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A while loop statement in C programming language repeatedly executes a target statement as

long as a given condition is true.

Syntax:
The syntax of a while loop in C programming language is:
while(condition)
{
statement(s);
}

Here, statement(s) may be a single statement or a block of statements. The condition may be
any expression, and true is any nonzero value. The loop iterates while the condition is true.
When the condition becomes false, program control passes to the line immediately following the
loop.

Flow Diagram:

Here, key point of the while loop is that the loop might not ever run. When the condition is tested
and the result is false, the loop body will be skipped and the first statement after the while loop
will be executed.

Example:
#include <stdio.h>
int main ()
{
/* local variable definition */
int a = 10;
/* while loop execution */
while( a < 20 )
{
printf("value of a: %d\n", a);
a++;
}
}

return 0;

When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result:
value
value
value
value
value
value
value
value
value
value

of
of
of
of
of
of
of
of
of
of

a:
a:
a:
a:
a:
a:
a:
a:
a:
a:

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A for loop is a repetition control structure that allows you to efficiently write a loop that needs to
execute a specific number of times.

Syntax:
The syntax of a for loop in C programming language is:
for ( init; condition; increment )
{
statement(s);
}

Here is the flow of control in a for loop:


1. The init step is executed first, and only once. This step allows you to declare and
initialize any loop control variables. You are not required to put a statement here, as long
as a semicolon appears.
2. Next, the condition is evaluated. If it is true, the body of the loop is executed. If it is
false, the body of the loop does not execute and flow of control jumps to the next
statement just after the for loop.
3. After the body of the for loop executes, the flow of control jumps back up to the
increment statement. This statement allows you to update any loop control variables.
This statement can be left blank, as long as a semicolon appears after the condition.
4. The condition is now evaluated again. If it is true, the loop executes and the process
repeats itself (body of loop, then increment step, and then again condition). After the
condition becomes false, the for loop terminates.

Flow Diagram:

Example:
#include <stdio.h>
int main ()
{
/* for loop execution */
for( int a = 10; a < 20; a = a + 1 )
{
printf("value of a: %d\n", a);
}
}

return 0;

When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result:
value of a: 10
value of a: 11
value of a: 12

value
value
value
value
value
value
value

of
of
of
of
of
of
of

a:
a:
a:
a:
a:
a:
a:

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Unlike for and while loops, which test the loop condition at the top of the loop, the do...while
loop in C programming language checks its condition at the bottom of the loop.
A do...while loop is similar to a while loop, except that a do...while loop is guaranteed to execute
at least one time.

Syntax:
The syntax of a do...while loop in C programming language is:
do
{

statement(s);

}while( condition );

Notice that the conditional expression appears at the end of the loop, so the statement(s) in the
loop execute once before the condition is tested.
If the condition is true, the flow of control jumps back up to do, and the statement(s) in the loop
execute again. This process repeats until the given condition becomes false.

Flow Diagram:

Example:
#include <stdio.h>
int main ()
{
/* local variable definition */
int a = 10;
/* do loop execution */
do
{
printf("value of a: %d\n", a);
a = a + 1;
}while( a < 20 );
return 0;
}

When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result:
value
value
value
value
value
value
value
value
value
value

of
of
of
of
of
of
of
of
of
of

a:
a:
a:
a:
a:
a:
a:
a:
a:
a:

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Unlike for and while loops, which test the loop condition at the top of the loop, the do...while
loop in C programming language checks its condition at the bottom of the loop.
A do...while loop is similar to a while loop, except that a do...while loop is guaranteed to execute
at least one time.

Syntax:
The syntax of a do...while loop in C programming language is:
do
{
statement(s);
}while( condition );

Notice that the conditional expression appears at the end of the loop, so the statement(s) in the
loop execute once before the condition is tested.
If the condition is true, the flow of control jumps back up to do, and the statement(s) in the loop
execute again. This process repeats until the given condition becomes false.

Flow Diagram:

An if statement consists of a boolean expression followed by one or more statements.

Syntax:
The syntax of an if statement in C programming language is:
if(boolean_expression)
{
/* statement(s) will execute if the boolean expression is true */
}

If the boolean expression evaluates to true, then the block of code inside the if statement will be
executed. If boolean expression evaluates to false, then the first set of code after the end of the if
statement(after the closing curly brace) will be executed.
C programming language assumes any non-zero and non-null values as true and if it is either
zero or null, then it is assumed as false value.

Flow Diagram:

Example:
#include <stdio.h>
int main ()
{
/* local variable definition */
int a = 10;
/* check the boolean condition using if statement */
if( a < 20 )
{
/* if condition is true then print the following */
printf("a is less than 20\n" );
}
printf("value of a is : %d\n", a);
}

return 0;

When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result:

a is less than 20;


value of a is : 10

Example:
#include <stdio.h>
int main ()
{
/* local variable definition */
int a = 10;
/* do loop execution */
do
{
printf("value of a: %d\n", a);
a = a + 1;
}while( a < 20 );
return 0;
}

When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result:
value
value
value
value

of
of
of
of

a:
a:
a:
a:

10
11
12
13

value
value
value
value
value
value

of
of
of
of
of
of

a:
a:
a:
a:
a:
a:

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An if statement can be followed by an optional else statement, which executes when the boolean
expression is false.

Syntax:
The syntax of an if...else statement in C programming language is:
if(boolean_expression)
{
/* statement(s) will execute if the boolean expression is true */
}
else
{
/* statement(s) will execute if the boolean expression is false */
}

If the boolean expression evaluates to true, then the if block of code will be executed, otherwise
else block of code will be executed.
C programming language assumes any non-zero and non-null values as true, and if it is either
zero or null, then it is assumed as false value.

Flow Diagram:

Example:
#include <stdio.h>
int main ()
{
/* local variable definition */
int a = 100;
/* check the boolean condition */
if( a < 20 )
{
/* if condition is true then print the following */
printf("a is less than 20\n" );
}
else
{
/* if condition is false then print the following */
printf("a is not less than 20\n" );
}
printf("value of a is : %d\n", a);
return 0;
}

When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result:
a is not less than 20;
value of a is : 100

The if...else if...else Statement

An if statement can be followed by an optional else if...else statement, which is very useful to
test various conditions using single if...else if statement.
When using if , else if , else statements there are few points to keep in mind:

An if can have zero or one else's and it must come after any else if's.

An if can have zero to many else if's and they must come before the else.

Once an else if succeeds, none of the remaining else if's or else's will be tested.

Syntax:
The syntax of an if...else if...else statement in C programming language is:
if(boolean_expression 1)
{
/* Executes when the boolean
}
else if( boolean_expression 2)
{
/* Executes when the boolean
}
else if( boolean_expression 3)
{
/* Executes when the boolean
}
else
{
/* executes when the none of
}

expression 1 is true */

expression 2 is true */

expression 3 is true */

the above condition is true */

Example:
#include <stdio.h>
int main ()
{
/* local variable definition */
int a = 100;
/* check the boolean condition */
if( a == 10 )
{
/* if condition is true then print the following */
printf("Value of a is 10\n" );
}
else if( a == 20 )
{
/* if else if condition is true */
printf("Value of a is 20\n" );

}
else if( a == 30 )
{
/* if else if condition is true */
printf("Value of a is 30\n" );
}
else
{
/* if none of the conditions is true */
printf("None of the values is matching\n" );
}
printf("Exact value of a is: %d\n", a );
}

return 0;

When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result:
None of the values is matching
Exact value of a is: 100

It is always legal in C programming to nest if-else statements, which means you can use one if or
else if statement inside another if or else if statement(s).
Syntax:

The syntax for a nested if statement is as follows:


if( boolean_expression 1)
{
/* Executes when the boolean expression 1 is true */
if(boolean_expression 2)
{
/* Executes when the boolean expression 2 is true */
}
}

You can nest else if...else in the similar way as you have nested if statement.
Example:
#include <stdio.h>
int main ()
{
/* local variable definition */
int a = 100;
int b = 200;
/* check the boolean condition */
if( a == 100 )

/* if condition is true then check the following */


if( b == 200 )
{
/* if condition is true then print the following */
printf("Value of a is 100 and b is 200\n" );
}

}
printf("Exact value of a is : %d\n", a );
printf("Exact value of b is : %d\n", b );
return 0;
}

When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result:
Value of a is 100 and b is 200
Exact value of a is : 100
Exact value of b is : 200

A switch statement allows a variable to be tested for equality against a list of values. Each value
is called a case, and the variable being switched on is checked for each switch case.

Syntax:
The syntax for a switch statement in C programming language is as follows:
switch(expression){
case constant-expression
statement(s);
break; /* optional */
case constant-expression
statement(s);
break; /* optional */

:
:

/* you can have any number of case statements */


default : /* Optional */
statement(s);

The following rules apply to a switch statement:

The expression used in a switch statement must have an integral or enumerated type, or
be of a class type in which the class has a single conversion function to an integral or
enumerated type.

You can have any number of case statements within a switch. Each case is followed by
the value to be compared to and a colon.

The constant-expression for a case must be the same data type as the variable in the
switch, and it must be a constant or a literal.

When the variable being switched on is equal to a case, the statements following that case
will execute until a break statement is reached.

When a break statement is reached, the switch terminates, and the flow of control jumps
to the next line following the switch statement.

Not every case needs to contain a break. If no break appears, the flow of control will
fall through to subsequent cases until a break is reached.

A switch statement can have an optional default case, which must appear at the end of
the switch. The default case can be used for performing a task when none of the cases is
true. No break is needed in the default case.

Flow Diagram:

Example:

#include <stdio.h>
int main ()
{
/* local variable definition */
char grade = 'B';
switch(grade)
{
case 'A' :
printf("Excellent!\n" );
break;
case 'B' :
case 'C' :
printf("Well done\n" );
break;
case 'D' :
printf("You passed\n" );
break;
case 'F' :
printf("Better try again\n" );
break;
default :
printf("Invalid grade\n" );
}
printf("Your grade is %c\n", grade );
return 0;
}

When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result:
Well done
Your grade is B