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giants Guidelines for Disastr-Resilon Buildings/Stuctures ~ UAP Emergency Architects es emergency mae CArChitects (http://uap-ea.blogspot.com/) in @® 43:31PM Src {& Design Guidelines (http:/uap-ea.blogspot.com/search/label/Design’20Guidelines), Design Strategies (http://uap-ea blogspot. com/search/label/Design’:20Strategies) WF No comments (http://uap-ea.blogspot.com/2015/05/guidelines-for-disaster-resilient.html#comment-form) Guidelines for Disaster-Resilient Buildings/Structures (http://uap-ea.blogspot.com/2015/05/guidelines-for- disaster-resilient.html) Guidelines for Disaster Resilient Buldings & Structures by Ar. Rey S. Gabitan Head, UAP Emergency Architects ama, Design Guidelines for (vm) Disaster-Resilient ANCHE (http://4.bp.blogspot.com/- Buildings/Structures Fea ge a ‘clqGOW6DAKg/VUML xIrkFl/AAAAAAAADRB/vhk3nU4I-MY/s1600/Slide13. JPG) ‘Typhoon Resilient Design Strategies: The main strategy in protecting buildings from strong winds is to maintain the integrity of the building envelope, including roofs and windows, and to design the building to withstand the expected lateral and uplift forces. The following are some strategies that can be employed to make the construction system more wind-resilient and which could possibly withstand more than 250 kph winds: hitp:tuap- ea bogspot.comi2015)0Squdelines-fr-dsastr-reiion him! 1120 giants {Guidelines for Disastr-Resilon Buildings/Stuctures ~ UAP Emergency Architects Typhoon-Resilient Design Strategies (ve) + design the building to withstand the expected lateral and uplift forces. + maintain the integrity of the building envelope, including roofs ‘and windows + make the construction system more wind-reslient and could possibly withstand more than 250 kph wind: (http://3.bp-blogspot.com/- gDdHTydZrxw/VUMhOT7CALI/AAAAAAAADSE/WjRWZBioLMw/s1600/Slide14.JPC) Typhoon-Resilient Design Strategies + LOCATION = when a building is being located in a more vulnerable area, build a stronger-than-normal house. ‘stg om ig iad pote (http:/4.bp. blogspot.com/-SR8kdM1Z0EU/VUMhqSPxQFI/AAAAAAAADSM/PT3-8fF 4PdA/s1600/Slide15.JPG) Building Shape © The most important single factor in determining the performance of buildings in typhoons is the building shape. Simple, compact, symmetrical shapes are best. (©The best shape to resist high winds is a square. The square plan is better than the rectangle since it allows high ‘winds to go around them. The rectangle is better than the L-shaped plan. For rectangular shapes, the best layout is ‘when the length is not more than three (3) times the width. © Ifother shapes are desired, efforts should be made to strengthen the comers, © Iflonger shapes are used, they must be designed to withstand the forces of the wind, © For groups of buildings, a cluster arrangement can be followed in preference to row type hitp:tuap- ea bogspot.comi2015)0Squdelines-fr-dsastr-reiion him! 270 azote ‘uidetines or Disaster Reson Bullngs/Srucures ~ UAP Emergency Archtects Typhoon-Resilient Design Strategies ww) + BUILDINGSHAPE = the best shape to resist high winds is a square. = for rectangular shapes, length is not more than three (3) times — cluster arrangement for groups of buildings. il (ig (http/4.bp.blogspot.com/- iaSRMez_IRU/VUMhOmNuxel/ AAAAAAAADSU/efXXo-M9MWs/s1600/Slide16.JPG) Roof Form/Shape © Use a hip roof, This is the strongest type with all sides of the roof sloped. Hip roofs offer much less wind resistance than gable roofs. © For gable roofs, use a high pitched roof. © Avoid a low-pitched roof. Roof pitch angle at least 25°. Experience and experiment have shown that the hip roof with the pitch in 25° to 40° range has best record of wind resistance. Typhoon-Resilient Design Strategies (ve) + ROOF FORM/SHAPE = Hip roofs offer much less wind resistance than gable roofs. = For gable roofs, use a high pitched roof. = Avoid a low-pitched roof. Roof pitch angle at 25%- 40" has best record of wind resistance, (http:/3.bp.blogspot.com/- Ta Se a DPqvVIr022w/VUMh2iSh2BI/ AAAAAAAADSc/zz4rckZ35YU/s1 600/Slide17.JPG) Roof Overhangs © Avoid large overhangs as high wind force build up under them, © Roof eaves can be limited to 18 - 20 inches. © Ifoverhangs or canopies are desired, they should be braced by ties held to the main structure. © Roof overhangs for verandah, patio, terraces and balconies should be designed as. separate construction rather than extensions of the main roof of the building. They can break-away from the main roof structure without damaging the rest of the house. hitp:tuap- ea bogspot.comi2015)0Squdelines-fr-dsastr-reiion him! 30 azote ‘uidetines or Disaster Reson Bulings/Srucures ~ UAP Emergency Archtects Typhoon-Resilient Design Strategies (we) + ROOF EAVES/OVERHANGS = Roof eaves can be limited to 18 - 20 inches. ~ Avoid large overhangs = they should be braced by ties held to the main structure, = designed as separate construction rather than extensions of (pitp.//4.bp.blogspot.com/- the main roof of the building. a Gap emhRrWszFNo/VUMh90j_VBI/ AAAAAAAADSK/_EvI-PaXvVU/s1600/Slide18.JP6) Roofing Sheets © if possible, use long-span roof sheets. © Ifthe sheeting is too thin or there are too few fittings, the nails or screws may tear through the sheet. If galvanized sheets are used, 24 gauge is recommended. © Roofing sheets usually fail at ridges where capping comes off, at gable ends where sheetings rolls up sideways and at eaves where sheets lift up. At ridges, eaves and overhangs, provide fixings at every two (2) corrugations. At all other locations, provide fixings at every three (3) corrugation at maximum spacing, Typhoon-Resilient Design Strategies (ve) + ROOFINGSHEETS/FIXINGS = 24 gauge (0.4mm thk) is recommended. (http:/3.bp.blogspot.com/- DrX6BW2GWkM/VUMID3paFGI/AAAAAAAADSs/8sbfUZe_2fk/s1600/Slide19.JPC) © Use galvanized iron flats under the fixings. © Use fittings with a broad washer or dome head (zinc nail). To use more fixings for each sheet, put in the laths at closer centres and nail closer together. © Screws hold better than nails so fewer screws can be used, But the sheeting must be thick or they will tear through hitp:tuap- ea bogspot.comi2015)0Squdelines-fr-dsastr-reiion him! 420 azote ‘uidetines or Disaster Reson Bulings/Srucures ~ UAP Emergency Archtects Typhoon-Resilient Design Strategies (ve) ‘+ ROOFING SHEETS/FIXINGS = Atridges, eaves and overhangs, provide fixings at every two (2) corrugations. = Atall other locations, provide fixings at every three (3) corrugation at maximum spacing. WY (httpy/3.bp.blogspot.com/- ASS se age washers tinder the sre Enea fo puri at feast Somm aZ4Mkisk1 SA/VUMIiZiX6cl/ AAAAAAAADSA/f3nT7EICU30/s1 600/Slide20.JPG) © When using screws for corrugated galvanized roof sheets, use proper drive screws. Be sure that the screws go into the purlins at least fifty (50) mm. Use large washers under the screw heads to prevent the roof sheets from tearing when pulled upward by high winds. © Nails do not hold as well as screws. Use nails with wide heads and long enough to bend over below the lath, Galvanized coated nails are better than ordinary wire nails. © Spacing for laths and number of fixings will vary with the gauge of sheeting used, Laths should be placed closer together for thin sheets to provide space for extra fixings. A guide to the number of fixings and spacing of laths is shown below. Typhoon-Resilient Design Strategies (vw) ‘+ ROOFING SHEETS/FIXINGS. = Spacing for laths and number of fixings will vary with the gauge of sheeting used. = Laths should be placed closer together for thin sheets to provide space for extra fixings. A guide to the number of fixings and spacing of laths is shown below. (http:/1 bp. blogspot.com/- WRD¢jl_hcQ8/VUM|obBSHZI/AAAAAAAADTI/CrA FX3GIcE/s1600/Slide21.JPG) Gauge of Sheeting Spacing of Laths 26 450 mm ~ 600 mm 25 600 mm ~ 750 mm 24 600 for nails, 900 mm for screws ©The connections of cladding/sheeting to the truss need to be designed for the increased forces, especially at the comers and the roof edges considered as zones of higher local wind suctions. Failure at any one of these locations could lead progressively to complete roof failure. The following are recommended: + Sheeted roofs:- A reduced spacing of bolts, % of that admissible as per IS:800, recommended. For normal connections, J bolts may be used but for cyclone resistant connections U ~ bolts are recommended. Alternatively @ strap may be used at least along edges to fix cladding with the purlins to avoid punching through the sheet. Properly connected M.S. flat can be used as reinforcing band in high suction zones. The corrugated sheeting should be properly overlapped (at least 2 1/2 corrugation) to prevent water from blowing under the seam. Spaces between the sheeting and the wall plate should be closed up to prevent the wind from getting under the sheeting and lifting it. hitp:tuap- ea bogspot.comi2015)0Squdelines-fr-dsastr-reiion him! 520 giants Guidelines for Disastr-Resilon Buildings/Stuctures ~ UAP Emergency Architects This can be done by nailing a fascia board to the wall plate and rafters. Typhoon-Resilient Design Strategies (v>) + ROOFING SHEETS/FIXINGS. = connections of cladding/sheeting to the truss need to be designed for the increased forces, especially at the corners, ‘and the roof edges considered as zones of higher local wind Suctions ~ reduced spacing of bots, % ofthat admissible as per1S:800, __(httP//3.bp blogspot.com/- recommended. ite" 3e REE See ort | NTRdbnolz94/VUMjnEHBcll/AAAAAAAADTA/EXVRGWhCNvc/s1600/Slide22.JPG) + Clay tile roofs:- Because of lower dead weight, these may be unable to resist the uplifting force and thus experience heavy damage, particularly during cyclones. Anchoring of roof tiles in R.C. strap beams is recommended for improved cyclone resistance. As alternative to the bands, a cement mortar screed, reinforced with galvanized chicken mesh, may be laid over the high suction areas of the tiled roof. Note Covering the entire tile roof with concrete or ferro-cement will prevent natural breathing through the tiles and will make them thermally uncomfortable. Roof Frame Construction © Roof trusses and gables must be braced. © Provide a more rigid fastening system for the roof frame like metal tie-down straps (typhoon straps) that tie the roof structure all the way down to the foundation Typhoon-Resilient Design Strategies (vw) + ROOF FRAME CONSTRUCTION = Roof trusses and gables must be braced. = Provide metal tie-down straps (typhoon straps) that tie the roof structure all the way down to the foundation — Provide various structural connectors to reduce uplift (http./2.bp blogspot com ‘JHgZhavy6xE/VUMjwOUZ_hl/AAAAAAAADTQ/QuXukFVBoag/s1600/Slide23.JPG) © Provide various structural connectors that can drammatically reduce uplift which is the cause of the most significant roof damage in typhoons. © Ifthe rafters are not secure, the ridge can fall apart when strong wind passes over the roof. The ridge can be secured by using: Collar Ties - Timbers connecting the rafters. Nail them to the side of the rafters. hitp:tuap- ea bogspot.comi2015)0Squdelines-fr-dsastr-reiion him! 20 azote Cuidetines or Disaster Reson Bullngs/Srucures ~ UAP Emergency Archtects Typhoon-Resilient Design Strategies (ve) + ROOF FRAME CONSTRUCTION = Roof trusses and gables must be braced; secure ridge = Provide metal tie-down straps {typhoon straps) that tie the roof structure all the way down to the foundation ~ Provide various structural connectors to reduce uplit (httpy/3.bp.blogspot.com/- foKkbI9D_8/VUMj4YBOBKI/AAAAAAAADTY/7thz3uH2xpA/s1600/Slide24.JPG) + Gussets - Usually made of steel/plywood. This is used at the ridge. Metal Straps over the top of the rafters, ©The connection of roof framing to the vertical load resisting elements i.e. wall or post, by providing properly designed anchor bolts and base plates is equally important for overall stability of the roof. The anchoring of roof, framing to masonry wall should be accomplished through anchor bolts embedded in concrete cores. The weight of participating masonry at an angle of half horizontal to 1 vertical should be more that the total uplift at the support. In case of large forces, the anchoring bars can be taken down to the foundation level with a structural layout that could ensure the participation of filler and cross walls in resisting the uplift Typhoon-Resilient Design Strategies ‘+ ROOF FRAME CONSTRUCTION = anchoring of roof framing to masonry wall should be accomplished through anchor bolts embedded in concrete cores. 7 (http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-9ZeMhGU7Gad/VUMIqICu3Q/AAAAAAAADTK/JHL12KvRBME/s1600/Slide25.JPG) (© Adequate diagonal or knee bracing should be provided both at the rafter level and the eaves level in a pitched roof. The purlins should be properly anchored at the gable end. It is desirable that at least two bays, one at each end, be braced both in horizontal and vertical plane to provide adequate wind resistance. Where number of bays is more than 5, use additional bracing in every fourth bay. © Inorder to reduce wind induced flutter/vibration of the roof in cyclonic regions, itis recommended that all members of the truss and the bracings be connected at the ends by at least two rivets/bolts or welds. Further the cross bracing members by welded/connected at the crossings to reduce vibrations, hitp:tuap- ea bogspot.comi2015)0Squdelines-fr-dsastr-reiion him! 70 azote ‘uidetines or Disaster Reson Bullings/Srucures ~UAP Emergency Arctects Typhoon-Resilient Design Strategies (ve) + ROOF FRAME CONSTRUCTION = diagonal or knee at the rafter level and the eaves level = purlins properly anchored at the gable end. Itis desirable that at least two bays, one at each end, be braced both in horizontal and vertical plane to provide adequate wind resistance. Where number of baysiis more than 5, use ‘additional bracing in every Dement fourth bay, (httpy/4.bp.blogspot.com/- ufWXwlerKts/VUMIw3PVEUI/AAAAAAAADTs/GA7IWT7YRH¢/s1600/Slide26.JPG) Doors and Windows © Avoid openings which cannot be securely closed during a typhoon. © Doors and windows must be protected by covering and/or bracing. Hurricane shutters can protect windows from most wind-blown debris, © Enhance the protection of openings by considering the addition of impactesistant windows, doors, louvers, etc. An alternative is for glass panes be strengthened by pasting thin film or paper strips. This can introduce some damping in the glass panels and reduce their vibrations. (© Recourse may be taken to reduce the panel size to smaller dimensions. ©Since the failure of any door or window on the wind-ward side may lead to adverse uplift pressures under roof, the openings should have strong holdfasts as well as closing/locking arrangement. Typhoon-Resilient Design Strategies (ve) + DOORS AND WINDOWS: = Doors and windows must be protected by covering and/or bracing. Hurricane shutters can protect windows from most wind-blown debris, = reduce the panel size to smaller dimensions. = strengthened by pasting thin film or paper strips, (http://4.bp.blogspot.com/- =} mVaNYCOj_LQ/VUMmYb_C8yl/AAAAAAAADTO/oUca8abWE38/s1600/Slide27.JPG) Masonry Walls © {tis not uncommon for un-reinforced masonry to fail in severe cyclones. Walls braced by ring beams and columns have remained safe. © Allexternal walls or wall panels must be designed to resist the out of plane wind pressure adequately. The lateral load due to wind is finally resisted either by walls lying parallel to the lateral force direction (by shear wall action) of by RC frames to which the panel walls must be fixed using appropriate reinforcement such as seismic bands at window lintel level. hitp:tuap- ea bogspot.comi2015)0Squdelines-fr-dsastr-reiion him! a0 ag2o16 {Guidelines for Disastr-Resion Buildings/Stuctures ~ UAP Emergency Azchitects Typhoon-Resilient Design Strategies (ve) ‘+ MASONRY WALLS = un-reinforced masonry to fallin severe cyclones, = walls braced by ring beams and columns have remained safe, feesnensna| sens [eee (http://1 bp.blogspot.com/-71- ZoMgDOrY/VUMm03BFEGI/AAAAAAAADTS/fJKREWBLD7Q/s1600/Slide28. JPG) Typhoon-Resilient Design Strategies (ww) o (http://4.bp.blogspot.com/- uDANCbBSg4U/VUMmadm2C_I/AAAAAAAADUE/ZHZBEMS6JAI/s1600/Slide29.JPG) Flood Resilient Design Strategies: Flood-Resilient Design Strategies (http:/1 bp.blogspot.com/- EC0eUqRq3P-s/VUMnT_vz¥JI/AAAAAAAADUM/CUiDny3jUI0/s1600/Slide30.JPG) hip tuap-eabogspekcom 2018 OSIqadines-r-disastr-resierh giants Guidelines for Disastr-Resilon Buildings/Stuctures ~ UAP Emergency Architects Location (© Avoid as much as possible any high-density development in low-lying areas (prone to flooding). © Observe required easements along sides of waterways. © House located on a river bed, close to running water, is very vulnerable to flooding. Not only the house, but also its contents are vulnerable to destruction due to heavy rains. Houses should not be built in such obviously vulnerable locations, or if they are, they should be designed to resist the hazards of their location. © Houses must be located away from places subject to landslides where soil may move down a steep slope, debris flows where soil gravel and rocks may be washed rapidly down by heavy rainfall, and flashfloods. ©The house floor must be elevated above the surrounding area, with special consideration for possible area flooding, either by ground water, sea storm, or by tsunami Flood-Resilient Design Strategies (ve) + LOCATION = Avoid as much as possible any high-density development in low-lying areas (prone to flooding). = Homes located in flood-prone areas should be designed with all living spaces located above the designated flood-plain elevation (http:/3.bp.blogspot.com/- 638)6MwdnaU/VUMnz-VEILI/AAAAAAAADUU/O6CQVNj--04/s1600/Slide31.JPG) Foundation © Invariably a typhoon is accompanied by torrential rain and tidal surge (in coastal areas) resulting into flooding of the low lying areas. The tidal surge effect diminishes as it travels on shore, which can extend even upto 10 to 15 km, Flooding causes saturation of soil and thus significantly affects the safe bearing capacity of the soil. In flood prone areas, the safe bearing capacity should be taken as half of that for the dry ground. Also the likelihood of any scour due to receding tidal surge needs to be taken into account while deciding on the depth of foundation and the protection works around a raised ground used for locating cyclone shelters or other buildings. Flood-Resilient Design Strategies (ve) + FOUNDATION = Flooding causes saturation of soll and thus significantly affects the safe bearing capacity of the soil. In flood prone areas, the safe bearing capacity should be taken as half of that for the dry ground. (http://2.bp.blogspot.com/- iDolUTYMaFU/VUMn37¢P2s1/AAAAAAAADUC/SD8OLMRkWeE/s1600/Slide32.JPG) hitp:tuap- ea bogspot.comi2015)0Squdelines-fr-dsastr-reiion him! 1070 giants Guidelines for Disastr-Resilon Buildings/Stuctures ~ UAP Emergency Architects Building on-stilts 0 Where a building is constructed on stilts it is necessary that stilts are properly braced in both the principal directions. This will provide stability to the complete building under lateral loads. Knee bracings will be preferable to full diagonal bracing so as not to obstruct the passage of floating debris during storm surge. Flood-Resilient Design Strategies (ve) + ON-STILTS: = stilts are properly braced in both the principal directions. = Knee bracings will be preferable to full diagonal bracing so as not to obstruct the passage of floating debris during storm ae — Pn (http://2.bp.blogspot.com/- 8}miUponl/VUMndlsaqrl/ AAAAAAAADUG/Hns7KEnJvd0/s1 600/Slide33.JPC) Wall Openings/Window Openings © Openings just below roof level be avoided for storm resiliency except that two small vents without shutter should be provided in opposite walls to prevent suffocation in case room gets filled with water and people may try to climb up on lofts or pegs. Earthquake Resilient Design Strategies: Earthquake-Resilient Design Strategies Ve) (http1/3.bp.blogspot.com/- nOpS3ZwOv3g/VUMoy8XdFZI/AAAAAAAADUs/VpLVOoHyLCk/s1600/Slide34.JPG) Foundation © Soil for a good foundation that can carry the weight of a house must be well drained so that itis dry and not ‘waterlogged. Waterlogged soil can become liquefied in an earthquake—tum to a semiiquid—so that structures sink into the ground, hitp:tuap- ea bogspot.comi2015)0Squdelines-fr-dsastr-reiion him! nn ag2o16 Guidelines for Disastr-Resilon Buildings/Stuctures ~ UAP Emergency Azchitects Earthquake-Resilient Design Strategies (>) + FOUNDATION = Soil for a good foundation that can carry the weight of a house must be well drained so that itis dry and not waterlogged ‘Waterlogged soll can become liquefied in an earthquake—turn toa semi-liquid—so that structures sink into the ground. (http://2.bp blogspot. com/- -mnkwn1 QbKJU/VUMo7IviGel/AAAAAAAADU4/QbS_WOZ3iUk/s1600/Slide35.JPG) Plan/Bullding Configuration © Maintain the symmetry of a structure by distributing the seismic force resisting component evenly in all directionsis crucial in reducing the earthquake impact. © Avoid soft storeys and asymmetrical floor plans, which can induce torsion. Earthquake-Resilient Design Strategies (>) ‘+ PLAN SHAPE/BUILDING CONFIGURATION = Maintain the symmetry of a structure by distributing the seismic force resisting component evenly in all direction sis crucial in reducing the earthquake impact. = Avoid soft storeys and asymmetrical floor plans, which can oo a Stewie: (httpy/3.bp.blogspot.com/- [TP Ll) xen TI DOG orsrcescx fo T 554 AUENE ey Gabte.uap pep vsfKcAQxaik/VUMo7RmFNMI/AAAAAAAADUO/kbd_PGbfJxQ/s1600/Slide36.JPG) ‘Structural Framing © The building needs a coherent structure. If the structure is coherent and strong, it protects the whole house. bp:tuap-ea.blogspot.com/20150Squdelines-for-dsaster-resiion him! 20 giants {Guidelines for Disastr-Resilon Buildings/Stuctures ~ UAP Emergency Architects Earthquake-Resilient Design Strategies (vw) ‘+ STRUCTURAL FRAMING + Aregular structure + the capacity to resist lateral forces should be the same for, each floor ee _. (http://2.bp.blogspot.com/- BhABAS (oH oe JruSVG4zod0/VUMpBsSWhfl/AAAAAAAADVE/cHOKIWKF9.Jw/s1600/Slide37.JPG) = Aregular structure (Columns and floors are all joined to each other in a regular format. Overhanging parts of the building are all well supported by continuous columns to the foundations. A complete structural frame around the building is tied in to the foundation, the walls and the roof structure) Earthquake-Resilient Design Strategies (WO?) ‘+ STRUCTURAL FRAMING + Anintegrated structural ring beam around tops of doors, and windows connected to columns + An integrated structural ring beam around top of walls connectedto columns + Triangular gable end walls must be structurally supported —_(hitP'//2.bp.blogspot.com/- @ BSEbrTONdHc/VUMpVVe1tQl/AAAAAAAADVU/SDGtoSYpilM/s1600/Slide38. JPG) - _Anintegrated structural ring beam around tops of doors and windows connected to columns - _Anintegrated structural ring beam around top of walls connected to columns - Triangular gable end walls must be structurally supported © Awood frame structure mounted on a concrete frame/stub wall must be fully anchored together. A bracket made of noncorrodible metal, must be cast into the bearing structure to provide a structural connection for the ‘whole wall through to the foundation, The wood column must be bolted to the bracket, and the bracket must be fully secured into the concrete, hitp:tuap- ea bogspot.comi2015)0Squdelines-fr-dsastr-reiion him! 1920 ag2o16 Guidelines for Disastr-Resiion Buildings/Stuctures ~ UAP Emergency Architects Earthquake-Resilient Design Strategies >) ‘+ STRUCTURAL FRAMING = Long-faced-loaded walls will require additional interior shear ‘alls to resist overturning or bending and eventual collapse. rot 1 enag tn cE -., Soa fans SETS fama (http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-3m21RZ628w/VUMpRLGTZwI/AAAAAAAADVM/GMnhi Mti-4/s1600/Slide39.JPG) © Join walls and roof to strengthen each other. Column reinforcement should protrude from the top of concrete columns and be bent around roof trusses for structural strength, of roof trusses should be strapped with metal ties to the wall structure. Exposed metal should be painted with rust proof paint to prevent corrosion. ‘0 The joints of wooden roof trusses need to be bolted together and tied with metal straps to provide flexibility but not collapse under the forces of nature. Metal roof trusses must be welded together, welded to purlins, and welded to wall reinforcement for strength. Earthquake-Resilient Design Strategies ‘+ STRUCTURAL FRAMING = For reinforced concrete frame buildings with CHB walls, ties are to be cast into columns at 40cm spacing, and are to be a ‘minimum of &mm diameter. = Wood roof structuresare to be cross braced in both directions, (http://4.bp.blogspot.com/- ie areas QvvBhgXqSal/VUMpfktZqYI/AAAAAAAADVC/Z)vdvfS}A0/s1600/Slide40. JPG) © The walls and roof need bracing against lateral movement. In order to resist lateral forces, walls and roof structure need cross bracing at all levels, particularly if tis @ wooden structure. This is a major principle in the construction of traditional houses. bp:tuap-ea.blogspot.com/20150Squdelines-for-dsaster-resiion him! 1420 giants Guidelines for Disastr-Resiion Buildings/Stuctures ~ UAP Emergency Architects Earthquake-Resilient Design Strategies ww) ‘+ STRUCTURAL FRAMING = Roof trusses are to be placed over columns and tied to them. = roof truss joints, and particularly central 5 ones, are tobe bolted, not nailed. _(http/.bp.blogspot.com/- 2 r ) \ Ss @ i ‘fey Catan ap op TERXAXfUPAS/VUMpxb_mXQI/AAAAAAAADVK/Ubj93r9wQt4/s1600/Slide41.JPG) © Wall material must be tied to the building structure with metal ties. Metal wall ties are to be hooked at the end. © Allwall openings are to be tied to wall material © Forreinforced concrete frame buildings with CHB walls, ties are to be cast into columns at 40cm spacing, and are to be a minimum of amm diameter. © Allhouses are to have completely framed pitched triangular roof trusses. Roof trusses are to be placed over columns and tied to them. Most roof truss joints, and particularly central ones, are to be bolted, not nailed Roof truss joints of 3 or more elements are to have a metal strap joining each roof component. Wood blocks are to be used for fixing purlins to roof trusses. Joints in roof structural wood are to be made with step joints, not with 45° cuts. Joints in roof structure are not to be made near the middle of a span. All wooden parts of a house structure are to be cross braced, stumps, walls, and roof. Wood roof structures are to be cross braced in both directions. Wall Openings/Window Openings (© Openings in load bearing walls should not be within a distance of h/6 from inner comer for the purpose of providing lateral support to cross walls, where ‘ys the storey height up to eaves level Earthquake-Resilient Design Strategies (ve) + WALL/WINDOW OPENINGS = Openings in load bearing walls should not be within a distance ‘of h/6 from inner corner for the purpose of providing lateral ‘support to cross walls, where ‘h’ is the storeyheight up to eaves level. (http://2.bp.blogspot.com/- JTUbByXdzuw/VUMp2ISPfvl/AAAAAAAADVs/SOunjjw3UKk/s1600/Slide42.JPG) References: 1. Handbook on Good Building Design and Construction in the Philippines prepared by the GTZ Office Manila, hitp:tuap- ea bogspot.comi2015)0Squdelines-fr-dsastr-reiion him! 1520 azote (Guidelines fr Disaster Reson Buldngs/Sruciures ~ UAP Emergency Architects UNDP Regional Genter in Bangkok and the Secretariat of the International strategy for Disaster Reduction, 2008 2. Cyclone Resistant Building Architecture prepared by Ankush Agarwal, Technical Officer (Hazard Vulnerability Reduction), Gol ~ UNDP. Disaster Risk Management Programme, March, 2007 3. Building Infrastructure Resilient to Disasters prepared by Asiri Karunawardena, Chaya Samarakkody and RavindraBalasooriya 4. Guidance Notes on Safer School Construction prepared by the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (ISDR, INEE, World Bank). (http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-WnWoge- Architects for Safer Communities -LTo/VUMqBVKPxRI/AAAAAAAADVO/Q_byvZxrxnk/s1 600/Slide43.JPG) Related Posts: CCan buildings withstand 250mph winds? (htp:/uap-ea blogspot com/2015/08/can-buldinge-withstand- 250mph-winds.htm) itis possible to design buil mph, but those are very expensive. Thick, laminated, and reinforced glass is available that can withstand 250 ers ings to withstand 250 mph winds. You can buy tornado doors that aerated to 200 Guidelines for Disaster-Resilient Bulldings/Structures (http://uap-ea.blogspot.com/2015/05/guidelines-for- disaster-esilient htm), vo Guidelines for Disaster Resilient Buildings & Structures by Ar. Rey S. Gabitan Head, UAP Emergency Architects = ‘Typhoon-Resilient Design Strategies: The main strategy in protecting buildings from strong winds is to KEE Batra eos tore (pifuspenblogopatcams/20%6/0sguelnas for dost veaien fen) << Newer Post (http:/uap-ea. blogspot.com/2015/05/the-mend-guide-comprehensive-guide-forhtml) Home (http://uap-ea.blogspot.com/) Older Post —+ (http://uap-ea blogspot. com/2015/05/temporary-shelter-tolda html) 0 comments: Post a Comment (httpsi/wwwiblogger.com/comment.iframe.g? blogID=5969846471 138031 252&postID=342791 9059770453261 &blogspotRpcToken=2704824) bp:tuap-ea.blogspot.com/20150Squdelines-for-dsaster-resiion him! 1620 ag2o16 Guidelines for Disastr-Resilon Buildings/Stuctures ~ UAP Emergency Architects Enter your comment... Comment as: Select profile... ¥ Links to this post Create a Link (https://www.blogger.com/blog-this.g) Subscribe to: Post Comments (Atom) (http://uap-ea blogspot. com/feeds/3427919059770453261/comments/default) Labels AIA (htp17uap-2a blogspot com/searctvabel AIA) Design Guidelines (http://uap- ea.blogspot.com/search/label/Design%20Guidelines) Design Ideas (http://uap- ea.blogspot.com/search/label/Design%20ldeas) Design strategies _(http://uap- ea.blogspot.com/search/label/Design%20Strategies) Disasters: (http://uap-ea.blogspot.com/search/label/Disasters) Donations —_(http://uap-ea.blogspot.com/search/label/Donations) _—cuidelines—_(htpi/uap- 2 blogspot.com/seareh/labe/ Guidelines) Heath Centers (htpi7uap-a blogspot. comy/searchviabel/Healtns20Centers) Legislation (ntpuap- ea.blogspot.com/search/label/Legislation) Mobile Shower _(http://uap-ea.blogspot.com/search/label/Mobile%20Shower) Objectives (http://uap-ea.blogspot.com/search/label/ Objectives) Permanent Shelters, (httpv/uap- a,blogspot.com/search/label/Permanent%20Shelters) Projects. 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(http://uap-ea. blogspot com/2015/05/implications-of- nepal-earthquake-on.htmi) Guidelines for Housing Developers (http://uap-ea.blogspot com/2015/08/guidelines-for-housing- developers.html) THE MEND GUIDE: Comprehensive Guide for Planning M... (http://uap-ea.blogspot.com/2015/05/the-mend- guide-comprehensive-guide-for html) Guidelines for Disaster Resilient Buildings/Struc...hitp://uap-ea.blogspot.com/2015/05/quidelines-for- disasteresilient htm) Temporary Shelter: TOLDA (http://uap-ea blogspot. com/2015/05/temporary-shelter-tolda.htm|) Temporary Shelter from Palettes (http://uap-ea.blogspot.com/2015/05/temporary-shelter-from-palettes. html) ‘SONA (Society of Nepalese Architects) Earthquake R... (http://uap-ea.blogspot.com/2015/05/sona- earthquake-relief-fund. html) > April (http1/uap-ea blogspot.com/2015_04.01_archive.htmi) (5) > March (http://uap-ea.blogspot.com/2015_03_01_archive.html) (13) Search Popular Posts Guidelines for Disaster- Resilient (http://uap-ea blogspot.com/2015/05/guidelines-for-disaster-esilient htm) (http//uap-ea blogspot com/2015/05/guideinesfordisasteresiient Mim) Po tureg (nttp://uap- 2a blogspot.com/2015/05/guidelines-for-disasteresilient htm) Guidelines for Disaster Resilient Buildings & Structures by Ar. Rey S. Gabitan Head, UAP Emergency Architects Typhoon- Resilient Resilient Schoolbuilding (http:/uap-ea blogspot.com/2015/03/resilient-schoolbulding-design-2.htm)) Pesan 2 (http://uap- a.blogspot.com/2015/03/resilient-schoolbuilding-design-2.html) Intimes of calamity, schools are converted into emergency evacuation centers. 'S3H(Sustainable+Strong+Schoo+Home) focuses on how versatil ‘Temporary Shelter: TOLDA (http://uap-ea. blogspot.com/2015/05/temporary-shelter-tolda.html) hitp:tuap- ea bogspot.comi2015)0Squdelines-fr-dsastr-reiion him! 1820 giants Guidelines for Disastr-Resilon Buildings/Stuctures ~ UAP Emergency Architects ea" TOLDA (Tent) This temporary Shelter was practically designed for low-cost hitp://uap-ea blogspot.com/2015/05/ -sheltertolda.htm) =z®@ {httpi/uap-ea blogspot.com emporaryshelertolda.htm) ery. the materials used in ‘ this option can be salvaged fr : Philippine structural design standards for : http://uap-ea blogspot.com/2015/03/philippine-structural-design-standards. htm) 7 (http://uap- 9sPC 201 5/03/philippi ig ) resilient public buildings (http://uap- ea blogspot.com/2015/03/philippine-structural-design-standards.htm!) ‘The Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) released the latest design standards intended for resilient design of public buildings I. ee Resilient Schoolbuilding (http:/uap-ea,blogspot.com/2018/03/resilient-schoolbullding-design-1.htm)) Desi" 1 (http//uap- ea blogspot.com/2015/03/resilient-schoolbuilding-design-1 html) This design for a two-classroom building which can be converted into a temprary shelter to serve as an evacuation center during typhoons Permanent Shelter: Bahay (http:/uap-ea,blogspot.com/2015/03/permanent-shelter-bahay-ece-b html) COBY (httpd//uap- ea blogspot.com/2015/03/permanent-shelter-bahay-eco-b.html) ‘Ar. Adonis C. Canonicato submitted this design for a permanent shelter which he calls the * Bahay eCO-BU * (Bahay Kubo -a nativ ‘Temporary Shelter from Palettes (http://uap- = Sf TMP Muar ea blogspot comy2015/05/temporaryshekertrom palettes him) ea.blogspot.com/2015/05/temporary-shelter-from-palettes html) A private and decent temporary shelter for Filipinos is the goal of this project. It could be replicated and stored if not ‘anymore in use. M Implications of the Nepal Earthquake on the Preparedness of Metro Manila and other Megacities (http:/uap- (http://uap-ea blogspot.com/2015/05/implications-of-nepal-earthquake-on.html) ea,blogspot.com/2015/05/implications-of-nepal-earthquake-on html) In response to the 7.8 magnitude earthquake that struck Nepal on April 25, we cordially invite you to participate in a Roundtable Disc. UAP Emergency Architects ~ Architects for Safer Communities (http/uap- (http:/uap-ea blogspot.com/2015/03/uap-emergency-architects-architects-for htm) ea blogspot.com/2015/03/uap-emergency-architects-architects-for html) By Ar, Rey S. Gabitan ~ Head, UAP-Emergency Architects The Philippines is one of the ten most afflicted countries in the world in terms Forming the UAP Emergency Architects (http://uap-ea.blogspot.com/2015/03/forming-uap-emergency-architects.htmi) Rationale and Objectives: The Philippines is one of the ten most afficted countries in the world in terms of lives and hitp:tuap- ea bogspot.comi2015)0Squdelines-fr-dsastr-reiion him! 19720 Guidelines for Disastr-Resilon Buildings/Stuctures ~ UAP Emergency Architects property los. 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