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JimBowen

2011IASTutorial
December2011

FailureMode

PercentageofFailures

LinetoGround

98%

PhasetoPhase

<1.5%

*ThreePhase

<0.5%

*Mostthreephasefaultsaremanmade:i.e.accidentscausedbyimproperoperatingprocedure.

Whatisagroundfault?

Whathappensinanungroundedsystem?

Whathappensinasolidlygroundedsystem?

Applicationofresistancegrounding

Resistancegroundingandgenerators

Contact
between
groundand
anenergized
conductor
Unleashes
largeamount
ofelectrical
energy
Dangerousto
equipment
andpeople

SystemGrounding Anintentionalgroundonthesystem

ResistanceGrounding Atypeofgroundingusingaresistor
intheneutral(systemorderived)tolimitavailablefault
current

GroundFaultProtectionDetectionofanunintentional
groundonthesystemandtakingappropriateaction

BoltedFaults
Solidconnectionbetweentwo
phasesorphaseandground
resultinginhighfaultcurrent.
Stressesarewellcontainedsofault
createslessdestruction.

ArcFaults
Usuallycausedbyinsulation
breakdown,creatinganarc
betweentwophasesorphaseto
ground.
Intenseenergyisnotwell
contained,andcanbevery
destructive.

E=(793xFxVxtA)/D2

E =IncidentEnergyincal/cm2
F=BoltedfaultshortcircuitcurrentinkA
V=phasetophasevoltageinkV
tA =ArcDurationinSeconds
D=Distancefromthearcsourceininches

Neutralgroundingmeansapermanentandcontinuousconductivepathtothe
earthwithsufficientampacitytocarryanyfaultcurrentliabletobeimposedonit,
sufficientlylowimpedancetolimitthevoltageriseabovegroundandtofacilitate
theoperationoftheprotectivedevicesinthecircuit.

System
Ground

Grounding
conductor

Equipment
groundor
ground
conductor

GroundingResistor

1:1
transformer
tomakeit
simple
Medium
resistance
grounded

Ungrounded
SolidlyGrounded
ImpedanceGrounded
LowResistanceGrounded
HighResistanceGrounded
ReactanceGrounded

Popularin3wireLVsystemsupto1950s
Advantages
Negligiblefaultcurrenton
firstgroundfault
Notrippingonfirstground
fault
Disadvantages
Difficulttolocateground
faults
5to6timestransientover
voltageonintermittent,
sputteringarcingground
faults

IEEEStd2422001(BuffBook)
RecommendedPracticeforProtectionandCoordinationofIndustrialand
CommercialPowerSystems
UngroundedSystems
8.2.5Ifthisgroundfaultisintermittentorallowedtocontinue,the
systemcouldbesubjectedtopossiblesevereovervoltagestoground,
whichcanbeashighassixtoeighttimesphasevoltage.
Suchovervoltagescanpunctureinsulationandresultinadditional
groundfaults.Theseovervoltagesarecausedbyrepetitivechargingof
thesystemcapacitanceorbyresonancebetweenthesystemcapacitance
andtheinductanceofequipmentinthesystem.

Nointentionalconnectiontoearthground
Weaklygroundedthroughsystem
capacitancetoground
Firstfaulttypically12amps
Severelinetogroundtransientovervoltages

18

Seldomusedonnewsystems
Stillrelativelycommoninexisting
industrialsystems
Lowvoltagesystems(< 600V)
Mediumvoltagesystems(2.4 15kV)

19

20

Unintentionallygroundedthroughsystem capacitance
Suchascables,transformers,motors,surge
suppressors,etc.

Groundfaultcurrentdistribution(minimalcurrent)

Intermittentgroundfault:

Arestrikinggroundfaultcancreateahigh
frequencyoscillator(RLCcircuit),independentofLandCvalues,causinghigh
transientovervoltages.

i.e.restrikingduetoacvoltagewaveformorloosewirecausedbyvibration

OCPDsdonottripbecausegroundfaultcurrentislowduetohighvalueof
Rf.

ARCING GROUND FAULTS ON


UNGROUNDED SYSTEMS
B

neutral

neutral

C
A to ground
fault

A to ground
restrike

cycle

2 per unit voltage on A


neutral capacitance to ground

C
1.0

cycle
3 per unit

C neutral

A to ground
restrike

cycle

3 per unit voltage on A


capacitance to ground

2 per unit
A

B
neutral

neutral

B
A

5 per unit voltage on A


capacitance to ground

Plotoftransientovervoltageforaarcinggroundfault

GoodLuck!
Nodirectreturntosource,onlywayisthroughsystem
capacitance.

Useovervoltage
Indicatorlightandrelaymethodtoindicategroundfault.
Deenergizeonefeederatatime.
Verytimeconsuminganddangerous!
Unknowngroundfaultmaybeonsystemforlongperiodoftime.
Maydeenergizevitalequipmenttryingtofindfault.

Connectedtoearthgroundwithno
intentionaladditionalimpedanceincircuit
Arcfaultdangerzoneandflashhazardlarge
Groundfaultcurrentclosetophasecurrent
levels
Minimaltransientovervoltagewithfaults

28

Almostuniversallyusedonhighvoltage
systems(> 72kV)
Commonlyusedonutilitydistribution
systemsupto34.5kV

29

Commonlyusedonlowvoltage
(<600V)commercial,institutional,and
residentialsystems
Sometimesusedonlowvoltage
(<600V)industrialsystems

30

31

Intentionallygroundedthroughgroundwire
480V Wye Source
3 Load

~0

~277
In

Icc

Icb

Ica

Total Capacitive Current


I ca + I cb + I cc = 0

32

GroundfaultcurrentdistributiononA
480V W ye Source
3 Load

In

I cc

I cb

I ca

If

~60kA
~60kA
Estim ated Total Fault Current
If =

1
Z pu

* I fla

~0A (3A)

+ (I cb + I cc ) = ~I n

Exam ple (2500kVA, 480V, Z = 5 % )


In = If =

1
0.05

* 3000A = ~60,000A

33

Boltedgroundfault: Ahighfaultcurrent
causingseveredamage.Ifproperlycoordinated
and installed,OCPDswillclearfaultafter
acceptabledamage.

Notransient
overvoltages
Highfault
current

34

GroundfaultcurrentdistributiononA
480V W ye Source
3 Load

In

I cc

I cb

I ca

If

~23kA
~23kA
Estim ated Total Fault Current
If =

1
Z pu

~0A (3A)

* I fla * .38 + (I cb + I cc ) = ~I n

Exam ple (2500kVA, 480V, Z = 5 % )


In = If =

1
0.05

* 3000A * .38 = ~23kA

35

Arcinggroundfault: Lowerfaultcurrent,soOCPDs
maynotclearfault.Delaywillcausesevere
equipmentandpersonneldamage dueto
tremendousamountofenergyreleased.

Notransient
overvoltages
Highfault
current

Arcinggroundfaultsareapproximately38%boltedfaults.
36

Popularin4wireLVsystemsupto1950s
Advantages
Eliminatedtransientovervoltageproblem
Permitlinetoneutralloads(lighting,
heatingcables)
Groundfaultseasytolocate(follow
smoke)

Disadvantages
Causeunscheduledserviceinterruption
Dangerfromlowlevelarcingground
faults
Strongshockhazardtopersonnel
Coordinationissues
Arcflashissues

IEEEStd2422001RecommendedPracticefortheProtectionand
CoordinationofIndustrialandCommercialPowerSystems
8.2.2
Onedisadvantageofthesolidlygrounded480Vsysteminvolvesthehigh
magnitudeofdestructive,arcinggroundfaultcurrentsthatcanoccur.

IEEEStd1411993RecommendedPracticeforElectricPowerDistribution
forIndustrialPlants
7.2.4
Thesolidlygroundedsystemhasthehighestprobabilityofescalating
intoaphasetophaseorthreephasearcingfault,particularlyforthe480
and600Vsystems.Thedangerofsustainedarcingforphasetoground
faultisalsohighforthe480and600Vsystems,andlowornearzerofor
the208Vsystem.Asafetyhazardexistsforsolidlygroundedsystems
fromthesevereflash,arcburning,andblasthazardfromanyphaseto
groundfault.

EstimatedGroundfaultcurrentdistributionon A

~60kA

EstimatedGroundfaultcurrentdistributionon A

Ungrounded Methodusedtogroundfirstpowersystems

Verylargetransientovervoltageconditionsmayexist.

Verydifficulttolocategroundfault.

Insulationnotrated,therefore,hazardtopersonnelandequipment.

Goodchanceofsecondgroundfaultonadifferentphaseduetoprolonged
groundfault.

SolidlyGrounded ReplacedUngroundedSystems

Veryhighgroundfaultcurrents.

Faultmustbecleared,shuttingdownequipment.
Generatorsmaynotberatedforgroundfault

Tremendousamountofarcflash/blastenergy.

Equipmentandpeoplearenotratedforenergy.

24Cycles
(0.4seconds)
= 55,200 KWC
IG = Fault Current (A)
Va = 100V (typical)
t = time (cycles)

TypicalTransformer
2500kVA,5%impedance
GroundconditionIg=23kA
KWC=55,200

12Cycles
(0.2seconds)
= 27,600 KWC
6Cycles
(0.1seconds)
= 13,800 KWC

Acceptable???
44

The 'larger' starters in MCCs must include


ground fault trips to reduce nuisance
tripping the upstream switchgear breaker

UsezerosequenceCTs,standaloneground
faultrelays,andMCPshunttrips.

Experiencesaysallstarterssize3andlarger
fedfromsolidlygroundedsystemsbe
providedwithgroundfaultprotection

Close
infault

Closein
fault
Remotefault

Highquality
return

Lowquality
return

Sourcevoltage
390Vpeakat
277VacRMS
Arcing
current

375V=Max
voltage
requiredto
startcurrent
flow.
70to140V=
voltrequired
tosustainarc
acrossgap

Sparkgapphenomenon arcstrikesoncevoltageachievessparkoverand
extinguisheswhencathodeandanodeswitch

480Y/277V
Threephase

89%

PhasetoPhase

74%

PhasetoGround

38%

Resistancegrounded
Insulatedbus
BILrating
Sensitivegroundfaultprotection20Amppick
MVarcinggroundcanbesustainedat200A

Dropsabout150voltsperinchacrossarcgap

58

Voltageratingissystemlinetoneutral
voltage
Resistorsavailableforallcommonsystem
voltagesupto13,800V
Currentratingsavailableformediumvoltage
systemsarefrom25Ato2000A
Chooseresistorcurrentbasedonsystem
configurationandrelaying

59

Timeratingsavailableare10seconds,60
seconds,andextendedtime
Mostinstallationstakeeither10sor60srating.
Choosebasedonsystemgroundfaultclearing
time.
Extendedtimeratingsrarelyused;forspecial
conditionswhereresistorwillbeenergizedfor
10minutesormore.

60

Suitableforindoororoutdooruse
Resistorelementsareusuallystainlesssteel
Checkmaterialagainstambient
atmospheretopreventpossiblecorrosion
damage
Temperaturerisemaybe760C
Resistormustbewellventilatedandmustbe
keptawayfromcombustiblematerial

61

Frameofresistorisoftenconnectedto
middleofresistorelement
Underfaultconditions,frameisenergizedat
1/2linetogroundvoltage
Framemustbeinsulatedfromground
Framemustbeinaccessibletopersonnel

62

63

Motorandtransformerfeeders
Usezerosequence(groundsensor)relayingwith
50/5or100/5CTandinstantaneousovercurrent
relay
Pickupwillbeabout15A

Otherfeeders
Usesimilarrelaying,butrelaymayneedtobetime
delaytocoordinatewithdownstreamdevices

64

Mains

UseCTinneutralgroundingresistorcircuit
Usetimedelayrelaytocoordinatewithfeederrelays
ChooseCTratioandrelaysettingtopickupatabout
10%ofgroundingresistorcurrentrating,provided
thatcoordinateswithfeeders
Tripmainbreaker

65

Backuprelaying
UseCTinneutralgroundingresistorcircuit
ThismaybesameCTusedformainrelayoritmay
beasecondCT
Usetimedelayrelayandsettocoordinatewithmain
relays
Tripbackupbreaker,usuallythebreakerthatfeeds
thetransformer

66

Difficulttosetbussdifferentialrelayingtobe
sensitivetomanygroundfaults

Popularin3wireLVsystemsupto1970s
Advantages

Notransientovervoltages
Easyfaultlocationmethod
NoArcFlashHazards(withgroundfaults)
Nocoordinationissues;groundfaultcurrentisconsistent
Maybepossibletousehighergaugewiresforgrounding

Disadvantages

Nodirectlyconnectedlinetoneutralloads
Personnelmustbetrained
Requiresdifferentarresterratings
Requireshighercableinsulationratings

69

Intentionallygroundedthroughneutralresistor

UsedonMediumVoltage
Some5kVsystems
Mainly15kVsystems

SystemchargingcurrentmaybetoohighforHighResistance
Grounding(HRG)Indicatorlightandrelaymethodtoindicate
groundfault.

GroundFault
Currenttypicallylimitedto25400A
TypicallyTripwithin1030secondstoreducedamage

IEEEStd32
TimeRatingandPermissibleTemperatureRiseforNeutralGroundingResistors

TimeRating (OnTime)

TempRise(deg C)

10sec

760

1min

760

10min

610

Continuous

385

DurationMustBeCoordinatedWithProtectiveRelayScheme

ApplicationNotes

LinetoneutralvoltageforResistor

Ratedcurrent

Considerchangeofresistanceduetoheatrise
Considerharmonics,leakage,etc.
Restrikingfaults

VentedEnclosuretype(NEMAvs.IEC)

LinetolinevoltageforGroundingTransformer

Resistormustbreathe

CTsandRelays

NeutralorGroundsideofResistor

Enclosurerating
Enclosurefinish
Currenttransformer
Potentialtransformer
Disconnectswitch
Entrance/exitbushings
Elevatingstand
Seismicrating
Hazardousareaclassification
Thirdpartycertification

400AResistance
groundedwye
connectedsystem
Greatlyreduce
faultenergyfor
groundfaults
Tableassumes
25MVA7%
transformerwith.3
secclearingtime

watt sec
Solid
grounded
15kA fault
Resistance
grounded
400A Limit

75

Cal/CM2

107,000
MW-sec

151

2.8MW-sec

Resistormassproportionaltoratedcurrent,dutyand
temperaturerise

Shorterdurationorhighertemperatureriseequatesto
lowercost

Resistormass=Wattseconds
TCp

Additive
natureof
magnitude

Commonlyusedonlowvoltagesystemsin
industrialplants
Becomingpopularonadvancedmedium
voltagesystemsinindustrialplants
Usedbyutilitiesforlargegenerators

80

Connectedtoearthgroundthroughahigh
resistance
Limitsgroundfaultcurrenttoafewamperes
(110Aiscommon)
Protectiveschemesalarmonly
Tobeeffective,R0 > XC0andR0< 2X0

81

82

HowdoesHRGimprovesafetyandreliability?

Insertsaresistorbetweenneutralandground
DramaticallyreducesriskofElectrocution
Eliminatesapproximately95%ofArcFlash/BlastInjuries

Resistor MountedontopofSwgr

84

Intentionallygroundedthroughneutralresistor

86

87

Settingmustbehigherthancharging
current
Currentratingforlowvoltagesystemsis
typicallyfrom0.9Ato3.6A
Currentratingformediumvoltage
systemsistypicallyfrom2Ato7Aorfrom
5Ato20Aatprimaryvoltage

88

Advantages
Eliminatesovervoltagetransients
Allowsfaultedcircuittocontinueoperation

Disadvantages
Potentialfornuisancealarming
Maintenancepersonnelmayignorefirstfault

CanHRGbeusedonDelta
connectedsystems?

Agroundingtransformeris
installed(eitherazigzag ora
wyedelta)fromallthree
phasestocreateanartificial
neutralforgroundingpurposes
only.

91

92

Inagroundfault,whichisthepathofleastresistance?

ComparedtoUngroundedSystems(voltagerise)
480V Wye Source
3 Load

B
N
C

HRG

VngVan
(277V)

480V

Ir

Additionalreturnpath,onlydifference
betweenUngroundedandHRG!

c
Ic

c
Ib

c
Ia

If

GroundA
94

ImportanceofadditionalpathversusUngrounded
480V Wye Source
R fe

3 Load

HRG

Ir

L fa

Ca

c
Ic

c
Ib

c
Ia

If

RLCcircuitnolongerexists!SystemCapacitance(capacitors)causingresonancecannotoccur
duetodampeningresistor(HRG)preventingtransientovervoltage!
95

ImportanceofadditionalpathversusUngrounded
480V Wye Source
R fe

3 Load

HRG

Ca

Ir

c
Ic

c
Ib

c
Ia

Dischage Path

S fa
If

Intermittentarcingcannotbuildupacharge(transientovervoltage)intheSystem
Capacitance.Capacitorsaredischargingduringnonstriketotheresistor(HRG)!
96

OnlydischargesifRo <Xco,soIr >Ixco


Thatis,resistorcurrentmustbegreaterthancapacitivecharging

current.
Hereareruleofthumbnumbersforestimation
Transformer(kVA)
1000
1500
2000
2500

ChargingCurrent(A)
0.2 0.6
0.3 0.9
0.4 1.2
0.5 1.5

SeeAppendixFformethodtomeasurecapacitivecurrent

97

www.igard.com

ImportanceofadditionalpathversusSolidlyGrounded
480V Wye Source
3 Load

HRG

Ir

Ca

c
Ic

c
Ib

c
Ia

If

Resistor(HRG)inlieuofwireaddssignificantamountofresistancetolowergroundfaulttoa
predeterminedvaluepreventingdestructivefaultcurrentsandshutdown!
98

ComparedwithSolidlyGrounded(currentrise)

480V Wye Source


3 Load

HRG

55.4
5.00A

277
Ir

Resistorinreturnpath,onlydifference
betweenSolidlyGroundedandHRG!

1.73A

c
Ic

c
Ib

GroundA

c
Ia

If

5.83A

5.83A 3.00A+5.00A
99

Currents:
NormalOperation
( Ia Ib Ic ) 0 A
c

I f I r ( I a I b I c )2 0 A
2

Vng

0V
Ir

0A
Rr 55.4

Faultconditions

( I a I b I c ) (0 1.7360 1.73120 ) 3.0090 A


c

Ir

Vng
Rr

277V
5.000 A
55.4

I f I r ( I a I b I c ) 2 5.83 A
2

I f 3.0090 5.000 5.8331 A


100

www.igard.com

Anotheradvantageofreturnpath:groundfaultlocation
480V Wye Source
3 Load

HRG

Ir

Ca

c
Ic

c
Ib

c
Ia

If

Contactorshortsoutpartoftheresistorchangingtheresistance,hence,changingthecurrent.
Groundfaultcurrentnowisapulsesignalthatallowsfordetection!
101

OnlydischargesifRo<Xco,soIr >Ixco
(perIEEE14219911.4.3)

Thatis,resistorcurrentmustbegreaterthan
capacitivechargingcurrent.

Ruleofthumbfor480Vsystem:
Transformer(kVA)
1000
1500
2000
2500

ChargingCurrent(A)
0.20.6
0.30.9
0.41.2
0.51.5

Resistanceincreasesasresistorheatsup

Cheaperstainlesssteelalloysmayproduceundesirable
results

ResistancechangeperdegreeC
NickelChromium

0.01%

18SR/1JRSS

0.02 0.04%

304SS

0.22%

Operatorcontrolled
contactorconnectedacross
halfthegroundingresistor

Whenactivated,contactor
alternatelyshortshalfthe
resistorandforcesthe
currenttodouble

Possibletouseammeterto
trackthecurrentfluctuation

Contactorshortsoutresistance,thus,doublingcurrentto
10Aat~30pulses/minute.

106

NOTE: Trackingagroundfaultcanonlybedoneonanenergizedsystem.
Duetotheinherentriskofelectrocutionthisshouldonlybeperformedby
trainedandcompetentpersonnel.AppropriatePPEmeasuresshouldbe
takenintoconsiderationaswell.

Methodtoquicklylocate
groundfaults

Meterreadingwill
alternatefrom5Ato10A
every2seconds.

VeryfewpotentialhazardswithHRG,however
ElevatedVoltages
TrainedPersonnel
Cables,TVSSs,VFDsInsulation

LinetoNeutralLoads

LossofGround
SystembecomesUngroundedorSolidlyGrounded
introducingmoreHazards

Surgeprotectionmustberatedbasedonline
togroundpotentialrise
Highfrequenciescanappearasnuisance
alarms
Groundfaultmaybeleftonsystemforan
extendedtime

110

Harmonicstravelthecouplingcapacitance
system
Bandpassfiltersaroundthefaultsensingunit
Sizeresisterfortotalwatts

DCFaultsareaproblemthatthenew
generationofdrivesareaddressing

Singletransformer
feedingbus
Transformer
secondaryYconnected

Connectgrounding
resistortoneutral
oftransformer

112

Singlegenerator
feedingbus
GeneratorYconnected

Connectgrounding
resistortoneutral
ofgenerator

113

Singlesourcefeeding
bus
Source connected

Deriveneutralwith
Y orzigzag
transformer
Connectgrounding
resistortothis
derivedneutral
114

Multiplesources
feedingbus
SourcesYor
connected

DeriveneutralwithY
orzigzag
transformer
Connectgrounding
resistortothis
derivedneutral
115

Doubleended
substationwith
normallyopen
tie
TransformersY
connected

Connect grounding resistor to each


transformer neutral
116

SchematicoftrippingHRGSystem

117

Properlyratedequipment
preventsHazards

Maintenancemustbeawareofelevatedvoltagesad
methodtolocatefault.IFNOT,DONOTHAVETO
MAINTAINPOWER.Allowedtrip(sameasSG)but
withoutthehazards.

Properlyratedequipment
preventsHazards

Cables,TVSSs,VFDs,etc.andother
equipmentmustberatedforelevated
voltages(UngroundedSystems).

Solidly Grounded

Un-Grounded

Insert resistor in

Insert transformer

Xo
Use isolation
transformers to
support line to
neutral loads

and resistor at Xo
Install zero
sequence cts and
meters
Surge arrestors
Cable voltage
rating
Grounded Neutral
Cap Bank
Derive neutral
Install zero
sequence meters

Derive neutral
120

121

8kVlinelinewithbareconductorsand
varyinggroundfaultcurrents
Variedgroundingresistor
Groundfaultinitiatorshouldbethoughtof
likeafuse(largeenoughfuseneverblows)

122

Multiplearcpaths
Arccanmovefromcolumnararctodiffuse
arcandback
Arcswillwinkoutwhentheycannotbe
sustained
AlwayshighGroundcurrentinvolved

123

124

Test #

Ground
current (A)

Fault self
clearing

Propagated
to a phase
fault

Duration of
ground
current
(msec)

Fuse wire
(mm)

12

225

No

Yes

.5

13

153

No

No

80

.5

14

153

No

No

80

.5

15

119

No

Yes

93

.3

16

182

No

Yes

.5

17

110

No

Yes

6.4

.3

18

105

No

Yes

5.9

.5

19

33

No

Yes

4.7

.5

20

10.4

No

Yes

4.4

.5
125

Nolinetoneutralloadsallowed,preventsHazards.

LinetoneutralVoltageisbackfed via
neutralwire,thus,notallowed.
PhaseandNeutralwiresinsameconduit.Iffaulted,bypassHRG,
thus,Gfault.

Addsmall1:1transformerandsolidlygroundsecondary
for1loads(i.e.lighting).

OpenCircuit:
Desiredfaultcurrentcannot
flow.
UngroundedSystem.

ShortCircuit:
Undesiredfaultcurrentcan
flow.
SolidlyGroundedSystem.

Undercurrentand
undervoltage relay
Reliesoninherent
systemimbalances
DetectsOpen/Short
Circuits

GroundFaultRelay&
SensingResistor
DetectsOpen/Short
Circuits

Forvoltagesupthrough4,160V,groundfaultsare
usuallynotclearedimmediately

Formediumvoltage,zerosequenceCTandmeter
areprovidedforeachfeeder

130

TripsVsalarm impactonOperations
Limitdamageduetofaults
ReducedArcFlashzones
ControlofVoltagetransients

131

DamagetoPowerSystemComponents:

ThermalDamage

MechanicalDamage (Ip)2

(Irms)2 *t

ComparisonbetweenSGexampleandHRG
SystemGrounding

GroundFault(A)

DamagetoEquipment(1sec)

HRG

1perunit

SG

22,800

(22,800/5)2 =20.8x106 p.u.

SolidlyGroundedSystemshave20.8milliontimesmoredamage thanHRG!!!
132

133

IEEEStd1421991(GreenBook)
RecommendedPracticeforGroundingofIndustrialandCommercialPower
Systems
1.4.3

Thereasonsforlimitingthecurrentbyresistancegroundingmaybe
oneormoreofthefollowing:

Toreduceburningandmeltingeffectsinfaultedelectricequipment,suchas
switchgear,transformers,cables,androtatingmachines.
Toreducemechanicalstressesincircuitsandapparatuscarryingfaultcurrents.
Toreduceelectricshockhazardstopersonnelcausedbystraygroundfault
currentsinthegroundreturnpath.
Toreducethearcblastorflashhazardtopersonnelwhomayhave
accidentallycausedorwhohappentobeincloseproximitytotheground
fault.

TOHRGORNOTTOHRG?
IEEEStd1411993(RedBook)
RecommendedPracticeforElectricPowerDistributionforIndustrialPlants
7.2.2

Thereisnoarcflashhazard,asthereiswithsolidlygrounded
systems,sincethefaultcurrentislimitedtoapproximately5A.
Anotherbenefitofhighresistancegroundedsystemsisthe
limitationofgroundfaultcurrenttopreventdamagetoequipment.
Highvaluesofgroundfaultsonsolidlygroundedsystemscandestroy
themagneticcoreofrotatingmachinery.

Baremainbus85kA3phase.5sec

Insulatedmainbus85kA3phase.5sec

HighResistanceGrounded3phase80kA.5sec
Solidgrounded3phase80kA.5sec

Minimizethedamageforinternalgroundfaults
Limitmechanicalstressinthegeneratorfromexternalgroundfaults
Provideameansofsystemgroundfaultdetection
Coordinatewithothersystem/equipmentrequirements

IEEEStd.1421991(GreenBook)
1.8.1DiscussionofGeneratorCharacteristics
Unlikethetransformer,thethreesequencereactances ofageneratorarenotequal.
Thezerosequencereactancehasthelowestvalue,andthepositivesequence
reactancevariesasafunctionoftime.Thus,ageneratorwillusuallyhavehigherinitial
groundfaultcurrentthanathreephasefaultcurrentifthegeneratorissolidly
grounded.AccordingtoNEMA,thegeneratorisrequiredtowithstandonlythethree
phasecurrentlevelunlessitisotherwisespecified
Ageneratorcandevelopasignificantthirdharmonicvoltagewhenloaded.Asolidly
groundedneutralandlackofexternalimpedancetothirdharmoniccurrentwillallow
flowofthisthirdharmoniccurrent,whosevaluemayapproachratedcurrent.Ifthe
windingisdesignedwithatwothirdspitch,thisthirdharmonicvoltagewillbe
suppressedbutzerosequenceimpedancewillbelowered,increasingthegroundfault
current
Internalgroundfaultsinsolidlygroundedgeneratorscanproducelargefaultcurrents.
Thesecurrentscandamagethelaminatedcore,addingsignificantlytothetimeand
costofrepairBothmagnitudeanddurationofthesecurrentsshouldbelimited
wheneverpossible.

NEMAStdMG12003 Motors&Generators
32.34NeutralGrounding
Forsafetyofpersonnelandtoreduceovervoltagestoground,thegenerator
neutralisofteneithergroundedsolidlyorgroundedthrougharesistororreactor.
Theneutralmaybegroundedthrougharesistororreactorwithnospecial
considerationsrequiredinthegeneratordesignorselectionunlessthegeneratoris
tobeoperatedinparallelwithotherpowersupplies.
Theneutralofageneratorshouldnotbesolidlygroundedunlessthegeneratorhas
beenspecificallydesignedforsuchoperation
IEEEStd2422001(BuffBook)
12.4GeneratorGrounding
Generatorsarenotoftenoperatedungrounded.Whilethisapproachgreatlylimits
damagetothemachine,itcanproducehightransientovervoltages duringfaults
andalsomakesitdifficulttolocatethefault.

BestsuitedforLV3,4Wsystems
Generatormustberatedforuseas
solidlygrounded
Systemtripsonfirstfault
Coordinatedrelayschememaybe
difficult

Bestsuitedfor3,3W
systems
Capacitivecharging
currentimportant
Higherresistancelimits
damageoninternal
fault

Lowresistance
groundingovercomes
capacitivecharging
current
Aftergeneratoris
isolatedtheLRGis
removed,limiting
faultcurrentto5A

144

145

146

147

148

149

150

Easyifallgeneratorsaresamedesignandpitch,always
operatedatequalloadingandarenotswitchedwiththree
poletransferswitch

Separatelygroundingpreventscirculating3rdharmoniccurrent
Musthavemeansofdisconnectingneutralifgeneratorisbeingserviced
MultipleNGRshascumulativeeffectongroundfaultcurrent

Faultcurrentconstant
Requiresdisconnectin
eachneutralforservice
Pathforcirculating3rd
harmoniccurrents
Notprotectedagainst
faultsinstatorwindings

Faultcurrentconstant
Generatorssafetoservice
Nopathforcirculating3rd
harmoniccurrents
Generatorsungroundeduntil
synchronizedandconnected

Aneutralderivingtransformerholdsthefaultcurrentonthemainbusto
aconsistent400amps.EachgeneratorisprotectedbyHRG.

SolidlygroundonlyatLVwhengeneratorpermits,loadsare
noncriticalandprimarilysinglephase
HRGatLV
LRGcombinedwithHRGatMVorwherechargingcurrentis
excessive

EquipmentGrounding
GroundSystemsandGEC
Bonding
ComponentGrounding
GroundFaultProtection

Substation
CriteriaforGroundGridDesign
DesigningSafeandEffectiveGroundSystems
Soil
System
Conductors
Arrangement

NFPA70NationalElectrical Code
Generalgroundingprovisions
Certaindefinitions
ANSIC2NationalElectricSafetyCode
Generalgroundingprovisionsforelectricsupplystations
IEEE1422007IEEERecommendedPracticeforGroundingof
IndustrialandCommercialPowerSystemsTheGreenBook
SystemGrounding
EquipmentGrounding
StaticandLightningProtectionGrounding
ConnectiontoEarth
ElectronicEquipmentGrounding

SystemGroundingPart1
IncludesGroundedConductor
EquipmentGroundingPart2
IncludesGECandbonding/groundingofsystem
components
GECrequiredforHRG,LRGandsolidlygrounded
systems

Toreducedshockhazardtopersonnel
Toprovideadequatecurrentcarryingcapability(impedance
andduration)tohandlegroundfaultcurrentw/ofireor
hazard
Toprovidealowimpedancereturnpathforgroundfault
currenttoensureoperationofovercurrentdevice

Panelis20 toground
Transformerground
=10 toground
Nogroundreturnpath
Ig=GroundFault

Ig= __Volts__________ = 277Vac____ = 9.233A


R of the ground path
20 + 10

V=IgR
V=(9.233A)(20)
V=184Vac
Ifagoodreturn
path 0volts
acrosspanel

ConductiveMaterialsenclosingconductorsorequipment
(e.g.conduit,motorframes)shallbeconnectedtoearthto
limitvoltagetogroundontheseitems.Theseshallbe:
Connectedtogether(bonded)
Connectedtothegroundedconductor
ForLRGorHRGorungroundedsystems,theseitemsmust
stillbebondedtogether
EarthcannotbesoleEGCorfaultcurrentpath

DefinedinNECasTheconductivepathinstalledtoconnect
normallynoncurrentcarryingmetalpartsofequipment
togetherandtothesystemgroundedconductororthe
groundingelectrodeconductor,orboth.
Characteristics:
Copperorcorrosionresistantmaterial
Accessible(generally)
SizedperNECTable250.66

167

Trayis20 toground
Transformergroundis10 toground
Nogroundreturnpath
Ig=GroundFault

Ig=__Volts_________________
Rofthegroundpath
=__277Vac_____________
20 +10
=9.233A
168

V=IgR

V=(9.233A)(20)
V=184Vac

Ifagoodreturnpath0voltsacrosstray

169

DefinedinNECasTheconnectionbetweenthegroundedcircuit
conductorandtheequipmentgroundingconductorataseparately
derivedsystem.
Differsfrommainbondingjumperbecausemainjumperisspecificto
service
Characteristics:
Copperorcorrosionresistantmaterial
Accessible(generally)
Unspliced
Wire,busorscrew
SizedperNEC250.28D,basedonphaseconductorsizeSeeTable
250.66

Allofthefollowingpresentatabuildingorstructureserved
shallbebondedtogether:
MetalUndergroundWaterPipe
MetalFrameoftheBuildingorStructure
ConcreteEncasedElectrode
GroundRing
RodandPipeElectrodes
OtherListedElectrodes
PlateElectrodes

Bonded,perNEC:Connectedtoestablishelectrical
continuityandconductivity
NECgivesbondingrequirements
Metalraceways,trays,cablearmor,enclosures,etc.and
othernoncurrentcarryingmetalpartsshallbebonded
NECgivesacceptablebondingmeans
Threadedcouplingsorbosses
Threadless couplingswheremadeuptightforraceways
Otherlisteddevicessuchasbondinglocknuts,bushings
orbushingswithjumpers

TypesofEGCaregiveninNECarticle250.118
CopperorAlwire
RMC
IMC
EMT
ListedFlex(withconditions)
ListedLiquidtight Flex(withconditions)
TypeACcable
MineralInsulatedCable
TypeMCcable
Cabletray(withconditions)
Cablebus framework(withconditions)
Otherraceways(e.g.listedgutters)

EGCcanbebare,coveredorinsulated
Insulationmustbegreenorgreenwithoneormore
yellowstripes
Greenorgreenwithyellowstripesarenotpermittedto
beusedforungroundedorgroundedconductors
Conductor#6orlarger,orconductorsinmulticonductor
cablecanbereidentified by:
Strippinginsulation
Coloringexposedportionsgreen
Markingexposedinsulationwithgreentapeoradhesive
labels

RefertoNECtable250.122
Sizebasedonovercurrentprotection
Nevermustbelargerthancircuitconductor
WhereasingleEGCisrunwithmultiplecircuitsin
sameraceway,cableortray,itshallbesized
basedonthelargestOCdevice
Forparallelcables,EGCmustberunwithboth
sets,witheachsizedper250.122

Forgroundedsystems,theconnectionbybondingthe
EGCtothegroundedserviceconductorandtheGEC
Forfixedequipmentconnectedwithpermanentwiring,
EGCshallberoutedwithcircuitconductors

Requiredforeverypieceoftheequipmentin
asubstation
Conductor,beitaracewayorcable,islimited
intheallowablecurrentcarryingcapabilityby
aseriesofrulesintheNEC

Copperconductors(seeNECTable250122for

ampacity)
CableTray(iflistedforgrounding)(seeNECTable
3187forampacity)
179

Connectnoncurrent
carryingmetalpartsto
systemgrounded
conductor
FaultCurrentreturnpath
NEC250118

180

Equipment
Grounding
Conductor

Connection
isthecurrent
path
Samesizeas
groundedcase
NECTable250122

181

RGSconduitandElectricalMetallicTubing
LiquidtightflexandGreenfieldflexundercertain

conditions
CablearmorofACandMCcables
MetallicSheathsofshieldedcables

NECSections250110through250148for
therulespertainingtotheinstallationofthe
equipmentgroundingconductor
182

183

184

Forparallelconductorstobebasedonthe
tripratingofthegroundfaultprotection
NECrequiresHighImpedanceGroundingstill
sizedontrip
ForHRGFramesizeofthelargestbreakerto
sizethegroundreturnconductoreven
thoughthiswillgreatlyexceedthe10amps

185

Mustberunwiththephaseconductors.
Bondingjumpershavetobedirect
connectionsfortheraceway.NECSection
250118
Mustbepermanentlyidentifiedateachend
andeverypointwheretheconductoris
accessibleNECSection280119

186

Forgroundedsystems,theconnectionare
required:
Theequipmentgroundconductor totheground

bus
Thegroundbustothecase
Thegroundbusviathegroundingelectrodeto
thefloorortoaPCRgroundloopifonehasbeen
specified.SeeNECSection250130(a)

187

Anylugorconnectionusedinthegrounding
conductorpathmustbelistedforthe
purpose.NECSection2508

188

Muchmoresimplethanoutdoor,openframesubstations
(lotsmoreonthatlater)
Voltagegradientsaretypicallynotasignificantproblem
Generallydealingwithametalenclosedpackage,all
bondedtogether
Allgroundingcircuitstoandfromunitsubstationmust
beproperlyconnected
Useofimpedancegroundinggreatlyreducesriskto
personnel

Uniqueproblemsbecausetwosystemsarepresent
MusthaveEGCrunningbacktolinesidesource
Secondaryisseparatelyderivedsystemandissubjectto
allrules(recallsystemgrounding,GEC,systembonding
jumper,etc.)
Linesideandloadsidesystemsareinterconnecteddueto
EGCrequirementsbutarefunctionallyseparate

Useofphaseovercurrentdevicesisnotideal
Canproducelesscurrentthandeviceratingthustrip
timescanbeextremelylong(e.g.fuse)withLRGsystem
Groundfaultsoftenarearcingandareintermittentin
naturenotallowingthermalelementstooperatequickly
Separategroundfaultprotectionisrecommended

Absense
ofinter
grid
connectio
nin
presence
ofhighH
Gcurrent

Zero
resistance
intergrid
connection
minimizes
lineto
ground
insulation
stress

Typical
intergrid
conductor
reduces
transfer
potential

Earth
return
Intergrid
connecti
on

Problem
whenwe
loosethe
equipment
ground

Earth
returnlow
impedance
pathback
Higher
currentbut
muchlower
touch
potential

Part1 CriteriaforGroundGridDesign
ApplicableCodes,StandardsandGuides
SafetyCriteriaandExposureMechanisms
Part2 DesigningSafeandEffectiveGroundSystems
GeneralCriteria
SoilParameters
SystemParameters
Part3 DesigningSafeandEffectiveGroundSystems
ConductorProperties
Part4 DesigningSafeandEffectiveGroundSystems
GroundingSystemArrangement
ComputerSimulation
ProblemAreas
Testing

NFPA70 NationalElectricalCode
Generalgroundingprovisions
Certaindefinitions
ANSIC2 NationalElectricSafetyCode
Generalgroundingprovisionsforelectricsupplystations
IEEE837 IEEEStandardforQualifyingPermanentConnectionsUsedin
SubstationGrounding
Specifictoconnectors
Writteninprocedureform
IEEE81 IEEEGuideforMeasuringEarthResistivity,GroundImpedance,
andEarthSurfacePotentialsofaGroundSystem
IEEE80 IEEEGuideforSafetyinACSubstationGrounding
ComprehensiveandAbsolutelyIndispensable

Shock
Notnecessarilycausedbycontactwithanintentionallyenergized
object(thatswhatinsulationisfor)
Causedbypotentialgradients
Requiresthefollowingsimultaneousconditions
Current,typicallyhighinrelationtothegroundingareaand
resistance
Currentdistributionthroughsoilresistancecausinggradientsat
earthssurface
Absenceofinsulatingmaterialthatcouldmitigatecurrentflow
throughthebody
Durationofcontactandfaultsufficienttodevelopharmful
currentflowthroughthebody
BadluckPresenceofhumanatwrongplaceatthewrongtime,
bridgingtwopointsofpotentialdifferencecausedbytheabove
items

PhysiologicalEffectsofElectricCurrent
Ascurrentincreases,thefollowingeffectsoccur
1mA:thresholdofperception
1to6mA:letgocurrentunpleasantbutcanbe
released
925mA:painandhardtorelease;mayrequire
secondarytreatment
60100mA:highlydangerous;ventriclefibrillation,
stoppageofcardiopulmonarysystem;immediate
treatmentrequired
FibrillationCurrentistheCriteriononWhichAnalysisisBased

DependsonCurrentandTime(Energyabsorbed)
Theenergyabsorbedbythebodyisexpressedasfollows:
=

where:
istheexposurecurrent(rms amperes)
istheexposureduration(seconds)
isanempiricalconstantrelatedtotolerableshockenergy

Further,researchindicatesthat99.5%ofallpersonscanwithstand
currentasexpressedbelowwithoutsufferingventricularfibrillation:
=
where:
isthesquarerootof

AlternateAnalysis
Biegelmiers
Curve
Summary
Eat,drink,
surviveshocks
better

For50and60HzCurrentstheHumanBodyisApproximatedasaResistor
Currentpathassumptions
Onehandtobothfeet
Onefoottotheother
Resistance(fromexperimentaldata)
Bodyresistanceis300
Bodyresistanceincludingskinis500to3000
IEEE80MakestheFollowingCriticalAssumptions
Handandfootcontactresistanceisequaltozero
Gloveandshoeresistanceareequaltozero

(resistanceofahumanbody)=1000for:
Handtohand
Handtofeet
Foottofoot

HandtoHand
Vitalorgans(heart)exposed
HandtoFoot
Vitalorgans(heart)exposed
FoottoFoot
Vitalorgansnotspecificallyexposed
DependsononesdefinitionofVital
Takes25timesmorecurrenttoproducesameheartcurrent
Despitetheabove,IEEE80recommends:
Useof1000forallcalculations(conservative)
Personcouldfallintoenergizedequipment
Personcouldberestinginproneposition

Forthenextfewslides:

totaleffectiveresistanceofthe
accidentalcircuitin

totaleffectivevoltage(steportouch)

oftheaccidentalcircuit

tolerablebodycurrentfromprevious

U,Z and

aresystemparameters

TerminalH isapointinsystematsame
potentialasgrid
isresistanceofbody
bodycurrentinA,flowsfromH toF
throughtheunfortunateindividual

Themaximumdrivingvoltagesofthe
accidentalstepcircuitsare:
=

Fora50kgbodyweight
.

= 1000

Fora70kgbodyweight
= 1000

Themaximumdrivingvoltagesofthe
accidentaltouchcircuitsare:
=

Fora50kgbodyweight
= 1000

1.5

Fora70kgbodyweight
.

isthestepvoltageinV
isthetouchvoltageinV
isthesurfacelayerderating factor
istheresistivityofthesurfaceinm
isthedurationoftheshockinseconds

= 1000

1.5

TheGroundSystemMust

Assurecontinuityofservice

Limittheeffectsofpotentialgradientstosafelevelsundernormal
andfaultconditions

Limitvoltageimposedbylightning,linesurgesorunintentional
contactwithhighervoltagelines

Stabilizethevoltagetoearthduringnormaloperation

Provideaneffectivegroundfaultcurrentpath

GroundPotentialRise(GPR) Themaximumelectricalpotentialthata
substationgroundinggridmayattainrelativetoadistantpointassumed
toberemoteearth.
GPR=gridresistancexmaximumgridcurrent
SafetynotnecessarilydependentonGPR;asafesystemcouldhave
ahighGPRwithlowgradients
StepVoltage Thedifferenceinsurfacepotentialexperiencedbya
personbridgingadistanceof1meterwiththefeetwithoutcontacting
anygroundedobject
TouchVoltage ThepotentialdifferencebetweentheGPRandthe
surfacepotentialwhereapersonisstandingwithonehandona
groundedsurface

MetaltoMetalTouchVoltageThepotentialdifferencebetween
metallicobjectswithinthesubstationsitethatmaybebridgedbydirect
contact
Assumednegligibleinconventionalsubstationsifbothitemsaretied
tothegrid
Couldbesubstantialwithcontactbetweengroundedand
ungroundedobjectsuchasanisolatedfence,waterpipeorrailline
TransferredVoltageSpecialcasewhereavoltageistransferredintoor
outofasubstation
TouchVoltageThepotentialdifferencebetweentheGPRandthe
surfacepotentialwhereapersonisstandingwithonehandona
groundedsurface

Movesall
the
transfer
potential
tothe
fence

Too
Loosea
ground
mat
Step
potential
increase

Minimize
stepand
touch
potential
througho
ut

SoilParameters
SystemParameters
ConductorProperties
GroundSystemArrangement(iterative)

SoilBehavesasResistance
andDielectric
Dielectriceffectcanbe
ignoredexceptfor
highfrequencywaves
Canbemodeledas
pureresistance
Conductivityis
generallyelectrolytic
Resistivityaffectedby
anumberoffactors,
hereisgraphofa
typicalsandyloamsoil:

ProperSurfacingisExtremelyValuable

Typically3to6inchesthick

Helpseliminatesoildryout

Reducesshockcurrent
Decreasesratioofbodytoshortcircuitcurrentby10to20times,
dependingonsurfacingresistivity

Resistivityisoftenprovidedbysurfacingsupplierordeterminedbytested

Typicalvaluesareindicatedonnextpage

ThreeMethodsExist

Uniformsoilmodel
Calculationsassumeuniformsoil
Requireshomogeneoussoilwhichisrare
Highlyinaccurateforsmallgridswhereinfluenceoftoplayerresistivity
ismorepronounced

Twolayersoilmodel
Usesuppersoillayeroffinitedepthwithspecifiedresistivity
Includeslowersoilwithspecifiedresistivityandinfinitedepth

Multilayersoilmodel
Usesmorethantwosoillayerswithdifferentresistivities
Onlyrequiredundercircumstancesnotnormallyencountered

SomeSolutionsforHighResistivitySoil
Effectivelyincreasethediameteroftheconductors
Thesoilclosesttotheelectrodecomprisesthebulkoftheelectrode
groundresistance

Availablemethods
Useofsaltssuchassodiumchloride,calciumchloridetotreatsoilaround
conductors
Mayneedtobereplenished
Maybeprohibited

Useofbentonite aroundconductors
Hygroscopic
Resistivityof2.5 m whenwet

Useofchemicalelectrodes
Porouscoppertubefilledwithsalt
Crammedinauguredholethen
backfilled
Useofgroundingenhancement
material
Verylowresistivity(5%of
bentonite)
Containsaluminumsilicates,
carbon,quartz
andcements
Claimsofpermanenceanddry
performance

ConcreteEncased(Ufer)Electrodes:

LowerResistance
Wireorrodinconcretehaslowerresistancethanwhendirectlyburied

Cancorrode
SmallDCcurrentscancauserebarcorrosion
Corrodedrebarcanexpandby2.2Xanddamagefootings
IEEE80givesaformulaandachartforpredictingDCforvarioussoil
conditions

ArerequiredbyNEC?
Yes,foranybuildingorstructureserved
2005NECdidntreallychangeanything
Replacedifavailableonpremiseswithallthatarepresent
Languagechangedtoclarifyintent

WhatAboutMySubstation?
Ultimatelyitisuptotheauthority
havingjurisdiction.
TheintentoftheNECpassageis
bondingofallpresentgrounding
toformasystem
Inmyview,theintentofpassageis
indicatedtoright:

IEEE80

Givesequationsandmethodologyfordeterminingresistanceofconcrete
encasedelectrode(typicallyarodenclosedinacylinder)

Recommendsthefollowing
Connectanchorboltandanglestubstotherebar
Reducecurrentdutyanddcleakagebymakingsureprimaryelectrodes
carrybulkofcurrent
Usegroundenhancementmaterialinhighresistivitysoilaround
primaryelectrodes

SoilParameters

SystemParameters
ConductorProperties
GroundSystemArrangement(iterative)

DetermineTypeandLocationofWorst
CaseFault
DefineCurrentDivisionFactor
Define
Determine,forEachFault,theDecrement
Factor
SelecttheLargestProductof x

Where:
isthefaultcurrentdivisionfactor
istherms symm.GroundfaultcurrentinA
istherms symm.GridcurrentinA forafault
duration
isthezerosequencesystemfaultcurrentinA
isthemaximumgridcurrentinA forafault
duration
isthe decrementfactorins

SoilParameters
SystemParameters

ConductorProperties
GroundSystemArrangement(iterative)

GroundingMaterialsMust:
Havesufficientconductivitydeterminedbygrounding
calculations
Resistfusingandmechanicaldeteriorationduringfaults
Bemechanicallyreliableandrugged
Beabletomaintainfunctionwhenexposedtocorrosion
orabuse

TypicalMaterials
Copper
Usedforconductorsandelectrodes
Excellentconductivity
Resistanttoundergroundcorrosion;cathodic
Cancontributetocorrosionofotherburiedobjects,particularlysteel(forms
galvaniccell)
CopperCladSteel
Usedforrods,typically
Strong,canbedriven
Theftresistant
Similarcathodic propertiestocopper
Aluminum
Rarelyused
Notcorrosionresistant;anodic
NotsuitableforundergroundapplicationperANSIC2
Steel
Infrequentlyusedforconductorsandelectrodes
Shouldbegalvanized
Mayneedcathodic protection

IEEE80ContainingChartsfortheVariablesBasedOn
ConductorType
Fromthesecharts,itcanbedetermined
that:

=
Where:
istheareaoftheconductor
isthedurationofthecurrent
isaconstantfromTable2inIEEE80
atvariousvaluesof (seenext)

TypicalConnectorTypes
Compression
Exothermic
Mechanical
SomeConsiderations
Willthisneedtoberemoved?
DoesmyconnectorneedtobetestedperIEEE837?
Arespecialpermitsorprecautionsrequiredatthesite?
Whereistheconnectiongoingtobelocated?

Compression
Typicallyappliedwithportablehydraulic
compressiontool
Wideapplicability,e.g.
Cabletocable
Cabletorodorrebar
Cabletoterminal
Canbeused
o
Abovegrade
o
Belowgrade
o
Inconcrete
Irreversible
Manufacturerstout
Safetyversusexothermic
Strength
Conductivity
Irreversibility

Exothermic
Installedusingmold(graphiteformulti
use,ceramicforsingleuse),weldpowder
(shot)andaflintigniter
Wideapplicability,e.g.
Cabletocable
Cabletorodorrebar
Cabletovirtuallyanything
Locations
o
Abovegrade
o
Belowgrade
o
Inconcrete
Irreversible
Manufacturerstout
o
Strength
o
Conductivity
o
Irreversibility
Someplantsrequirehotworkpermit
releasesenergy

Mechanical
Bolted,typicallycopperor
bronzefittings,oftentin
plated
Variedapplicability:
Cabletocable
Cabletorodorrebar
Locations
o
Abovegrade
o
Belowgrade
o
Inconcrete
Reversible
Manufacturerstout
Easeofinstallation
Conductivity
Irreversibility

1.

DetermineAreaFromLayout,DetermineSoilResistivity

2.

DetermineMinimumConductorSize

3.

CalculateTolerableStepandTouchPotential

4.

LayOutPreliminarySubstationGrid,LoopAroundYard,Sufficient
EquipmentTaps

5.

DeterminePreliminaryResistanceofGroundingSystem

6.

DetermineGridCurrent

7.

DetermineGPR;IfLessthanTolerableTouchVoltage,Done;Otherwise:

8.

CalculateMeshandStepVoltages.

9.

IfMeshVoltageisBelowTolerableTouchVoltage,Done;Otherwise:

10.

CheckStepVoltage.IfBelowTolerableLevel,Done;Otherwise:

11.

ReviseGrid

12.

CompleteDetailedDesign

SoilParameters
SystemParameters
ConductorProperties

GroundSystemArrangement(iterative)

NumerousAreasOverTouchLimit
WhatCanBeDone?
Relayingcanbemodifiedtoclearfaultsmorequickly
Amoreaccuratevaluefor can bedetermined
Rodscanbeaddedorlengthened
Conductorcanbeadded
GEMcanbeadded
Griddepthcanbeadjusted
WhatCanBeDoneforThisGrid?
Solutionbasedonexperienceandfeel
Thelowersoilislessresistiveinthiscasesoletsaddrods
Thesubissmallsoitisunderstoodthatgridspacingwillbetightsowecould
addcopper

canbeadjusted.Thissubisconnectedwithtwostaticwires.Transformers
havedeltaprimaries.

Problems
Poorsoil
Smallarea
Highfaultcurrent
Oddlyshapedgrids
Longfaultclearingtime

Solutions
Morecopper(grid,rods)
Groundenhancementmaterial
Takecloselookatstaticconnections
Fasterrelaying
Deepergrid
Moresurfacing
Differentsurfacing
Othermethods(explosiveswithfill,deepwellgrounds)

NonSubstationStuff(e.g.storageareas)WithinorNearSubstation

Checkstepandtouchvoltages

Extendgridorisolate
DisconnectSwitchHandles

Problems
Ionizedairwillbepresent,facilitatespotentialfault
Touchvoltagehazardroutinelypresent
Insulatorormechanicalfailure

Possiblesolutions
Installoperatorplatform
Bondplatformtoswitchhandleandgrid

TransformerOilContainment
Differentsurfacing(e.g.concrete)
Possiblesolutions
o
Asphalt

ControlBuilding
Problems
o
Concreteinsteadofrock
o
Possiblydifficulttorouteconductorsunderneath

PossibleSolutions
Examineexposureistouchvoltageactuallyaproblem?
Groundfoundationanddocalculations
Useframelessmetalbuildingonpiersandextendgridunderbuilding

SubstationFence
Problems
Serioustouchvoltagehazard
Frequentlyaccessibletopublic
Variousinstallationscenarios
o
Fencewithingridareaandconnectedtogrid
o
Fenceoutsidegridareaandconnectedtogrid
o
Fenceoutsidethegridareabutgroundedseparately
o
Fenceoutsidegridareaandgroundedonlythroughposts
IEEE80GoesIntoGreatDetailAboutFences HerestheSkinny
Extendgroundgridoutsidethefence(3workswell)
Greatlyhelpswithtouchpotential
Iftouchpotentialisokay,stepshouldwork
Installisolatingsectionsbetweensubstationfenceandotherfence
Substationfencemustbeisolatedfromplantperimeterfence
Multipleisolatingsectionsworkevenbetter

IEEE80GivesaCursoryGlanceatGIS
Definitions
Specialproblems
Smallsize
Highfrequencytransients
CirculatingCurrents
Inducedvoltagesfromcurrentflowinphaseconductor
Continuousvs.noncontinuousenclosures
Foundations
GeneralRuleIncludetheslab
Summary
Followmanufacturersinstructions

DefinedinIEEE81
CompareResultstoCalculatedValues
MethodsofTesting
Twopointmethod
Resistanceofsystemandanauxiliaryground
Notparticularlyaccurate
Threepointmethod
Usestwotestelectrodesandonestationground
Inaccurateforlargesubstations
Stagedfaulttests
HighcurrenttestInjectcurrentthenmeasurevoltage
Fallofpotentialmethod
Measureresistanceofsystemrelativetoremoteelectrode
Mostwidelyused