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Lesson Title: Optimization

Course or Grade Level: Honors Algebra 2/ Calculus


Date: Taught Lesson to Calculus Class: September 19 ; Taught Lesson to Algebra 2: September 22
Teacher(s): Mr. Goff and Ms. Schildhauer Start/end times: Calculus (7:30-8:55am) H. Alg. 2:(9:40-11am.)
Knowledge About Students:
Honors Algebra 2: Students in this course have a variety of different backgrounds. Some students have decided to
make the jump from Level 6 Geometry in order to push themselves to prepare them for Calculus. There are also
many students that have Level 8 Geometry and Level 8 Algebra 1 who are coming from backgrounds that have
pushed them a bit further already. Some students have struggled a lot in multiple ways, in which, for the sake of
moving a bit slower in order to be able to conceptualize things have dropped down to Level 6 Algebra 2. Overall,
the students are willing to try new things, make mistakes and think a little out of the box, and most importantly are
willing to work hard.
Calculus: Students in this course have many different backgrounds as well. There are 13 students in this class, but
many different ability levels. For example, one student is completely in over his head, because he has not
developed good enough background skills to complete the more challenging skills. However, this student is willing
to try hard, and challenge himself. In addition, another student, has pretty severe anxiety issues. She, however, on a
general day is fine, but she expects perfection. So, when she received a bad grade on her test, she immediately has
to regroup and figure out how to improve her grade. Luckily, she understands the main concepts, so her mistakes
seem small and fixable. Overall, the students are very quiet and it can tend to take some time to pull out the
information from them.
Standards: What are the content standards addressed in this lesson?
A.REI.6. Solve systems of equations exactly and approximately (e.g., with graphs), focusing on pairs of linear
equations in two variables.
F.IF.7 Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by hand in simple cases and
using technology for more complicated cases.
A.REI.4 Solve quadratic equations in one variable.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSA.CED.A.1 Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve
problems.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSA.REI.C.6 Solve systems of linear equations exactly and approximately (e.g., with
graphs), focusing on pairs of linear equations in two variables.
What are the practice or process standards that you will highlight in this lesson? (May not be applicable to your
content area.)
Math Practice 1: (Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them) Students will be working with a real
world problem which will allow the students to develop ideas and persevere to solve the problem. This will allow
them to conceptualize the algebra at the end of the lesson.
Math Practice 2: (Reason abstractly and quantitatively) The will have to think a bit out of the box and reason
through how to solve the real world problem.
Math Practice 3: (Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others) Since students will be
Adapted from: Leinwand, S. (2009). Accessible mathematics: 10 instructional shifts that raise student achievement. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Also Adapted from Howard County Public Schools Secondary Mathematics Office

Lesson Title: Optimization


Course or Grade Level: Honors Algebra 2/ Calculus
Date: Taught Lesson to Calculus Class: September 19 ; Taught Lesson to Algebra 2: September 22
Teacher(s): Mr. Goff and Ms. Schildhauer Start/end times: Calculus (7:30-8:55am) H. Alg. 2:(9:40-11am.)
working in groups, there will be many ideas for the students to have to reason out in order to find the maximal area.
Thus, they will have to give good justifications on why their way creates the largest area versus other students
ideas.
Math Practice 4: (Model with mathematics) Using the snap rods we will be able to model areas that represent
mathematical equations. We will also be modeling a real world problem that a student could encounter.
Math Practice 5: (Use appropriate tools strategically) They need to analyze their mathematical tool box, to find
that they need to develop equations for area, perimeter, etc. as well as how to solve a system and things like that.
This would mean they would have to have to collaborate with others to develop the mathematical tools they need to
solve the problem.
Math Practice 6: (Attend to precision) They will have to write a justification for their thoughts on why they have
developed the maximal area as well as their process. Thus, the students are going to practice writing and speaking
to each other in a precise way.
Lesson Objective(s): What skill(s) and
Formative Assessment: What questions, tasks, or
understanding(s) will be developed? What should
prompts will you ask as students work through the
students be able to do or understand after completing
lesson? Match assessment to objective where in the
this lesson?
instruction did you check for understanding of that
Students will be able to
objective?
-Compare and Contrast different ways to find
-Compare and Contrast different ways to find
maximum area.
maximum area:
-Collaborate with other students with mathematical
I plan to ask them questions such as:
precision.
How could you change
-Make connections between real world application of
your measurements to create a larger
maximal area and algebra.
area?
-Justify their solutions to maximal area prompt and
Can you clarify how you
algebraic solution.
choose the numbers that you used?
How could this question
be connected to Algebra?
Could you solve this
same problem using Algebra?
What observations can
make or hypothesize about the problem
before making calculations?
Students will be working on a discovery
learning task that involves the students coming
up with multiple approaches to the task, and then
students will be engaging in discussion with the
teacher to find an algebraic way to solve the
Adapted from: Leinwand, S. (2009). Accessible mathematics: 10 instructional shifts that raise student achievement. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Also Adapted from Howard County Public Schools Secondary Mathematics Office

Lesson Title: Optimization


Course or Grade Level: Honors Algebra 2/ Calculus
Date: Taught Lesson to Calculus Class: September 19 ; Taught Lesson to Algebra 2: September 22
Teacher(s): Mr. Goff and Ms. Schildhauer Start/end times: Calculus (7:30-8:55am) H. Alg. 2:(9:40-11am.)
problem. They will then be able to compare and
contrast these two methods to develop an
understanding. I will be leading and observing
these behaviors.
-Collaborate with other students with mathematical
precision:
I plan to ask them questions such as:
This can be assessed by
observing how many students have
provided input to the group.
Making sure students are
writing down their steps to solve the
problems using correct notation.
Also observing and
being able to correct the way to discuss
mathematics.
Students will be engaging in a
worthwhile task in groups, to encourage
collaboration, to get students to verbalize their
thoughts, and engage in the material. I will be
able to track this through observing and helping
them in their groups.
-Make connections between real world application of
maximal area and algebra:
I plan to ask them questions such as:
How could this question
be connected to Algebra?
Could you solve this
same problem using Algebra?
What observations can
make or hypothesize about the problem
before making calculations?
What can you recall
from other classes that may help you
solve this questions?
Since they will begin the lesson with
making their own gardens, which will help
Adapted from: Leinwand, S. (2009). Accessible mathematics: 10 instructional shifts that raise student achievement. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Also Adapted from Howard County Public Schools Secondary Mathematics Office

Lesson Title: Optimization


Course or Grade Level: Honors Algebra 2/ Calculus
Date: Taught Lesson to Calculus Class: September 19 ; Taught Lesson to Algebra 2: September 22
Teacher(s): Mr. Goff and Ms. Schildhauer Start/end times: Calculus (7:30-8:55am) H. Alg. 2:(9:40-11am.)
them connect later to the worthwhile task. Then
students will apply previous knowledge to the
task, and discuss with the teacher about their
observations.
-Justify their solutions to maximal area prompt and
algebraic solution:
Students will have to write a justification
after their group work, as well as, be able to
explain their thoughts to the class in discussion.
Thus, students will be justifying their answers.
After discovery activity we will discuss
how algebra can help us, I will then give them a
question that they can solve algebraically as well
as write a short paragraph about what they found
in order to make sure they understood the
concept.
Anticipate: What do you expect students might do with this activity? What misconceptions might that have about
this topic?
EXPECTATIONS FOR STUDENTS:
-I think students will be guessing checking to start with, then when I prompt the students with questions like how
could you connect this to algebra or how could you find a way to find a precisely find the maximal area without
guessing and checking.
This should also help me understand what they are taking away from discovery learning activity
and what connections I need to make sure are clear before the end of class.
-I also think the discovery learning activity will help them conceptualize the material, which will help the students
understand the algebraic solutions.
-I think students are going to experiment and ask questions when they do not understand. I also plan on randomly
selecting the groups to help make students collaborate with others. This should help (as suggested in the book)
encourage students to verbalize their ideas, especially students that do not talk much. (Random Group
Assignment)
MISCONCEPTIONS:
-Some possible misconceptions that students may have is that they do not need to use their skills that they just
learned on quadratics to solve the problem.
-Some students might not think to use fractions to solve the problem.
Lesson Launch: Exactly how will you engage students Lesson Closure Notes: Exactly what summary activity,
in the content of the lesson? List how you will build on questions, and discussion will close the lesson and
what students already know, the content to the real
provide a foreshadowing of the next lesson? List the
Adapted from: Leinwand, S. (2009). Accessible mathematics: 10 instructional shifts that raise student achievement. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Also Adapted from Howard County Public Schools Secondary Mathematics Office

Lesson Title: Optimization


Course or Grade Level: Honors Algebra 2/ Calculus
Date: Taught Lesson to Calculus Class: September 19 ; Taught Lesson to Algebra 2: September 22
Teacher(s): Mr. Goff and Ms. Schildhauer Start/end times: Calculus (7:30-8:55am) H. Alg. 2:(9:40-11am.)
world, and/ or provide opportunities for students to
questions and how you will organize the students to share
notice and wonder.
their ideas. This is how you connect back to your
(5-7 minutes)
objective and the CONTENT of the lesson. Indicate plans
To motivate and engage student in mathematical
for student self-evaluation.
thinking I will ask them the following questions that
(10 minutes)
will lead into the discovery learning activity:
Discussion Based Closure Activity:
If we were to create the G&S garden
I will pose questions on the board:
what would you want it to look like?
How did doing the fencing activity help
What vegetables would you put into
us develop the algebraic way to solve the
your garden?
problem?
Would your garden have fencing?
What skills did we need to solve this
Would your garden have stepping
problem?
stones?
What challenges did you have to
overcome in your problem?
How could we use this concept in the
This will encourage students to think about something
real world?
not directly related to mathematics, but will get them
engaged in what we will be doing in the lesson for that Then I will ask the students on a sticky note to write 1
question they still have and leave it on the whiteboard
class period.
when class is over.
I will then for homework or if I have extra time use as an
exit ticket to evaluate what they gained from the lesson.
It will be a very similar problem, but I want to see the
individual student's progress as well as the class.
Lesson Tasks, Problems, and/or Activities (attach student handouts or other resources needed): What specific
activities, investigations, problems, questions, or tasks will students be working on during the lesson? Include
details, questions, and ideas for how you will facilitate the student engagement in the learning. The focus is on
what students will be doing. Make sure you include all your questions throughout the lesson.
Discovery Lesson Activity:
I will organize the desks into groups to encourage collaboration for the task. Each group of tables will have the
snap rods at each table for them to manipulate to complete the task. As well as sheet to help them organize their
findings (sheet is attached).
The activity is as follows:
Students will use the snap rods to construct the shape that I have provided them.
The prompt is as follows:
I am currently trying to set up my garden in order to grow tomatoes and pumpkins. I have set the garden up in a
similar shape as given (will show using the rods). I have been given 100 feet of fencing for my garden. My
Adapted from: Leinwand, S. (2009). Accessible mathematics: 10 instructional shifts that raise student achievement. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Also Adapted from Howard County Public Schools Secondary Mathematics Office

Lesson Title: Optimization


Course or Grade Level: Honors Algebra 2/ Calculus
Date: Taught Lesson to Calculus Class: September 19 ; Taught Lesson to Algebra 2: September 22
Teacher(s): Mr. Goff and Ms. Schildhauer Start/end times: Calculus (7:30-8:55am) H. Alg. 2:(9:40-11am.)
question I need help with is, how can I use the fencing to maximize the total area of my garden?
The students will have to recall how to find area and how to solve systems of equations. This activity will prompt
the students to conceptualize the algebra that we are about to teach them.
The lesson will begin with the lesson opener, which I plan will take approximately 30 minutes. They will be able
review the prompt and write down their data that they have found. Then we will discuss their results. This will be a
great transition into how the algebra can help us consistently solve this problem. Thus, this will lead to the
following discussion questions:
How could we develop two equations using the material given?
How could we use the prior knowledge on quadratics and the equations we have developed to
solve the problem?
Could we represent this problem graphically to help us find the maximal area?
What resources do we have to solve this problem?
Then students and I will solve the problem algebraically, and explain how this can consistently solve these types of
problems. (30 minutes)
Then we will have a closure activity with their group as a discussion based, with a sticky note that still allows the
students to ask questions. (10 minutes)
Evidence of Success: Ask yourself, What exactly do I expect students to be able to do by the end of the lesson,
and how will I measure student understanding? Consider the specific performances that will convince you (and
any outside observer) that your students have developed a deepened (and conceptual) understanding of the
content..
-I want the students to be able to understand the concept of optimization. I want them to understand that the
algebraic way is a tool that will allow us to find the maximal and minimal area for a variety of areas.
-I hope that the students will be able to understand how to properly justify their mathematics problems, and I will
be able to tell through the closure activity!
Resources and Materials: What materials or
resources are essential for students to successfully
complete the lesson tasks or activities?
-Snap Rods
-Worksheet
-Presentation
-Small White Boards
-Playing Cards for grouping

Notes and Nuances: Vocabulary, connections, common


mistakes, typical misconceptions, etc.
-Vocabulary: Maximal, Minimal, Optimization, System
of Equations, Quadratics, Area, Perimeter, Vertex, xintercepts, standard form, factoring

Adapted from: Leinwand, S. (2009). Accessible mathematics: 10 instructional shifts that raise student achievement. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Also Adapted from Howard County Public Schools Secondary Mathematics Office

Lesson Title: Optimization


Course or Grade Level: Honors Algebra 2/ Calculus
Date: Taught Lesson to Calculus Class: September 19 ; Taught Lesson to Algebra 2: September 22
Teacher(s): Mr. Goff and Ms. Schildhauer Start/end times: Calculus (7:30-8:55am) H. Alg. 2:(9:40-11am.)
Lesson Reflections: What questions, connected to the lesson objectives and evidence of success, will you use to
reflect on the effectiveness of this lesson? This question is about your own reflection of the lesson. What do you
want to ask yourself about how the lesson?
Answer:
How in this lesson did you . . .

Engage students in productive struggle?


I really enjoyed engaging with the students in productive struggle. I enjoyed thinking of questions that
would probe students/ scaffold students in order to help lead them to understanding the problem. I was
able to sit and interact with students about what they remembered about area as we went through the
process of guessing and checking. Seeing that guessing and checking is a natural first response when
problem solving, we developed almost like a competition on who could get the highest area. Then we
discussed that there are infinitely many ways to solve the problem by guessing and checking, so we need
to find another way to represent the problem. Throughout each of these steps of problem solving, I gave
the students time to think through what we discussed out loud, which allowed them to start thinking of
other ways to solve the problem. I was also able to learn more about, what Mr. Goff calls is their
mathematical story. What background knowledge does each student have that can help them, what did
they really understand about the last unit on parabolas, do we need to make sure certain skills have been
mastered before moving on. Thus, as a teacher, I was able to engage in discussions which allowed me to
gain more knowledge about them. In addition, some students were able to lead the class discussion, they
were able to discuss that this question turns into a parabola that will have a maximum value. It was great
to see how much the students engaged and understood the task they were challenged with.

Get students to think and make connections?


Students were able to think and make connections from collaborating with their classmates, asking me
really good questions, and through my questioning. I listed the questions I thought might help during the
lesson in the lesson plan, and luckily my hard work paid off. The questions I developed helped take the
lesson to a different level. I also found it satisfying that I made the groups randomly by handing out cards
(which were related to a group of desks in the classroom), and the random groups helped keep the lesson
going. I think students felt like they were able to express themselves, and justify answers easier. Students
were also able to develop connections in the Calculus class, of how the mathematics you learn in Algebra
2 are vital to learning calculus. It was great to see, how the students used that prior knowledge to solve the
problem. Overall, seeing through their reflection questions and their post-it notes, it was very clear that
students were developing a complete understanding.

Provide support for each student?


Adapted from: Leinwand, S. (2009). Accessible mathematics: 10 instructional shifts that raise student achievement. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Also Adapted from Howard County Public Schools Secondary Mathematics Office

Lesson Title: Optimization


Course or Grade Level: Honors Algebra 2/ Calculus
Date: Taught Lesson to Calculus Class: September 19 ; Taught Lesson to Algebra 2: September 22
Teacher(s): Mr. Goff and Ms. Schildhauer Start/end times: Calculus (7:30-8:55am) H. Alg. 2:(9:40-11am.)

I felt like I was able to provide support for each student. I was constantly going around the room
observing what they had come up with. This allowed for a more discussion because I could see where
they were going with a problem and was able to discuss successes I saw in the classroom. I specifically
had one student that was very quiet, figure out the answer before her groupmates, and I asked her to share
with the group and she was able to explain because I praised her for her work. Eventually, students may
come out of their shell if they truly believe what they have to say it worthwhile. Thus, it was good to see
that I was able to connect with that student. Overall, I felt like each student felt comfortable asking
questions and engaged with the group, which verified to me that I was able to support each student.
Further Reflection:
This lesson went very well for both classes that I taught it in. I think students really liked the
manipulatives and how realistic the question was. I was able to see this because students when we were
reflecting explained how they thought the concept could apply to a real world situation. The biggest
change I would have made to my lesson plan, was changing the amount of fencing that I provided them.
Giving the students 100 feet of fencing created some large fractions that made them very frustrated as we
neared the end of problem. The students were happy that they were able to make the connections between
the problem and real life, but got discouraged when they ran into large numbers in the end.
I learned a lot from debriefing with my mentor teacher. He explained that my questions were well thought
out and how, I could change a couple things that would help the students make connections. For example,
when I taught the lesson to the Calculus class, I realized I needed to make sure students understood that
guessing and checking is okay. Thus, for the next time I taught it I drew up gardens and asked groups to
write up solutions they had for the problem.
Planning:
My initial thoughts for this lesson were how can I connect to the students? What are some activities that
students could relate to? I realized, since we live in a rural area, where people see gardens and farms on a
daily basis, I thought everyone would be able to relate to a garden. I also thought about what is a shape
that most students would remember the area and perimeter equations for. I wanted to make sure the
activity was not to challenging since this is the beginning of this unit. This turned out to work extremely
well!
Adapted from: Leinwand, S. (2009). Accessible mathematics: 10 instructional shifts that raise student achievement. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Also Adapted from Howard County Public Schools Secondary Mathematics Office

Lesson Title: Optimization


Course or Grade Level: Honors Algebra 2/ Calculus
Date: Taught Lesson to Calculus Class: September 19 ; Taught Lesson to Algebra 2: September 22
Teacher(s): Mr. Goff and Ms. Schildhauer Start/end times: Calculus (7:30-8:55am) H. Alg. 2:(9:40-11am.)

I choose to start out with the activity because it engaged students and make them think outside the box.
This allowed students to feel like they were involved in their learning. Then, it was great to foster
discussion about the problem and develop the steps to solving the problem on the board. I had planned in
this order hoping this would happen, and it was great to see that it did.
I did not forget to plan for anything, I had an extra activity in case we had extra time, we did use it in the
Algebra 2, because they wanted more examples!
Overall, I thought the lesson went very well both times I taught it!

Adapted from: Leinwand, S. (2009). Accessible mathematics: 10 instructional shifts that raise student achievement. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Also Adapted from Howard County Public Schools Secondary Mathematics Office