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Administrative Manual ( 1st Draft )
Prepared by: Finance & Administration June, 2002
I. INTRODUCTION 1.1 OBJECTIVES
This administrative manual is prepared with the following major objectives. ▫ To put on important & comprehensive provisions required for proper Administration of the Human resource of AWSAD. ▫ To maintain a high moral of employees and increase employees’ sense of belongingness towards AWSAD. ▫ ▫ 1.2 To continue maintaining a healthy & smooth working environment and To maximize efficiency and effectiveness in all the activities of the Association. ABOUT THE MANUAL ▫ This Administrative manual applies to all employees of AWSAD and all employees are obliged to be guided by the policies and procedures contained in this manual. ▫ Issues that are not covered by this manual, if any, shall be treated as per the Ethiopian Labor law. ▫ The Board of Directors of AWSAD shall approve introduction of amendments or additional policies and procedures, as deemed necessary for the mutual benefit of AWSAD and its employees. II. RECRUITMENT, PROMOTION & TRANSFER POLICY 2.1. GENERAL POLICY ≈ No discrimination in employment & promotion with regard to race, color, nationality or religion. ≈ Provision of equal employment opportunity for all applicants and equal promotion consideration to all its employees , based on efficiency, compliance and integrity. ≈ The age of employment in AWSAD is between 18-- 60 years. 2.2. RECRUITMENT PROCEDURES 2.2.1 Vacancy Advertisement a) The Executive Directress shall approve the filling of a vacancy. b) When there is vacant or new post, which may draw attention of internal Staffs, calls for applications will be made through internal notices in the Head and all branch offices. c) When the vacancy is for externals, the advertisement will be made through an appropriate media, personal contact & different notices, considering fairness cost and benfit. d) Vacancy announcements should be made based on the Job Description of the vacant position. Among other things, it shall include the title of the position, major duties &
responsibilities, minimum educational qualification and experience, special skills, duty station, terms of employment, salary, application procedure & closing date of application. e) A roster of previously considered candidates who applied for a post and after being screened were found to be viable but not selected, should be kept for subsequent similar vacancies. The roster should consist of the names and relevant application documents of the candidates. 2.2.2 SELECTION PROCEDURE a) All applications shall be submitted to the Administration. b) The application processing and summary preparation shall be the responsibility of the Administrator. c) Short listing shall be based on comparison of applicant’s qualification with predetermined minimum standards. d) Applicants with more educational qualification and years of experience may be allowed to compete for a vacancy, provided that their current earning is less than the salary for the post and the position is not quite lower than their qualification or previous posts. e) Selection of candidates for managerial posts shall be made by The Board of Directors and for the rest by the management committee of AWSAD. f) After selecting the best candidate, list of candidates to be kept on a roster shall be given to the administrator. 2.2.3 APPOINTMENT & PLACEMENT a) Letter of appointment shall be issued by the Executive Directress and the Administrator for managerial positions and non-managerial positions, respectively. b) Letter of appointment shall include the title of the position, type of employment, duration, grade level, salary and associated benefits during and after probation period , date of employment, and other related information deemed appropriate by the appointing authority. c) Letter of employment shall always be accompanied by a job description. d) Letter of appointment shall be prepared in 4 copies. The original shall be given to the employee after signing on the 4 copy testifying for acceptance of all terms & conditions of employment and to work as provisions stated in the administrative manual. The 2 copy shall be sent to Finance department and the 3 copy will be kept with all supporting documents in Employment file being attached with minutes of employment, and the 4 copy will be for personal file of the specific employee.
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2.3.1 A separate employee’s personal file shall be kept for each employee. 2.3.2 Access to employee’s file shall be restricted to the Executive Directress, the Administrator and the immediate supervisor of each employee. 2.3.3 Employees personal file shall contain the following documents. • Personal History Form • Letter of confirmation after Probation • Letter of application for employment & • Copies of all correspondences whose copies of all credentials, after verified subject is the employee, including
checked against the original documents. • Employment test & Interview results. • Copies of all performance evaluations. • Letter of appointment on which the • Copies of all salary /benefits employee has signed for confirmation of adjustment notices. acceptance of terms & conditions of employment. • Job descriptions • Photograph of the employee • Release paper from the employee’s • other relevant documents previous employer. 2.3.4 Employees shall be responsible to inform the organization in writing of any change in personal status such as marital status, number of children, beneficiary nominee etc. 2.3.5 It will be the duty of all staff members that have access to employees personal records for work purposes to adhere strictly to the confidentiality of that information. Failure to adhere to this policy may result in disciplinary action. 2.4 PROBATION PERIOD
2.4.1 All new employees of AWSAD shall serve a probation period of 45 consecutive days during which time their suitability for the post shall be tested. 2.4.2 Both parties have the right to terminate the contract during probation period by giving a one week notice. 2.4.3 During probation period, the employee is entitled to a Transportation /Fuel allowance in addition to her/his salary, provided that the employee is under category of those who are entitled to this benefits. 2.4.4 The immediate supervisor of probationary employee shall fill performance evaluation at least one week before expiry of the probationary period. 2.4.5 AWSAD shall provide standard Identification Card to all its employees who completed their probation period and the ID number shall correspond to the personal file number of the employee. 2.5 ORIENTATION & INDUCTION
2.5.1 It shall be necessary to orient all new hired, promoted or transferred employees about the Vision, mission & objectives of AWSAD, and its major programs. 2.5.2 Immediate supervisors are very responsible to organize job specific orientation for the new staffs at the commencement of their employment. 2.6 2.6.1 PROMOTION & TRANSFER Selection of staff member for promotion or transfer shall be made
on competitive basis without discrimination as to race, religion and the like. 2.6.2 AWSAD supports principles of promoting or transferring of employees to higher position, provided that the existing employees have good performance record, efficiency & potential to handle higher responsibilities. 2.6.3 The management committee of AWSAD shall handle all promotion or transfer activities. 2.6.4 The management committee shall prepare detailed criteria to be used for selecting staff for promotion or transfer. 2.6.5 If there will be no candidate suitable for the post, the management committee shall decide on it and transfer to administration for external recruitment. 2.6.6 Any employee who might have grievance/doubt on any selection process for promotion or transfer, shall forward a written application for the management committee. The committee after investigating the case shall respond to the application in writing with in 2 weeks time. 2.7 TRAINING
2.7.1 AWSAD committed to provide a quality service to the society through its capable and well-motivated employees. Therefore, besides attracting competent and responsible staff it tries to upgrade the skill and awareness of staff through training and staff development programs. 2.7.2 Staff members who participated in training programs & workshops shall be required to submit a report to their immediate supervisors & administration within a week time after completion of the training. The trained staff may be required to train other staffs on the knowledge and skill she/he acquired. III. CONDITION OF WORK 3.1 JOB ASSIGNMENTS
3.1.1 The primary duty of every employee of AWSAD is to diligently fulfill the task assigned to her /his under their job descriptions and as per the goals or objectives they set with their immediate supervisors. 3.1.2 AWSAD requires its employees to devote their full working time and attention to the work assigned to them and employees are required to limit personal visits and private telephone calls. 3.1.3 Obedience to the mission of AWSAD, in fulfilling job assignments as per goals/objectives set shall be the major basis on which performance evaluations are made. 3.2 OFFICIAL WORKING HOURS
3.2.1 All employees are required to work a minimum of 40 hours a week. 3.2.2 AWSAD expects all its employees to fulfill their duties, even if their assignment sometimes requires working on weekends or Holy days. 3.2.3 The official office hours in all offices shall be Monday to Friday. Mourning From 8.30 a.m. to 12.30 a.m. Afternoon, 1.30 p.m. to 5.30 p.m.
But, legal aid service povision is made on Saturdays to fulfill the need of some clients who are not able to come on Monday to Friday. 3.2.4 AWSAD offices that may need to adjust their working hours due to the environment in which they operate, may forward their proposals to the head office for approval. 3.3 ATTENDANCE
3.3.1 All employees shall report for work on time every official working day. 3.3.2 All employees shall be required to sign the daily attendance sheet twice a day, morning and after lunch. 3.3.3 If an employee is unable to report to work on time due to unavoidable circumstances she/he should inform her/his supervisor on the same day as early as possible. 3.3.4 The accounts section shall be responsible to collect list of employees being absent in a specific month, 3 days before calculating payroll.
3.4 VEHICLE USE POLICY 3.4.1 AWSAD vehicles shall be used for official purposes only. 3.4.2 Only those employees that have authorization and who have valid driving license shall be allowed to drive the vehicles. 3.4.3 All employees authorized to drive AWSAD’s vehicles shall drive in a responsible & careful manner, at a reasonable speed and in respect to all the traffic laws. Any violation of traffic laws by an authorized driver is the responsibility of the driver. Employees who drive under alcohol influence and who do not obey the above regulations may face serious disciplinary measures. 3.4.4 All employees who are authorized to drive AWSAD’s vehicles shall: a) Safeguard the vehicles and its contents to the best of their abilities, against theft or damage. b) Check fuel, oil, water, tire… etc. which are considered as a safety measure before start driving. c) Not carry unauthorized passengers or goods. d) Fill in the logbook before driving. e) In case of accident, notify to traffic police and AWSAD immediately. 3.4.5 Any accident is deemed unacceptable unless it is proved that there was no negligence on the part of the driver. If the management decides the accident was due to negligence in the part of AWSAD‘s employee (either fully or partly) the driver shall be responsible for the maintenance & other related costs in addition to appropriate disciplinary measures that may be taken by the management. IV. 4.1 SALARY, ALLOWANCES & BENEFITS SALARY
4.1.1 General a) AWSAD shall seek to provide compensation package that attracts, retains and motivates competent employees. b) Salary payment shall be effected once at the end of every gregorian month. Unless other wise stated by another condition, the payday will be on the 25 of each month and if this date lies on rest or holyday the payment will be one day before or after pay day.
4.1.2 Deductions a) At the end of each pay period, the following deductions shall be made from the total payments due to employees for: i. Employees income tax ii. Salary advance & Staff Loan, (from those indebited) b) No salary shall be paid to a staff member in respect of periods of unauthorized absence from work unless such absence was caused by reasons beyond control or certified medical reason. c) Employee’s salary shall not be deducted by any reason without the employee’s consent except by court order, or management committee decisions for payment of penalty or lost items. d) The Finance section of AWSAD should arrange a payroll document, which shows total earnings, all deductions & net pay of the employee. e) Preparation of payroll should be supported by monthly employees attendance sheet. 4.1.3 Salary Increments a) Salary increment may depend on the availability of fund and shall be decided by the management committee of AWSAD. 4.1.4 a) Salary advance Any employee shall be compelled to sustain by her/ his monthly income and is discouraged for request of salary advance. However, if situations force the employee to take salary advance the approval of the immediate supervisor is needed. b) Salary advance shall not be more than 1/3 of the employee’s net salary and it will be paid after the 10 day of the pay day and duly deducted from the salary of the same month.
Overtime pay In general, since the activities of AWSAD are undertaking humanitarian activities, the issue of overtime payment doesn’t arise. All staff is expected to work the hours required to accomplish their assigned responsibilities. b) How ever; due to unforeseen and urgent situations, nonmanagerial level staffs maybe assigned for overtime work . c) The Executive directress and managerial level staffs shall authorize the assignment of overtime with justifications, provided that budget is available. d) The Executive directress, managerial level staffs accountable to the executive directress, branch main & assistant coordinators are not eligible for overtime payment. e) Any staff receiving perdiem is not eligible to claim overtime.
Overtime rates are as follows: i. From 5.30 p.m to 10.00 p.m = 1.25x Hourly rate ii. Between 10.00 p.m and 6.00 a.m = 1.50x Hourly rate iii. On weekends = 2.00x Hourly rate iv. Work on official holy days = 2.50x Hourly rate
4.2.1 Perdiem Allowance Perdiem shall be paid to an employee who is required to be out of her duty station for official work . b) The purpose of perdiem is to cover food and lodging expenses related to field trips or travels out of duty station. c) Perdiem shall be paid to an employee who has justified an approved dispatch form, which shows purpose of the trip, starting and returning dates, destinations & project, number of days required,etc… d) A full perdiem is br. 125 per day for all managerial level staffs and br 100 per day for other staffs. e) Per dime payment classification rate is: Breakfast 10% ,Lunch 25%, Dinner25% & accommodation 40% of the daily per dime amount and is subject to the following guidelines: i. Staff leaving their duty base for a field trip before 7:00 a.m are entitled to claim break fast. ii. Staff members, by virtue of their work who must be out side of their duty base after 12:30 a.m, shall be entitled to lunch allowance. iii. Staff members, by virtue of their work who must be out side of their duty base after 7:00 p.m, shall be entitled to Dinner, and iv. When employees must stay the whole night in the field, they shall be entitled to claim accommodation. f) Staff members shall fill the travel request form & get approval of their supervisors before making any travel. g) The actual travel and per dime expenses shall include any, transport communication and other incidental expenses as per valid receipts. 4.2.2 Transport Allowance a) AWSAD provide transport allowance for employees whose position or type of job assignment permits them to get transport allowance. b) AWSAD also cover transport expenses made by employees for authorized work of the association. 4.2.3 Abroad Travel Allowance & Expense a) Employees may be sent to participate in conferences, seminars, workshops, study tours, training… etc outside Ethiopia and in most cases costs can be covered by the organizers or other parties. b) However, costs might not be uncovered fully or partly. In such cases employees are entitled to the following provided that, the travel
is approved by The Board or Executive Directress of AWSAD. i. Pass port and Visa expenses ii. Air fairs iii. Per diem iv. Incidental expenses, as per receipts 4.2.4 Acting Allowance a) If an employee is temporarily assigned to cover a vacant position in addition to her/ his job assignment for more than 30 calander days, she/he shall be entitled to an acting allowance. b) Accting allowance shall be 50% of the difference between the basic salary of the employee assigned and the position. c) The decision for assigning an employee on acting position shall be approved by the Executive Directress. d) Acting allowance payment is allowed for 6 months only. After that, the position shall be given to the assignee if she/he is proved to take the post or the position should be filled by a new employee. e) Acting allowance is subject to income tax. 4.2.5 Cash Indemnity Allowance a) Cash indemnity allowance shall be provided for Cashiers as per the amount of fund. Amount of FUND Allowance Per month Birr 2000—10,000.00 Birr 25.00 Above 10,000.00 50.00 b) Cash indeminity will be kept payable in the name of the cashier and will be paid after cash audit is made. c) Indemnity allowance shall not be claimed before audit of the period. 4.2.6 Hardship Allowance a) Employees who assigned to work in an area which the atmosphere is inconvenient for living are entitled for hard ship allowance. b) The amount of the hard ship allowance shall be made as the provision of the government of Ethiopia for every region. 4.3 BENEFITS
4.3.1 AWSAD wishes to provide various benefits for its staff members aiming at increasing job satisfaction. However,due to its limited financial capacity only the following are provided. 4.3.2 Provident Fund Scheme The primary purpose of provident fund scheme is to provide security to employees in the event of retirement, total or permanent disability and termination of service with the association. a) Only regular staffs that properly completed their probation period are eligible to this scheme. b) AWSAD shall contribute 10% of employee’s basic salary per month while employees are also expected to contribute 8% of their basic salary per month to the provident fund scheme.
c) The 18% monthly total contribution will be maintained in an ordinary interest yielding saving account in the name of each employee, and after depositing the amount the saving books of all employees will be kept in the Finance & Administration section. c) The employee shall not have the right to withdraw any amount during the period of employment. Provided however; an employee may borrow to special cases such as private home construction, covering medical expenses, etc… d) The request to withdraw from this fund shall be approved by the management committee of AWSAD and the employee is obliged to return with interest, the amount borrowed bears during the borrowing period.. 4.3.3 Medical Benefits AWSAD shall provide its entire staff a medical insurance coverage up to Br. 2,000.00 per year.
4.3.4 Uniform Provision Employees whose condition of work requires work clothes or uniform Shall be provided and this will be decided by the management committee. 4.3.5 Staff Loan a) All employees of AWSAD may borrow up to two months gross salary without interest and to be paid back in full with in the budget year. b) Staff loan requests shall be approved by the Executive Directress. V. LEAVES
5.1 GENERAL 5.1 All regular staff of AWSAD shall be entitled to all leave provisions in this manual. Leave entitlement shall start from the date of hire upon successful completion of the probation period. 5.2 An employee who wish to take leave shall submit a written request to their immediate supervisors, idetifying the type of leave requested. 5.3 The administration section shall maintain leave records of all employees indicating type of leaves taken and due. 5.4 All employees are entitled for leave on all public holydays recognized by the government of Ethiopia. Besides, a day after New year Christmas and Easter shall be considered as rest days. 5.1 ANNUAL LEAVE 5.1.1 AWSAD firmly believes that all employees need a period of rest & relaxation and acknowledge the need for annual leave. Accumulation and encasement of annual leave is highly discouraged. 5.1.2 An employee who completed probation period and whose service is less than a year shall be entitled to annual leave proportionate to the length of service. 5.1.3 Annual leave for the first service year shall be 20 working days and one additional leave day for each service year there after.
5.1.4 Each employee is required to indicate her/his tentative annual leave plan for each fiscal year to administration, in order to prepare a leave schedule of all employees. 5.1.5 When situations dictate, both supervisors and employees may agree on the timing of annual leave. Transfer of annual leave may be allowed for only two consecutive years and shall be approved by the Executive Directress. 5.1.6 Leave days not taken or not transferred as indicated in 5.1.5 above shall be expired. Annual leave can only be converted in to cash upon separation from employment. 5.1.7 When an employee gets sick while she/ he is on annual leave, the leave days will be elongated by the number of sick leave days provided for the employee. 5.1.8 While taking annual leave, an employee can be paid her/his monthly salary covering the annual leave days, when the leave days cover a month & above. 5.1.9 Employees may be recalled from annual leave for unforeseen circumstances that require their presence on duty. This employee shall be entitled to leave extension by the number of days recalled for duty. 5.2 SICK LEAVE 5.2.1 An employee who is absent from duty due to illness should notify to the immediate supervisor the first day of absence. 5.2.2 When an employee gets sick and presents a medical certificate, she/he shall be granted sick leave as follows in the course of 12 months. a ) The first two months with full pay. b) The next three months with half pay. c) The next three months with out pay. 5.2.3 Medical certificates will only be accepted if obtained from those Hospitals and Health Institutions, which are, recognized & registered by the Ministry of Health. 5.2 MATERNITY LEAVE
5.2.1 All female employees shall be entitled to maternity leave with pay up to 90 calendar days, 30 days preceding the presumed date of confinement upon the recommendation of a doctor and a period of 60 days after her confinement. If she does not deliver within thirty days of her prenatal leave, she is entitled to an additional leave until the confinement. 5.2.2 When a pregnant employee wants to stay on work during her prenatal leave partially or fully the un used part of the prenatal leave will be added on her maternity leave.
5.2.3 Any pregnant staff shall not be assigned at hardship areas, at odd hours, and be protected from health hazards especially after her
six month of pregnancy. 5.2.4 If a pregnant employee delivers when she is on annual leave, her maternity leave will be extended by the remaining days of the annual leave. 5.3 WEDDING LEAVE
5.3.1 Employees who wants to conclude marriage shall be eligiable for a paid leave of five working days. 5.3.2 This will be allowed for concluding marriage for one event only. 5.4 MOURNING LEAVE 5.4.1 Employees will be allowed to a mourning leave of 5 working days, excluding travel days to distant places, when death of spouse, descendants or ascendants occur. 5.4.2 When relatives up to second degree die, two working days excluding travel days will be given and this shall not exceed 10 working days with in a year. 5.4.3 Employees shall be oblilged to immediately inform their supervisors of the need for such leave. 5.5 EXAMINATION LEAVE
5.5.1 To support employees who learn to improve their knowledge and ability of work, AWSAD provides examination leave for national and other pertinent educational examinations. 5.5.2 Employees who were on examination shall produce evidence for being examined. 5.5 OTHER LEAVES
5.6.1 All employees shall be entitled to leave with pay for the time they need to appear before courts, police stations or kebeles to meet legal obligations or exercise their civil rights. 5.6.2 Leave requested stated in 5.6.1 must be supported by genuine written evidence and must have prior approval of the immediate supervisor. VI. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION 6.1 PURPOSE To evaluate the job and behaviour performance of employees and assess training and staff development needs. 6.1.2 To enable the assocation to document employees performance evaluations for current and future references. It will be an input at time of annual salary increment, promotion or to take disciplinary actions and the like. 6.1.3 To enable employees to understand how their prforamnce is perceived 6.1.1
and to assist them to take steps that will help to improve their efficiency. 6.1.3 To enable the association to identify the training needs of its employees.
6.2.1 All employees who have served AWSAD for 3 months and more shall be evaluated. Performance evaluation for all employees will be carried out 2 times a year, during the month of January and July every year. 6.2.2 Other occasions for performance evaluation may be:a) One week before the end of a probation period. b) Before any promotion is considered, and c) Before considering any disciplinary action like demotion/termination. 6.2.3 The performance rating scale ranges from 1-5 points. Supervisors may make any one of the following recommendations. a) Excellent Performance 5/5- This recommendation is given to an appraisee who has demonistrated performance which exceeds the Requirements of the job. b) Above Average Performance 4/5—This recommendation is given to an appraisee who has demonistrated performance above the requirements of the job. c) Average Performance 3/5- This recommendation is given to an apraisee who has demonistrated performance, which exceeds job requirements. d) Below Average Performance 2/5- This recommendation is given to an appraisee who has demonistrated performance below the job requirements. e) Deficient Performance 1/5 - This recommendation is given to an employee who has demonistrated performance that falls far short from the job requirements. 6.2.4 Employees rated below average will be given time until the next evaluation to demonstrate improvement in the job in which they have performed low. 6.2.5 Failure to improve poor performance will result in demotion or dismissal upon the recommendation of the immediate supervisor. 6.3 EVALUATION PROCEDURE 6.3.1 The evaluation of performance of employees shall be made by immediate supervisor and should be based on the job description and plan of action. 6.3.2 The supervisor shall discuss the evaluation result with the concerned employee. The employee also has the right to comment reflecting agreement or disagreement with the evaluation result of the supervisor. 6.3.3 The supervisor will forward the performance evaluation to her/his superior for the final review and approval. 6.3.4 The approved performance evaluation of employees will be filed in their personal files for future reference. 6.3.5 The Executive Dirctress/ the management committee evaluates performance appraisal recommendations filled in for all employees and decides awards & penalities.
VII. DISCIPLINARY CODE AND GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES 7.1. GENERAL 7.1.1 The disciplinary code is aimed at encouraging employees to achieve and maintain high standards of behavior and performance. AWSAD requires all employees to work in a responsible, harmonious and productive manner, towards accomplishing its mission & objectives. 7.1.2 An employee who accepts employment in AWSAD shall agree to abide with the rules and regulations stated in this guideline, and any other lawful and reasonable instructions given by authorized officer/s. 7.1.3 Any infraction by any employee will be dealt- with as per the disciplinary measures stated on table 1 on page 14. 7.1.4 The definitions of infraction listed on table 1 are providing some examples of behavior inconsistent with the principles of AWSAD and this should not be taken as an exhaustive list. 7.1.5 When the gravity of the offence so demands, the order of the disciplinary actions indicated above may not be strictly followed. Some disciplinary actions may also be combined. 7.1.6 The appropriate supervisor may suspend an employee for up to a maximum of 30 calendar days when an investigation is required before a disciplinary action is taken. 7.2 AUTHORITY FOR DISCIPLINARY ACTIONS 7.2.1 1 and 2 level supervisors has the autority to impose penalties such as oral warning, written warning, 2 writeen warning with 5 days salary. 7.2.2 Imposing dismissal or termination is the authority of the Executive Directress only.
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7.3 GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES Aggrieved employees shall bring their grievance first to their immediate supervisor after one day of receipt of a decision and no later than three working days. 7.3.2 If the immediate supervisor doesnot respond or resolve the grivance within two working days of receipt of the grivance, or if the aggrived employee is not satisfied with the response of the immediate supervisor she/he may take the case to his second level supervisor. 7.3.3 If the second level supervisor does not respond or resolve the grievance within five working days of receipt of the grievance, or if the aggrieved employee is not satisfied with the response of the second level supervisor she/he may take the case to the Executive Driectress for final decision. VII. SEPARATION FROM SERVICE 7.3.1
8.1. GENERAL 8.1.1 The employment of a staff member of AWSAD may be terminated upon the initiation of the association or the employee and in accordance with the provisions of this manual and the Ethiopian Labour Law. 8.1.2 Termination of employment may happen for any one of the following reasons. - when the employee request for resignation. - when the contract period or the project for which the staff is employed ends. - when the employee commits a major offence or repeated minor offences. - when cessation or reduction of activites occur due to force majour. - when the two parties agree to terminate a period of contract or probation period. - when there is redundancy. - Due to poor performance. - Due to imprisonment or conviction. - Retirement or death of employee. 8.1.3 Termination of employemnt can take place with or without notice depending on the case as provided in this manual. 8.2 TERMINATION PAYMENTS 8.2.1 The resigning employee shall be able to produce a clearance paper before processing entitlement. 8.2.2 Severance and compensation pay shall be treated according to the Ethiopian Labour law. 8.3 SERVICE CERTIFICATE 8.3.1 Employment service certificate shall be issued to terminated or resigning employees. 8.3.2 Employment service certificate shall include: Position title, Length of service, Monthly Salary, Reason for termination or Resignation & Settlement of employee’s income tax. ------------/////-----------1