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Squaring numbers between 40 and 60. Prerequisites: One should remember squares of numbers up to 9 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64, 81, Steps Note 1: Take 50 as the reference 1. Subtract 50 from the given number. Note2: This number is +ve or negative as the number is more or less than 50. 2. Find the square of this number and get the least significant two digits. Note 3: If the difference is less than 4 then the two occupied digits shoulld be 01, 04 or 09. 3. Add or subtract the difference to 25 and get the last two digits of the square. Example1: Find the square of 47 47 Step1 gives the difference as -3 Step 2 gives the first two digits of the square as 09 Step 3 gives the last two digits of the square as 25 -3 = 22 And the result is 2209.

472 = 2209 Example2: Find the square of 56 Step1 gives the difference as +6 Step 2 gives the first two digits of the square as 36 Step 3 gives the last two digits of the square as 25 +6 = 31 And the result is 3136. 562 = 3136

Squaring numbers less than 40 and more than 60 Prerequisites: One should remember squares from 10 to 25. The same steps are to be followed but this time the difference is more than 10 and the square of the difference is a three digit number. Just take the hundreds digit as carry and add to the result of step 3. Example3: Find the square of 38 Step 1 gives the difference as -12 (-12)2 = 144 First two digits are 44 the last two digits are 25 -12 +1 ( carry) = 14 the result is 1444 382 = 1444

Example4: Find the square of 63 Step 1 gives the difference as 13 132 = 169 First two digits are 69 the last two digits are 25 +13 +1 ( carry) = 39 the result is 3969 632 = 3969

Squaring numbers close to 100 Numbers between 90 and 110 Note 1: Take 100 as the reference 1. Subtract 100 from the given number. Note2: This number is +ve or negative as the number is more or less than 100. 2. Find the square of this number and get the least significant two digits. Note 3: If the difference is less than 4 then the two occupied digits should be 01, 04 or 09.

3.

Add or subtract the difference to the number itself ( unlike 25 in the previous case) and get the last two digits of the square.

Example5: Find the square of 93

Step1 gives the difference as -7 Step 2 gives the first two digits of the square as 49 Step 3 gives the last two digits of the square as 93 -7 = 86 And the result is 8649. The square of 93 is 8649

Example6: 104 Step1 gives the difference as 4 Step 2 gives the first two digits of the square as 16 Step 3 gives the last two digits of the square as 104 +4 = 108 And the result is 10816. The square of 104 is 10816 Example7: 86 Step 1 gives the difference with 100 as -14 142 = 196 First two digits are 96 the last two digits are 86-14 +1 ( carry) = 73 the result is 7396 862 = 7396

Squaring numbers close to 200 Numbers between 190 and 210 Note 1: Take 200 as the reference 1. Subtract 200 from the given number. Note2: This number is +ve or negative as the number is more or less than 200. 2. Find the square of this number and get the least significant two digits. Note 3: If the difference is less than 4 then the two occupied digits should be 01, 04 or 09.

3.

Add or subtract the difference to the number itself multiply the result by 2 and get the remaining digits of the square.

Example8: Find the square of 193 Step1 gives the difference with 200 as -7 Step 2 gives the first two digits of the square as 49 Step 3 gives the remaining digits of the square as 2*(193 -7) = 372 And the result is 37249. The square of 193 is 37249

Example9: 204 Step1 gives the difference with 200 as 4

Step 2 gives the first two digits of the square as 16 Step 3 gives the remaining digits of the square as 2*(204 +4) = 416 And the result is 41616. The square of 204 is 41616 Example10: 186 Step 1 gives the difference with 200 as -14 142 = 196 First two digits are 96 the remaining digits are 2*(186-14) +1 ( carry) = 345 the result is 34596 1862 = 34596

Squaring numbers close to 300 Numbers between 290 and 310 Note 1: Take 300 as the reference 1. Subtract 300 from the given number. Note2: This number is +ve or negative as the number is more or less than 300. 2. Find the square of this number and get the least significant two digits.

**Note 3: If the difference is less than 4 then the two occupied digits should be 01, 04 or 09.
**

3.

Add or subtract the difference to the number itself multiply the result by 3 and get the remaining digits of the square.

Example8: Find the square of 293 Step1 gives the difference with 200 as -7 Step 2 gives the first two digits of the square as 49 Step 3 gives the remaining digits of the square as 3*(293 -7) = 858 And the result is 85849. The square of 293 is 85849

Example9: 304 Step1 gives the difference with 300 as 4 Step 2 gives the first two digits of the square as 16 Step 3 gives the remaining digits of the square as 3*(304 +4) = 924 And the result is 92416. The square of 304 is 92416 Example10: Find the square of 286 Step 1 gives the difference with 200 as -14 142 = 196

First two digits are 96 the remaining digits are 3*(286-14) +1 ( carry) = 3*272 +1 = 817 the result is 81796 2862 = 81796 This leads to a simple generalisation for numbers close to nth 100. e.g. : with 400 as the base the multiplier is 4. With 600 as the base 6 is the multiplier. Students should try to generalise the rule and verify the result with the calculator for themselves.

For Number close to 500 a method similar to the one for 50 can be extended. Squaring numbers between 490 and 510. Prerequisites: One should remember squares of numbers upto 9 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64, 81, Steps Note 1: Take 500 as the reference 1. Subtract 500 from the given number. Note2: This number is +ve or negative as the number is more or less than 50.

2.

Find the square of this number and get the least significant three digits.

Note 3: If the difference is less than 4 then the three occupied digits should be 001, 004 or 009.

3.

Add or subtract the difference to 250 and get the remaining digits of the square.

Example1: Find the square of 497 497 Step1 gives the difference with 500 as -3 Step 2 gives the first three digits of the square as 009 Step 3 gives the last two digits of the square as 250 -3 = 247 And the result is 247009. 4972 = 247009 Example2: Find the square of 506 Step1 gives the difference as +6 Step 2 gives the first two digits of the square as 036 Step 3 gives the last two digits of the square as 250 +6 = 256 And the result is 256036. 5062 = 256036

Squaring numbers less than 490 and more than 510 Prerequisites: One should remember squares from 10 to 25.

The same steps are to be followed but this time the difference is more than 10 and the square of the difference is a three digit number. Example3: Find the square of 488 Step 1 gives the difference as -12 (-12)2 = 144 First three digits are 144 the remaining digits are 250 -12 = 238 the result is 238144 4882 = 238144

Example4: Find the square of 513 Step 1 gives the difference as 13 132 = 169 First three digits are 169 the remaining digits are 250 +13 = 263 the result is 263169 5132 = 263169 ***************************************************************

Some general techniques Start with a very simple case of squaring numbers of the form

10x +5 The square is simply 100x(x+1) +25 which helps writing the square instantly. Examples 152 = 225 obtained by writing 25 and prefixing it with 1*(1+1) =2 652 = 4225 obtained by writing 25 and prefixing it with 6*(6+1) =42 1052 = 11025 obtained by writing 25 and prefixing it with 10*(10+1) =110 Having found an easy trick for squaring numbers ending in 5 we can find the square of other numbers as follows like for numbers ending in 6. (10x +6)2 = (10x +5)2 + (10x +5) + (10x +6) The first part on the right side can be evaluated by the previous trick and then what remains is to add (10x +5) and then (10x +6). Example: 362 = 352 +35 +36 = 1225 +35 +36 = 1296 Example: 962 = 952 +95 +96 = 9025 +95 +96 = 9216

Having found an easy trick for squaring numbers ending in 5 we can find the square of other numbers as follows like for numbers ending in 4. (10x +4)2 = (10x +5)2 - (10x +5) - (10x +4) The first part on the right side can be evaluated by the previous trick and then what remains is to subtract (10x +5) and then (10x +4). Example: 342 = 352 -35 -34 = 1225 -35 -34 = 1156 Example: 942 = 952 -95 -94 = 9025 -189 = 8836

Note: There are better tricks to find square of numbers close to 100 explained in coming pages. Having found an easy trick for squaring numbers ending in 5 we can also find the square of other numbers as follows like for numbers ending in 3. (10x +3)2 = (10x +5)2 -4*(10x+4) The first part on the right side can be evaluated by the previous trick and then what remains is to subtract twice (10x +4) . Example: 332 = 352 -4*34 = 1225 -136 = 1089 Example: 932 = 952 -4*94 = 9025 -476 = 8649 Having found an easy trick for squaring numbers ending in 5 we can find the square of other numbers as follows like for numbers ending in 7. (10x +7)2 = (10x +5)2 + 4* (10x +6) The first part on the right side can be evaluated easily and then what remains is to add 4 times (10x +6). Example: 372 = 352 + 4*36 = 1225 + 144 = 1369 Example: 972 = 952 + 4*96 = 9025 + 384 = 9409 For numbers of the type 10x +1 the method is (10x+1)2 = 100x2 + 10x + (10x +1) 312 = 302 + 30 + 31 = 961 912 = 902 + 90 + 91 = 8100 + 181 = 8281 For numbers of the type 10x +2

(10x+2)2 = 100x2 + 4(10x +1) 422 = 402 + 4*(41) = 1600 + 164 = 1764 822 = 802 + 4*(81) = 6400 + 324 = 6724

For numbers of the type 10x -1 the method is (10x-1)2 = 100x2 -10x -(10x +1) 292 = 302 - 30 - 29 = 841 892 = 902 - 90 - 89 = 8100 - 179 = 7921 For numbers of the type 10x -2 (10x-2)2 = 100x2 - 4(10x +1) 382 = 402 - 4*(39) = 1600 -156 = 1444 782 = 802 - 4*(79) = 6400 - 316 = 6084

Note: Suitable trick is chosen as per whether the unit place is smaller than 5 and close to 5 or 0 else the unit place is larger than 5 and close to 5 or 10.

**BEAUTIFUL NUMBER PATTERNS
**

1x8+1=9 12 x 8 + 2 = 98 123 x 8 + 3 = 987 1234 x 8 + 4 = 9876 12345 x 8 + 5 = 98765 123456 x 8 + 6 = 987654 1234567 x 8 + 7 = 9876543 12345678 x 8 + 8 = 98765432 123456789 x 8 + 9 = 987654321 1 x 9 + 2 = 11 12 x 9 + 3 = 111 123 x 9 + 4 = 1111 1234 x 9 + 5 = 11111 12345 x 9 + 6 = 111111 123456 x 9 + 7 = 1111111 1234567 x 9 + 8 = 11111111 12345678 x 9 + 9 = 111111111 123456789 x 9 +10= 1111111111 9 x 9 + 7 = 88 98 x 9 + 6 = 888 987 x 9 + 5 = 8888 9876 x 9 + 4 = 88888 98765 x 9 + 3 = 888888 987654 x 9 + 2 = 8888888 9876543 x 9 + 1 = 88888888 98765432 x 9 + 0 = 888888888 And finally, take a look at this symmetry: 1x1=1 11 x 11 = 121 111 x 111 = 12321 1111 x 1111 = 1234321 11111 x 11111 = 123454321 111111 x 111111 = 12345654321 1111111 x 1111111 = 1234567654321 11111111 x 11111111 = 123456787654321 111111111 x 111111111=12345678987654321

Leibnitz sequ

1 3 2 1 7 12 1 4 9 8 4 5 2 27 9 7 2 64 16 9 2 125 30 36 25 11

3

Moessner’s Ma 19 37 61

18 16 24 25

6 1 2 3 4 566 7 8 9 10611 12

From 2n to n2 !

Moessner’s Ma

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 3 6 1 4 1 11 17 24 33 43 54 15 32 16 65 108

Moessner’s Magic

81

From9 10 114 ! 13 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 4n to n 12

2 6 11 18 26 35 6 24 50 24 46 58 71

96 154 225 120 274 120

New mental arithmetic techniques/tricks AMARNATH MURTHY CHIEF ENGINEER (ELEX & TELCOM) ONGC, AHMEDABAD, INDIA

Fifth root of a 10 digit numbers which are perfect fifth powers. First we have to list from 1 to 9. 1 , 32, 243, 1024, and memorise the fifth power of numbers 3125, 7776, 16807, 32768, 59049 A^5 Ξ A mod 10. ( A

The beauty is the unit digit is the same. =1 to 9)

Consider an up to 10 digit number as a fifth power of a two digit number. If the number has n digits n <= 10, consider the number formed by the n-5 MSDs ( most significant digits). Let it be N Find numbers r and r +1 such that r^5 < N < (r +1)^5. Let the unit digit of the given number be ‘a’. Then digit ‘r ‘ followed by digit ‘ a’ is the required fifth root. Example : find the fifth root of 656356768 . The unit digit of the fifth root is 8. Leaving first five digits we have 6563. 5^5 = 3125 < 6563 < 7776 = 6^5 hence the tens digit is 5 The answer is 58. In fact one need not know the digit 2nd to 5th . i.e. if the perfect fifth power number given is 6563 _ _ _ _8 , still one can find the fifth root.

Fifth root of a 15 digit number Finding the fifth root of a 15 digit number involves the knowledge of some more concepts in mathematics. i.e. modular arithmetic.

Number N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Multiple of 11

N^5 1 32 243 1024 3125 7776 16807 32768 59049 -

N^5 mod 9 1 5 9 7 2 9 4 8 9 -

N^5 mod 11 1 10 1 1 1

10

10 10 1 11 **

**Just remember that 1. Mod 9 values for 1 , 8 and 9 are the same (1,8,9)
**

2.

Mod 9 value for 2 is 5 , 5 is 2 , 4 is 7 and 7 is 4.

3. Mod 9 values for 3, 6 and 9 is 9. This creates the problem and one can not uniquely find the number ( the fifth root). Mod 11 values for 3, 6, 9 come to the rescue with some intelligent estimation. Example1: 49420005843968 Step1. Make groups of five digit numbers from the right. 4942 00058 43968

Step 2. The first group gives unit digit 8.

Step3. Consider the last group 4942. It lies between 3125 and 7776 i.e. 5^5 and 6^5. Hence the third digit is 5. What remains is to find the middle digit. Let it be A. The required number is 5A8. Step4. Find 49420005843968 mod 9 i.e. the digital root of the number. Go on summing the digits till one arrives at a single digit number. Or by casting out 9 from 49420005843968 we get 8. 8 corresponds to 8 from the table. Hence 5A8 mod 9 = 8 which gives 5 + A + 8 = 17 => X = 4. And the answer is 548. Note1: The question that may arise in one’s mind is, as to why the sum is chosen as 17 and why not 26. The answer is simple; A is a single digit number. In case of a number like 9A9 with mod 9 value as 8 the obvious choice for the sum is 26. 9+A+9 =26 which would have given A =8. Note2: In this case the mod 9 value is other than 9 hence the need to examine mod 11 does not arise. Let us take another example. Example 2: 58602385427607 Step1: group the numbers as below. 5860 23854 27607

The first group on the right gives unit digit as 7. Step 2. 5860 lies between 3125= 5^5 and 7776= 6^5. This gives the last digit as 5. Let the middle digit be A

Then the number is 5A7. Step3 Find the mod 9 value for 58602385427607. This comes out to be 9. 9 corresponds to 3, 6 or 9 in the table. There are three possibilities 5A7 mod 9 = 3 A = 0 or 9 suggesting 5A7 mod 9 = 6 A = 3 suggesting 537 5A7 mod 9 = 9 A = 6 suggesting 567. From here there are two methods First method ( an intelligent guess).This requires a good number sense. Consider 5860. It lies almost half way through 3125 and 7776.( slightly on a higher side at about 60%). The intuitional guess suggests that 567 should be the answer. Note; The most significant 4 digits would be closer to 3125 in 507^5 and to 7776 in 597^5. 507^5 = 33499613519307, 597^5 = 75835343042757 Second method: This method does not leave scope for any confusion or ambiguity. Consider the mod 11 value of 58602385427607 Sum (1st digit +3rd digit +... ) – Sum (2nd digit + 4th digit + ...) (7 +6 +2+5 + 3+0+8) –(0+7+4+8+2+6+5) = 31 – 32 = -10 -10 +11 1 507 or 597

With mod 9 value as 9 and mod 11 value as 1 the two possibilities are ( 3 and 9) ;507 and 567 which clearly suggests 567 as the right choice for 5860 is more close to 7776 than to 3125. Note: In case the number is a multiple of 11 so would be the fifth root and to solve for A the middle digit, use the equation first digit + third digit = A+11 Finding out the seventh root of 14 and 21 digit numbers. Number N N^7 Mod 9 Mod 11 1 1 1 1 2 128 2 7 3 2187 9 9 4 16384 4 5 5 78125 5 3 6 279936 9 8 7 823543 7 6 8 2097152 8 2 9 4782969 9 4 Multiple of 11 11 First one has to memorise this table which is not very difficult after some practice. No need for learning it by heart. 1. The unit digits are 1 1, 28,37, 44, 55, 6 6, 73, 82, 99 The same as those for cubes.

2.

The beauty of mod 9 values is one has N^7 mod 9 Ξ N, except for numbers 3,6, and 9.

3. The mod 11 values are unique. Hence considering mod 11 values suffices. Note: It is advisable to check for mod 9 values first. If it does not come out to be 9 then the solution is immediate

else either intelligent guess might work or in the worst case one has to go for mod 11 values.

For up to 14 digit number one need not even need or remember the 7th power of 1 to 9. Example1: 2207984167552 The unit digit is 8. Let the tens digit be A. The number required is A8. 2207984167552 mod 11 can be obtained difference of alternate digit ( odd – even) sums. as the

2207984167552 mod 11 = 9 which corresponds to 3 A8 mod 11 = 3 which gives A = 5 ( simply by testing for 18,28,38,48,58,68,...etc) And the seventh root is 58. For more than 15 digit one has to remember the 7th power of 1 to 9. Example2: 14652484962038521963 Step 1: group the numbers in set of 7 digits from he right. 146524 8496203 8521963

The fist group gives unit digit as 7 146524 lies between 78125= 5^7 and 279936 = 6^7 Hence third digit is 5 Let the middle digit be A then the required numbers is 5A7. N = 14652484962038521963

N mod 9 = 7 and the number corresponding to it is 7 Hence 5A7 mod 9 = 7. 5 +A +7 = 16 giving A = 4. And the required 7th root is 547.

The technique works for cube roots as well.

9th root of 27 digit numbers. Number N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Multiple of 11 N^9 1 512 19683 262144 1953125 10077696 40353607 134217728 387420489 N^9 mod 9 1 8 9 1 8 9 1 8 9 N^9 mod 11 1 6 4 3 9 2 8 7 5 0

Unit digits directly follow. The mod 9 values are not useful. Mod 11 values are all different. Hence it is easy to uniquely identify the number. For an 18 digit number it is not required to even memorise the 9th powers of numbers 1 through 9.

Number N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Multiple of 11

N^11 1 2048 177147 4194304 48828125 362797056 1977326743 8589934592 31381059609 -

N^11 mod 9 1 5 9 7 2 9 4 8 9 -

N^11 mod 11 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

For up to a 22 digit number perfect 11th power, one need not require to know or remember the 11th power of 1 to 9 to find out the 11th root. And the beauty is that the mod 11 values are identical to the number itself. Example1: 313726685568359708377 Unit digit is obviously 3. Let the tens digit be A A3 mod 11 = 313726685568359708377 mod 11 = 7 The 11th root is 73. Example 2: 30155888444737842659 Unit digit is 9. Let the tens digit be A. A9 mod 11 = 30155888444737842659 mod 11 = 4 That gives A = 5 and the 11th root is 59.

There are easy vedic methods to multiply numbers close to 100 or 1000 etc. By choosing appropriate bases. But these method loses its advantage for numbers in between like 46* 58. Here is another method which is general and more suitable for better estimates. If no rounding off is applied the method gives correct answers. We can use the identities 1. A*B = (A+x)* (B – B*x/(A+x)) 2. A*B = (A-x)* (B + B*x/(A-x)). The following example will explain it better.

489*512

...... choose x = 11

= 500*( 512 - 512*11/500) = 500*(512 -5632 /500) ---- >> using short cut multiplication by 11 =500*(512- 11.264) = 500*(500.736) (divide by 2) for

= 250368 (halve the right member and remove the decimal point)

Alternately using the second formula 512*489 choose x = 12.

=500*( 489 + 489*12/500) =500*(489 + 5868/500) multiplication By 12 using short cut for

=500*( 489 +11.736) =500*500.736 (halves the right member and removes the decimal point.) =250368

This method is more suitable for rounding off estimates for multiplication of say numbers like 4.89 * 5.12 up to two decimal places. Let us try some rounding off techniques and check the error.

4.89*5.12 Step one find out 489*512 489*512 = 500 * (512- 512*11/500) = 500*(512 -5632 /500) = 500*(512 -5600 /500) roughly 500* (512- 11.2) 500*500.8 =25040 Approx. Value = 25.040 The correct value is 25.0368

Example1: 3.84* 8.57 = 400* ( 857 – 857*16/400) choosing x = 16

=400* (857 – 857/25) multiply by 4 and place the decimal accordingly = 400* (857 -34.28) = 400* 821.72 = 400* 822 328800 32.88 The right answer is 400* 82172/10000 =32.9088.

example 3: 988*456 Choose x = 12 = 1000*(456 – 456*12/1000) = 1000* ( 456 – 5472/1000) = 1000* (456 – 5.472) = 1000*450.528 = 450528

Multiply two digit numbers with 9 AB > AA THEN AB*9 = A_ X_ (10-B) where X is obtained by the equation

A + X + ( 10-B) = 9K, K = 1 or 2. If AB < = AA then 9AB = (A-1)_ X_ (10-B) and X is obtained by

(A-1) + X + ( 10-B) = 9K, K = 1 or 2. Example1: 48*9 48 > 44 hence hundreds digit is 4 10-8 = 2 unit digit is 2 Let the middle digit be A 4A2 is the number and A = 9 – 4-2 = 3 48*9 = 432. Example2: 87*9 87< 88 hence hundres digit is 8-1 = 7 Unit digit = 10-7 = 3, Let middle digit be A The number is ‘7A3’ in which 7 + A + 3 = 18 A = 8 87*9 = 783.

Multiplying by 9 (general method) Example 1: 548*9 Technique: Unit digit is 10-unit of multiplicand. One borrowed from tens digit mandatorily. For rest of the digits borrow one from the left if needed and then subtract the left Unit place 10- 8 Tens place 7-4 = 3 Hundreds place 14-5 = 9

One borrowed from 5 hence Last digit is 4 The answer is 548*9 = 4932. Example 2: 666*9 Unit place 10 – 6 =4 Tens place 15-6 = 9 Hundreds place 15-6 = 9 Last digit 6-1 = 5 Answer is 5994 = 666*9 Example 3: 12345678*9 10-8=2, 7-7 = 0, 7-6 = 1, 6-5=1, 5-4 =1, 4-3=1, 3-2=1, 2-1=1, and 1-0 = 1 111111102

This article contains some tricks to quickly find the squares of numbers

This article contains some tricks to quickly find the squares of numbers

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