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Annotated Bibliography

Primary Sources:
1. Bayh, Birch. "Title IX - Legislative History." Title IX History. Accessed November 30,
This primary details Birch Bayhs personal fight to push Title IX of the Education Amendments
through Congress. This source details Bayhs work and experiences, known as the Father of
Title IX with advocating the passage of Title IX. Birch Bayh wrote Title IX -- just one
sentence long -- and moved in the Senate to have it added to the reauthorization bill. Bayh and
other senators overcame parliamentary objections to Title IX in multiple sessions of Congress.
2. "Faces of Title IX." National Women's Law Center. 2012. Accessed September 27, 2016.
This website gives personal stories from primary sources that reported on their Title IX
experiences. The National Womens Law Center has worked for more than 40 years to protect
and promote equality and opportunity for women and families, and their website shares womens
first hand experiences with the statute and how it affects them, present day. This source will
provide us with a very feminist perspective, advocating for the equality of women, to this day.
This website advocates for federal policies to determine whether schools are reporting accurate
numbers on their student athletes, with connections and analysis compared to the legal aspect of
Title IX.
3. Gilder, Ginny. Course Correction: A Story of Rowing and Resilience in the Wake of Title
IX. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 2015.
This book which was recently written offers a new perspective and account on one of the most
significant examples of activism during the Title IX controversy/protests. This primary source
was written by one of the women of the 1975-1979 Yale womens rowing team. The Title IX
protests in the 70s affected many women's (and in some cases, mens) sports teams. This more
modern perspective allows readers to connect this crucial time in our history with our life now.
4. Hanlon, Philip J. "It Is Time For Dartmouth To Change." Address, University of
Dartmouth, Hanover, April 16, 2014.
This primary source of a speech addressed by Philip Hanlon, about his opinion on the injustice of
the schools behavior. He believed that the school was majorly disconnected, and firmly portrays
his idea that in order to keep Dartmouth a happy and well respected school, they need to "elevate
the human spirit" and make all equal.
5. Historic Title IX Turns 40, CBS interview. Accessed through YouTube Oct. 13, 2016.
This is an interview conducted by CBS, that provides great primary information about the
positive effect of Title IX in the eyes of Billie Jean King and Mia Hamm. in this interview, with
the two prominent female athletes, they state that Title IX was the main cause for their great

success in the sports industry. This interview will also give us great insight on the 40 years post
title IX was established, therefore it will show the long term effects.
6. King, Billie Jean. "Perspectives: Billie Jean King on Title IX 40th Anniversary." Medium
Topper Video Player. June 22, 2012. Accessed October 15, 2016.
This is a primary interview with one of the the emblems of Title IX, Billie Jean King. She
reflects back on the immediate and long term effects of her matches and progress for Title IX.
She started the Womens Sports Foundation and is one of the iconic symbols of Title IX. She
reflects on her struggles being one of the first successful women athletes after Title IX. She also
talks about her influence on young athletes.
7. King, John. "Questions and Answers on Title IX and Sexual Violence." United States
Department of Education. April 9, 2014. Accessed September 28, 2016.
This source is directly from the United States Department of Education and is written by the
secretary of the government organization, John King. This source outlines many of the
frequently asked questions regarding things that correlates to our topic, Title IX. We will be able
to use this source to not only gain more knowledge and understanding of the issue but also be
able to further educate viewers of our project who may have similar questions.
8. "Title IX." The United States Department of Justice. Accessed October 13, 2016.
This is a primary source directly from the US Department of Justice. It most importantly gives
the direct words from the Education Amendments in 1972, along with Title IXs legislative
history and purpose. It has the layout from which Title IX directly states its purpose as a federal
law. This source will give our project informative and accurate legislative history of the federal
law, as well as direct complaints of Title IX and procedures used to enact Title IX.
9. Women's

Sports Foundation. Sports and Athletes: Opposing Viewpoints. San Diego:

Greenhaven Press, 2005. 113-133
This source gives us the insight on the opposing viewpoints that are mentioned when discussing
title IX and the sports industry. The womens sports foundation, founded by Billie Jean King,
provides great insight on the points that each side is trying to get across. Those benefiting from
Title IX and those who are at a disadvantage because of title IX. This book will be used in the
effects section to explain the significant Title IX has made on the sports industry.
Secondary Sources:
10. Covington, Elle. "On Women's Equality Day, A Very Brief Timeline Of Feminist History
In America." Bustle. 2015. Accessed December 04, 2016.

This secondary source gave us a greater understanding about the context of the women's rights
movements progression throughout all of history. We learned about the different waves of
feminism starting with the first waves, the womens suffrage movement. Then the second wave,
the womens liberation movement, and finally the third wave, today.
11. Barra, Allen. "Before and After Title IX: Women in Sports." The New York Times.
2012. Accessed October 16, 2016.
This source, although secondary, provides a great background and timeline of the events leading
up to, during and after Title IX. It gives great background on many important figures/athletes
that represented Title IX and made many strives toward gender equality.
12. Blumenthal, Karen. Let Me Play: The Story of Title IX: The Law That Changed the
Future of Girls in America. New York: Atheneum Books for Young Readers, 2005.
This book is a secondary source that will provide us with a solid background about the basic
information and timeline of Title IX. It also, shows us the impact and effects that this law had
today. It explains the extreme differences between conditions during athletics back in the 70s to
now, giving a great comparison of the different time periods.
13. Brake, Deborah L. Getting in the Game: Title IX and the Women's Sports Revolution.
New York: New York University Press, 2010.
This book provides a legal analysis of Title IX, with the author assessing the statutes successes
and failures, using a feminist theory to understand, defend, and critique the law. The statute has
created tremendous gains for female athletes, not only raising the visibility and cultural
acceptance of women in sports, but also creating social bonds for women, positive body images,
and leadership roles. Brake provides a richer understanding and appreciation of what Title IX has
accomplished, while taking a critical look at the places where the law has fallen short.
14. Carrie, Lucas. Title IX's Dark Legacy. US News, June 22, 2012 (accessed
September 28, 2016).
This article focuses on the dark side of Title IX that was not really thought to be a problem. In
this article it is explained that many people feel the Title IX federal law is helping the womens
participation in sports on college campuses but this article claims men are falling behind and
now they are not represented. This article will also show the ideas that contradict the federal law.
We will use this article to add onto the information regarding the negative side of this federal law
that was thought to only improve the sports society.
15. "Equal Access to Education: Forty Years of Title IX." June 23, 2012. Accessed November
13, 2016.
This website is directly from the United States Department of Education This source showed the
impact of Title IX on women in education. It had many visual charts and graphs that gave us a

deeper understanding of the large increase of women receiving a higher education. It also shows
how companies enforced Title IX and other anti-discrimination laws.
16. Frank, Cheryl . A Return To Sex Bias?: Title IX Ruling Raises Fears on Both Sides, ABA
Journal, Vol. 70, No. 8 (August 1984), pp. 26-27. Published by: American Bar
Association. Article Stable URL:
This scholarly journal was published 12 years past the time Title IX was established in 1972.
This journal is an article written about the fears of both sides on the title IX and if there is any
possible chance of getting rid of the Title IX federal law. it provides great long term effects
because it is more than 10 years past our event.
17. Gavora, Jessica. Tilting the Playing Field: Schools, Sports, Sex, and Title IX. San
Francisco: Encounter Books, 2002.
This book shows many peoples typical opinions about women athletics during the 70s. It also
explains the origin of Title IX and how it relates to athletics. It will also show us the lasting
effects of Title IX today. It gives us specific cases where Title IX was applied and used to defend
women against gender discrimination and inequality. This book also shows how gender
inequality still affects us today and also how important and impactful Title IX was in womens
fight for equality.
18. Hanson, Katherine, Vivian Guilfoy, and Sarita Pillai. More than Title IX: How Equity in
Education Has Shaped the Nation. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2009.
This book goes deep into what title IX stands for and how important of an issue it is. The author
believes that the idea of equal rights for both men and women opened up new doors and
opportunities, and overall lifted society. This book provides us with evidence of american
policies and cultures and how both are affected by the conditions of title IX. Written by
Katherine Hanson, a manager director of the Gender, Diversities, and Technology institute at
Education Development. This book takes us behind the scenes of how dedicated and devoted the
people were to making a change, and how they were able to make these changes possible.
19. Hayes, Chris. "The Issue with Title IX and Sexual Assault." July 14, 2014. MSNBC.
Accessed November 13, 2016.
This video from MSNBC gives up to date information on the issue that women still face to this
day. The video encompases information about colleges dismissing sexual assault cases, and how
Title IX still has a very present role to this day.
20. "Historic Title IX Turns 40." June 22, 2012. Accessed November 12, 2016.
This video from CBS news interviews the great Billie Jean King and her struggle against gender
discrimination in sports. It highlights her story, along with Mia Hamms story, about their
successes due to the passing of Title IX. The interviews provide great primary information, with
significant quotes we are able to use throughout our project.
21. Hogshead-Makar, Nancy, and Andrew S. Zimbalist. Equal Play: Title IX and Social
Change. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 2007.

Equal Play is a well-written book that shows how Title IX has been implemented and thwarted
by actions in every branch of the federal government. It addresses issues in sports before Title IX
and the backlash that has resulted from the policy being instituted. The editors have collected the
best scholarly writing on the landmark events of the last four decades, along with new original
essays, primary documents from court cases, administrative regulations, and relevant supporting
sources. The essays are by many well-known sports journalists who discuss how government
actions have shaped, supported, and hindered the goal of gender equality in school athletics.
They discuss the history of women in sports, analyze the meaning of "equal opportunity" for
female athletes, and examine shifts in arguments for and against Title IX.
22. Leung, Rebecca. The Battle Over Title IX. 60 Minutes, June 27, 2003. (accessed September 28, 2016).
This article is about the negative reactions of Title IX. In the article it explains that a group of
college coaches filed a lawsuit against the government, claiming sexual discrimination against
men. Since title IX was all about womens rights, men's right seemed to be forgotten/neglected.
All the articles about the negative effects would be put into a reactions section on our website
that explains the negative effects from this federal law that was only suppose to be beneficial to
the sports industry.
23. McDonagh, Eileen L., and Laura Pappano. Playing with the Boys: Why Separate Is Not
Equal in Sports. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.
This source is about the unjustified differences that girls face and what it really means to reach
success. This book focuses on the idea that sports do not just reflect sex differences, like a
person gender, but constantly reinforcing sex stereotypes and the advantages and disadvantages
that society constructs. This will be helpful to us because it will give us a deeper meaning than
just understanding equality, it goes deeper and can be supported with the idea of stereotypes.
Also provides us with the point of view of females experiencing first hand what it was like to be
discriminated during that time. Gives us information about how they were considered second
class citizens, and gives examples as to how women were considered "inferior".
24. Montiegel, Kathryn. "November 1983: AAUW Weighs In on Grove City College v.
Bell." October 5, 2012. Accessed November 10, 2016.
This source gives a great deal of information about one of the lawsuits that showed some of the
lack of specificity when it came to private colleges and institutions. This court case clarified why
it was necessary for all schools to carry out Title IX for all if its students.
25. Ramirez, Florencio. "Title IX." GP Solo 27, no. 1 (February 2010): 16-19. Accessed
October 14, 2016.
This source is from an online journal. This addresses questions, answers, common arguments,
common critiques and more regarding Title IX. This source will give us a deeper understanding
of this title and how it affected many people.

26. Maatz, Lisa, Fatima Goss Graves, and Constance T. Cordovilla. "Title IX at 40: Working
to Ensure Gender Equity in Education." Equity Assistance Center. Accessed November
13, 2016.
This resource is from the Title IX websites history of Title IX. It was created to inform people
after the 40 years after Title IX and its effects on athletics, education and all aspects of gender
inequalities. This source gave us a better understanding of the Effects of Title IX and how it has
progress society.
27. Stader, David L., and Jeanne L. Surface. "Not Second-Class: Title IX, Equity, and Girls
High School Sports." The Clearing House, 2014, 119-122. Accessed October 12, 2016.
This scholarly journal was published long after Title IX was established, and is about what it
takes to protect students from discrimination based on sex. Because of its publication numerous
years afterwards, it will help us get a better understanding of what people are still doing to make
a change and help create equality among athletics.
28. Suggs, Welch. A Place on the Team: The Triumph and Tragedy of Title IX. Princeton,
NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005.
This book reveals the inside story of how title IX transformed and restructured american sports.
Provides us with evidence from college court cases that will help us get a better idea of the legal
aspect of the event. This book also provides us with the first history of the laws evolution. From
problems to getting playing time, becoming apart of the team, and even gives inside information
about the constant battles with the school boards. This source is written by a senior editor for the
athletics at the Chronicle Higher Education. Both law successes and failures are shared
throughout the book, helping us get a better understanding of the women's opportunities during
the time period.
29. "Title IX: A Brief History. 25 Years of Title IX." Women's Educational Equity Act
Resource Center. August 1997. Accessed October 15, 2016.
This is a great source by a respected historian from a very famous and well-respected resource
center. This is not only an opinion piece backed up by facts, but gives great context for our
research and for viewers of our project. It provides a quality starting point, allowing us to find a
solid background, about the legal backgrounds and context leading up to Title IX.
30. "The History, Uses, and Abuses of Title IX." American Association of University
Professors. June 2016. Accessed October 15, 2016.
This is a great source written by a group of respected professors. This addresses a side of the
Title IX protests/controversy that shows how easily it can be abused and common ways in which
it is This source really touches upon the idea of how Title IX can be used to defend the

controversial cases involving collegiate sexual harassment.. Also, this article addresses historical
context regarding Title IX that will be very useful. Lastly, this viewpoint shares important uses
of Title IX showing how it is used to defend arguments.
31. Thomas, Katie. Colleges Cut Mens Programs to Satisfy Title IX. New York Times, , sec.
Sports, May 1, 2011.
(accessed September 28, 2016).
This source focusing on the other side of the entire title IX that people dont think to think about.
The discrimination of the male in some colleges. Traditionally, the underrepresented sex in
institutions of higher education has been women. That is changing - in this article we are
presented with the proof that some schools are cutting mens athletic programs to comply with
the title IX federal law. We will use this in our project as a way to contradict the ideas about the
federal law and to show the other side about the discrimination throughout the country.
32. Thurston, Paul. "Judicial Dismemberment of Title IX." The Phi Delta Kappan 60, no. 8
(1979): 594-96.
This journal article is from a professional magazine with articles on education, practice, research,
policy, issues, and trends. It featured Title IX and went into legal depth about what the actual law
was and what it meant and how it was applied to different cases.
33. Tungate, David E., and Daniel P. Orie. "Title IX Lawsuits." The Phi Delta Kappan 79,
no. 8 (1998): 603-04. (A)
This source, though secondary, gives primary details on several Title IX lawsuits, such as the
lawsuit against Brown University. It delves into the details and circumstances from which
students sued colleges because of their gender inequality. Other less-known cases will give us
several first-hand accounts of Title IX lawsuits and how they were caused and then handled. It
gives effects of the event of establishing Title IX.
34. Jarrett, Valerie. "40th Anniversary of Title IX." The White House. June 21, 2012.
Accessed December 02, 2016.
Though a secondary source, this video has interviews with several important primary sources,
the most important being Senator Birch Bayh, the author and father of Title IX. We used his
words to quote significant aspects of creating the Title IX legislation and the changes it brought,
opening doors for many women in athletics and education, through these 37 words that really
packed a punch.
35. Ware, Susan. Game, Set, Match: Billie Jean King and the Revolution in Women's Sports.
Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2011.
This book is a secondary source. It shows us one of the many icons and symbols of Title IX,
Billie Jean King. It will provide us with background about Title IX and how Billie Jean King
contributed to the movement. This book will provide information about how she impacted
womens right to athletics. Susan Ware, an independent historian, also explains how Title IX has
permanently changed american athletics.

36. Winslow, Barbara. "The Impact of Title IX." The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American
History. Accessed October 12, 2016.
This source describes the impact and legacy that Title IX gave to women, and how many lives
changed from being faced with discrimination, racism, homophobia, prejudice, and ridicule to
being advocated for for equal play in intercollegiate sports. Barbara Winslow is a historian who
teaches in the School of Education and for the Womens Studies Program at Brooklyn College,
The City University of New York.
37. Wulf, Steve. "Title IX: 37 Words That Changed Everything." ESPN: College Sports.
April 29, 2012. Accessed October 15, 2016.
This is an ESPN article that explains the reasons why (because the wording of Title IX is so
vague) some words and phrases really stand out in the amendment. It gives information about the
Founding Mothers of Title IX and how they were just looking for a more level playing field in
academics. "We had no idea," says Bernice "Bunny" Sandler, who helped draft the legislation
and now works as a senior scholar for the Women's Research and Education Institute in
Washington, D.C.
38. 10 Key Areas of Title IX." Accessed October 16, 2016.
This website is about what it was like to be an athlete before Title IX was established, what it has
been like since Title IX, and why Title IX is still critical. It provides facts and information that
gives us a clearer idea of primary athletics for girls, and why it is so important to keep applying
these rules.