelectric reflection type), universal drivers,
and a PC. The resolution of the linear scales is 0.01 m. The reflection plates of the linear scales are attached to the
edge of the moment-arm.
The moment-arm is held to horizontal position by two clamps of the clamp control system which are installed at both
the right and left sides of the moment-arm. This system can control the speed of clamping.
2.2 COUNTER BEARING COMPONENT
The counter bearing component consists of reduction mechanism, a motor, and a linear guide rail. In the reduction
mechanism, a double harmonic drive gearing system was adopted to achieve a high reduction ratio (1:800). The rated
capacity of the motor is 0.16 Nm, the resolution of which is 131 072 pulse/rev.
2.3 WEIGHT LOADING COMPONENTS
A binary mass stack exchange systems will be set as the weight loading components under both the right and left tips
of the moment-arm. The dead weights according to the OIML R111 have been prepared by the series from 1 mg to 1 kg
in advance. The structures of the hanger parts look like baskets as shown in Fig. 1.
2.4 INSTALLATION COMPONENT FOR A TORQUE TRANSDUCER
The misalignment in the measurement axis might affect the uncertainty of realized torque by a TSM. In the
installation component for a torque transducer, diaphragm couplings are adopted to reduce the influence of the bending
moments and transverse forces. Friction joints were used to facilitate installation of the torque transducer.
2.5 PEDESTAL COMPONENT
Currently, the 10 Nm-DWTSM has been set up on a vibration-free table made from stone. The stone table has a
thickness of 150 mm. Anti-vibration rubber elements are installed under the table. In the future, a special pedestal will
be designed for the machine.
2.6 WINDSHIELD
The smaller the rated capacity of torque is, the larger the wind influence becomes on the measurement result.
Therefore, a windshield has been essential to cover the whole TSM. The 10 Nm-DWTSM is covered with a windshield
of the prototype which is made from plastic sheets without any clean system.

3. EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS
3.1 COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION OF THE MOMENT-ARM
The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the moment-arm was measured to estimate the uncertainty of the
moment-arm length during the torque calibration. The CTE of respective materials in the moment-arm component were
measured using a laser interferometric dilatometer by the Thermophysical Properties Section at the NMIJ. The
measurement temperature ranged from 20 oC to 26 oC.
3.2 THE MOMENT-ARM LENGTH
A 3D coordinate measurement machine (CMM) was used for the measurement of the initial moment-arm length. The
length was measured by the Dimensional Standards Section at the NMIJ under the temperature environment of 20 oC.
First, Lu was measured without the metal band and the fixing plate 1 (Fig. 4). Next, the metal band and the fixing plate
1, the thickness of which was measured beforehand, were fastened to the main part of the moment-arm using a hand
torque wrench by a constant torque of 9.25 Nm. Then the allover length of the moment-arm L was measured. The
metal band thickness tw was calculated using the following equation:
tw = L (Lu + h1)

(1),

where h1 is the thickness of fixing plate 1. The moment-arm length L0 was determined by adding Lu to tw/2 (L0 = Lu +
tw/2). L0 was measured for the right- and left-hands, respectively.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

3.3 SENSITIVITY LIMIT AT THE FULCRUM


The aerostatic bearing is used for the fulcrum. The fulcrum could contain an apparent dead band, which is caused by
the oscillation of the moment-arm due to the environmental influences such as pulsatory motion of the compressed air
pressure. So, sensitivity limit of the fulcrum was investigated by loading small weights. The small weights used in
measurement of the sensitivity were 1.0 mg, 0.5 mg, 0.2 mg and 0.1 mg. The weights of 0.5 mg, 0.2 mg and 0.1 mg
were made especially for this experiment. The mass of these weights was measured using an electrical precision balance
by the Mass and Force Standards Section at the NMIJ. The data shown in Table 1 are mass of the small weights. Figure
5 shows a photograph of the small weights. The small weights were loaded at one tip of the moment-arm when no dead
weight loading. Inclination of the moment-arm was measured by the linear scale.

Table 1 Mass of small weights


1 mg
0.5 mg
0.2 mg
0.1 mg

1 mg

Mass, mg

Equivalent Torque, Nm

1.0012
0.4996
0.1993
0.1001

5.0
2.5
1.0
0.5

0.5 mg

0.2 mg 0.1 mg

Figure 5: Small weights

4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


4.1 COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION OF THE MOMENT-ARM
The calibration results of CTEs are shown in Table 2. The CTE for the super INVAR is about 1/40 of the value for
the SUS304. An apparent CTE for overall length of the moment-arm was = 1.1 10-6 K-1 that was calculated by using
the dimensional length and CTE of each part (shown in Table 2).

Table 2 Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of respective materials


Temperature
CTE
Expanded uncertainty (k = 2)
T, C
, 10-6 K-1
U(), 10-6 K-1
Main part
22.881
0.4378
0.0038
(Super INVAR)
Fixing plate 1
22.910
16.145
0.021
(SUS304)
Fixing plate 2
22.908
16.182
0.014
(SUS304)

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

4.2 THE MOMENT-ARM LENGTH


Table 3 shows the measurement and calibration results of the initial moment-arm length at the environmental
temperature of 20 oC. Only the uncertainties of Lu are also given. Good results were obtained with sufficient small
uncertainty. Total uncertainty of the initial moment-arm length L0 is currently being analyzed. The actual moment-arm
length should be also calculated using the apparent CTE of the materials at the environmental temperature of 23 oC,
which is usual torque calibration condition. However, the variation of the moment-arm length will be negligible because
the super INVAR is used for the main parts of the moment-arm.

Table 3 Initial moment-arm length


Left hand (CCW)

Right hand (CW)

510.2583 mm

510.2711 mm

4.2 m

5.7 m

0.0148 mm
510.2657 mm

0.0124 mm
510.2773 mm

Lu
Relative expanded uncertainty
U(Lu) (k = 2)
tw
L0

4.3 SENSITIVITY LIMIT AT THE FULCRUM


Figure 6 shows the oscillation of the moment-arm during the arm-balancing without dead weights loading. The
measurement time was 10 minutes and the sampling frequency was 1 Hz. The data were obtained using a moving
average method for the interval of 5 s. The amplitude at the ends of the moment-arm was approximately less than 0.05
m. The amplitude is enormously greater than this value if the windshield does not cover the 10 Nm-DWTSM.
Moreover, the moment-arm did not tend to rotate to clockwise or counterclockwise and kept at the horizontal level.
Therefore, the influence of airflows by the duct was very small because the windshield covered the outside of the 10
Nm-DWTSM. Also, it is thought that pulsation of the compressed air did not affect the oscillation of the moment-arm.

Inclined level, m

0.2

0.1

-0.1

-0.2
0

100

200

300
Time, s

400

500

600

Figure 6: Oscillation of the moment-arm (without dead weights loading)


Figure 7 shows the relationship between small weight loading and the inclined level of the moment-arm. The fulcrum
was enough sensitive for the small weight lading of less than 0.1 mg at least. This limit is equivalent to the torque of 0.5
m. There was a linear relationship between mass of the small weights and inclined level using the least square method.
Figure 8 shows the uncertainty due to the reproducibility of the sensitivity at the fulcrum. u(Tinc) is calculated using
the following equation1 for each average value:

u (Tinc )

Tinc , min
1 T
= inc , max

3
2

(2),

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

where Tinc is torque value converted from the inclined level obtained in this experiment, using the gradient of the
fitting curve shown in Fig. 7. u(Tinc) is considered as a uniform distribution, the full width of which is between the
maximum torque Tinc,max and the minimum torque Tinc,min. u(Tinc) of smaller than 0.2 Nm could be obtained. The
sensitivity limit at the fulcrum should be evaluated when various weights were loaded at the tip of the moment-arm, as
the next step of this research.

Inclined level, m

-100

-200

0.2

0.4
0.6
0.8
Mass of small weight, mg

1.0

Figure 7: Relationship between small weight loading and inclined level of the moment-arm

u(Tinc), Nm

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.2

0.4
0.6
0.8
Mass of small weight, mg

1.0

Figure 8: Reproducibility of sensitivity at the fulcrum

5. SUMMARY
This paper described the overview of the 10 Nm-DWTSM. Evaluations of some components, such as a coefficient of
thermal expansion and length of the moment-arm, and sensitivity limit at the fulcrum were also investigated. As a
result, the coefficients of thermal expansion of the respective materials and the length of the moment-arm could be
calibrated with sufficient small uncertainties. It was found that the sensitivity limit could be less than 0.1 mg loading at
the tip of the moment-arm, which was equivalent to the torque of 0.50 Nm. The uncertainty due to the reproducibility
of the sensitivity was smaller than 0.2 Nm.
As the next step of the research, remained components of the 10 Nm-DWTSM should be developed such as the
weight loading components, the pedestal component and the windshield. The uncertainty of realized torque by the 10
Nm-DWTSM will be evaluated.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We would like to thank the staff at the NMIJ, in particular Dr. N. Yamada of the Thermophysical Properties Section for
his support with the calibration of CTEs, Dr. S. Osawa and Dr. O. Sato of the Dimensional Standards Section for their
cooperation whit the length measurements, Dr. J. Sun of the Mass and Force Standards Section for his assistance whit
the mass measurements.

REFERENCES
1.

K. Ohgushi, T. Ota, K. Katase and T. Tojo: Sensitivity Measurement in the 1 kNm Torque Standard Machine - An
Aerostatic Bearing for the Fulcrum Unit -, Proc. APMF 2000, pp.99-104, 2000.

* Corresponding author information: Atsuhiro NISHINO, a.nishino@aist.go.jp; phone +81-29-861-4153; fax +81-29861-4399; National Metrology Institute of Japan, AIST, Tsukuba Central 3, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, 305-8563, Japan.

4kNm Torque standard equipment


Meng Feng, Tang Gefei, Zhang Zhimin 1
1 National

institute of metrology, Beijing, P.R.China

ABSTRACT: The paper describes the 4kNm torque equipment with high accuracy and multifunction,
developed by our institute. Introduce the structure and working principle. In order to obtain the high
performance of a joint structure, its very important to maintain the accuracy of torque wrench, which
is used to apply the proper torque to the fasteners to get the required clamping force. The 4kNm
standard equipment is designed to comply with ISO 6789. The equipment involves three standard
torque transducers, which can be changed very convenient. The measuring range of standard is from
10Nm to 4kNm. And you can operate the standard by computer or by hand. With the worm and worm
gear we can turn the transducer instead of move the wrench handle. Therefore we can get more stability
measurement. The equipment has a suit of lever and weight which is used to calibrate the torque
transducer.

Keywords: torque calibrate; torque wrench; standard machine.


1. Brief introduction
Nowadays, with the rapid development of manufacturing, China is becoming the manufacturing center
of the world gradually. In order to insure the quality of products, the requirement for the tools used in
manufacturing becomes more and more strict. The torque tools used in the fitting process such as
torque wrench, torque screwdriver, torque wrench meter has found wide application in some industries
such as electron, automobile, aviation, electric power, shipbuilding etc. To satisfy the requirement of
measurement and calibration for various torque instruments, the institute developed the 4kNm torque
standard equipment. The design basis of the standard equipment is the ISO6789. The equipment
involves three standard torque transducers, which can be changed very convenient. The measurement
range of this equipment is from 10Nm to 4kNm and it can be operated by manual and computer. As a
substitute of the motion torque wrench handle, the worm and worm gear of the standard equipment can
rotate the transducer and thereby the higher measurement stability can be obtained. The standard
equipment also includes a suit of level and weight which is used to calibrate the standard torque
transducer.

2System structure and operational principle


Mechanical part: The mechanical part of 4kNm standard equipment is composed of fifth reduction gear
and worm and worm gear. Transverse loading rotating process can be transferred to vertical sensor
slow-speed rotating process by gearworm and worm gear. As a result, 4kNm output torque can be
obtained in output side by putting on lesser input torque in loading position. Manual loading and motor
driver loading method are allowed to choose in loading position. Output shaft can replace expediently
standard transducer with diverse measurement range, which range is 10Nm-4kNm. Furthermore, it is
equipped with special level weight and can calibrate the standard transducer. The butterfly symmetry
arc level can be applied to avoid the horizontal error. Considering the maximum of torque wrench that
need to be calibrated reaches 4kNm, the strength design of the mechanical drive part of this equipment
should be done primarily, and then according to related standard, it requires extension bar when loading

so high torque value, the design for standard equipment can extend to four meters. Generally speaking,
the biggish torque tools should be equipped with extension bar. For example, the full length of the
2000Nm torque wrench with extension bar is 2 meters. Considering the requirement for the best ability
to calibrate 4kNm torque toolthe bracket of the standard equipment should be designed 4 meter long,
which can be adjusted freely.
Electrical part: The standard equipment adopts computer control servo motor drive. Servo motor drive
will bring along gearing till the transducer begins to rotate, the torque value of the transducer can be
obtained by 2000 meter. The angular transducers (incremental encoder) can feedback rotating angle at
one time. The 20000 pluses generated by one circuit rotate of the rotating encode can be set fourfold
frequency within the motor card, and as a result, the 80000 pluses can be obtained, which angular
resolution can reach 0.045. Computer control loading can realize controlling the torque value and
loading control angle. The control diagram is as follows:

Torque

2000

transducer

Mete

Gearing

Printer

RS232

Angle sensor

Motor

Motor
drive
Servo
motor

control

card PCI-8132

Panel

display

and

control (LCD)
Chart 2-1 System diagram

3Key technologies
3.1 Machinery platform
Mechanical part of standard equipment is the base of equipment. The transducer and control system is
designed by mechanical part. The gearing diagram is as follows.

Chart3-1 gearing diagram

Considering the ratio between input velocity and output velocity is 3475:1; the manipulator can get
4kNm torque load in output side by using 1.8Nm torque in input side. The design of the gear is based
on strength design. The torque value of each shaft satisfies the following equation.

in

d
T
d
in

out

3.1.1

out

Where:

in

out

in

out

Input torque
Output torque
Pitch diameter of the gear in input shaft
Pitch diameter of the gear in output shaft

And the mathematics model of the torque value of worm and worm wheel is:

in

d
d

in

tg T out

3.1.2

out

Where:

The torque of worm

in

out

in

out

The torque of worm wheel


Diameter of worm
Diameter of worm gear
Lead angle of worm gear

3.2 Servo system and control system hardware structure


PC and Linghua motor control card PCI-8132is the recommended main controller of this system.
Because the PCI-8132 is the two-axis control card, in which one axis (the following text is Axis-1) can
be applied in the motor control, and another axis (the following is Axis-2) can be used to collect signals
from angle sensors (incremental rotate encoder).
Panasonic AC servomotor MSMA082A1G and drive MSDA083A1A is the system drive of this system,
the motor power is 0.75KW, which has three control methods with higher control precision: voltage
control, control of TORQUE in general, position control. The system adopts position control method
and the motor control card PCI-8132 output selected pulse to control the rotate speed, thereby control
loading speed.
The system sends control signal namely pulse signal to servo motor drive by the Axis-1 of two-axis
motor control card PCI-8132, then the drive controls the rolling of the motor. After putting on the load,
torque transducer signals can be collected and processed according to the 2000 standard torque meter
and be sent synchronously to the computer for further process. The time varying torque value can be
displayed in the computer. And then the rotating angle signal obtained by incremental rotate encoder
will be sent into the computer for processing by motor control card Axis-2. It can be seen in the Chart
2-1 System diagram.

3.3 Control system software


Control software can be realized by Labview software in the Windows system. The structural diagram
is as follows:
Start

Operation
Selection
Manual

Auto

Load
selection
Continuous
Preset instrument

Setting

instrument

mode

Continuous

loading

mode

loading

N
Complete

Complete
Y

Y
Saving
Record
N

Saving

End

Chart 3-2 Control software

The software mainly includes the following contents:


The communication between 2000 meter and PC.
The control of rotating speed by self-owned VI of the motor control card PCI-8132.
The angular measurement of rotate encoder by self-owned VI of the motor control card
PCI-8132.

The software realization of the preset load mode and continuous load mode.
The date processing of torque and angle calibration.
Besides, it also includes the certificate printing. The chief components of the software front panel are
load control area and data display area. The control area includes the setting of load scheme and load
speed, etc. The data display includes real-time curve display, data digital display. The digital display
includes track and peak selection. The display mode includes peak and track display, which the data
unit is of optional, such as Nmkgf.min.lbft.lb.
3.4 Load scheme
The load method of the torque standard equipment is divided into two categories: manual load and
computer control load. As for the manual load, it is very convenient to use manual rocker and loading
control panel to control load. Computer control load can realize torque load by inputting loading
instruction in the computer. You can set the speed of load. And you can choose the mode of load.
The loading mode includes preset and continuous mode. The preset mode is designed for preset tools,
in this mode computer can distinguish the state of reaching the preset point. Continuous mode is
designed for continuous tools, in this mode computer can generate continuous load stability.
3.5 Torque transducer
To ensure the precision of standard equipment, the system is configured a set of three standard torque
transducer, which measurement range is (10-100) Nm, (100-1000) Nm, (400-4000) Nm, respectively
and the uncertainty is 0.1% (k=2). The standard transducer can be replaced conveniently in the standard
machine.

4Conclusion
After a year of application, it has been proved that this torque standard is of work stability, high
precision and measurement range ability, perfect function and convenient operation and is higher level
of torque standard equipment.

Reference:
[1] Users Guide of PCI-8132 2 Axes Servo/stepper Motion Control Card.
[2] Operating Manual of AC Servo Motor Driver MINAS A-series.
[3] International standard 6789
[4] Pu Lianggui, Ji minggang, machine design high education press, 1998.
[5] Chinese verification regulation: wrench and screwdrivers.

Contact point:
Meng Feng, national insititude of metrology, 18 bei san huan dong lu, Beijing 100013, China
Telephone: (86)1064211631ext2312
Fax: (86)1064218628
E-mail: mengf@nim.ac.cn

A 10t electromagnetic balance established


Li Tingyuan Wang Xiaosan
MeiHongwei
Bei Jing Aerospace Institute for Measurement and Test Technology ,China
ABSTRACT
This article introduces the composition ,the construction and the principle of the 10t electromagnetic
balance. According to the design, the center of mass of balances beam is located at the edge of
supporting-knife , and the balance is worked in near to indifferent equilibrium state. The balance is up
to high accuracy in the very wide range of measurement based on the automatic equilibrium system
composed of moment device, amplifier, velocity and displacement transducer. The measuring range of
the balance is from 100kg to 10t, The balance interval is 0.1g. The span of the balance is the biggest in
nowadays.
Keywords electromagnetic balance, automatic equilibrium system

1.Introduction
The paper describes a 10t electromagnetic balance established at Bei Jing Aerospace Institute for
Measurement and Test Technology, where a auto-balance controlling system was designed based on a
10t mechanical balance. The electric one can do digital measurement, and its accuracy is much better,
weighing is more efficient than the mechanical one. Beside that, the novel balance is operated
conveniently, and used to calibrate large weights accurately. The balance can also be used as a 1MN
lever force standard machine and a 100kN dead weight force standard machine.

2. Basic theory of electromagnetic balance


It is very known that the mechanical balance is based on the simple lever principle (see fig. 1).

132

130

B
131

S
C/
C
/
R
R

P + m

Fig.1

There are three knife-edges located on a horizontal face at the balance. Assuming a arm-length of the
balance is OA=OB=Lmasses of the two hanging-systems are PQ separatelyand P=Q. The weight
of its beam is R, of which gravity center is located on the point C, and OC = hc .
While the mechanical balance is in equilibrium, there is

PL = QL

(1)

At the moment, a little mass m is put on the a receiver, and the beam is turned at angle
center C is moved to point C/ . Since then, an equation of moment-equilibrium is as follow

, the

(P + m )L cos = Q.L cos + R hc sin


After considering P L cos = Q L cos
Then m L cos = R hc sin
It is usual that

(2)

0cos 1 sin = s / L , and equ.2would become

m L = R hc s / L
Multiplying two sides of the equ. above by L, it would be obtained that

s
L2 = [R hc ]
m
Where

[R hc ]

called as sensitivity of the balance. The

(3)

at equ. (3) is called as the coefficient of recovery-moment of the balance,

[R hc ]

is proportional to the balance stability. It

could be seen from equ. (3) that there is conflict between the balance stability and its sensitivity.
Therefore, in order to keep on the balance stability, it is done that increasing the hc , which causes low
sensitivity. Then, it has to improve a method to measure the displacement in order to get higher
precision.

It is desirable for the balance that the coefficient of recovery-moment R hc


with the sensitivity s

is improved together

, which has been studied for long time by us, and quite good results has

been obtained.
For a mechanical balance, if the gravity center C of its beam is overlapped with the support point O ( or
they are quite close) , the balance is in equilibrium randomly ( or close to random state). Since then,

hc 0 and s

. It is measure that both of electromagnetic technology and electronic

technology is applied at the mechanical balance, and a compensation electromagnetic system with

negative re-feed is added at the balance. At the same time, coefficient of electromagnetic

[ ] replaces the coefficient of mechanical recovery-moment [R h ] . When

recovery-moment K f

adjusting amplification and electromagnetic factors of a amplifier, it would be achievable that


coefficient of electromagnetic recovery-moment is 103~104 times bigger than the coefficient of
mechanical recovery-moment. It is called as electromagnetic balance.

3.Weighing principle of electromagnetic balance.

15

132

10

131

130
14

70

4
6

R0

8
71

16
11

17

72

12

Fig.2
1- displacement transducer
4- velocity signal amplifier

2- velocity transducer

3- moment transducer

5- displacement signal amplifier 6-power amplifier

707172-automatic loading system for standard weights (7 is standard weights of 100kN dead weight force
standard machine)

8-pan of balance ( or measured objects)

9-hanging system

10-position fixed device for hanging system

measured objects

12-track for small trolley

lever force standard machine


16- digital multi-meter

11-small trolley for loading and transporting

130131132-knife and knife support 14-loading system of 1MN

15-beam system

17-computer

R0-sampling resistor

Fig.2 shows the balance scheme with the closed auto-equilibrium system. Its principle is described as
follow. When mass of an article to be weighted on one receiver is different from a standard mass on
another receiver, difference of the two gravity moments generated would appear, which causes a beam
of the balance to be inclined. Then, a differential brass-film of a displacement transducer would be
turned, and the dip angle of the beam would be changed into arc displacement. It would be done by the
displacement transducer that signal of the arc displacement would be changed into electro-signal. After
that, the electro-signal will be amplified, of which electro-current will be re-fed to a moment transducer.

The moment transducer would generate the electro-magnetic compensation moment, which makes the
beam to be turned at opposite direction comparing with the beginning dip.
When the beam is stationary, and keeping at a small dip angle. The moment generated by the difference
of the mass to be weighted and the standard mass will be balanced by the electro-magnetic
compensation moment proportional to the dip angle. Since then, currant quantity re-fed from the
moment transducer is proportional to the difference between the both masses. The current passing a
resistor R0 can be measured, which could be displayed by a digital meter or graphic recorder. While a
turn-speed transducer in fig.2 changes signal caused by the dip-speed of the beam into electro-signal,
which will be amplified for two times by two amplifiers. Then, its current would be re-fed to the
moment transducer, which generates moment as resisting moment against the dip moment. When the
beam is stationary, there is no output signal from the turn-speed transducer, and the current re-fed to the
moment transducer will not include the resisting current, which will not effect on weight measurement.
Since then, the auto-equilibrium system can realize the auto-weighing.
4.Basic formula of the electromagnetic balances
Based on the principle of the electro-magnetic balances, the basic formula concerning
electromagnetic balances will be described while the balance is in random state ( or very close to
random).

m causes that the beam is inclined with a small dip angle , then
M m = m L cos

cos 1 , and

Since

M m = m L

The electromagnetic moment

M f = B f L f W f I l
Where

B f : magnetic induction intensity of constant magnetic field in the moment transducer


L f : average length of a wire circle at the moment transducer
W f : numbers of the total circles
I : current re-fed to the moment transducer
l : Distance from the center of the wire circles to the edge of the middle knife of the balance

I = U sc /( RO + RW ) = K 6 K 5 K v /( RW + RO )
Where

U sc : output voltage of the power amplifier


R0 : sampling resistor
RW : resistance of the wire circles of the moment transducer
K 6 K 5 : amplification rates for the displacement amplifier and the power one separately

K v : transferring coefficient of the displacement transducer.


Since the

is quite small, then

S / L , and

M f = B f L f W f K 6 K 5 K v S l / L ( RW + RO )
When the balance is in random state ( or very close to random), and hc 0, then

R hc sin = 0 and M m = M f
After considering all of these together, it would result that

L2 = B f L f W f

K 6 K 5 K v
S
l
m
( RW + RO )

(4)

It could be named as the recovery coefficient of the electro-magnetic moment:

K f = l B f L f W f

K 6 K 5 K v
( RW + RO )

Then, there is formula as

[ ]

S
L2 = K f
m

(5)

It could be seen that the equ. (5) is similar to equ. (3), exception that the R hc

is replaced by K f .

Based on the equ. (4) , K f could be enlarged until being great bigger than recovery coefficient of the
mechanical moment. Since then, K f would become a key factor to improve accuracy of the balance.

Product the two sides of the equ. (4) by

K 6 K 5 K v R0
separately, while
( RW + R0 ) L

U sc = K 6 K 5 K v = K 6 K 5 K v

U sc
=I
RW + RO

S
and
L

, U m = IRO

Considering all, it could be resulted that

L K 6 K 5 Kv R0
K K K U
U
= l B f L f W f 6 5 v m = K f m
RW + R0
( RW + R0 ) m
m

[ ]

(6)

The quality factor of the electromagnetic balance will be defined as

Q=

L K 6 K 5 Kv RO
RW + RO

Taking the equ. (7) into equ. (6), then

(7)

[ ]

U
Q = K f m
m
Taking the equ.

I=

(8)

K 6 K 5 K v S / L
into equ. (4), then
RW + RO

m = I B f L f W f l

(9)

L
It could be seen from the equ. (9) that

m is responsible to I only.

[ ] is competing with

It seems from the equ. (8) that K f

U m
m . If the gravity center of the

mechanical balance is overlapped with its support point, hc 0, and the balance would be keeping on

random state. At the moment, the sensitivity of the balance would become unlimited large, i.e.
m
R hc 0.In another hand, while technologies of electronic, electromagnetic and auto are used
at the traditional balance, its recovery coefficient K f of electromagnetic moment would become
much bigger than R hc . If so, the electromagnetic balance combining mechanism and electricity will

keep on
, and its metrology characteristics would be improved much with the quite good
m
quality factor. It could be seen from equ. (9) that as long as L, l , B f , L f , W f is keeping constant,

m is responsible to I only, without others.


4.Specifications of the 10t electromagnetic balance
z Measurement range: 200kg10t
z Division: 1g
z Repeatability: <1g
z Linearity: <1g
z Zero draft for half an hour: <0.3g
z Rated draft at 10t for 4 hours: <3g
5.Conclusion
It has been proved by the theoretical analyses and practice as follow. When the mechanical balance is
designed as its beam being in random state (or close to it), and added with the electromagnetic
equilibrium system, the novel balance will measure a weight quickly and accurately.

Reference
[1] Zhao Baorui Technology report on measurement of large mass, internal report, 1992

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

A Dynamic Model for the Weighbridge of an Axle Weighing System


for In-motion Vehicles with High Velocity
Kengo Fukuda1, Koji Yoshida2, Tetsuya Kinugasa2, Kazuhito Kanazawa3, and Toshiro Ono2
1
Oyo Measurement Co., Ltd., Japan
2
Okayama University of Science, Japan
3
Hanshin Expressway Co., Ltd., Japan
ABSTRACT
An Axle weighing system measures each axle weight of an in-motion vehicle. Weighbridge is the detector part of the
axle weighing system. To elucidate the cause of inaccuracy of measured axle weights for vehicles with high velocity, a
dynamic model for the weighbridge is derived and signal from the weighbridge when a vehicle passes on it with high
velocity is simulated. The model must reflect the event of passage of a tire on the weighbridge, hence, the dynamic
model is expressed as a set of linear variable-coefficient ordinary differential equations. It is very important to
determine an adequate segment in the signal from weighbridge that is processed for a measured axle weight.
Effectiveness of a method for the determination is examined through simulations using the dynamic model. Moreover,
using the method for determination, vehicle velocity and the length of contacting area on ground of a tire can also be
estimated for in-motion vehicles when they pass on the weighbridge. Accuracy of the estimates is examined through
simulations.
Keywords: Axle weighing system, Axle weight, In-motion vehicle, Dynamic model, Simulation

1. INTRODUCTION
An Axle weighing system, installed in front of tollgate, measures axle weights of in-motion vehicles to pick up
suspiciously over-loaded vehicles and give them warning(1). Weighbridge of the axle weighing system is the detector of
axle weights and consists of loadcells and weighing platform. The weighing platform usually has a length of about
75cm: nearly equal to diameter of a tire as shown in Fig.1. Though structure of the weighbridge is the same as that of
level scale, we should take it as force-detector because weight signal which is output signal from the weighbridge
contains dynamic components caused by vibrations of vehicle body. When a vehicle passes on the weighbridge with
low velocity under about 15km/h, the most dominant component of vibrations which the weight signal contains has
frequency of around 3Hz; the dynamic component is caused by vibrations of vehicle body. Hence, it was difficult to
remove the dynamic components from the weight signal to measure the axle weight with high accuracy. A new
method(2),(3) proposed by the authors has gotten over the difficulty.

Vehicle

Weighbridge of Axle Weighing System

Figure 1: Axle Weighing System


Next, we have had experiments using an experiment site for axle weighing system to examine the accuracy of measured
axle weights for in-motion vehicles with high velocity(4). The experiment site has a lane with smooth surface and an
axle weighing system. In the experiments, vehicle velocities were within about 40km/h. Since the surface of the lane
was smooth, amplitude of vibration of vehicle body must have been small enough. However we obtained less accurate

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

axle weights than expected when vehicle had velocities over 25km/h. We could give the followings as causes of the low
accuracy:
I

Response of the weighbridge is not quick enough when a vehicle passes on it with high velocity because of the
lack of stiffness of the weighbridge.

II

Extra forces caused by acceleration or deceleration of vehicle were exerted on the weighbridge when the vehicle
passed on it. The lane of the experiment site is not long enough for a vehicle to accelerate or decelerate to have
high constant velocity before the weighbridge.

If the cause is I, the present weighbridge is not adequate to measure the axle weights of in-motion vehicles with high
velocity. If the cause is II, we have to have experiments again in other experiment site for our purpose. We could not
judge which cause is dominant for low accuracy using the only data obtained in the experiments. We would need to
make a special vehicle which is equipped with many accelerometers, a speedometer, and other sensors so that we can
obtain precise data on motion of the vehicle when it is running. Using the special vehicle (which could be called
examination vehicle), we could obtain weight signal form weighbridge and motion data of the vehicle simultaneously.
Thereby, we can make clear the cause for low accuracy. However costs for making the examination vehicle and
experiments using it would be so high that it is not easy(5), (6). Hence, in this paper, we derive a dynamic model for the
weighbridge and try to simulate the weight signal when a vehicle passes on it with high velocity. The dynamic model
for only the weighbridge is expressed as a set of linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients.
However we must model the event of passage for a tire on the weighbridge, hence, the dynamic model results to be
expressed as a set of linear variable-coefficient ordinary differential equations. Simulated weight signals show that the
dynamic model is good enough to reproduce the characteristics of obtained weight signal in experiments. Then, we
make clear the cause of inaccuracy of measured axle weights for vehicles with high velocity through simulations using
the dynamic model. Next, we examine the effectiveness of a method to determine adequate segment of signal from
weighbridge through simulations. Determination of an adequate segment in signal from weighbridge is important
because we must process the segment when the whole contact areas of tires are on the weighing platform in order to
precisely measure an axle weight. Moreover, using the method of determination, we could also obtain estimated values
for vehicle velocity and length of contacting area on ground of a tire when a vehicle passes on the weighbridge. We
examine the accuracy of the estimates through simulations.

2. AXLE WEIGHING SYSTEM AND WEIGHT SIGNAL


2.1 AXLE WEIGHING SYSTEM
Figure 2 shows top view of the weighbridge in commonly practical use and its dimension. The length in traveling
direction is about 76 cm, nearly equal to the diameter of a tire, to avoid measuring two axle weights at the same time.
The weighbridge can be divided into two parts as shown in Fig.2 and each part is in charge of left or right wheel of an
axle. Each part consists of a platform and loadcells which support it. Two platforms are installed such that levels of
them and road are the same.

Platform

Platform
760
890 895

Loadcell

Outer frame

1600 1850
3335 3835

Figure 2: Top View of a Weighbridge

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

2.2 WEIGHT SIGNAL


The calibrated output signals of all loadcells are summed up to be one output signal from the weighbridge. We call it
weight signal. Figure 3 shows an example of time behavior of the weight signal which has been obtained when
second axle of three-axle vehicle passed on a weighbridge. f (kT ) for k Z is discreted weight signal f (t ) with
sampling time T of 0.5ms. The part of f (kT ) pointed out with (II) in Fig. 3 is the segment when the whole
contacting areas of tires are on the platforms. In the below, we refer to the part (II) as effective part and the time
interval corresponding to effective part as effective interval. The parts (I) and (III) are segments when some part of
contacting area of each tire is on the platform. We refer to (I) and (III) as loading part and unloading part,
respectively and do not include these parts in effective part.
4

12

10

(II)
Effective part

f (kT) [N]

10
8
6

Effective interval

(I)

(III)

Unloading part

Loading part

0
7

7.25

7.5

Time [s]

Figure 3: Example of a Part of Actual Weight Signal

3. LINEAR RESPONSE MODEL


3.1 A DYNAMIC MODEL FOR THE WEIGHBRIDGE
As described above, the weighbridge can be divided into two parts as shown in Fig.2 and each part is in charge of left or
right wheel of an axle. In this paper, we make a dynamic model for one part of the weighbridge. A weighing platform is
supported by two groups of loadcells: front row of loadcells and rear row of ones in traveling direction of vehicles. As
shown in Fig. 4, we consider the loadcells in front row as one loadcell and denote the spring constant and viscous
friction coefficient of the loadcell by k f and c f , respectively. In the same manner, we denote the spring constant and
viscous friction coefficient of rear row of loadcells by k r and c r , respectively. Denoting the mass and the inertial
moment of the platform by m and I , respectively, we obtain a dynamic model for the half part of weighbridge as a 2
degree-of -freedom vibration model.
Weight

A : Platform
B : Loadcell

A
B

m
kr

cr

I
kf

cf

kf , kr : spring constant
cf , cr: damping coefficient
m : mass
I: moment of inertia

Figure 4: Model for the Weighbridge of an Axle Weighing System

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

3.2 A MODEL OF TIRE IN CONTACTING WITH ROAD AND WEIGHBRIDGE


A tire has a contacting area with ground. The area and pressure distribution in the area generate the force exerted on
ground by the tire. We set a coordinate system whose origin is at the rear end of contacting area of the tire as shown in
left figure in Fig.5. Then, we can give a function p a ( X ) for the 1 dimensional pressure distribution of the tire in
contacting area. p a ( X ) depends on only position X . Here, we have assumed that the pressure distribution is uniform in
normal direction to traveling direction of the tire. In Fig.5, l denotes the length of contacting area. We consider that the
force exerted on ground by the tire is generated by a set of spring and damper which is strained by an equivalent mass
of the tire. k a and c a denote the equivalent spring constant and equivalent viscous friction coefficient of the tire,
respectively, as shown in left figure in Fig.5.

pa(X)
l
Sa
0 k =k
d
a

X
0 k
d

cd = ca

l-x

Sd

St
cd 0

x, X
kt , ct
Platform

Ground
l/2

xG

Figure 5: A Model for Tire in Contact with Road and Platform

In the loading part of f (kT ) , the tire is getting on the platform: some part of contacting area is on the platform and the
other part on road. We set a coordinate system whose origin is at the rear end of the platform as shown in right figure in
Fig.5. x denotes the position of the front end of contacting area in the coordinate system. Then, we obtain the
force S t (x) which is exerted on the platform by the tire as
S t ( x) =

l
lx

p a ( X ) dX , x < l .

(1)

Let S d ( x) and S a denote the force exerted on road and the whole force exerted on the platform and road by tire,
respectively. We have
l

S a = S d ( x) + S t ( x) = p a ( X ) dX .
0

(2)

Here, in the same manner as the above, we consider that the forces S t (x) and S d (x ) are generated by different sets of
spring and damper which are strained by the common equivalent mass of the tire. See right figure in Fig.5. The
equivalent spring constant k t and equivalent viscous friction coefficient ct of the tire on the platform could be obtained
as follows:

k t (t ) = k a

S t ( x)
(= k a k d (t )) ,
Sa

(3)

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

ct (t ) = c a

S t ( x)
(= c a c d (t )) ,
Sa

(4)

where k d and c d are those of the tire on road. Next, we consider that the force S t ( x) is exerted on the platform at the
point which is the center of pressure distribution. Let x G denote the point in the coordinate system set on the platform,
then, it is obtained by

xG

l
lx

p a ( X ) X dX
S t ( x)

+ xl , x < l .

(5)

In the unloading part of f (kT ) , the tire is getting off the platform. We could obtain the following equations in the same
manner as the above.
S t ( x) =

xG

l + L x
0

l + L x
0

p a ( X ) dX , L < x < L + l ,

p a ( X ) X dX
S t ( x)

+ xl , L < x < L + l ,

(6)

(7)

where, L denotes the length in traveling direction of the platform.


3.3 A COUPLED DYNAMIC MODELS OF THE WEIGHBRIDGE AND IN-MOTION VEHICLE
In this subsection, we give a coupled dynamic model of the weighbridge and moving vehicle. We model a vehicle body
with an equivalent mass which is connected to the tire by a set of equivalent spring and damper. Let, mb ,
k b and cb denote the equivalent mass, spring constant, and viscous friction coefficient, respectively. Combining the
model for vehicle body and that of tire, we obtain a model for moving vehicle which looks like a unicycle as shown in
Fig. 6. As the unicycle passes on the weighbridge, we must derive the coupled dynamic model of the weighbridge and
moving vehicle corresponding to 3 phases, i.e., loading part (I), effective part (II), and unloading part (III). Setting a
coordinate system and defining symbols as shown in Fig.7, we give dynamic models as ordinary differential equations
as follows:

(I)

(II)

(III)

mb
kb

cb

ma
ct
kt

Figure 6: Combined Model of Vehicle Body and a Tire


[Tire (Loading part, Unloading part)]
ma &y&a cb y& b + (c a + cb ) y& a ct y& m + ct ( xG Lm )&m k b yb + ( k a + k b ) y a k t y m
{k t ( Lm xG ) ct x& G } m = ma g ,

for xG < s1 s 2 < xG < L + l ,

(8)

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

[Tire (Effective part)]


ma &y&a cb y& b + (ca + cb ) y& a ca y& m + ca ( xG Lm )&m k b yb + (k a + k b ) y a k a y m
{k a ( Lm xG ) ca x&G } m = ma g ,

(9)

for s1 xG s 2 ,
[Vehicle Body]
mb &y&b + cb y& b cb y& a + k b yb k b y a = mb g ,

(10)

[Weighbridge, Translational Motion]


m&y&m ct y& a + (ct + c f + cr ) y& m + {ct ( Lm xG ) + cr ( Lm s1 ) c f ( s 2 Lm }&m k t y a
+ ( k t + k f + k r ) y m + {k t ( Lm xG ) ct x&G + k r ( Lm s1 ) k f ( s 2 Lm )} m = 0,

(11)

[Weighbridge, Rotational Motion]


I&&m ct ( Lm xG ) y& a + {ct ( Lm xG ) + cr ( Lm s1 ) c f ( s2 Lm )} y& m
+ {ct ( Lm xG ) 2 + cr ( Lm s1 ) 2 + c f ( s2 Lm ) 2 }&m kt ( Lm xG ) y a
+ {kt ( Lm xG ) + k r ( Lm s1 ) k f ( s2 Lm )} ym

(12)

+ {kt ( Lm xG ) 2 + k r ( Lm s1 ) 2 + k f ( s2 Lm ) 2 ct ( Lm xG ) x&G } m = 0,

where, g denotes the gravity acceleration. The length of contacting area of the tire l is set as l > s1 , l > L s2 . If we
give kt = ct = 0 , we have the dynamic model for weighbridge without any load.
y
mb
yb

cb

kb
ma

m, I
0
ya

ym

s1
xG
x

Lm
s2

L
Figure 7: Coordinate System and Parameters for Unicycle Passing on Weighbridge

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Let v denote velocity of the vehicle, then we obtain x = vt . Let x denote the state variables vector:
x = [ yb ya ym m y& b y& a y& m &m ]T .

(13)

Combining equations (8), (9), (10), (11), (12), we can obtain a following state equation:

x& = A(t )x + B(t )u,

(14)

where, u is input vector. We can obtain numerical solution x( kT ) of state equation (14) easily. In section3.1, we consider
the loadcells in front row as one loadcell and so those in rear row. Denoting the forces exerted on front and rear
loadcells by R f (kT ) and Rr ( kT ) , respectively, using some of the state variables, we can express them as
R f (kT ) = k f { ym ( s2 Lm ) m } + c f { y& m ( s2 Lm )&m } ,

(15)

Rr ( kT ) = k r { y m + ( Lm s1 ) m } + cr { y& m + ( Lm s1 )&m } .

(16)

Hence, we can obtain simulated weight signal f s (kT ) by


f s (kT ) = R f (kT ) + Rr (kT ) .

(17)

4. SIMULATION RESULTS
4.1 PARAMETER AJUSTING
Figure 8 shows obtained weight signal f R (kT ) for the first axel when a vehicle passed on a weighbridge with low
velocity of 5.6km/h. Hf R ( kT ) in Fig.8 denotes differentiated signal of f R ( kT ) . Hf R ( kT ) has been obtained by
processing f R ( kT ) with a digital filter:
H ( z ) = ( z ) H ( z ) ,

(18)

where, H (z ) is FIR low-pass filter for 40Hz with 51 taps, and (z ) is a difference filter which is expressed as
( z ) = (1 z 1 ) / T .

-2
Hf R (kT )

0
1.2

1.4

1.6
1.8
Time [s]

-4
2

2.2

Figure 8: Actual Signal f R (kT ) and Hf R (kT ) at 5.6km/h

fS (kT) [N]

10

f S (kT )

1.5

0.5

-1

Hf S (kT )

0
0.4

0.6

0.8
1
Time [s]

-2
1.2

1.4

Figure 9:Simulated Signal at 5.6km/h

10

[N/s]

f R (kT )

2.5

HfS (kT)

105

HfR ( kT) [N/s]

fR ( kT) [N]

104

(19)

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

We can see that f R (kT ) includes dynamic components caused by vibrations of vehicle body, since the velocity was low.
By adjusting parameters in the dynamic models, we have obtained a simulated signal f S ( kT ) which has the nearly same
characteristics as those of f R (kT ) . See Fig.9. We note here that f S (kT ) is the simulated signal from half part of
weighbridge, i.e., signal of force exerted on a platform by a wheel, not an axle. Hence, it is desirable that f R (kT )
would be nearly equal to 2 f S ( kT ) .

4.2 RESPONSE OF WEIGHBRIDGE FOR VEHICLES WITH HIGH VELOCITY


Figure 10 shows the obtained actual weight signal f R ( kT ) and Hf R (kT ) for the first axel when the vehicle passed on a
weighbridge with high velocity of 40.4km/h. The vehicle is the same as that in previous section. Figure11 shows the
simulated weight signal f S (kT ) and Hf S (kT ) ; the parameters used in the simulations are the same as those adjusted in
previous section. As shown in Fig.10, static value of the axle weight is 44618.6N (4757kg) which had been obtained
while the axle stayed still on the weighbridge, hence, the static value could be true value. We can see that the weight
signal f R (kT ) in Fig.10 falls short of the static value, then the obtained value by use of f R (kT ) would be far from
accurate value. This is one of examples which give us the base on which we think that the response of weighbridge is a
cause of low accuracy of measured axle weights for in-motion vehicles with high velocity.

10

Static value

1
0
0.2

-1

Hf R (kT )

0.25

-2
0.3

0.35

Time [s]

Figure 10: Actual Weight Signal at 40.4km/h

[N]

f R (kT )

10

10

True value

fS (kT)

HfR ( kT) [N/s]

fR ( kT)

[N]

10

f S (kT )

Hf S (kT )

0.1

0.15

0.2

-1

HfS (kT) [N/s]

0.25

Time [s]

Figure 11: Simulated Signal at 40.4km/h

On the other hand, though the simulated weight signal f S (kT ) includes vibration components, the effective part of the
signal is near true value. Hence, we would be able to judge that the response of weighbridge is not the cause. We could
obtain accurate axle weight if the weight signal includes no vibration component caused by the vibration of vehicle
body. Here, the true value is set on 23309.3N (2378.5kg) and the vibration components in f S (kT ) seems to be caused by
vibrations of loadcells. Consequently, the cause that the obtained weight signal f R (kT ) falls short of the static value
would be extra forces exerted on the weighbridge. By the same cause, the effective part of the signal f R (kT ) would not
be flat even if the vibration component is removed.

5. EXAMINATION OF EFECTIVENESS OF A METHOD TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTIVE


PART
5.1 EXPLANATION OF A METHOD TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTIVE PART
It is very important to determine adequately the effective part in each weight signal, because we must process the
segment when the whole contact areas of tires are on the weighing platform in order to precisely measure an axle
weight. The determination of the effective part affects the accuracy of measured axle weights(1),(3) . We have proposed a

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

simple method(4) to determine the effective part based on the position of Hf (kT ) relative to f (kT ) and the shape
of Hf (kT ) . We explain it in the below. Figure12 shows a schematic picture of weight signal f (kT ) and its

differentiated signal Hf (kT ) and some important points on the signals are indicated with symbols. Obtained raw
weight signals are usually contaminated with noise, hence, they are processed with a filter H to be smooth
signal Hf (kT ) , then the method is applied to the smoothed Hf (kT ) . In Fig.12, f (kT ) is given as Hf (kT ) for
simplicity.
[A method to determine the Effective part]
Step1) Counting number of axles

We take the number of axles as the number of segments whose levels are higher than threshold S for Hf (kT ) .
Step2) Searching middle point of the Loading part Pi ( pi , Hf ( pi ))

We search the middle point of the time interval in which Hf (kT ) hi = h / 2 .


Step3) Searching the beginning point of the Loading part Z i ( z i , Hf ( zi ))

We search the point z i of Hf (kT ) that is nearest to threshold z 0


Step4) Calculating the beginning point of the Effective part Ai ( ai , f ( ai ))

Multiplying qi (= pi zi ) by safety coefficient , we obtain ai = pi + qi .


Step5) Calculating the end point of the Effective part Bi (bi , f (bi ))

We search the middle point Pi of the unloading part and the end point Z i of the unloading part in the same
manner as Steps 2) and 3). We obtain bi = pi + qi by multiplying qi (= zi pi ) by safety coefficient in
the same manner as Step4).
We set relatively large value to z 0 to ensure that the method gives us the effective part adequately even in case where
the weight signal has off-set or trend.
Ai

Bi
f (kT)=H f (kT)
Pi

Pi
h
Zi

Zi
hi

hi

S
z0

Hf (kT)
qi qi

zi pi

ai

qi qi

bi

pi zi

t = kT [s]

Figure 12: A Schematic Picture of Weight Signal f (kT ) and Hf (kT )

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

5.2 ESTIMATION OF VEHICLE VELOCITY AND CONTACTING LENGTH ON GROUND OF TIRE

Using the method above, during the process of determining the effective part, we could also estimate vehicle velocity
and length of contacting area on ground of a tire when a vehicle passes on the weighbridge.
Let l i denote the length of contacting area on ground of a tire of the i-th axle and vi the average velocity of the vehicle
passed on weighbridge. If we can make a trapezoid approximate to weight signal f (kT ) for zi t zi as shown in
Fig.12, we obtain
vi =

T ti
2L
L,
, li = i
Ti + ti
Ti + t i

(20)

where,
t i = bi ai , Ti = z i z i .

(21)

5.3 EXAMINATION OF EFFECTIVENESS OF THE METHOD THROUGH SIMULATIONS

Actual weight signals obtained in experiments or other methods usually include unknown disturbances, hence, when we
apply the method to determine the effective part to the actual weight signal, we cannot adequately evaluate some
results. In this section, we examine the effectiveness of the method described in the previous section by means of
simulations. In the simulations, we set external force D ( kT ) is exerted on vehicle body mb . Vehicle velocity is 20km/h.
The force is described as
D ( kT ) = AD sin( kT + n ) , = 2 / N , n = 0, L , N 1 ,

(22)

where = 2 3 rad, AD = 0.5mb g , and N = 100 . We use FIR low-pass filter for 40Hz with 141 taps as
H (z ) for H (z ) .
Instead of Step3) which needs a value for threshold z 0 , in the simulations other method to search z i and zi is used. First,
~
let W denote the maximum value of f (kT ) . Next, let y (kT ) ,which express a line, to approximate to a segment
~
of f (kT ) that satisfy 500 g f ( kT ) W g / 2 . Finally, let z i or z i to be the k zT that satisfy y ( k zT ) 0 .
Figure13 shows an example of simulated weight signal and searched points z1 , z1 , A1 , and B1 according to the method in
Section5.1. Table1 gives statistics of the effective interval t1 and T1 determined according to the method in Section5.1
and those of v and l estimated according to the equations (20), (21) in Section5.2. Here, we set = 1 .
1

3 10

1.5 10

A1

True value
1
0.5
0

z1

z1

0.2

-0.5

Hf S (kT )

-1
0.15

B1

[N/s]

f S (kT )

HfS (kT)

fS (kT)

[N]

0.25

0.3
0.35
Time [s]

0.4

0.45

Figure 13: An Example of Simulated Weight Signal and Searched Points z1 , z1 , A1 , and B1

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

We can see from Table1 that ranges of t1 and T1 became 10ms and 2.0ms, respectively, although there is influence of
dynamic component. We could conclude that the method to determine the effective part is effective. The estimated
velocity v1 is near true value within the error of about 2%. However, the estimated l1 is of no accuracy: Range and Std.
are large. Moreover we could not obtain accurate value for l1 even in case of the simulated weight signal without a
dynamic component. Note that the true value of l1 was 0.18m, we have to improve Step3).
Table 1: Statistics of Obtained t1 , T1 , v1 , and l1 in Case of Dynamic Component (22) is included
T1 s

t1s

v1 km/h

l1 m

AD=0

0.1630

0.1110

19.9708

0.1442

Max.

0.1635

0.1170

20.3420

0.1554

Min.

0.1615

0.1070

19.5429

0.1249

Avg.

0.1627

0.1114

19.9671

0.1424

Range

0.0020

0.0100

0.7992

0.0305

Std.

0.0006

0.0033

0.2668

0.0104

6. CONCLUSION
To make clear the cause that measured axle weights are less accurate when vehicles pass on the weighbridge with high
velocity, we have derived a dynamic model for the weighbridge and simulated the weight signal using the model. We
must model the event of passage of a tire on the weighbridge, hence, the dynamic model is expressed as a set of linear
variable-coefficient ordinary differential equations. We have examined the effectiveness of a method to determine the
effective part of weight signal through simulations using the dynamic model. Adequate determination of the effective
part is very important. Moreover, using the method to determine the effective part, we could also obtain estimated
values for vehicle velocity and length of contacting area on ground of a tire when a vehicle passes on the weighbridge.
We have examined the accuracy of the estimates through simulations. The followings are the results:
(1) Based on the simulation results, we could conclude that the response of weighbridge is quick enough to obtain
accurate axle weights even if vehicles pass on the weighbridge with high velocity.
(2) Natural vibration of the weighbridge included in weight signal becomes evident when vehicles pass on the
weighbridge with high velocity.
(3) We could conclude that the method to determine the effective part is effective. The method could also give us an
accurate estimate for vehicle velocity.

7. REFERENCES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Hanshin Expressway Public Corporation, Report on Investigation and Research on Improving the Measurement
Accuracy of Axle Weighing System, Hanshin Expressway Management Technology Center, Osaka, 1985.
Ono T, Fukuda K, Yoshida K, Uozumi H, and Tottori H, Mass-estimation methods for in-motion vehicles using
axle weighing system Proc. IMEKO-XV, Osaka, 1999, pp51-58.
Fukuda K, Tottori H, Kameoka K, Ono T, and Yoshida K, Axle Weighing of In-motion Vehicles, Transactions
of the Society of Instrument and Control Engineers 38, pp653-659, 2002. (In Japanese)
Hanshin Expressway Public Corporation, Report on Experiments for Improving Axle Weighing System for
Application to In-motion Vehicles with High Velocity, Oyo Measurement Co., Ltd., Osaka, 2005.
Hanshin Expressway Public Corporation, Report by a Committee for Investigation and Research on Improving the
Measurement Accuracy of Dynamic Loads, Hanshin Expressway Management Technology Center, Osaka, 1997.
Hanshin Expressway Public Corporation, Report on Analysis of Experimental Data for Semi- trailer and Dump
truck for Improving Axle Weighing System, Oyo Measurement Co., Ltd., Osaka, 1998.

*corresponding author information: Kengo Fukuda k.fukuda@oyomm.co.jp; phone +81 6 6380 0121; fax +81 6 6330
6562; Oyo Measurement Co., Ltd., 2-12-6, Esaka-cho, Suita, Osaka 5640063, Japan.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Weighing Solutions for Safe Operation and Regulatory Compliance


Yoshikazu Watabe
Laboratory Business Unit of Mettler-Toledo K.K., Japan
ABSTRACT
There is an ever increasing awareness among companies in all industries who produce goods for end user consumption
to ensure that the products they produce are safe and of consistent quality. So, regulatory compliance and proper
weighing are important for application to various global and/or regional standards such as ISO, GLP, GMP and USP.
This paper introduces the latest information about innovative weighing solutions to support safety and proper weighing
in line with such regulations.
Keywords: Weighing Solution, Safe Operation, Regulatory Compliance and Minimum Weight

1. INTRODUCTION
Weighing is about determining the mass of an object. Weighing supports many analytical processes, such as sample
preparation, the determination of concentration, or the calibration of comparative analytical instrumentation, such as
HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) or Titration.
Safety Issues and Regulatory Compliance issues without neglecting Productivity Aspects have become demanding in
many industrial areas more and more. To realize a safety/proper weighing operation without neglecting its productivity
and to meet requirements of regulation/standards related to fields through the routine weighing operation, manufacturers
need to select appropriate balances and operate them in accordance with Standard Operating Procedures prepared in line
with a quality management system applied to regulation and/or standards because they are manufacturing using proven
process and equipments.
To support such manufacturers, users of balances, suppliers of balances have developed balances using the latest
technologies and supporting systems including education/training support as a specialist of weighing field. Nowadays,
suppliers of balances should be not only supply products but also provide weighing solutions.

2. SAFE OPERATION
Here, the safe operation means protection of operators from the weighing process of toxic chemicals and protection of
environment from such substances.
2.1 Protection of Operators
Through the routine weighing operation, the weighing operators may have an encounter with absorption of toxic and
hazardous chemicals during the weighing and its back weighing. Other source with such substances is cross
contamination due to touching contaminated sections of a balance.
So, to avoid such encounters, it is advisable that the balance measuring toxic and hazardous chemicals should have
large capacity as much as possible with small readability to enable direct weighing and to neglect the back weighing.
The weighing chamber of the balance should be easy to clean and the weighing operator should be able to operate
balances less touch of it.
2.2 Protection of Environment
Contamination of the environment may be caused by the weighing operation of toxic and hazardous chemicals in the
facilities of toxic and waste hazardous chemicals. To protect environment from such substances, the substances should
be as small as possible.
A small amount weighing is a good solution for compound weighing because it is normally unstable. A small amount of
weight is also a good solution for expensive and for rare substances to reduce cost of substance and disposal of waste
substances.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

To realize such a situation, a large capacity balance with 5-6 digits readability below a gram is required. With such
balances, it is possible to reduce weighing steps and delete the back weighing from Standard Operating Procedures
(SOP) and also it is possible to reduce cost of analysis of toxic and hazardous chemical and disposal cost for the waste
substances.

3. REGURATORY COMPLIANCE
3.1 Global Standards and Industrial Regulations
There are many Global Standards and Industrial Regulations influenced to weighing field as mentioned below, which
provide requirements for a control and a optimization of weighing process and a quality management system for
balances.
ISO 9001
ISO 14001
ISO/IEC 17025
ISO/TS 16949
ISO 22000
GLP
GMP
GCP
HACCEP
USP

Family of quality management standards


Family of environmental management standards
General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories
Quality management systems -- Particular requirements for the application of ISO 9001:2000
for automotive production and relevant service part organizations
Food safety management systems -- Requirements for any organization in the food chain
Good Laboratory Practice
Good Manufacturing Practice
Good Clinical Practice
Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points
United States Pharmacopeia

Common requirements of the regulation and standards can be summarized as follows.


- Security of Measurement-Traceability System
- Enforcement of periodical maintenance and calibration and routine check
- Documentation of all results
3.2 Minimum Weight
When weighing small samples, the weighing accuracy is essentially determined by the sample repeatability of the
balance, air buoyancy may be ignored. Sometimes, the accuracy for certain weighing procedures is prescribed by
regulations such as the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), or limits described in Standard Operating Procedures of
GLP (Good Laboratory Practice) regulated industries.
The lowest sample mass that can be weighed on a balance, while ensuring that the weighing result still complies with
the required accuracy, is called the Minimum Weight. This amount depends on the required uncertainty and the
repeatability of the weighing. A small standard deviation of repeatability is equivalent to a low Minimum Weight.
The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) has very strict requirements for the Minimum Weight. Measurement
uncertainty is satisfactory if three times the standard deviation of not less than ten replicate weighings divided by the
amount weighed, does not exceed 0.001 (0.1%). It means that that if a series of measurements is made with one weight
then 3 times the standard deviation of these measurements should not exceed one thousandth of the that weight.
3.3 Weighing the right way
To perform proper weighing, there are many risk factors mentioned below blocking the proper weighing. So,
appropriate measures for each of them are required. Some of risks can be solved thanks to the latest technology applied
to balances. However, appropriate Quality Management System and Education/Training system should be prepared by
each company to meet the requirements of Regulation and/or Standard applied.
- Improper balance selection
- Improper location of balances
- Various Physical Influences
- Characteristics of substance to be weighed including Toxic and Hazardous Substance
- Improper Calibration/Adjustment interval
- Lack of Traceability and Reliability

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

- Lack of Education and training for Technical Operators


Meanwhile, such companies need to consider risk management taking Productivity including Cost saving and Time
saving into the consideration.
3.4 Risk Management
Companies are responsible for determining appropriate Quality Management Strategy. So, they should prepare Quality
Policy and Quality Manuals based on the policy as well as a SOP to realize the proper weighing including probability of
some problems to be happened. Balance Suppliers need to assist them providing necessary support at the stage of
Design Qualification and also during the all stages of Installation Qualification, Operational Qualification, Performance
Qualification and Periodical Maintenance/Calibration as well as Education/Training.

4. WEIGHING SOLUTIONS
In this session, some measures taken by a balance supplier are introduced.
4.1 Selection of a suitable Balance
As an example, a suitable balance should be selected under the following steps.
4.1.1

Pre-selection of a balance based on the desired requirements and manufactures technical data (Design
Qualification)
To ensure a balance is tailored to the individual needs, the tolerance limits for use should be defined in relative
form, e.g. all results should lie within an error of measurement defined as a percentage. From the technical
point of view, the following points are relevant.
- Accuracy, Readability and Maximum Capacity
- Minimum Weight
- Tolerance limit of Maximum Permissible Error (MPE)
In addition to the technical data, a consideration should be given to the following factors.
- Full automatic adjustment with built-in weights
- Application support
- Internal weighing modules for weighing applications, expandability of the balances
- Ergonomics, e.g. Automatic wind shield opening
- Easy disassembly of the balance for cleaning
- Location
- Weighing table and Air conditioning
- Optional equipment needed, e.g. Data printer, Automatic Tablet Feeder, Auxiliary display, etc.

4.1.2

Trail to check whether the balance meets the requirements at its location (Installation, Operational and
Performance Qualification) and determination of the Minimum Weight at the location.
In many cases, the readability does not correspond to the actual accuracy of a balance. Factors such as
fluctuating environmental conditions (e.g. temperature fluctuation during the day), internal balance measuring
limit (repeatability and linearity) and the experience of the operating personnel have a considerable influence
on the weighing results. The actual performance of a balance must thus be checked during day-to-day
weighing under conditions less than optimum. So, the real performance of the balance has to be verified at the
location. For an initial trial it is usually advisable to select a balance with a 5 to 10 times better readability than
is actually necessary (Golden rule of measurement technique). This factor compensates possible systematic
and environmental influences on the measurement result. The required weighing range results from the
maximum total weights (tare + sample weight).
The accuracy of measurement of a balance is moreover dependent on the absolute value of the sample weight.
The required readability (number of readable decimal places) is usually determined by the desired Minimum
Weight. When the precision is comparable, the greater the number of decimal places displayed, the lower the
possible sample weight.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

4.2 Minimum Weight


Sometimes weighing processes are carried out at between 1 % and 10 % of a balance's weighing capacity. But it is
precisely in this range that the greatest relative measurement uncertainties occur. If the weighing value is less than the
Minimum Weight, the weighing result can not be guaranteed to be within process requirements. In a regulated
environment, the measurement series must be repeated, and valuable substances may be lost. In the worst case, invalid
values could cause production stops, costing millions. Minimum Weight depends on the requirement of each regulation
(e.g. USP regulation requires an accuracy of better than 0.1 % with 3 times the standard deviation).
The application of the latest balance determines the Minimum Weight according to any compliance regulations.
Minimum Weight is determined in the actual working environment where the balance is installed. If the value is below
the determined Minimum Weight, the color of the displayed value is red to warn that the current value is not sufficient
to ensure tolerances are met.
An asterisk is printed out next to the result if the value is below the Minimum Weight. Up to 3 different methods can be
determined and stored. (Figure 1) Every user can therefore recall the unique method which is required. When the
displayed value is below Minimum Weight, it is red to signal a violation. (Figure 2) So, users can always be sure that
each result fulfills the requirements, preventing out of specification results. This function saves time and prevents waste
of precious substances. (Saving money, and ensuring compliance)
The Minimum Weight function is a built-in application for new analytical and precision balances. It must be activated
by a certified service technician at the installation site. After programming the balance, the service technician issues a
Minimum Weight Certificate documenting the test measurements and tolerances, as well as the corresponding tare
and Minimum Weight values.

Figure 1: 3 different methods

Figure 2: Red to signal a violation

To improve Minimum Weight, the inner draft shield (Figure 3) and slit slides of the draft shield door (Figure 4 ) are
effective. There are two types of the slit slide, outer slit slide and inner slit slide.
In addition to an improvement of the balance location and an adoption of the proper weighing container as well as
optimization of balance parameters, review of weighing procedure is important; especially the direct weighing to the
weighing container and neglecting the back weighing are effective.

Figure 3: Inner draft

Figure 4: Slit Door

Figure 5: Outer Slit slide

Figure 6: Inner Slit slide

4.3 Level Control System


A balance can be moved out of level for many reasons. If the balance is not correctly leveled, the performance of the
balance cannot be guaranteed (sensitivity offset is increased). Companies working to guidelines such as ISO and USP
may be required to check that the balance is leveled each time before use.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

Thanks to the latest technology, a balance has a self-checking system for level adjustment. When the balance is
inclined, Level Control gives a message and/or an acoustic warning. The balance gives a operator leveling instructions
on the display. The leveling status is always stored in the Adjustment History. The leveling status can be printed in the
header, in the results or with each single weight value, in every application. An optical sensor is always keeping eye on
the level. (Figure 7) When the balance is out of level, a warning message appears. (Figure 8) And the graphic screen
shows the operator how to level the balance. (Figure 5)

Figure 7: Optical sensor

Figure 8: Warning message

Figure 9: Graphic screen

As in the daily weighing process, weighing operators no longer need to check whether the balance is leveled. The
leveling status can be printed out or stored in the balance memory, the traceability of balances and the validity of
weighing results are guaranteed.
4.4 User Management function
Weighing results are often just the first stage of a much larger laboratory process. For regulatory compliance, changes
to an instruments settings might influence the validity of the weighing results and so must be strictly controlled. And
each change to an instrument must be documented for traceability of the change history. In a regulated laboratory, the
administrator rights are described for each user in detail.
Thanks to the latest technology, individual user settings can be configured up to 8 users. The Administrator can
switch off any unnecessary user settings. The User Management function enables the Administrator to control each
users access rights. Those access rights can be flexibly configured depending on each users level. (E.g. User A can
execute an adjustment using an external weight or can use different applications like Weighing or Statistics freely.
Meanwhile, User B can only use one application and is not permitted to make any changes to parameters or instrument
settings.)
Individual access rights can be set by the administrator, depending on the responsibilities of the users. Each user setting
can be protected using a password. The Administrator can also switch off unnecessary application in each user
setting. In the change history, the last 50 actions are automatically stored, and can be printed out as required. Depending
on the user level, detailed individual access rights can be configured by the administrator. (Figure 10) Up to 8 users are
available in the system and necessary users can be switched off by the administrator. (Figure 11) Traceability is
guaranteed with the change History. (Figure 12)

Figure 10: Access rights

Figure 11: 8 users in the system

Figure 12: History

With the user management function, companies can rule out any unauthorized operation or change to equipment setting,
and traceability of balance is guaranteed.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

4.5 Static Electricity


Static electricity is one of the major factors affecting good weighing results. When a weighing operator weighs different
powders using plastic or glass containers, the operator might have to consider the effects of static electricity.
New anti-static devise for the analytical balances allows the weighing operator the most effective and fastest solution to
ensure accurate weighing results, even from critical or lightly charged substances.
Insulating materials such as plastic or glass affected easily by static generate an electrostatic force. This force causes
unstable weighing results.
The display value may keep changing and never settles. The weighing result is not only unstable, but might also be
wrong, since static forces can cause weighing errors of plus or minus several milligrams.
Powdery samples tend to be scattered or stick to the tare container due to static electricity. It is not only difficult to
handle, but it can also lead to cross-contamination. If the sample is toxic or harmful, this could be dangerous to the
operator. As a solution, an anti-static kit is available. (Figure 13)
The kit can be fitted in six different positions to the draft shield depending on the sample size and shape, and whether
right or left handed. The anti-static kit can be positioned at 3 different heights, left side or right side, 6 places in total.
(Figure 14) The anti0staic kit is synchronized with the draft shield movement. It is activated when the door is opened
and/or after the door is closed. Both ways can be configured flexibly, together with time activation. (Figure 15)

Figure 13: Positive/Negative ion generator

Figure 14: 3 different heights

Figure 15: Time activation

The anti-static kit for the analytical balance generates positive and negative ions evenly, and due to its high voltage the
static electricity of the sample or tare container can be discharged within a few seconds. The anti-static kit does not
generate air turbulence, which could cause powdery samples to rise into the air. The risk of cross-contamination is
therefore reduced to a minimum. Thanks to complete integration with the balance, the antistatic kit is activated
automatically with door movement (i.e. Operators do not have to operate the anti-static kit manually for every
weighing).This result in extremely quick, efficient and even more accurate weighing, with maximum security of
sample, user and results.
The universal ant-static kit can be used for any type of balances. (Figure 16) This also generates positive and negative
ions evenly, and causes no air turbulence.

Figure 16: Universal anti-static kit


To reduce the influence of static electricity, covering a statically charged sample or tare container with a metal cage is
also effective, due to the Faraday Effect. The electronic force lines are screened by the basket. (Figure 17)

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

The ergonomic clips offer an additional help for stable results. The anti-static kit + ergonomic clips offer the best
solution against static electricity.

Figure 17: Faraday Effect

Figure 18: Various metal basket and its holders

Some typical laboratory tare containers are difficult for weighing because of their odd shape. So, samples are sometimes
spilled because of unstable and/or narrow tare containers. One step dosing directly into the tare container can realize
less contamination risk and minimizes loss of sample, enabling faster dosing procedures. Ergonomic clips hold tare
containers securely and allow one-step dosing, directly into the tare container on the balance, and can reduce the
influence of static electricity, thanks to the Faraday Effect.
4.6 Laboratory Software
To connect balance to a network, the software must be connected with a LIMS for comprehensive data management.
Instruments need to be controlled remotely by the software, and all data need to be checked directly from the office. At
the same time, Audit trail, electronic signatures and approvals/sign-off of documents must be fulfilled for 21 CFR part
11.
With the latest software there is no need to go to the laboratory to check results. Just start the software on an office PC
and operators can check results, change methods and review and sign off documents electronically. The operators do
not have to print a single document. And it supports 21 CFR part 11.
With the software, operators can simplify their tasks in many ways. For example the operator can import their sample
data directly from the LIMS, make templates for routine daily tasks, create statistics and control charts automatically.
Using Rapid Access in the software you do not need to touch a computer. Balances allow operators to log on to the
software directly from the balance. There is no need to connect the balance to a computer either. Just plug it directly
into your company network with the optional Ethernet interface. The figure 19 shows its image.

Figure 19: Data management in the laboratory

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

4.7 Hands free operation


While handling samples, an operator might have to operate the balance in a glove box wearing gloves on both hands, as
the material could be hazardous. Or the operator might weigh precious substances, where any loss of sample would
directly affect costs. For weighing these special types of sample, the focus must be on sample handling for both safety
and productivity.
Thanks to the latest technology, two optical sensors on the terminal of the balance. The Status bar shows which function
of the sensor is activated by means of a green symbol on the terminal. For example: Zeroing, Taring the balance,
Opening/Closing the draft shield, Printouts etc. It can be programmed to operate using the function (Figure 20). A
separate type of optional sensor is also available to connect to some balances (Figure 21).
So, operators can concentrate 100 % on sample handling. Contamination risk can be reduced to a minimum.

Figure 20: Optical sensor

Figure 21: Optical sensor (separate type)

4.8 Automatic adjustment by built-in reference weights


Temperature changes may affect the sensitivity and some times the linearity of electronic balances, causing a difference
between the displayed and true value. Periodical adjustments or tests at regular interval may be required according to a
SOP.
Automatic adjustment using built-in reference weight is useful. Temperature changes in the environment trigger the
adjustments. (Figure 22) Temperature criterion is selectable (0.5, 1, 2, 3 Kelvin). An adjustment record can be printed
automatically, fulfilling GxP requirements.
Automatic adjustment using a built-in reference weight and a prompt for Adjustment & Test using an external weight
can be scheduled for a specific time (freely configurable: weekdays, up to 3 times per day). Up to 5 external weights
for Adjustment & Test can be stored in the memory, and are easily selectable on the display. Adjustment & Test history
events are recorded in the balance memory and can be printed (up to 50 events). Two weights are installed with
analytical balances, making 3 points linearity adjustment possible. (Figure 23)

Figure 22: Adjustment

Figure 23: Built in weights

In the daily weighing process, the balance is always adjusted correctly. The administrator is therefore free from timeconsuming maintenance duties. The Adjustment & Test history can be stored in the balance and printed anytime for
traceability.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

4.9 Cross-contamination measures


Powdery, liquid or gel samples are spilled on the draft shield or weighing pan. These samples could cause crosscontamination. Meanwhile, daily balance cleaning is time-consuming.
Thank to new design, thee draft shield of the analytical balance is completely detachable. (Figure 24) Spilled samples
are caught safely because the spilled samples fall through the grid pan, and are retained on the drip tray below. (Figure
25) Weighing pan and drip tray can also be easily removed for cleaning. (Figure 26) Every element can be detached.
The balance can be moved easily for bench-top cleaning. (Figure 27)

Figure 24: Detachable shield

Figure 25: Grid pan

Figure 26: Tray

Figure 27: Easy to clean

4.10 Standard Operating Procedures (SOP)


For an example, SOP for Full Calibration and Routine Check are introduced as follows.
4.10.1

Full Calibration
The full calibration is an extensive test performed by a specialist by way of an Operational Qualification. Test
parameters are Sensitivity, Repeatability, Linearity and Eccentricity.
It should be performed at least once a year and after any change of the location, repair and Routine Check
found error more than Maximum Permissible Error (MPE).

4.10.2

Routine Check
The routine check is a less extensive test at regular interval performed by user. The test must be performed
following a SOP, which includes Zero Checking and Double Weight Check at least once a day.
Example of a SOP to check a balance is as follows.
1)
2)
3)

Acclimatize test weights to the surroundings.


Level balance.
The balance should be switched on for at least 30 minutes before the start of the test or be in the standby
mode.
4) Clean the balance and check the clearances between weighing pan and balance housing (freedom of
movement).
5) Adjust the balance (only in the case of balances with built-in weights).
6) Zero the balance.
7) Place the certified test weight (E2 or F1) in the middle of the weighing pan. Wear gloves or use tweezers
when handling test weights.
8) Comparison of the readout value with the specified mass of the test weight.
- If the defined tolerance is exceeded, the test must be performed again.
- If the tolerance is still exceeded, switch off the balance, mark as faulty and contact the service
technician.
9) The results of the check must be documented.
4.10.3 Definition of Warning and Action Limit
1) Objectives
- Maintain measuring accuracy- quality system.

Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque (APMF 2007), Oct 24 - 25 2007

- Prevent loss due to error from weighing


2) Maximum Permissible Error (MPE) of a Balance
- Set Warning Limit at 1/3 of MPE
- Set Action Limit at 2/3 of MPE
3) Measures if Warning Limit or Action Limit should be specified in the SOP.
4) Define Warning and Action Limit
- When warning limit exceeded, adjust balance and Retest
- The balance is within the tolerance, a measure is decrease test interval.
- The balance remains outside tolerance, contact maintenance
5) Action limit reached or exceeded:
- Immediately remove balance from operation
- Contact customer service
- Calibration and recheck before putting back into operation.

5. CONCLUION
After selection of a suitable balance equipped with the latest technology, risk factors caused by physical influence for
proper weighing are remarkably reduced. However, manufactures, user of balances, need to pay special attention to
review and improve SOP and Balance Quality Management System (QMS) constantly as well as to give a proper
education/ training to their staff members.
Especially, from the point of view of working efficiency and weighing accuracy, it is advisable to weigh samples
directly into the final container, instead of using an interim receptacle. The direct method comprises fewer handling
steps as there is no need to transfer the sample into the final container, no transfer loss occurs. Large containers have a
greater interaction with their environment, which is detrimental to the weighing accuracy of the sample. Weighing
directly into containers and obtaining high sample accuracy is nevertheless feasible if proper measures are taken.
A small slit of draft shield door can minimize the influence of air turbulence because weighing operator can weigh a
sample without opening the draft shield door. As a result, the standard deviations of the sample repeatability, as well as
any potential bias, are significantly reduced. A lower standard deviation of repeatability provides a lower Minimum
Weight, which allows the amounts of substances involved in processes to be reduced, resulting in lower costs and less
waste material.
Care should be taken when weighing electrically non-conductive objects as they are prone to picking up an electrostatic
charge when being handled. This may seriously impair the weighing result. Proper measures to counter this effect are
electric shielding with suitable weighing accessories, or the use of the anti-static device.
Finally, suppliers of balances should improve balances innovatively, supply users necessary information about
SOP/QMS timely, and support education/training as a specialist of weighing field

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The author is grateful to Dr. Klaus Fritsch (Mettler-Toledo, Switzerland) and Mr. Robert Russell (Mettler-Toledo,
Japan) for their persistent support during the preparation of this paper.

6. REFERENCES
1.
2.
3.
4.

Hans Joerg Burkhard, Mettler-Toledo, Greifensee, Switzerland, COMPLIANCE SERVICES


Arthur Reichmuth, Mettler-Toledo, Greifensee, Switzerland, WEIGHING SMALL SAMPLE ON
LABORATORY BALANCES
Mettler-Toledo GmbH, WEIGHING SOLUTIONS
Mettler-Toledo GmbH, BALANCES IN QUALITY MANAGEMANT

*corresponding author information: Yoshikazu Watabe yoshikazu.watabe@mt.com; phone +81 3 3222 7111; fax +81
3 3222 7115; Laboratory Business Unit of Mettler-Toledo K.K., 4F Izumikan Sanbancho Bldg., 3-8 Sanbancho,
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102 0075, Japan

METTLER TOLEDO
Major sponsor of the APMF 2007
As a world leader in the field of weighing technology, METTLER TOLEDO is proud
to be the major sponsor of the Asia-Pacific Symposium on Measurement of Mass,
Force, Torque and Density in Sydney, Australia.
METTLER TOLEDO is a name that is synonymous with high quality, reliability and
technical innovation across a range of measurement technologies.
The laboratory product range includes:

Mass Comparators
Volume & Density Determination
Calibration Weights E1 to M3
Laboratory Balances
Automatic Titrators
Thermal Analysis Equipment
Automated Chemistry
pH Meters
Density and Refractometry
Pipettes

METTLER TOLEDO mass comparators are used in national standards laboratories,


legal metrology services and weights & measures offices throughout the world.
METTLER TOLEDO comparator balances offer very high resolution with up to 52
million points and are distinguished by extremely high repeatability.
The flagship M_One Vacuum Comparator is now used in over 15 National
Metrology Institutes.
METTLER TOLEDO would like to thank NMI for the opportunity to sponsor the APMF
Symposium and trust that you enjoy the Symposium and your visit to Sydney,
Australia.

www.mt.com
For more information

62

METTLER TOLEDO
Major sponsor of the APMF 2007
As a world leader in the field of weighing technology, METTLER TOLEDO is proud
to be the major sponsor of the Asia-Pacific Symposium on Measurement of Mass,
Force, Torque and Density in Sydney, Australia.
METTLER TOLEDO is a name that is synonymous with high quality, reliability and
technical innovation across a range of measurement technologies.
The laboratory product range includes:

Mass Comparators
Volume & Density Determination
Calibration Weights E1 to M3
Laboratory Balances
Automatic Titrators
Thermal Analysis Equipment
Automated Chemistry
pH Meters
Density and Refractometry
Pipettes

METTLER TOLEDO mass comparators are used in national standards laboratories,


legal metrology services and weights & measures offices throughout the world.
METTLER TOLEDO comparator balances offer very high resolution with up to 52
million points and are distinguished by extremely high repeatability.
The flagship M_One Vacuum Comparator is now used in over 15 National
Metrology Institutes.
METTLER TOLEDO would like to thank NMI for the opportunity to sponsor the APMF
Symposium and trust that you enjoy the Symposium and your visit to Sydney,
Australia.

www.mt.com
For more information

62

measurement.gov.au

Sponsors

Mettler Toledo Ltd


NATA
IMEKO TC3
APMF
National Measurement Institute

64