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INTRODUCTION

Function according to Cicero:


o to render the audience attentive, well disposed, and willing to be led
what modern rhetoricians label exordium corresponds to what Cicero called
introduction
Functions according to Robinson:
1) to put the audience in a state of favourable feeling (emotional appeal)
2) to arouse interest and secure attention (emotional and intellectual appeal)
3) to prepare the audience to understand the message (intellectual appeal)
Functions according to Pattee:
1) to conciliate the audience (emotional appeal)
2) to explain the subject (intellectual appeal)
3) to outline the discussion (intellectual appeal)
Methods of approach
1) Emotional
to arouse the interest of the reader or hearer in the problem under discussion
2) Intellectual
to make the reader or hearer understand clearly and thoroughly the meaning
of the proposition
ELEMENTS OF CONVICTION IN THE INTRODUCTION
1) Narration
the debater explains the importance of the proposition, its relation to other
problems, and the circumstances that have given rise to its discussion
2) The statement of the proposition and the definition of terms**
the debater should see to it that only words which, considering the
intelligence of the audience, demand an explanation, are defined
3) Explanation of the issues and the partition
the definition of the proposition should lead by a natural transition to the
statement of issues the vital points to be established in order to establish
the main proposition
the exposition of the affirmation should lead naturally to the statement of
partition the vital or important points to be taken up in the discussion in
order to establish the issues
**Methods of defining terms:
1) By quoting an authority
quoting a definition of its meaning by recognized specialist in the study with
which the term is concerned
2) By tracing the etymological growth of the term
trace the origin of the word, its evolution, and the development of its
meaning
3) By explaining the meaning of the term in the light of its relation to other words in the
proposition

4)
5)

6)

7)

the debater should show to his audience why the term means what it is
alleged to mean
By showing the analogy between the word to be defined and a word with which the
audience are already familiar
By giving an example
some attributes connoted by the term to be defined should first be given,
citing of the example being merely to make the meaning of the term clearer
By drawing a line of distinction between the essential and the unessential attributes
of a term
drawing a demarcation line between what the word connotes and what it
does not
By analyzing the attributes connoted by the term
explaining the attributes that are implied in the term

ELEMENTS OF PERSUASION IN THE INTRODUCTION

Everything said in the introduction and any personal tone, attitude, and bearing of
the debater may adopt calculated to make the audience favourably disposed toward
the speaker and his cause are largely elements of persuasion. They are designed to
create the will to believe.

To secure maximum persuasion, the debater must be calm, polite and courteous,
modest and fair, and conventional in his tone in order to avoid any show of
affectation
DISCUSSION
Function:
o to establish the issues through the upholding of the elements of partition by
presenting evidences, proofs, and arguments
USE OF THE BRIEF

The debater draws his evidences, proofs and arguments from the brief which is the
storehouse of materials needed in the discussion.

Two extremes which should be avoided:


1) the presentation of the assertions in the brief through a mere recital of the
mainheads and subheads, without even a touch of literary embellishment
that would make his readers or hearers emotionally responsive
2) the use of excessive literary ornament and verbiage that generally tends to
rob the presentation of the force that a carefully prepared brief may have
secured

FORMS
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

An assertion without support is almost an intellectual imposition.


OF SUPPORT
Restatement
General illustration
Specific instances
Testimony
Reasoning

DEVICES IN SECURING UNITY AND COHERENCE


1) Summary
refers to the resume of the various elements of proofs and inferences
supporting a fundamental assertion presented as a single unit of force
2) Partition
refers to the points that the debater proposes to take up in supporting a
fundamental assertion that he will next endeavour to establish
3) Transition
form of discourse whereby the debater explains to his readers or hearers
what he has already said and what he proposes to say next
METHODS OF EMPHASIS
1) Emphasis by digression
the speaker abandons his line of thought for the time being and directs the
attention of his audience to the importance of a piece of evidence or idea
2) Emphasis by iteration
the speaker persistently repeats a word, a phrase, or a sentence to impress
the idea expressed therein more deeply in the mind of the audience
3) Emphasis by rhetorical question
consists of asking a question not to get information but to assert an idea
4) Emphasis by climax
the speaker arranges his ideas or points in an ascending order of importance
5) Emphasis by striking phraseology
consists in making vivid an idea or point through the use of an impressive
rhetorical expression that lends itself easily to memory
6) Emphasis by suspense
consists in withholding an important idea or point, through a succession of
clauses, sentences or paragraphs for the purpose of arousing curiosity on the
part of the audience and thereby fixing their attention upon what is being
withheld
7) Emphasis by antithesis
consists in giving a contrast of ideas or points thereby belittling the idea that
the arguer desires the audience to reject and magnifying the idea or points
he desires the audience to accept
CONCLUSION
Function according to Aristotle
1) to conciliate the audience in favor of the speaker and to excite them against his
adversary (emotional appeal)
2) to amplify and diminish (intellectual appeal)
3) to rouse the emotions (emotional appeal)
4) to recapitulate (intellectual appeal)
ELEMENTS OF CONVICTION INTHE CONCLUSION
1) Summaries
to make clear the proof
2) Amplify and diminish

to demonstrate the contrast of the case as advocated by the opponent and


that as advocated by the speaker, the contrast being in favor of the speaker
making use of the conclusion
TYPES OF SUMMARIES
1) Formal summary
brief and terse, characterized by conventional expressions
2) Informal summary
less abrupt and less brief and terse than the formal summary
3) Largely persuasive summary
presents the arguments, which, while directed largely to the intellect, are
pervaded by an appeal to the emotions
ELEMENTS OF PERSUASION IN THE CONCLUSION

Whatever is said, whatever personal attitude and bearing the arguer adopts in the
conclusion that is calculated to make the audience favourably disposed towards the
speaker or his cause or towards both the adversary and his cause, is an element of
persuasion.
KINDS OF PROOF IN ARGUMENTATION
1) Constructive proof
intended to create belief in one side of the case
2) Destructive proof
intended to destroy whatever proofs or arguments are adduced to create that
belief
REFUTATION
the process in the work of argumentation which consists in destroying or
overthrowing the opposing proofs and arguments
Requirements
a) the possession of facts, data, information and arguments necessary to destroy the
opposing case
b) sound reasoning clear, straight and logical thinking
c) the ability to convey the ideas or the inferences in clear and forcible language
When should the debater refute?

The refuter must wait for the constructive proofs of his opponent before he actually
refutes them.
ERRORS COMMITTED BY REFUTER
1) Refuting too much
consists in attempting to overthrow not only the fundamental arguments but
of ones opponent but also the subordinate and the trivial
2) Refuting too little
consists in refuting the subordinate elements of the opposing proof or one or
some of the basic elements but not all

3) Refuting oneself
when debater refutes his own arguments, instead of his opponents
CLASSES OF REFUTATION
1) General refutation
the method of massing together the arguments of the opponent and
destroying them is called general refutation
2) Special refutation
the method of overthrowing the individual points of the adversary in the
course of ones demonstration
METHODS OF REFUTATION
1) The application of the tests of evidence
2) The attack on the forms of arguments
3) The exposure of fallacies
4) The application of special rhetorical devices

It is the basic rule in refutation that the debater should make perfectly clear to the
readers or hearers the arguments of his opponent that he proposes to refute and the
method of refutation he is going to employ.

SPECIAL RHETORICAL DEVICES


1) Reductio ad absurdum (reduction to an absurdity)
the refuter accepts for the time being the argument of his opponent he
proposes to refute, and then shows that that line of reasoning in the final
analysis leads to an absurdity
2) Dilemma
the debater reduces the case of his opponent into two alternatives and shows
that both alternatives are untenable
3) Method of residues
consists in reducing the entire question in controversy into two or more
possibilities and showing that all the possibilities, except one, are untenable,

and that this one is the aspect of the case that the refuter is endeavouring to
establish.
4) Turning the tables
the refuter shows to his reader or hearer that the arguments adduced by his
opponent supports the refuters case, not that of his adversary
SARCASM AND RIDICULE
refer to the use of language that ironical, scornful and taunting designed to make
an opponent the object of humorous disparagement
very effective weapons against braggadocio, self-conceit, and affectation

REFUTAL
the process of destroying the
opposing proofs

REBUTTAL
refutation used in a second speech
intended to demolish the opposing
case and advance ones own case

In the work of rebuttal, the speaker must analyze the entire negative speech or the
main speech of the opponent whose arguments he intends to destroy. He must then
pick out the fundamental or critical points upon which his opponent relies to build up
his case. He must show to his readers or hearers that these basic points cover the
entire opposing case. And then he must destroy all these critical points of his
adversary.

The rebuttal speaker must (be):


o thorough and clear in his exposition
o fair and honest in presenting the opposing arguments
o present his arguments in a cogent manner, avoiding prolixity of details
o courteous and good-humoured in his attitude toward his opponent
o know when and where to stop