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Advanced Production

Nelson Perozo

WS 2016/17

Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

GENERAL INFORMATION
Lectures & exercises: Nelson Perozo
eMail:
Tel:

nelson.perozo@tu-clausthal.de
ext. 2288

Lecture assistant: Helen Udo


eMail:
Tel:

chud11@tu-clausthal.de
ext. 2288

Software Prosper: Rene Romero


eMail:
Tel:

rene.jose.romero.sarcos@tu-clausthal.de
ext. ----

Secretariat: Marion Bischof


eMail:
Tel:

marion.bischof@tu-clausthal.de
ext. 2239

Please register in STUDIP


Scripts can be downloaded from STUDIP
Requirements: scientific calculator
Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

LITERATURE
Allen, T.O. and Roberts, A.P.: Production Operations. OGCI, Tulsa, 1993.
Brill, J.B., Mukherjee H.: Multiphase Flow in Wells. SPE Monograph 17,
1999.
Cholet, H., Editor: Well Production Practical Handbook. Editions TECHNIP,
2000
Economides, M.J., Hill, A.D. and Ehlig-Economides, C.: Petroleum
Production Systems. Prentice Hall Petroleum Engineering Series, 2012.
Ikoku, C.U.: Natural Gas Engineering. Pennwell Books, 1980
Katz, D.L., et al.: Handbook of Natural Gas Engineering. Mc Graw Hill Book
Company, 1959.
Reinicke, K.M., Hueni, G., Liermann, N., Oppelt J., Reichetseder, P.,
Unverhaun, W.: Oil and Gas Ullmanns Encyclopedia of Industrial
Chemistry - Wiley Online Library, Wiley 2014.
Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

Advanced Production
Tuesday, 14:00 17:30, ExxonMobil Teleteaching Room
No lectures on:
15.11.2016
29.11.2016
Additional lecture:
11.11.2016

Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

Agenda
Introduction
Petroleum Production Systems
IPR Single phase Darcy flow
IPR Multiphase Darcy flow
Skin Flow assurance
VLP Single phase pipe flow
VLP Multiphase pipe flow
Artificial Lift Displacement pumps
Artificial Lift Gas lift
Nodal Analysis and production forecasting

Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

Introduction

World energy demand and supply

Oil

Natural gas

Reservoir

Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

GLOBAL ENERGY DEMAND


CONTINUES TO INCREASE
22500

Energy Consumotion, M toe

17500

+ Renewables

15000

+ Nuclear

12500

+ Coal

10000
+ Gas

5000

Oil

2500

6000
5000

3000
2000
1000

1925

1950

1975

2000

2025

Drivers

7000

4000

7500

during the last 10 years

8000

World Population

0
2050

World Population, million

20000

0
1900

Consumption increase of 25%

9000

Increase of world population


Economic growth
Rising prosperity
~75% of demand growth in
developing countries

Oil and gas remain the most


important energy sources

Source: Reinicke et al. 2014

Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

SHARES OF PRIMARY ENERGY


CONSUMPTION

Source: BP (2015)
Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

DEVELOPMENT OF PRIMARY ENERGY

Growth annually of 1,8% from 511,1 x 1024 Btu (2004) to 701,6 x 1024 Btu (2030)
Increase = 37%
(1 British Thermal Unit = 252 cal)

Oil share at primary energy supply


Gas share at primary energy supply

2004
38%
23%

2030
32%
24%

World Energy Outlook 2007


Fossil Fuel Scenario

Growth of annually of 1,8% from 11,4 x 109 toe (2005) to 17,7 x 109 toe (2030)
increase of 55%
2004
2030
Oil share at primary energy supply

35%

32%

Gas share at primary energy supply

21%

22%
Source: Reinicke et al. 2014

Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

Reserves and ressources of nonrenewable energy fuels


Unit

Reserves

EJ

Ressources

EJ

Conventional Oil
Conventional natural gas
Conventional Hydrocarbons
Oil sand
Extra heavy oil
Shale oil
Oil shale
Non conventional Oil
Shale gas
Tight gas
Coalbed Methane
Aquifer gas
Gas hydrates
non conventional gas
non conventional hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons
Hard Coal
Brown Coal (Lignite)
Coal
Fossil energy sources
Uranium
Thorium
Nuclear

Gt
Bill. m3
Gtoe
Gt
Gt
Gt
Gt
Gtoe
Bill. m3
Bill. m3
Bill. m3
Bill. m3
Bill. m3
Bill. m3
Gtoe
Gtoe
Gt SKE
Gt SKE
Gt SKE
Mt
Mt
-

169
191
342
27
21
48
3,7
1,8
5,5
53
395
650
111
762
2,2
-

7050
7244
14294
1115
886
2002
142
69
211
2213
16507
19061
3259
22320
38826
1084
1084

161
310
443
63
61
47
97
268
205
63
50
24
184
527
746
1189
14506
1689
16195
13
5,2
-

6732
11779
18511
2613
2541
1969
4068
11191
7804
2397
1916
912
6992
20021
31212
49723
425155
49500
474655
524378
6509
2606
9116

Non-renewable energy fuels

39910

533494

Energy source

Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

10

RESERVES DEPEND ON PRICE AND


TECHNOLOGY
Reserves

Resources

Discovered (proved in a
reservoir)

potentially recoverable quantities of

Recoverable (with known


technology)

proved by wells, but uneconomic to

hydrocarbons

Commercial (at current prices)


Remaining

produce
yet-to-find, but expected on geologic
grounds

Increasing costs

Discovered

economically
feasible
not
economically
feasible

Undiscovered

proven

probable

possible

Hypothetical

(measured)

(indicated)

(inferred)

(in known areas)

Speculative
(in undiscovered
areas)

Reserves
Ressources
Decreasing geological assurance

Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Source: Nelson Perozo


Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

11

GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATIOIN OF
RESSOURCE CLASSIFICATION
Approved by:
SPE Society of Petroleum
Engineers
WPC
World Petroleum Council
AAPG
American Association of
Petroleum Geologists
SPEE
Society of Petroleum
Evaluation Engineers

Source: Prof. K. Reinicke


Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

12

STATIC RANGE
The static range of oil and gas reserves has increased despite rising consumption
since 1970
Technological developments have led to a steady increase in the reserves.

Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Source: RWE

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

13

CRUDE OIL RESERVES AND


RESOURCES
Reserves

ca. 165 Gt

BGR, 2013

217 Gt

BP Statistical Review 2011 189 Gt


EIA 2009

214 Gm3

Reinicke et al. 2014

217 Gt

statistical range
@ Production 2013

Resources

55 a
4,17 Gt

ca. 461 Gt

BGR, 2013

331 Gt

conventional
Reinicke et al. 2014

143 Gt

non-conventional
Reinicke et al. 2014

318 Gt

Source: BGR 2013, Reinicke et al. 2014


Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

14

OIL FACTS
Measurement:
Oil is measured either in barrels (159,6 l = 42 Gallons) or Tons. For
international trade it will be measured in tons because mass can not be
changed.
Energy content:
1 barrel of oil contains: 5,8 MBtu = 6119 MJoules = ~ 2500kcal
1 cubic meter of oil: 38.482 Mjoules (MWs) = 10,7 MWh = ~ 1.000 Sm3 of gas
Oil usages
100% oil is refined in a refinery in
93%-94% fuels (> 95 % of world transportation energy comes from oil)
6%-7% other derivatives (some plastics, lubricants, waxes, asphalts, etc)

Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

15

CLASSIFICATION OF CRUDE OIL


by
region

by
gravity

West Texas Intermediate, WTI for North American oil.


Brent Crude
Arabian Light

comprising 15 oils from North Sea fields


Dubai Crude (31 API) or Ghawar (33-40 API)

light crude oil

API gravity higher than 31.1 API

medium oil

API gravity between 22.3 API and 31.1


API

heavy oil

an API gravity below 22.3 API

API = 141,5 / (oil specific gravity) - 131,5


by
sulfur
content

sweet crude oil

contains less than 0.5% sulfur


producers:
Iraq
Saudi Arabia
United States (West Texas Intermediate)
Oman

sour crude oil

sulfide level in the oil is > 1 %


producers:
Venezuela
Source: Prof. K. Reinicke

Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

16

CLASSIFICATION OF CRUDE OIL

Dichte
Density
3
g/cm
g/cm

Conventional
Crude
Konventionelles
Erdl
Oil

API
50
45

Condensate
Kondensat

40
30

0,825
Leichtl
Light Oil
(normales
Erdl)
(normal crude)

20
NichtNon
Conkonventio
ventional
nelles
Crude
ErdlOil

0,780
0,802

0,876
0,934

Heavy
Oil
Schwerl

10
0

Schwerstl
mPa.s)
Extra
Heavy Oil(<10000
(<10.000
mOa.s)
Bitumen (>10.000
mPa.s)
lsand/Bitumen
(>10000
mPa.s)

1,000
1,076

API: American Petroleum Institute

Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

17

WORLD OIL RESERVES


Things to note:
OPEC
OPEC

OPEC
OPEC
OPEC

OPEC
OPEC
OPEC

Source: World Atlas (2016)


Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

- 1st place has 10


times more oil than 12th
place.
- 8 of the top 12
countries are OPEC
members.
- Despite the big
production, the world
reserves have
increased more than
50% in the last 20
years.
- Venezuela is the
country with the largest
reserves, which are
mostly heavy and extra
heavy oil.
Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

18

CONVENTIONAL CRUDE OIL RESERVES


AND LARGEST RESOURCE HOLDERS
Conventional oil reserves are concentrated in the so-called strategic ellipse;
non-conventional oil in Canada and Venezuela plays an increasing role

Source: BGR Hannover


Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

19

OIL REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION


EUR of Oil 2012 (total of approx. 552 billion t)

Source: BGR, 2013


Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

20

CRUDE OIL PRODUCTION AND


PETROLEUM CONSUMPTION
Regionally, there is an
imbalance in demand and
supply

200 Mt
Production

Consumption

Production

Deutschland: 3,4

Source: BGR Hannover


Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

21

PEAK OIL: A MATTER OF


PERSPECTIVE

The Oil Age

Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

22

HYDROCARBON AVAILABILITY: A
MATTER OF PRICE AND TECHNOLOGY

Economic price 2004 (USD)

... At increasing price

Availability of oil as a function of price

Available oil in billion barrels

... Need of modern technology


Source: IEA, 2006
Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

23

SUMMARY CRUDE OIL


conventional crude oil is available in sufficient quantities for the
next decades.
The dependency on OPEC will increase.
The share of non-conventional crude oil will increase in the years
to come.
Crude oil is finite; one must prepare for alternative forms of
energy.

Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

24

NATURAL GAS RESERVES AND


RESOURCES
ca. 190.1012 m3

Reserves
BGR 2013

196 Tm3

BP Stat. Review 2011

187 Tm3

EIA 2009

178 Tm3

Reinicke et al., 2014

192 Tm3

statistical range

ca. 60 a
3,4.1012 m3

@ Production 2012

633-752.1012 m3

Resources
BGR 2013

629 Tm3

conventional

312.1012 m3

non-conventional

321-440.1012 m3

Source: BGR 2013, Reinicke et al., 2014


Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

25

NATURAL GAS FACTS


Measurement:
Natural gas is measured in m3 or ft3. Volumes are reported for a reference
(standard) pressure of 1 atm and a reference (standard) temperature of 15C
or 60 F in the metric and oil field system, respectively.
Components:
Mostly methan, ethan, propane, buthan, CO2, N2 and water.
Energy content:
Natural gas is sold in Germany as L- or H-Gas. L-Gas has a calorific value of
9.77 kWh/ m3. H-Gas has a calorific value of 11.66 kWh/ m3
Natural gas usage:
Electricity plants, industry sector, domestic use, combustion heat plants,
transportation, etc.

Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

26

CLASSIFICATION OF NATURAL GAS

Conventional Natural Gas


- Non-Associated Natural Gas
- Associated Natural Gas

Non-Conventional Natural Gas


- Tight Gas
- Coal Bed Methane (CBM)
- Shale Gas
- Aquifer Gas
- Gas Hydrates

Source: Prof. K. Reinicke

Microseismizitt

Shale Gas in 1000 m


Texas

Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

27

RESERVES NATURAL GAS AND


LARGEST RESOURCE HOLDERS
T.m

Conventional gas reserves are concentrated


in the so called strategic ellipse. Nonconventional (tight and shale) gas plays an
increasing role

60,0
50,0

47,6

Weltreserven: 160,9 T.m

40,0
30,0

26,0

Deutschland: 0,34
14,4

20,0

6,2

10,0

6,0

5,0

4,5

4,1

3,5

3,1

Ira
k

Ni
ge
ria

Ve
ne
zu
ela

US
A

Al
ge
rie
n

Ka
tar
Sa
ud
iA
ra
Ve
bi
r.
en
Ar
ab
.E
m
ira
te

Ira
n

Ru
ss
lan
d

0,0

Source: BGR Hannover


Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

28

WORLD NATURAL GAS RESERVES


Rank

Country

Proven reserves
[Billion m3]

Russia

48,700

Iran

OPEC

33,600

Qatar

OPEC

24,700

Turkmenistan

17,500

United States

9,860

Saudi Arabia

OPEC

8,600

Iraq

OPEC

6,400

Venezuela

OPEC

5,725

Nigeria

OPEC

5,100

10

China

11

Algeria

12

Australia

World reserves

5,643
OPEC

Things to note:
- 1st place has 11 times
more oil than 12th
place.
- 7 of the top 12
countries are OPEC
members.
- Despite the big
production, the world
reserves have
increased more than
50% in the last 20
years.

4,502
4,300

187,300

Source: Wikipedia (2015)


Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

29

NATURAL GAS REGIONAL


DISTRIBUTION
EUR of Natural Gas 2012 (total of approx. 828 trillion m3)

Source: BGR, 2013


Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

30

NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION AND


CONSUMPTION
A major imbalance
between demand and
supply exists for Europe

200
Gm3
200 G.m
3

Production
Frderung

Consumption
Verbrauch
G.m

G.m

800,0

590,0

700,0

Weltverbrauch: 2.507,1 G.m

600,0

500,0

500,0

400,0

401,7

400,0

300,0

Deutschland: 21,5

189,7

200,0

112,8

79,3

72,3

100,0

64,5

300,0
200,0

60,6

57,4

53,0

100,4

95,7

85,6

76,4

70,5

69,4

64,7

100,0

51,0

Ira
n
U
sb
ek
is
ta
n

Ita
lie
n

U
kr
ai
ne

Ja
pa
n

Ira
n
U
sb
ek
is
ta
n
N
or
w
eg
en

N
ie
de
rla
nd
e
In
do
ne
si
en

A
lg
er
ie
n

K
an
ad
G
ro
a
b
rit
an
ni
en

U
SA

K
an
ad
a

0,0

0,0

R
us
sl
an
d

653,1

R
us
sl
an
G
d
ro
b
rit
an
ni
en
D
eu
ts
ch
la
nd

600,0

Weltfrderung: 2.530,7 G.m

547,8

U
SA

700,0

Source: BGR Hannover


Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

31

PRODUCTION OF CONVENTIONAL
NATURAL GAS: History and Projections

Gas, both conventional and non-conventional is there of a long time to come


Source: BGR Hannover
Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

32

SUMMARY NATURAL GAS


Natural gas is available in sufficient quantities for the next couple
of decades.
To meet demand requires enormous investments.
Gas price will play an essential role in making the necessary
capital available.
Market liberalization will change the face of the industry.
Natural gas: the transition to re-newables

Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

33

HYDROCARBON RECOVERY:
PRODUCTION SYSTEM
MAX.!!!

MAX.!!!
Field
Treatment

Transfer

Transport

Production

Re-Injection
Processing
(Crude Oil)

MAX.!!!

MAX.!!!
Reservoir

To recover hydrocarbons
means to produce,
process and deliver
hydrocarbons in quantity
and quality in line with
contractual specifications

Customer

The production system consists of:


reservoir
subsurface system (well)
surface field treatment system (processing facilities)
systems for quality and quantity controlled transfer of custody
Source: Prof. K. Reinicke
Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

34

RESERVOIR PROPERTIES
Source
(Muttergestein)
Migration

Carbonate Rock
Shale
Sandstone
Shale

Seal
(Abdichtung)
Trap
(Falle)
Reservoir
(Lagersttte)

Source: Prof. K. Reinicke

Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

35

OUTCROPS

Channel Sand

Anticline

Fault

Fold

Pinch Out
Source: Photos Kulke, Horn (TU Clausthal)
Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

36

RESERVOIR ORIGIN

Tectonic faults:
1 Below an anticlinal
trap
2 In a coral reef
3 Beside a salt dome
4 Beside a fault trap
5 In a fault dome
6 Below overlapping
layers (discordance)
Stratigraphic faults:
7 In a cropping storage
rock

Oil and gas expelled from the


source rock migrates through
porous or fractured rock upwards
(migration)
The process ends at the surface or
in the subsurface at impermeable
cap rocks (Seal) like salt and clay,
if the geometry of this rock
assumes the form of a trap (trap)
If the rock below the seal / trap is
porous and permeable then all
requirements for the existence of
an economically producible
reservoir are fulfilled (reservoir)
In the reservoir rocks, crude oil is
typically found together with gas
and water

Source: Reinicke et al., 2005


Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

37

SEISMIC FOR RESERVOIR


DESCRIPTION
Three-dimensional seismic provide
information to model the reservoir
Three-dimensional visualization
technology allow an immersion into
the reservoir

Quelle:

Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

ExxonMobil Upstream Research

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

38

RESERVOIR MODELING AND WELL


PLANNING

Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

39

RESERVOIR: CONVENTIONAL
RESERVOIR ROCK
Thin Section showing

high porosity
sandstone

inter granular pore


space

Blue: pore space

Source: USGS Web Site


Electron Microscope
Picture showing
clean, high porosity
sandstone
well sorted
intergranular pore
space

Buntsandstein: depth
2500 m

permeability several
Source: Reinicke, BEB

Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

100 mD

The most important


reservoir rocks are
porous or fractured
sandstones or dolomites

POROSITY :
is a measure of the
void space of a rock Vv
=
is defined by the
Vt
where VV is the volume of
void-space and VT is the
total or bulk volume of
material

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

40

RESERVOIR: STORAGE CAPACITY


AND POROSITY
Sediments are compacted as they
are buried and cemented by
minerals that precipitate from
solution.
The physical, chemical or
biological alternation of sediments
into sedimentary rock is called
diagenesis.
Grains of sediment, rock
fragments or fossils can be
replaced by other minerals during
diagenesis.
Porosity usually decreases with
depth.
Source: Reinicke, BEB, 2002
Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

SchlumbergerOil Field Glossary

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

41

RESERVOIR: POROSITY AND


PERMEABILITY
Reservoir Rock
(or Swiss Cheese!)

Porosity:

Permeability:

Space
Between
Grains

ease to flow
between
grains

Sand
grains

Low
Pressure

High
Pressure

Source: Prof. K. Reinicke


Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

42

SHALE GAS: RESERVOIRS TIGHTER


THAN CONCRETE PAVEMENTS
10000
1000

Conventional Reservoir
k = 1- 10000 md

Unconventional reservoirs
- Extremely low permeabilities

k (md)(md)
Permeability

100
10

Concrete Sidewalk
k = 0.1 - 1 md

- Not recoverable without elaborated


and expensive technology

1
0.1
0.01

Tight Gas Reservoir


k = 0.001 1 md

- Enormous potential

0.001
0.0001

Shale Gas Reservoir


k = 0.00001- 0.0005 md

0.00001
0.000001

Conventional
Rock

50 m

Source: ExxonMobil, 2009


Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

50 m

Shale

0.5 m

50 m

Source: ITE, 2011


Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

43

RESERVOIR: POROSITY AND


PERMEABILITY

Porosity (%)

PERMEABILITY:
is a measure of the ability of
a rock or unconsolidated
material to transmit fluids

NW German Sandstones of Different Age

is the proportionality constant in


Darcy's law

Absolute Permeability, md

In sandstones
larger porosities are usually
associated with larger
permeabilities

Porosity (%)

Source: Gaida et al., 1973

Valangian Sandstone Barenburg


Absolute Permeability, md

Source: Lbben, 1978


Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

44

RESERVOIR: CONNATE WATER AND


CAPILLARY PRESSURE. SATURATION
The pore space is filled with fluids
The saturation of a substance, e.g. Sw, is
defined by the ratio SW = VW / VT
where VW is the volume of water and
VT is the volume of void-space
Bond water saturation increases with
decreasing permeability

The pore space of the rock


represents capillaries
Connate water reduces the flow
channels available for hydrocarbons
Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

45

RESERVOIR: LOG EVALUATION

Spontaneous Potential

Resistivity

Neutron

Logs allow the


determination of rock
properties and fluid
content

Sand ?
Hydrocarbons ?
Porous ?
Hydrocarbon Type ?
Water Saturation ?

Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

46

RESERVOIR: COMMON
PARAMETERS
Definition

Symbol

SI Units

Metric
Units

Oil Field
Units

Reservoir Thickness

ft

Reservoir Area

m2

m2

acre

Porosity

Permeability

md

md

Water Saturation

Sw

Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

47

RESERVOIR FLUIDS: HYDROCARBON


COMPONENTS OF NATURAL GASES
Paraffins

Napthenes Aromatics Asphaltenes

C1
C2

Methane is typically the major


constituent of natural gas.

Gases

C3

Higher HC may be contained in


smaller quantities

Intermediate

Typically there are additional


constituents such as H2O, CO2,
N2 and H2S, sometimes also He

C5

C15+

Liquids
C60+

Oil and gas are mixtures of


hydrocarbons (HC)

Waxes

Often natural gas contains


traces of metals, e.g. Hg
Depending on the content of
condensable higher HC dry gas
and wet gas are distinguished
Depending on whether H2S is
present sweet and sour gas are
distinguished.

Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

48

RESERVOIR FLUIDS: HYDROCARBON


COMPONENTS OF CRUDE
Paraffins

Napthenes Aromatics Asphaltenes

C1
C2

Gases

C3

Intermediate
C5

C15+

Liquids
C60+

Waxes

Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

The most important compounds


in crude oil are Alkanes
(Paraffins), Cycloalkanes
(Napthenes) and Aromatics
Besides HC crude oil contains
often sulphur-, nitrogen- and
oxygen-containing compounds
Crude oil often contains traces of
metals, e.g. Vanadium and
Nickel.
Crude oil can appear
- in solid form as asphalt or
bitumen
- in liquid form as crude oil or
condensate
- in gaseous from as natural
gas
Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

49

TYPICAL RESERVOIR CONDITIONS IN


GERMANY
Oil well

Natural gas well

depth

3000 m

4500 m

Reservoir pressure

300 400 bar

450 600 bar

(max. > 600 bar)

(max. > 900 bar)

Reservoir temperature

100 C

145 C

Produced phases

Oil

Natural gas

(reservoir area)

gas

brine (scale)

brine (scale)

impurities

impurities

sand

sand
Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

50

EXAMPLE: Water Level in a Water Well

In a 100m deep (fresh) water well, the bottom hole pressure under static
conditions is 7 bar. At which depth below the surface is the water level
in this well under static condition?

Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

51

EXAMPLE: Water Level in a Water Well

In a 100m deep (fresh) water well, the bottom hole pressure under static
conditions is 7 bar. At which depth below the surface is the water level
in this well under static condition?
0 m surface
30 m

Solution:
The hydrostatic gradient for fresh water
is approximately 1 bar /10 m. Thus a
pressure of 7 bar corresponds to 70 m.

water level p = 0 bar

7 bar ~ 70 mar

100 m subsurface p = 7 bar

The water level is at 30 m below the surface

Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

52

EXAMPLE: Pressure Distribution in an


open Reservoir System
If water has a specific weight of 1.1, oil of 0.8 and gas of 0.2 g/cm3, for
the forgoing situation calculate the pressure at
1.500 m; D (oil/water contact)
1.000 m: F (gas/oil contact) and C
500 m: G (top of structure) and B
the well head assuming a well penetrating the gas cap, being
under gas

Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

53

EXAMPLE: Pressure Distribution in an


open Reservoir System
If water has a specific weight of 1.1, oil of 0.8 and gas of 0.2 g/cm3, for the forgoing
situation calculate the pressure at
1.500 m; D (oil/water contact)
1.000 m: F (gas/oil contact) and C
500 m: G (top of structure) and B
the well head assuming a well penetrating the gas
cap, being under gas

Solution:
The pressures are approximately
D:
F:
C:
G:

1,1/10 x 1500 = 165


1,1/10 x 1500 0,8/10 x 500 = 125
1,1/10 x 1000 = 110
1,1/10 x 1500
- 0,8/10 x 500 - 0,2/10 x 500 = 115
B:
1,1/10 x 500 = 55
Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

F m g A h g
=
=
= h g
A
A
A
g
m
= 1,11.500 9,81 3 [m] 2
cm
s
10 3 kg
m
1,11.500 10 6 3 [m] 2
10
m
s

p=

1,1
kg m 1
1.500 105 2 2
10
s m
1,1
= 1.500 [bar ]
10
=

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

54

RESERVOIR: TEMPERATURE
T (C)
0

50

100

150

200

250

Reservoir temperature
increases with depth

300

Temperature increase is
described by the
geothermic depth level or
its inverse, the
temperature gradient.
Values in Germany
average 3 Grad Celsius
pro 100 m

1000

2000

3000

z (m)

4000

5000

6000

7000

Temperaturgradienten:

8000

20 Grad Celsius pro km


30 Grad Celsius pro km
40 Grad Celsius pro km
100 Grad Celsius pro km
Temperaturprofil der KTB-Bohrung

9000

UntergrundTemperaturen
in Deutschland

Depending on the heat


conductivity of the rocks
and other geologic
peculiarities gradients may
differ significantly

Source: Kehrer, BGR. Vortrag Deutsches Erdlmuseum Wietze 04. April 2003
Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

55

LECTURE 1: Summary
Consumption
Reserves Ressources
Production
Oil
Natural Gas
Production System
Reservoir
Origin
Porosity
Permeability
Saturation
Hydrocarbon Components
Pressure
Temperature
Dr.-Ing. Nelson Perozo

Advanced Production - Wintersemester 2016/17

56