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Advanced English Course

for Foreign Students

















First published. 1940

Reprinted, 1942, 1943tu'ice. It)44, 1946
Second Edition, 1947



Printed in Great Britain by

Lowe and Brydone Printers Lilllited, London, N.W.IO

DURING the course of sorne ten years devoted to the
teaching of English to foreign students, 1 have noticed
that, while there are a large number of fairly good
elementary textbooks for foreigners, there is a real need
for an advanced course which will help pupils to understand and use the more complicated grammatical constructions, the idiomatic expressions, and the compound
verbs. By ce compound" verbs, 1 mean those whosc
meaning is modified or completely changed by the
addition of one or more prepositions or prepositional
adverbs. 1 have found that while, on the one hand,
the' average foreign pupil is often able to express himself
fairlycorr~tly in a kind o ,over-simplified " foreigners'
English," he is, on the other hand, generally quite
incapable of readilg an English novel or play, or of
understanding an ordinary conversation properly. He
wiIl puzzle over a sentence Iike " John dropped in this
evening," quite unaware that " to drop in" is a group
with a meaning quite apart from that of the words taken
separately; and he is completely fioored by idiomatic
expressions like " to bum the candle at both ends," or,
" to come off with fiying colours."
Moreover, no matter how well they have beentaught
at home, 1 have found few foreigners able to express
themselves correctly when they attempt anything more
complicated than the simplest grammatical constructions.
1 feel that this is due to a defect of method in their
teaching. Most grammars begin with the treatment of
the noun, followed in succession by that of the adjective,



the pronoun, and the verbo Moreover, the so-called

auxiliary, defective, and anomalous verbs are studied
after the strong and w~ak verbs. This order seems to
me to be completely wrong. People do not think in
isolated words, but in sentences., The key word to the
sentence is the verb, and the type of verb most frequently
used in English is what H. E. Palmer has called the
" anomalous finite " (~e Les~on 1). The use of one of
the ano~alous finites is necessary in practically every
English sentence .except the simplest kind o. positive
affirmation (see the Introductory Note to Lessons 1-6).
In the sentence "He can speak English," it is not
necessary to know any granunar to write "he" and
"English." But it is necessary to know some grammar
to understand that "can " does not take the infleXon
" s " in the third persol singular, that it is followed by
an infinitive, and that " to " before the following infinitive
is suppressed. But if a Scandinavian studies fue nouns
before learning the use of the anomalous finites, he tends
to acquire the habit of saying " He can English " ;, while'
the version of a Latin student will probably be " He can
to speak English." Experienced teachers know how
difficult it is to eliminate such faults, once they have
become habitual. 'And they do become habitual, unless
they are attacked at the very beginning.
The Course therefore begins with the treatment of_the
anomalous finites, followed by that of the ordinary verbs.
In the study of the latter, the uses of the preterite and
perfct tenses have received special attention. One lesson
has been devoted entirely to the special difficulties of the
pr~nt habitual and present progressive forms. With
regard to "shall" and "wiIl," 1 have avoided the
temptation of trying to over-simplify the problem. The
complete edition of the Oxford Dictionary has been freely
drawn on for examples. The infinitive, another stumblingblock, has been treated in an original and effective way,



by analysing its functions, rather than by relying on long

lista to be learnt by heart.
The treatment of the definite and indefinite artieles
follows that of the verbs. Here, again, 1 have: ignored
the eonventional order of treatment. The use or omission
of the noun does not usually depend' on grammatical
eopsiderations, whereas the employment of the article is
govemed by fairly complicated grammatical rules. Few
foreigners employ the definite artiele correctly, and my
students have found the general rules in Lesson 15 most
1 have tried to bring the section on adjectives up to
date by including new adjeetival fonns such as " Shavian,"
" Chestertonian," etc., and by giving special attention to
the position of adjectival groups.
The lesson on animals, their maseuline, feminine,
common, and collective names, as well as their sounds,
. movements,. homes, .and traits, has not, 1 believe, been
treated in this way before. In doing so, I have endeavoured
to give a key to the puzzling idioms based on the names
and habits of animals, which are the 9,espair' of every
foreign student.
Instead of writing a speciaI Prose Passage to illustrate
the position of each type of adverb in the sentence, I
have incorporated one special type of adverb into one or
more of the Prose Passages dealing with other grammatical
problems, so as to get pupils gradually aecustomed to
their use.
Preposi#ons, in their grammatical aspeet, are given
treatment in Lessons 12, 13,23,25,31. But illustrations
of their idiomatic use are to be found throughout the
Prose Passages.
The completeness of the grammatical explanations will
probably surprise the more rigid adherents of the " direct "
method of teaching languages. It .is true that the direet
method is ineontrovertibly the best for children, since




the minds of children are more imitative than. analytic.

Moreover, children have usually a number o years at
th.~ir disposal for study, while adults have neither the
time nor the wish to work up slowly from the simple to
the more complicated constructions. Again, the average
educated adult and the more advanced secondary school
student have grown out of the purely imitative stage.
Their minds are analyti~" They feel under the imperious
necessity of taking a sentence to pieces, and knowing
wky a certain type of constructon is. used ;. and they
are incapable of imitating blindly. The grammatical
explanations have therefore been furnished to supply a
real need. But they are in Eriglish, and give the pupil
an opp~rtunity to think and study in the language he is
trying to leam. This is a splendid elercise in itself.
But it should be clearly understood that the grammatical explanations are given merely to ~elp the pupil,
and are not an end in themselves. The Course does not
centre round them, but round the Prose Passages, Exercises, and Questions .. The Prose Passages have becn
composed especially for the Course. They contain, ,not
merely as large a number as possible of examples of the
special constructions under onsideration, but also innumerflble idiomatic expressions and compound verbs.
1 have found that the use of extracts from well-known
authors is less practical, from the student's viewpoint.
Idiomatic expressions, compound verbs, and interesting
constructions are scattered more sparsely over such
extracts, and advance is not rapid in proportion to the
time spent in studying them. The rea,ding of English
literature in general should, of course, be encouraged as
a recreation, both for its intrinsic interest and cultural
value, and as a means of passive assimilation. But in
texts for active study, there should be concentrated as
much useful material as possible. And though, in these
Prose Passagcs, it has not heen found possibJe to in elude



all the idiomatic expressions and compound verbs in the

language, they are sufficiently numerous to enable the
pupil to fonu the mental habit of recognizing them when
he meets them, and of cbnsulting a good dictionary if
they are new to him. Mter a thorough study of the
Prose Passages, the student should have no serious
difficulties with modem English literature.
The pupil should be taught to use the Oxford
Dictionary or sorne similar work, as soon as possible.
Except for nouns representing what can,. be counted or
physically measured, bilingual dictionaries are, at best,
uns'atisfactory, and, at worst, positively hannful. This
because there are many English words and wor:d groups
which can be adequately explained only in English, and
by an Englishman. Consulting an English dictionary is
in itself an excellent exercise in English. 1 have found
by experience that not only do pupils master the initial
difficulties of using such a dictionary with surprising
rapidity; but that they in the eild prefer its use to that
of a bilingual one.
As this is an advanced course, its use presl1pposes a
certain' elementary knowledge of the language on the part
of the pupil. In this case, it will not be necessary for the
teacher to use the pupil's mother-tongue in his explanations. But 1 have found, in practice, that even with
beginners there ar~ no insuperable 'difficulties, provided
the teacher has a perfect mastery of the pupil's mothertongue. This, again, is a departure froIJl the rigid canons
of the direct method. But it is now universaIly recognized
that the strict application of the rules of the direct method
to adult beginners is impracticable; and that, while the
exclusive use of English in English classes is desirable,
where possible, the judicious use of translation saves a
great deal of time, and does no hann. In any case, the
use of the pupil's native language as a teaching medium
should not be necessary after the first five or six lessons.


This Prefatory Note would not be complete without

an acknowledgment of the debt I owe to Dr. H. E.
Palmer, and his Grammar 01 Spoken English me a Strictly
Phonetical Basis. His classification of the anomalous ji'nites
is a contribution of 'major importance to the science of
teaching English to foreigners. The first. six lessons of
this course are an attempt to develop his idea and put
it to practical use in the classroom.
To my pupils also, of some twenty different nationalities, I wish to express my 1ndebtenness. Froro the older
ones-some of them teachers of English themselves-I
have received many use~ul suggestions and criticisms;
and all of them have helped me by their willing and
inteJligent co-operation in that m08t fascinating of all
tasks, the teaching of the English language.


In this second edition the Prose Passages have been
left almost unchanged. The Grammatical Explanations,
however, have been amplified by a.number of footnotes
which, 1 hope, fwiU be found useful.
My warmest,thanks are due to Mr. Geoffrey Garrod,
of the Sociedade Brasileira de Cultura Inglesa, Curitiba,
Brazil, for his friendly andconstructive criticism'S and
Madrid, 1945.


beginning the study' of the Prose Passage as a
whole, explain the meaning of the underlined idiomatic
expressions. (Sentences incorporating these expressions
.should be a regular part of home work.)
Next read the Prose Passage with the pupil, and
explain the text to him. As soon as he can use an English
dictionary, he should be required to ..prepare the Pas~age
at home, before the class. Thoroughness and exactitude
are essential, and pupils should not be allowed to fall into
the very bad habit of being satisfied with understanding
what they are pleased to call the " general sense" of a
texto They will thus avoid many ludicrous misinterpretations.
Grammatical difficulties should be treated as they
arise, with reference to the grammaticaI explanations.
Teachers who are not native English speakers shouId,
of course, study the Prose Passages carefulIy before
attempting to explain them in class.
2. In Lessons 1-17, and also in Lesson 23, test the
pupil's understanding of the constructions under. consideration, by means of the Exercises. These latter
shouId first be done in writing, and then repeated orally.
, 3. Finally, the pupil should be required to answer the
Questions on the Prose Passage orally, from memory.
These answers must reproduce the constructions and
idiomatic expressions in the tet exactly. It cannot
be over-emphasized that the pupil will have to cultivate .
his powers of memory in order to acquire an almost
slavish facility for exact imitation, if he is to obtain an
idiomatic mastery of English. For language, .from the
point of view of its practical empIoyment, is
of speech acquired by exact imitation. A pupil has




to conform his speech to the usages of the 'language

he is studying, as slavishly as a soldier has to move his
.body in conformity with the orders of his drill sergeant.
Educated people react against this, which probably
explains why children and uneducated adults usual1y
lea m a language- far more easily and quickly than a highly
educated and imaginative persono It is to help pupils
over this real difficulty, and enable them to associate new
words and expressions with interesting situations or
provocative statements, that the Prose Passages have been
made as intrinsicallyinteresting as possible.
4. With regard to original compositions, it wiIl probably be found better-I offer the suggestion for what it
is worth-not to insist on them until aftet Lesson 17.
Language is primarily speech, and one naturally leams
to speak long before one leams to write. If, during the
first seventeen lessons, the pupil has learnt to give
correct oral. answers to the Question~ on the Prose
Passages, anu do the Exercises well, he will have acquired
fluency in the use of practically aIl the difficult constructions which worry foreigners. He may then safely
replace the Exercises with original compositions and
occasional translations. The answers to the Questions
on the Prose Passages will then be found to afford sufficient
practice in the use of the material treated, especially as
most of it requires the exercise of memory rather than
of thought. Exceptions have been made, for obvious
reasons, in the cases of Lessons 23 and 27.
5. (a) Words illustrating the matter of the lesson are
printed in italics, e.g., Nor will he take a hint (p. 3).
(by ldiomatic expressions and compound verbs are
underlined, e.g., Nor will he take a hint.
(e) Adverbs printed in grotesque draw attention to
the position of that special type in the sentence, e.g.,
In an instant the natives had forgotten their fears
(p. 129)'






How TO































7- THE











47-5 1
















126- 1 3








1 Granunatical Exercises and Questons follow after the Grammatical Explanations.












OF P!mPosmNS








18- LESS



159- 169




197-199 85-92











48- 149







LEssoN 20-THB AoJECTIVE-COIltinlled


230 - 233 9'J-uod 234-44



. 254-257

265-~68 137-145 268-272

279-280 '
280-285 146-168 285-291
294-297 169-181 298-301

303-306 182-190 306-310

312-3 16 191-a13 316-324








345 .



. 345-348 236-241







353-357 242-259 357-360






363-366 260-264 366-369









372-384 265-32Zd 385-391

396-400 323-340 400-405
40 8-412 341-3S3G 412-415



354-371 417-425





An Advanced English Course

for Foreign Students


A. The first six lessons constitute a study of the

following fundamental ver1:>s :may might can could shall
should oughtto
would have has
used to had better
had sooner
did dare
dare(d) must
had rather

B. It is absolutely necessary to have a perfect understanding of the meaning and use of these verbs from the
very beginning, because most sentences require one or
another of them, and it would be impossible to speak
English naturalIy and correctly without them.
They are called fundamental verbs, or anomalous

They are anomalous, because anomalous means not
regular, deviating from the rule; and the rules goveming
.the use of these verbs certainly do deviate very much
from those goveming the use of the ordinary verbs of
the language.
They are finites, because finite is the contrary of
infinitive; and these verbs can only be used as anomalous
finites in their simple present and past tenses. They
have not the characteristics of anomalous finites when


used as infinitives or participles. Indeed, some of them

have no infinitive or participle fonns at all(par. 9 (e.
C. The . anomalous ftnites are different from other
verbs :(a) They have special constructio~ when they are
made negatifJe, or when they are used for
asking. questions (pars. 4, 5).
(b) They are usually necessary, to make ordinary
verbs negative with "not," and when ordinary
verbs are used for asking questions (pars. 5,

15 (a



They have a special functiQn in replacing previous
. verbs and their complements (pars. 6, 15 (e.
Their subjects can lolloro them, instead of going
before them (pars. 7, 10, 46).
They cannot, as anomalous finites, be infinitives or
participles (pa..--s. 8, 9 (e)., 16, 17).
Whlle a1l may be followed by the present infinitive
in indirect- speech, some must be followed by
the perleet infinitive in direct speech, in the

past tense (pars. 10-13)..

(g) They can generally be abbreviated when theyare
negative, and sorne when they are positive
(pars. 27-34)
(h) They hav~ a specia1 idiornatic use in eommentative
and in confi:nnative questions (pars. 36-37).
(i) They can take the place of the subjunctive after
certain verbs and expressions (par. 24), and in
conditionalsentences (pars. 38-46, 92).
(j) They are follOfl)ed, instead of preceded, by certain
adverbs (pars. 4, 25 8, 362-363, 365, 366 (b), 37 1
(b), (e), 379 (b.
(k) They are necessary in sentences introduced .by
certain adverbs (pars. 10, 15 (b.



(May, Can,Should, Ought to, Will, Need,
Dare, etc.)
NOTE.-For an explanation of the term anomalous
finites see pp. 1-2.

A. PROSE PASSAGE. (For the position of the adverbs see

pars. 10, 360.)
Often, of an evening, 1 will settle down in an arm~
chair in my club, to read the paper. Scarcely has John
seen me, when he will draw up bis chair beside mine,
and begin a conversation in this way: "1 may he right,
or 1 may he wrong," he rdll say, " hut there is one thing
that 1 must admit, and lt is that 1 think: that Mary must
be the prettiest girl in the world. Never have 1 known
a woman like her. What! Yu have, never met her?
1t' surprises me .to think that a person of her charms can
be unknown to anyone. You mU!t meet her. So must all
the other members of the club. 1 am going to tell you
.something ahout her, if 1 may."
Seldom will he spare me this 'ordeal o.f listening to'
him. Nor will he take a hint. 1 can snub him, of course.
But usually, 1 have not the heart too Sometimes 1 go to
the "length of saying, " Look here, old man, 1 had rather
read. So run off and play, there's a good chap !" But


it is useless to try and get rid of him.

been a man as thick-skinned as he.

Never has there

Why will he harp on the subject of. that' woman ?

There reaIly seems to be no way of stopping him. Need
he really talk so much about her? Must that be the price
we have to pay for his otherwise very channing company ?
He should remember that there is a limit to the privileges
of friendship; and that friends should not turn themselves into interminable bores. There ought to be a law
against it! Personally, if I am to sit and listen to him all
day, then there is only one thing for me to do, though I
had rather noto 1 must change my club. After a11, I am
not interested in the woman. Still less am 1 in love with
her. Tltey say that love is blindo I suppose that it is
true that it is. And 1 have good reason, also, to feel that.
it is a pity that it cannot be dumb as well! Of course, 1
dare not say a11 this to bis face. Natu rally" 1 must not
do anything to hurt his feelings. In any case, I had rather
noto But need he take advantage of this? Jt is notorious
that everybody is complaining about him.
however, will he take any notice of the complaints. He
will talk on and on, for hours on end, about her; and
he will not stop, in spite of the broadest hints. He had
better be carefu!. If not, he may lose a11 his best friend.s.
There is a limit to human endurance, and he cannot
expect people to put up with that kind of thing for ever.
Why, indeed, should they? He ought to know by now
that they will not stand it, and that they had sooner lose
his friendship. And a man should not risk alienating his


friends. Least of all dare he risk isolating himself alto

gether. Friends can be very useful, on occasion. 1 think
that 1 had better tell himl as a friend, that he ought to
have merey on us, and thi: he 'should keep his r,hapsodies
to himself. 1 had sooner not say all this to him, of eourse.
But 1 feel that these intimate private emotions should not
be blazoned forth in publico Even if one is in love, one
need not shout it to the skies. Under no circumstances
should one wear one's heart on one's sleeve. It is simply
not done. And 1 am sure he can exercise a little selfrestraint, if he wants too
According to one of the rules of our club, members
must not discuss politics on the fpremises. Hard Iy ever
has there been any violation of this rule~ in the history
of the club. And 1 think that someone should suggest
an amendment to the effect that members may not talk
about women either~ Then, we may have some peace.
There must be no delay. Nor must there be. any. hesitation.
Otherwise, thefe' maybe a riot in tlie club, and John's
life may be in danger.
Theie is no doubt in my mind that the poor fellow is
desperately in love. But 1 know to my cost that it is
also true that he has an irresistible impulse to unburden
himself about it to the rest of the world. Jt must be
awful to be like that! There he goes again in the comer
with Smith and Jones. Well may they show signs of
Now his gaze is wandering this way.
Fortunately, he has not yet buttonholed me to-day.
Very likely he is thinking of me as his next victim.


Seldom is it possible to escape his attentions for two days

running. So off 1 go. 1 must. "1 dare not wait. 1 had

rather face an artillery barrage. Only by flight can 1
be sure 'of peace. lt is lucky 1 saw him in good tim!.
But you need not ron away. Please s~ay, there's a good
fellow, and distract his attention from me! 1 am sure
he wants to unbosom himself to you. He just has to !
Cannot you see that Ancient Mariner look in his eye ?
Because if you cannot, 1 can. Dare you fa ce it, or must
you also fly ?













He may (par.
91 (b.
He can.
He must.
He should.
He ought too
He will.

had better.
had rather.
had sooner.


(2) Permission.


He may noto

(1) Ability. (2) Permission.

He cannot.
(1) Obligation. "(2) Necessity. ,He need not (1)(3) Deduction. (4) Desirability.
(1) Duty. (2) Advisability.
(3) Deduction. (4) Desirability. He should noto
(See he should.)
He ought not too
(1) Habit.(2) Obstinate inHe will noto
sistence. "
(1) Advisability. (2) Threat.
He had better noto
He had rather noto
. He had sooner noto
He dare noto
He need noto
(1) Prohibirion. (2) Inadvisability. (3) Impropriety.
He must noto

NOTE.-Fpr the anomalous finites shall and will

see Lesson 4, which treats of these verbs in their meaning
of uturity.




1 may
You may
He may
She may
It may

First person
Second person..
Third person ma&culine
Third person feminine
Third person neuter (par. 24I) .
Anticipatory (verbal or c1ause
subject, par. 7 (h .
. It may
Anticipatory (noun subject)
. There may

We may
You may
They may
They may
There may

Examples.-I may (1) go to Brittany for my holidays,

or 1 may (1) go to Roumania. Members of this club
may (2) not talk in the reading-room, but they may (2)
talk. in any other part of the building. Peter can.( 1) speak
English, but h~ cannot (1) speak German. You can (2) go
home as soon as you have finished your work. Foreigners
. must (1) obey the laws of this country, while they are
here. If you want to know English well, you must (2)
study the anomalous finites carefully. His name is
Pilsudski, so he must (3)' be a Poleo When you go to
Paris, you must (4) visit the Louvre. You need not (1)
study Japanese, if you prefer Chinese. John need not (2)"
speak to Mary so rudely. Though his name is Smith, he
need not (3) necessarily be English. Little children should
(1) be seen, and not heard. You shou[d (2) wear warm
, underclothes in the English spring. He left Brighton at
six, so he should (3) be here by half-past eight. You shotUd
(4) see the new play. It is splendid. Children ought not (1)
lo disobey their parents. You ought (2) always to cross
your cheques. He ought to (3) "ass bis examinatioS
easi1y, as he is e~tremely clever.
ou ougit lo (4) hear
that singe~. She is ;marvellous. Every evening he will (1)
go out to the cinema. He will (2) drink whisky, though
1 The Eglish verb is nonnally accompanied by an ,.,esled
subject. (But see par. 8S, page 199; par. 381, page 429.)


bis doctor says that he should not (2). You had better (1)
put on your coat when you go out, or you may (1) catch
cold. If he wants to avoid a hlack eye, he had better
not (2) talk to me in that way again. 1 had rather be a
dog and hay the moon, tban such aRoman. 1 had sooner
he here than in Patagonia. You must not (1) drive 00 the
right in England. If you want a clear head next moming,
you must not (2) mix your drinks. Aman must not (3)
remain seated when a lady enters the room.





(a) Am, is, are (auxiliary, predicative).
1 am
We are
1 aro not
You are
You are
You are not
He is
They are
He is not
(b) Obligation (see also par. 61 (a.
1 am to
W e~are to
1 need not
(e) Prohibition.


1 am not to

We are not
Youare not
They are not
We need not
We are not to

(d) Have, has (auxiliary, possessin, par. 17).

We have not
1 have
We have
1 have not
You have
You have
You have not You have not
He has
They have He has not
They have not
Ce) Obligation, neeessity.
1 have to
We have to
( f) Prohibition.

1 need not
1 have not to

'Ve need not

We have not to

NOTE.-For the ,anomalous finites do, does, did,

see Lesson 3.
Examples.-I am looking at Peter, but he t's not looking at me.. The teacher is English, hut his pupils are
noto They are foreigners. Mother says that Mary is to
go to hed at once, hut tbat Dorothy need noto The police


have issued an ord~r thatpolitical parties arenot to hold
demonstrations in the East End. Peter has been in
Italy, but James has noto The English have a powerful
navy. Traffic has to obey the orders of the Police. You
have lo travel overland to get to Bohemia; but you need
not pass overland to get to Poland.
4. Verbs are usually made negative by placing not
after an anomalous finite (par. 15 (a. E.g., He is an
Englishman, but he is not fair-haired. Peter cannot
come. .She must not go out alone. She dare not say
what she thinks. We ought not lo jump to conclusions.
They need not stay.

5. To frame questions~ we usually place the subject

after an anomalous fittite, if the verb is positive. If the
verb is negative, the subject usualIy follows not (par.
15 (c), see also par. 232).
Exampls.-Can you speak English? Need he do
that? Should girls leamto cook? DaTe you speak up to
your husband? H ad we better ten him now? Must you
go so soon? Dare not (daren't) he do it? Need nol
(needn't) he come at once? Must not (mustn't) he go ?
Ought not (otlghtn't) he to speak ?
NOTE.-For the abbreviated forms of the anomalous
finites see pars. 27-32.
6. To avoid the necessity of repeating a previous verb
and its complements, an anomalous finite only is used.
This anomalous finite is usually the one which accompanies the previous verb, though this is not always necessary (par. 15 (d. E.g., Can you jump over this table?
Yes, 1 can. Cannot you come to the class earlier? 1 am
sorry, but 1 am afraid that 1 cannot. Must you go so soon ?
1 am afraid that 1 must. His mother thinks that he ought
to be a doctor, but 1 am sure that he should noto He says
that he is not afraid of entering the lion's cage, but 1 am



sure that he dare not. Would you like to come with me

lo the cinema? 1 had rather noto
NOTE.-When need is used in this way, it is most
frequentIy followed by to, and takes the final " s t, in
the third person (par. 9). E.g., He thinks that he need
not study for the examination, but 1 am sure that he
needs too
611. Anomalous finites are often used emphatically.
E.g., In spite of what you say, I can walk six miles an
hour. Come what ma 1 must raise the money. But,
You may think it unnecessary,
my dear, 1 need your he
but I feel that you ought to work.
7. Except in the case of questions and certain cOnditionals (par. 46b), English sentences cannot begin with
a verbo 1f, therefore, the subjeet of a sentence follows an
anomalous finite, there is usually a vacant<space in front
of the verb which must be filled. We do this by placing
one of the anticipatory pronouns it or tkere (par. 2)
in front of the verb, according to the type of subject.
Such a pronoun "anticipates" the subject which is to
follow. The subject of a sentence may,be:Examples.
(a) A noun. E.g., A cha1zge must come.
(b) A pronoun. E.g., He must go at once.
(c) An infinitive. < E.g., To fty must be pleasant.
(d) An "ing" formo E.g.,Flying must be pleasant.
(e) A clause. E.g., 1'hat he has said it, must be true.
N.B.-A clause is a sentence which acts as a noun,
as ,an adjective, or as an adverb (see Introduction to
Lesson 12).



Noun Subjects can be placed immediately after is or
are, or immediately after any infinitive preceded by an



anomalous finite. The place of the subject before the

anomalous finite is then taken by the anticipatory pronoun
there (par. 2). E,g., A man is in the room. There is a
man .in the room. Peace must come some day or other.
There must come peace some day or other. There must
be some explanation. There can be no doubt about it.
There need be no fear of the train being late. There may
be rain to-morrow. There ought to be some cheese in .
the cupboard. There cannot be a mouse under the bed.1
NOTE.-(a) There is (there's) followed by the indefinite article and a personal noun is a familiar and persuasive form of address. E.g., Go to bed, there's a good
child! Lend me a fiver, there's a good chap !
(b) Except in the cases noted below, subjects preceded by the definite article the (Lesson 15) are usually
placed before, and not after, the anomalous finite.
(e) In sentences which express a difficulty or an
alternative, an anonalous finite can be preceded by there
and followed by a: noun subject taking the definite article.1
E.g., Even if one is out qf a job, there is always the dole.
There is the garden to weed, if you want something to do.
1 can never save money while ther~ is the rent to payo
(d) :By analogy with the aboye construction, the adverb
-of place there sometimes precedes the anomalous finites
is, are; the latter being followed by their subject. Thus,
when we are pointing out a person, we can say either,
" The man is there "; or," There is the man."
(e) But there is nothing to prevent there from appearing twice in the same senten ce; once in its function of
anticipatory pronoun, and once as an adverb of place.

Aman is there in the room.

There (1), Adverb. There (2)~

Anticipatory Pronoun.
There (2) is aman there (1)

The garden is always there

to weed.

There (2) is always the garden

there (1) to weed. '

There (Adverb).


in the room.
. lThis construction is sometimes found in literature with intransi-

tive verbs. E.g., There rested on her pale face a quality of repose.
lOra proper noun subject, e.g., Tl)ere is always John to tum to.



(f) It is even possible to have there appearing twt'ce

in succession, once as an adverb, and once as an anticipatory
pronoun, at the beginning of the sentmee. E.g., There, tltere
is aman. The first there is, of course, an adverb; and
the second there is an anticipatory pronoun. (The construction is not, however, frequently. used.)





The subject goes at the end of the sentence; and its

place before the anomalous finite is taken by the anticipatory pronoun it. E.g., To fiy must be dangerous.
Jt must be dangerous t fiy. Flying must be dangerous.
Jt must be dan8erous, fiying. That he said it must be
admitted. Jt must be admitted that he said it.
8. In the sentence Jt must be so, the word be is an
infinitive, preceded by the anomalous finite must; while
in the sentence 1 like to be quiet, the infinitive is to be,.
preceded by the ordinary verb lihe. It will be noticed,.
therefore, that the word to, which normalIy introduces
an infinitive, is suppressed after all the present tense
anomalous finites, except in the case of ought td', and in
the cases of am, are, is, have, and has, where the latter
have the special meanings explained in par. 3. E.g., 1
must go home at once. He can speah Russian. He is
to enter the Church, according to his mother. Mother
says that you have to go home .at once. You ought to be
ashamed of yourself.
9. With regard to the uses of the anonalous finites,.
as explained in pars. 4-7, the following points should
be borne well in mind :(a) When need or dare are used tranSt'tively, i..,
with a direct object or complement, they are not anomalous
finites, and are treated as ordinary verbs. They are there-


fore inflected, i.e., "s" is added in the third person
singular, present' tense (par. 47). E.g., John needs a
new hato Peter dares me to enter the lion' s cage.
(b) When need or dare are used as the principal
verbs in positive affirmations, they are inflected in the
third person singular, present tense, and to is used to
introduce the following infinitive. (By, a positive affirmanon is meant a sentence which is not a question, and is
not made negative by the qe of not.) E.g., Peter needs
to study more~ Mary dares to think differently from
(c) But need and dare have the characteristics of
uninflected anomalous finites (pars. 4-7) :(i) In questions. E.g., Need he do that? Dare he
take such a step? Do you think that he need
do that? Are you sure that h~ dare attempt it ?
(ii) In negative sentences. E.g., He dare not do any
such thing. , 1 am not sure that he dare try.
J Qhn need not be afraid of me .
(iii) In thecase of dare, when replacing a previous
verb (par. 6). E.g., Dare John fight? Ves,
he dare. (With regard to need see par. 6,

(d) When an anomalous finite is followed immediately

by a verb, the latter is an infinitive or participle (par. 8).'
E.g., Peter should learn German. Mary must go at
orice. 1 am learning French. He has spoken.
Now an anomalous finite cannot, as such, be an
infinitive or a participle. Therefore one anomalous finite
cannot be followed immediately by another. For this
reason, the following sentences would be ridiculous and
incorrecto He will cango. He may must come. Peter
will ought to go and see his mother.
Other words must be used to express the above ideas



in the infinitive, so that the correct sentences would read,

respectively: He will be able to go. He. may be obliged
to come. Peter will be under a moral obligation to go
and see his mother.
(e) It is often necessary to use an infinitive to express
the idea implied in an anomalous finite. Most anomalous
finites have no infinitive forms of their own, and other
verbs must be used for the purpose. It must be stressed,
however, that even where anomalous finites have infinitive
and "ing" forms of their own (Lessons 12, 13), such
infinitive . and "ing" forms are not anomalous finites.
Their negatives, for instance, are expressed by placing
not before them, instead of after them (par. 4).
1. Anomalous finites witA no infinitive or " ing~' form
of their own.

Anomalous Finite.
may (1) (Lesson 1)
can (1) (Lesson 1)
must (1) (Lesson 1)
ought (1) (Lessof!. 1)
should (1) (Lesson 1)
will (1) (Lesson 1)
had better (1) (Lesson 1)
had rather (Lesson 1)
had sooner (Lesson 1)

A Substitute

A Substitute " ng "


to be possible
to be able
to have to
to have the duty to
to have the duty to
to be accustomed to
to be advisable to
to prefer to
to prefer to

being possible
being ~ble
having to
having the duty to
having. the duty to
being accustmed to
being advisab'e to
preferring t
preferring to

2. Anomalous finites with infinitive and "ing" forms

of their own.

1 need not
1 dare not
1 am not
1 have not




not needing
not daring
not being
not hayi~g

NOTE.-For the anomalous finites do, does, did, see

Lesson 3.




(Part n.).
NOTE.-The study of this section, though absolutely
essential, may De a Httle difficult at this stage, and may
be left over until Iater in the course .
. 10. Besides the rules laid down in par. 7 witt regard
to the placing of the subject of a sentence after the
anomalous finite, the case has to be considered of sentences
introdueed by one of the following adverbs or adverbial
phrases, for purposes of emphasis :under no circumstances by no means
scarcely ever never
hardly ever
very seldom
least of all
still less
not infrequently
much less
even less
well (with good reason)
on1y just
to such lengths
to such straits
to such a degree
to &uch a point
on1y in that way
only on that account
only by doing that
on1y by flight
only by skill, etc.
nor (when not in combinanon with neither)
neither (when not in combinatmn with nor)
80 (thus, thus also, to such a degree)

When the subject is a eommon noun, not preceded

by the definite artiele; and the verb is an anomalous
finite, foIlowed by the verb to be in the sense of to exist,
to take place, or to be presento
(a) An 'anomalous jinite follows the adverb.
(b) The anticipatory pronoun there is placed immediately after the anomalous jinite.
(e) The subjeet is placed after the verb to be.
E.g., Aman may well be in the room. Well may there
be a man in the room. Hardly ever have there been
grocers who were great composers. Under no circumItanees canthere be any eompromise. No crime has been
committed. Least of all has there been a rnurder. Scareely



ever have tkere been accidents in this street. Nowkere else

can there be a '[(Joman like her. Never has Mere been
any doubtabout the matter. Very seldom must tkere be
a repetition of such tactics. '\ Scarcely ever has there been
suck 'a turmoil in Parliament. This is my belief, nor can
there be any other explanation. Only by the mOst strenuous
effort.~ on your part, can there be any hope of success. He
can speak English, and so can l.
NOTE.-Noun subjects not preceded by the definite
amele, which are written with an initial capital letter
because they stand for nationals of countries, also come
under this- rule. E.g., Rarely have there been Patagonians
who were great composers.

If the anomalous finite is followed by a passive

construction (par. 62), and the subject is a cornmon noun,

or a noun standing for a national, and is not preceded

by the definite article, one of the following constructions
may be used.
(a) There may be placed after the anomalous finite,
and the subject after the passive construction. E.g., Such
interesting remains have rarely been found. Rarely have
there been found such interesting remains. N owhere else
could there have been seen such wonders, i.e., Such wonders
could have been seen nowhere else.
(b) ,The subject may be placed irnmediately after the
anomalous finite, in which case there is no! use at all. This
is the more usual construction. E.g., Rarely have such
interesting remains been found. A winter like this has
scarcely ever been known before. Scarcely ever has a
winter like this been known before. Such wonders coul~
have been seen nowhere else. Nowhere else could such
wonders have been seen.
3. In all other cases not mentioned aboye in 1 and 2,
the subject goes immediately after the anomalous finite.
E.g., Never must he be allowed to do such a thing. ljnder
no circumstances ought John to go there. Rarely snould


a man get angry. Scarcely have they finished eating,

when they want to start again. Very rarely must a
defeat be risked. Nowhere can 1 tum' for relief. To such
straits am 1 reduced, that I am forceci to beg. Everybody is afraid of him, to such lenglhs will he go. He is a
great scholar. EspeciaUy is he a great scientist. I cannot
come with you to the cinema. Much less can 1 pay for
the tickets. Only by doing that can the problem be solved.


(par. 7).
(i) " Ing" Subjects.-The anomalous finite may be
followed by the subject or by il. In the latter case,
the subject goes at the end of the .sentence. E.g.,
Never can flying be pleasant. Never can it be pleasant,
(ii) Infinite or Clause Subjects.-The anomalous
finite must be followed by it, and the subject" goes at the
end of the sentence. E.g., Under no circumstances can it
be pleasant to fly. By no means can it he proved that
. John has told a le.




(a) In the following sentences insert suitable anomalous finites in place of the words in italics :John is able to talk French. As it is eight o'clock, the
post is probably here. It is possible that it will rain tomorrow. People are now able to reach England by sea
or by airo To go to America from England, it is necessary
for one to cross the Atlantic. From what you say, he
supposedly knows a11 about the affair. You will be well
advised to ca11 a doctor. He habitually walks to work
everyday. You will be prudent not ,to hit me. Peter
afraid to cross his wife. People are forbidden to walk



on the grass. If you pass your examinations, you have

permission to go to Paris. You are under a necessity to
take this medicine, if you want to get well. Jt is not
advisable for children to have too much money. Jt is
.advisable for you to sit with your back to the engine.
Children have the duty to obey their parents. People
are not permitted to take dogs to the zoo. As J ohn has
lived abroad so long, he probably speaks English badly.
Mary has permission to go out with me. AH Frenchmen
are obliged to do military service. One is not under any
necessity to go to Scotland from London by sea. I have
permission to go to the cinema. He is not necessarily lrish
because he is excitable. I am allowed to take the dog with
me if 1 want too Jt is your duty to visit yotir mother.
y ou will be well advised to lock your door at night. The
inference is that he is unwell,. after such a dinner. He
insists obstinately in ignoring the doctor' s advice. If you
want to live, it is advisable that you work. Jt notproper
j(Jr children to speak before they are spoken too Peter
has not the courage to attack a burglar. If you want
to get on, it is inadvisable to be lazy. He is not necessarily
stupid because he failed in the exam. He says 'that he
.is not afraid to enter and beard the lion in his den. Do
you think that he is under any necessity to do that? I
shtill possibly go to Paris. Mary is obstinate in quarrelling.
(b) Make the following sentences negative :I may see John to-morrow moming. He may leave
the house when he has firushed his work. I can play the
piano. I must answer the telephone at once. Because
it is eight o' dock, J ohn must be here. Children should
always believe what they hear. You must work to be
successful. You should pay your accountsmonthly.
As he left at ten, he should be here. J ohn has to go to
Birmingham at once. You ought to try flying. You
ought to be more careful of your health. You had better
go and see Mary at once. You had better tell the judge


what you think of him. 1 had rather see Peter at once.
According to orders, the ship is to sail at six. You had
better marry my daughter. 1 had sooner marry her than
be killed. Dare he do it? 1 do not think that you need
tell him.
(e) Make the following sentences interrogative, i.e. ~
turn them into questions :He can speak German. He may go now. Peter must be
tired by now. John dare not go. Peter need not worry.
1 ought to be ashamed of what 1 have done. 1 must not
tell him what 1 think of him. John should look before
he leaps.
- (d) Answer the following questions, using the appropriate anmalous finite :Must you drive on the right in England? Need you
be so industrious? Dare you hold such an opinion?
Should Peter be more polite? Ought 1 to take the train
at Charing Cross? Are you to go to bed at once? Has
Mary to be up at seven? Must people step on each other's
~oes? will he be found in his club every evening ?
,. (e) Change t}le following sentences, by placing the
subject after the verb :A book is on the shelf. Aman is in the room. An
explanation must exist for the phenomenon. A period
of universal--peace may yet come. An easy solution can
be found even for that difficulty. Aman ought to be here
to see to things. A child should be in every home. A
man must be there. N o fears of, the consequences need
be entertained. To be rash is not realIy to be courageous.
To eat too much is dangerous. Crying will not help you.
That this century is different from the last must be
admitted. Circling over London in an airplane must be
interesting. To be rich is happiness. That the circumstances do not permit of a ~hnge is evident. To speak
in such a way is impolite.



(f) 'Insert infinitives in the following sentences :Qne can - from London to Brighton in ap hour.
1 may - her to-morrow. Joe must - home at once.
It should - easy to find the lost purse. Mary ought careful where she puts tbings. J ohn will. - bis time
when he should be studying. You need not - so impolitely to your friends. Dare he - the Police? Must
a gentleman - in the presence of a lady? Have you already? Is Peter - to Madrid at once? Am 1 - your
treatment? Can l - when you are free?
(g) Insert need or dare in the following sentences, usiIig
them as anomalous finites where possible :Aman - not face an angry lion. Jerry - maintain
that there is corruption in high places. 1 do nt think
that you - wait any longer. - he talk so much about his
work? - he undertake the task? Yes he -. 1 think
that he - not wait any longer. He - a new hato Mary
- me to try and get a divorce. Peter - to study more,
if he wants to pass the exam. Mary - lo 100k the worl.d
in the face after what she has done.

(PART n.) .
.( a) In the following sentences, place the subject after
the verb, if this has not already been done.
(b) Reconstruct the same sentences, placing the adverb
at the beginning.
'l'here must under no circumstances be any attempt at
compromise. There has hardly ever been a sadder end
to aman. There has not been another case like it anywhere in the country. (Not anywhere, Le., nowhere.)
There can seldom be complete happiness in life. And
there cannot be complete misery. (And not, i.e., nor.)
There has scarcely" ever been greater unemployment.
There has very seldom been such a str~nge combination



of circumstances. There has never been a time when

sorne men were pot slaves. There has rarely been a time
without wars. Children must under no circumstances
be ill-treated. Men twenty feet high have not been
found anywhere. Men eight fect high have scarcely been
met with at aH. People have seldom been robbed in
this country. And people have not been exploited. And
droughts have not been known. A satisfactory solution
of the problem has by no means been reached. Tigers
have seldom been tamed. Bears have never been taught
to speak. Soldiers have scarcely evet been well paid.
Scientists have rarely been rewarded as they deserved.
To eat too much can under no circumstances be pleasant.
Flying in a storm can hardly ever be agreeable. That all
men are liars is by no means true. That aH marriages
can be happy is scarcely ever stated.To invest on the
Stock Exchange is seldom profitable for novices. And that
ir is alway~ profitable for stocbrokers themselves need
not be believed either. It is especially true in these days
that qobody is secure. Exaggerating must by no means
be considered the gteatest of crimes. U nderstating a case
is scarcely ever less objectionable. That it is sometimes
necessary to tell a white He is rarely deriied. That our
civilization is in danger can well be maintained. He is
reduced to such straits that he is selling matches on the
streets. Peter will go to such lengths, that everybody
is afraid ofhim. You can beco me Ieamed pnly by persevering study. It is possible to do it only in that way.
The negotiations have progressed to such a point, that
a draft agreement has been initialled. It shall ever be so.



PRos E


What will you do of an evening? When will John

drawa chair up beside yours? How will he begin a conversation? .What surprises him? What does he suggest ?



What is he going to do? What will he seldom spare you ?

What will not (won't) he take? What can you do to him ?
Have you the heart to? What do you sometimes go to
the length of saying? Why is it useless tu try to get rid
of him? \Vhat will he harp on? Is there any way of stopping him? What should he remember? What ought
there to be a law against? Why niust you change your
club? Are you interested in the woman? Are you in
love with her? What do you feel is a pity? What dare
you not say to his face? Why not? What is notorious ?
Does this make any difference? How long will he talk ?
Will hints stop him? \Vhy had he better be careful ?
What is there a limit to? What cannot he expect? What
ought he to know by now? What dare not aman risk ?
What can , friends be? What had 1 better tell him?
What do 1. feel about these intimate private emotions? .
What need not one do, if one is in love? Should one,
under any circumstances, wear one's heart on one's sleeve ?
'''hy not? What are you sure he can do? vVhat is one
of the rules of the club? Has it ever been violated?
\Vhat should someone suggest? What may we have
then? Must there be any delay or hesitation? Why
may John's life be in danger? What is there no doubt
.of, in your mind? What do you know to your cost?
What must it be awful to be like? Have Smith and
Jones reason for showing signs of restiveness? Where
is his gaze wandering? What has he fortunately not yet
done to-day? What is he thinking of you as? Is it often
possible to escape his attentions for two days running?
Dare you wait? How can you be sure of peace? Why
are you lucky? \Vhat appeal do 1 make to your friendship? Why does he want to unbosom himself to you ?
What look has he in his eye ?



By Direct Speech is meant the actual sentence used
by original speaker, in making a statement or asking
a question.
' ,
By Indirect Speech is meant the words of the speaker
as reported afterwards in the form of a Noun Clause.
That is, the sentence used by the original speaker
b~omes' the direct object of a verb like he said.
(See the Introduction to Lesson 12).. If the principal
verb used by the reporter is present tense, there is no
change in the tense of the words reported in the noun
clause. But if the principal verb is past tense, then the
verb in the reported sentence usually becomes past also.
Thus the sentence "1 can speak English" could be
reported in one of the following ways :1 say that 1 can speak English. ~ . said that 1 could
speak English. John said that he could speak English.
NOTE.-When the state of affairs described in the
original sentence still cpntinues at the time 01 reporting it,
the verb in the no un clause may remain 'in the present
tense, even though the principal verb is pasto "1 can
'speak English." 1 said that 1 can speak English.






(See pars. 10, 370.)

I once knew aman who would often play jokes on his
friends. To such lengths would he go, that he used to
ring them u p in the middle of the night, to. ask them the
time. When, by their answers, they showed that they
~isapproved of his idea of humour, he would merely taIk
about that impenetrable calm which is the heritage of
every Englishman worthy of the name. This would
simply get them ,more excited, whichwas what he
specially wanted. They could never answer him adequately. Nor.;dare they try. One may not swear on the
telephone, without risking a prosecution. But they
often wished they might tell him to go to a warmer place
than Kensington. Those of them who could speak
French, would sometimes tell him a thing or two in
that language. Yet they never dared be too eloquent,
because modem telephone girls are so ,well educated,
that the poor victims might -nave been understood even
in that lan~age.
He announced to his family, once, that they might
make ready for a trip round the world, as he had had a
windfall. They must have been very disappointed when
they found out that it 'lOas only another of 'his jokes.
Yet they ought to have known him well enough not



to be taken in. In any case, they must hafJe thought

that it was beyond a joke. And, indeed, he need not
have gane so far in his craze for pulling people's legs.
Still less should he have done it with bis own family.
One day. 1 heard him telling an old lady of eighty or
so, quite seriously, that she ought to take up tap-dancing,
as it improved the figure. She did not at all like it.
Nor had she any hesitation in saying so. "Ought 1,
indeed !" she answered angrily; and added that he
ought to take large doses of strychnine, as it improved the
nerve. He had nothing to answer to tIlat, so he simply
retired precipitously, reflecting ruefully that he should
have looked before he leapt. . In that way, he might have
afJOided catching a tartar. But he soon recovered his
v~rve. Rarely would he ~low a little thing like that to
upset him.
He used often to stop strange ladies in the street, and
ask them after J ohn. He specially loved taking a rise
out of ladies. Now, as everybody 'knows somebody
named John, the result 'lOas often interesting. It is true
that the ladies ought not to hafJe fallen such easy victims.
Bur then, he was an unusual case; and they never at aH
suspected that he was pulling their legs. Indeed, he
looked so serious and respectable, that he ought to hafJe
been a churchwarden, or a family solicitor, instead of the
incorrigible old practical joker that he really was.
Once he was in a room with an old lady, when they
heard the report of a punctured tyre outside. It sounded
like a pistol shot; and she was not a tittle startled. But



he ca1mly assured her that she need not specially worry,

as it 'lOas only another .murder. She must necessarily be
aware, he went on, that that sort (lf thing 'lOas happening
had adopted the
every day, since B.B.C. annuncers
habit of placing adverbs between verbs and their direct
objects. The old ,ady simply looked dazed, and said
nothing. What she ought to hafJe done 'lOas to hit him
over the head with an axe.
Another trick of his 'lOas to stand at a bus stop, behind
some unfortunate person who wanted fo catch a bus.
As the other's bus carne up, my friend 'lOould wave it on;
and the driver, thinking that the two 'lOere together,
'lOould not stop. And then my friend's victim 'lOould wonder
what had come over aH the bus drivers; and my friend
'lOould politely sympathise with him.
1 used ften to teH him that he ought to stop his
nonsense. But he 'lOould never take any notice of me.
Still less 'lOould he follow my advice. He said that he
had rather remain as he was.
But 1 am afraid that 1 must go now. 1 'lOas to hafJe
been at the corner of Oxford Street and Oxford Circus
to meet my wife ten minutes ago. When 1 get there,
she will probably have something to say to the effect that
1 should hafJe been there earlier.




Great care should be taken by the pupil to master the

differences in use between the verbs listed in par. loa
and those listed in par. II, especial1y as regards their


use in direct speech. The exercises given in Section C
should be done carefully.
10B. The' past tenses of the following anomalous
finites are the same in all three persons,' and they are
followed by the present infinitive, both in direct and
inindirect speech. (For their use in conditional sentences
see par. 46.)

He will go
He has to go
He can go
He dare not go

Past (Indirect Speech).

Past (Direct Speech).
He said that he would go
He would go
He said that he had to go
He had tO' go
He said that he could go
He could go
He said that he dare(d) not go He dare(d) not go
He said that he used to go
He used to go

NOTE.-(i) He used io indicates past custom, and

has no present tense. It wiIl be noticed also that to
is placed before the infinitive which Jollows used
(par. 8).
(ii) The final "d" may be used or omitted at choice
in the past tense of dare.
(iii) Could may be followed by the perfect infinitive
in direct speech to express douht as to a fact. E.g., Dd
he co~it the crime? Well, he COJlld, have done it
(see also par. 46).
,11. The following past tense anomalous finites, which
are the same in aIl three p~rsons, do not appear in direct
speech! unless followed by the perfect infinitive ..

He maygo
He,must go

Past (Indirect Speech).

He said that he might go
He said ,that he must go ,

Past (Direct Speech).

He might have gone
He must have gone
He had to go (Obligation, necessity)
He should go
He said that he should go
He should have gone
He ought to go He said that he ought to go H ought to have gone
He need not go He said that he need not go He need not have gone,

NOTE.-(i) Had hetter, had sooner, and had rather



usualIy appear in the past tense only in indireCt speech.

E.g., He said that he had better go.
(ii) The past tense of must cannot be used in direct
speech, except to indicate a deduction. To give the
meaning of must in direct speech, past tense, had to or
some other verb is therefore used. E.g., Peter had to be
here at six.
12. The past tenses of the anomalous finites am, is, .
are, have, has.
You are aman
He is aman
We are men
They are men
1 am to go

Past (Indirect Speech).

1 said that 1 was aman
1 said that you wee aman
1 said that he was a man
1 said that we were men
1 said that they were men
1 said that 1 was to go

1 have a hat
You have gone
He has gone

1 said that 1 had a hat

1 said that you had gone
1 said that he had gone

Post (Direct Speech).

1 was amn
You were a man
He was aman
We were men
They were men
They were to go
They were to have gone
l had a hat .
You had gone
He had gone

NOTE.-In direct speech was to and were to may

be folIowed by the present or by the perfect infinitive,

13. The rules, in pars. 4- 10 apply also to the past

Negative: E.g., 1 could not come. Question and
repetition: E.g., Had you to go? Yes, 1 had too
Emphasis: E.g., 1 simply had to go.
Sentences introduced by adverbs in par. 10: E.g.,
Least 01 all had there been a murder. Rarely had there
been found such. interesting remains. Rarely had such
interesting remains been found. Only by doing that could
he be safe. There could be no doubt about it. There was
always the garden to weed. Jt could be dangerous to
fiy. Jt could be proved that John was there: Jt must
have been pleasant, fiying. Dare(d) John By? Yes, he




(a) Change the sentences in Section D (b), (d), (e),

pages 18-19, putting the verbs into th~ past t~nse.
(b) Rewrite the sentences in Section E, Lesson 1 :(i) In the past tense.
(ii) In reported speech, with the prin~ipal
verbs in the past tense.


What would the man I knew often do? To what

lengths would he go? When they disapproved, what
would .he talk about? What effect would this have on
his vktims? Could they answer him adequately? Why
dare theynot try? Why might they not swear on the
telephone? What did they often wish? What would
those of them who could speak French do? Why were
they never too eloquent? What did he once announce
to his family? When must they have been very disappointed? Why ought they not to have been taken
in ? " What must they have thought? Whom need he
not have gone so far with? What did you hear him
teIling an eighty-year-old lady one day? Did she like it ?
Had she any hesitation in saying so? What did she
answer? What did she add? What answer did he have
to that? What did he do instead -? . Why did he soon
recover his verve? Whom used he often to stop in the
street? Whom did he specially love taking a rise out
of ? Why was the resuIt often interesting? Ought the
ladies to have fallen such easy victims? Why did they
never suspect that he was pulling their legs? What
noise did he and an old lady once hear? What effect did
the report of the punctured tyre have on her? What did
he calrnly assure her? What must she necessarily have
been aware of? What did the old lady do? What ought



she to have done? What was another trick of his?

What would he do as a bus carne up? Why would the
driver not stop? What would the victim wonder?
What would my friend then do? What used 1 often to
tell him? What would be the result? Could he have
stopped his nonsense? What am 1 afraid about? Where
was 1 to have been ten minutes ago? What will my
wife probably say ?




We have already noticed in Lessons I and 2 that
anomalous finites are generally necessary for certain types
of sentence. For instance, we use an anomalous finite
in asking a question (par. 5), in making a verb negative
(par. 4), in replacing previous verbs and their co1nplements (par. 6), in making sentences emphatic (par. 6a),
and when certain adverbs introduce a sentence (par. 10).
Now it often happens, on the one hand, that the ano malous finites already studied in Lessons I and 2 are unsuitable, because of their meaning, for the sentence we
want to use. On the other hand, an English speaker feels
that it is absolutely necessary to have an anomalous finite
in all of the different types of sentence mentioned above.
Modero English has had recourse to an extraordinary
way out of this difficulty. It has deprived one verb, do,
of all meaning, and uses it as an anomalous finite in cases
where one is necessary, but where an anomalous finite
with a meaning of its own would not be suitable (par. 15).
It must be remembered, however, that although do,


does, did, have often no .meaning at all wherr used
as anomalous finites, and are therefore untranslatable,.
the verb to do can also be used as an ordinary verb,.
with a number of meanings of its own.
Examples are given of the use of do twice in the same
sentence-once as an anomalous finite, and once as an
ordinary verbo





(See also pars.



Did you ever hear the story of the reaction of the Zulu
children t}:te first time that they saw a four-wheeled
waggon? 1 do. not think that 1 have told it to you before.
Oh, you did hear it befo re, did you I Well, even if you
did, yQur companion did noto So 1 am going to tell it
over again for his benefit, even if you do think that 1
do. not need too You say that repeating funny stories
over and over again is a sign of senile decay, do you ?
WelJo, what if 1 did tell this story last week. 1 cannot tell
it often enough. 1 do so like telling funny stories, so do
.be good and listen. Of course, it is quite true that 1 do
sometimes repeat myself. Nor do 1 doubt that 1 did
tell this story last week, and the week befo re, and perhaps
even the week before that. And if self-repetition does
indicate senile decay,'is it my fault if 1 show signs o it,
with my white locks and doddering walk? You do not
have to remain here, if you do not want too Nor do yob'



,have to listen. But since you are here, here is the story.
So do please stop interrupting, and be quieto You taIk
too mucho
The first time that a four-wheeled waggon was seen
in Zululand, the children did not know what to make of it.
Nelther did thcy dare approach the strange monster.
However, after they had mastered their first fears, and
did come out' of their hiding-places, they acted ruher
surpris'lngly. They ran alongside the little front wheels
of the waggon, laughing and clapping and cheering.
The driver did not understand what all the fuss was about.
H~ knew, of course, that the children did not need very
much to amuse them, but he certalnly did not understand
why .a pair of front wheels should have evoked so much
excitenlent and enthusiasm. He did understand their
first ~citement and fear, but not their subsequent
laughter and cheers. So stratlge did their behaviour
appear to him, that he began to make inquiries. And
he did not have to wait long for an explanation. One
of the children's parents told him that the little ones
cheered because they thought that the small front wheels
were awfuUy plucky to be able to run as far and as fast
as the big ones.
But when the outfit stopped for the night, and the
oxen \\Tere given their evening feed, the enthusiasm of
the children was changed to indignation~ They could not
understand why all the wheels did not have supper too.
Mter a11 their hard work they did think, so they said,
it was strange that the wheels did not have a meal as well.
They did think that the driver was unkind, and, even cruel.
" Do make him feed them," they said to their parents,



in wheedling tones. "We do think it a shame that the

poor things haveto do without a meal, just because their
master is mean, and does not want to feed them properly.
Surely they have worked enough for it ! "
To such lengths did they go in their protests, that
their parents asked the driver to think Qf something to
placate them. Then the driver had a bright idea, and
smiled sllghtly. He did have bright ideas sometimes.
"They do not usually have their food until the
moming," he said to the children. "But 1 do not want
them to go hungry. Still less do 1 want you to think me
mean and cruel. So 1 wiIl feed them now. Though 1
do tot think. that they will take the food, for they are not
used to eating in the evening." So he took a big can of
thick black lubricating-oil and poured some on the hubs
of the wheels. NaturalIy, onlya little of it was absorbed;
and the rest trickled down on to the ground. " There you
are," he said to $e children, "what did 1 tell you? They
take it. Nor did 1 expect them too Nowdo be good
children, and run away and do not bother me any more ! "
Only in this way did he manage to convince them.
So they ran off, quite mollified. Did they find out the
truth? 1 hope not 1






Do, Does,



1 do
You do
He does

We do
You do
They do


1 did
You did
He did

We did
You did
They did



IS. The anomalous finites do, does, and did, are

used :(a) To make a verb negati'Ve, when one of the other
anomalous finites. cannot be used.
1 speak
You speak
He speaks
. We speak
They speak

1 do not speak
You do not speak
He does not speak
We do not speak
They do notspeak

1 spoke
You spoke
He spoke
We spoke
They spoke

1 did not. speak

You did not speak
He di4 not speak
We did not speak
They did not speale

NOTE.-(I) Th ordinary verb to do follows the same

rule (see Introduction). E.g., He does bis. work well.
He does not do bis work well. He did it quickly. He
did not do it quickly.
(2) Verbs followed or preceded by so, to express
rather uncertain hope, expectation, fear, belief" or
knowledge, often form their negatives without do, does,
or did. Such verbs have no object, and are generally
used in answer to a question. 1
E.g., Do you think there will be war? 1 am afraid so. 1 am
afraid noto 1 think so. 1 think noto 1 expect so. 1
expect note 1 hope so. 1 hope noto 1 believe so. 1
believe noto
Is Mary getting married? 1 understand so. 1 understand noto They say so. They say noto So 1 hear.
1 hear not. They tell me so. They tell me noto 1
suppose so. 1 suppose noto
(b) Sentences lntroduced by one o/ the Ad'Verbs Listed
in Par. IO.-Such adverbs must be followed by do, does,
or did, if one of the other anomalous finites cannot be
used. E.g., He rarely ate more than twice a day. Rarely
. did he eat more than twice a day. He went to such
extremes that everybody stood aghast. To such extremes
did he go, that everybody stood aghast. He seldom
speaks to a woman. Seldom does he speak to a woman.
~ The construction seems to be elliptical, and not an ex~eption to
the rule in par. 4, pa~e 9. E.g., 1 am afraid (that it is) not (so). 1 am
afraid noto



Not often does it happen that two brothers marry two

(e) To supply the need for an anomalous finite in a
question, when one of the other anomalous finites eannot
be used (see also pars. 5, 232). One cannot ask a question
by saying, Know 1 ?
1 know
You know
He knows
We know
They know

Do 1 know ?
Do you know ?
Does he know ?
Do we know ?
Do they know ?

1 knew
You knew
He knew
We knew
They knew

Did 1 know ?
Did you know ?
Did he know ?
Did we know ?
Did they know ?

(So also: They did it. Did they do it? They do nothing.
Do they do nothing?)
(d) When another anomalous finite eannot be used
to replace a previous verb and its complements. E.g., He
speaks English. Does he? 1 know how to square the
cirde. 1 am sure you do! He says that he did not do it,
but 1 am sure that he, did. Did you go to the theatre
yesterday. Yes, 1 diJ. John went to Manehester
yesterday. He did not, for 1 saw him here in London.
Last week 1 won thirty thousand pounds. Did you
realIy? (See par. 6.)
(e) To make an affirmation or question more emphatic
(pars. 6a, 79 (a)). E.g., You think that 1 do not love you,
but the faet is that 1 do love you very mueh indeed.
Why did you not go to ehureh to-day? But 1 did go.
What if sorne people do think that ~e earth is flat,
if it makes them happy! He told me that-he' really
did! Who did speak at the meeting, if J ohn did not ?
(f) To give a sentenee a concessive sense. E.g'., John
failed in his examinations, though he did study very
hard. Though it did do its' best, the League of Nations
failed to apply sanetions. 1 do not think that Peter is a
drunkard, though he does take a littl~ too mueh sometimes. He does not think that war is inevitable, though



he does admit that the intemational situation is somewhat

clouded. He can do little, but he does do what he can.
(g) With the negative imperative. E.g., Do not do
that. Do not go there.
(h) With the positive imperative, in persuasive or
impatient speech. E.g., Do please come in and sit clown.
Do please make a little less row.

16. Though the verbs need and dare are often

treated as anomalous finites, they can always be treated
as ordinary verbs (pars. 9, 79 (a)). E.g., I do not dare to
go ioto a cemetery ato night. He did not dare to come.
Did he dare to do it? He does not need to go. I did not
need to go. Did you need to tell him that ?

17. The anomalous finites have, has, hado

(a) In the sense of to posses~.
Present Tense.-Can be used only as an anomalous
finite. E.g., Have yau the book? He has not
the book.

Past Tense.-Either construction can be used.

E.g., Had he the book? Did he have the book ?
He had not the time to do it. He did not have
the time.

(h) In the sense of to tak~ a meal or a drink.

Present Trnse.-More usually treatd as an ordinary
verb, though the anomalous finite construction
is sometimes heard. E.g., Do you have dinner
at seven? I do not have dinner at seven.
Past Tense.-Both the anomalous finite and the
ordinary constructions are usual. E.g., I had
not (hadn't) any dinner this evening. I did not
have any dinner this evening. Did you have
dinner at seven? Had yau dinner at seven ?



(e) In the sense of obligation, followed by too Besides

the negative 1 need not, the idea 1 am not obliged may
be expressed by the negative of 1 have to treated as an
ordinary verbo
1 have to
1 am to

No Obligaiion.
1 do not have to (1 need not)
1 do not have to

1 have not to
1 am not to.

Do, Does, Did.

(a) In the following passage shift the adverbs Usted in
par. lOSO as to make them introduce each sentence :Father, not in the best of moods, sat at the breakfasttable with his family. He felt by no means well, for
one thing; so that nothing pleased him. He felt still
less pleased at Mary's behaviour. She seldom behaved
herself weIl, anyway. Suddenly there was a loud crash
in the next room. This happened not infrequently.
And when it did happen, he hardly ever failed to jump
to his feet, startled.He guessed it was Mary. And he
did not guess wrong. He stopped himself from swearing
only by a strong effort. He did not often control himself
so easily.
,{ It's only me," cried Mary ch~erful1y, as she limped
. into. the room.
" Did you hurt yourself ? " asked her mother solicitously.
"1 never hurt myself," was the emphatic response.
"Just barked my shin, that's alll" Apd she settled
down to a good breakfast. She scarcely ever failed to
eat well, even when she was in hot water. Indeed, she




kept her spirits up only by dint of most careful attention

to the inner mano
" y ou went out again with that unmitigated bounder
Vere de Vere last night," her father growled. He seldom
smiled. "1 don't like your going out alone at night.
And. I like your choice of a companion stillless."
(b) Make each verb in the passage aboye interrogative, splitting up the compound sentences into simple
(c) In' the following passage, make the italicized
positive 'verbs negative :." You think you are able to look after yourself. Perhaps
you can. 1 hope so, anyway. But you are like all modern
girls. Or so I fear. You want to be fast wit\lout having
the reputation for it. You play with fire. You ~rn the
candle at both ends, and you endanger your health. You
know that you are foolish. At least 1 hope so."
Mary exclaimed, "Fiddlesticks!" rather angrily.
"You hate Jasper, of course," she continued. " I
understand so, any'way. You met him on Bank Holiday,
when he had been celebrating. At least,'he says so.. And
you judged him on that. . I know he had taken a drop too
mucho Half the population of England does that on
Bank Holiday. That is because they are normal. Normal
people have a good time when they can. They have
five different kinds of wine for dinner, if they can. They
limit themselve~ to less only if they have too Or so they
sayo But to get back to Jasper. Perhaps he went too far
that day. Young men forget themselves occasionally,



when they are out for a little fun. So I am toldo So, of

course, he hit a bobby. 1 expeet so, anyway. Men
usually hit bobbies when they feel as he felt. So they
tell me. Jasper thought it a lark. He says so. He says
that men like a lark sometimes. 1 should hope so! In
any case, 1 prefer his type to sorne of the insuffer,able
bores that I know !" And she looked meaningly at her
brother Fred, who smile4 smugly to himself, as he cracked
an egg at the other end ot, the tableo
" 1 expect so," he murmu~tl. And then, t~ bis father:
" 1 wish you would let the little vixen marry de Vere.
He gets into trouble about once a day, and he lands in
gaol about once a month. He will lead her a dance, if
she marries him. She will, as a result, wish herself back
again, bothering uso At least, 1 hope so ! "

(d) Fromthe aboye passage (e), select sentences which

are suitable for the insertion of the anomalous-finites do,
does, or did, in their emphatic use. Select other sentences
in which do, does, or did, could be used eoncessively.
(e) In passage (a). aboye, split up the sentences into
simple ones of one verb each, where necessary. Ask
questions about them, and give the answers. In the
answers, use a suitable anomalous finite. E.g., Was father
in the best of moods? No, he was noto Did he sit at the
breakfast table with his family? Yes, he did. Etc., etc.



With what questions does the writer ppen the story ?

Did he think that he had told it to his hearers before ?
Did he assert that one of them had not heard it? Did
they think he needed to tell it again? What is repeating
funny stories a sign of? With what words did he ask them



to be good and listen? What did he admit was true ?

And what did he not doubt? How did he suggest that
self-repetition was not his falt? Did they have to
remain there, if they did not want to? Did they have to
listen? What did they have to stop doing? How did
he tell them this? How did the first four-wheeled
waggon affect the Zulu children? Did they dare to
approach it? When did they come out of their hiding
places? How did they act? What did they run alongside ? What did they do? What did not the driver
understand? What did he know? What did he certainly
not understand? Why did he begin to m~e inquiries ?
Did he have to wait long for an explanation? What
did one of the parents tell him? When was the enthusiasm
of the children changed to indignation? What could
they not understand? What did they think was strange ?
What did they say to their parents. What tones did they
use? What did they think a shame? Did they think
the driver mean? Did the driver want to fee~ the wheels ?
Did the driver have a bright idea? Was this usual?
When did he tell the children that the wheels usually
fed? Did he want them to go hungry? Did he want
them to think him mean or cruel? Did he think they
would take the food? Why not? What did he take?
What did he do with the lubricating oH? How much of
it was absorbed? What happened to the rest? What
did he say to the children ?
E. Some of the questions aboye in D begin with dU.
Answer these questions again, using a suitable
verb from the list given in par. IS, note 2, to express
a negative opinion, or a negative hope or fear.





It is one of the peculiarities of English verbs that
their tense forms do not always merely indicate the
past, present, or future. Certain teItses, over and aboye
this function, convey an added shade of meaning. Shall
and will, especially, may be used to imply simple futurity
(par. 19); or they may be used to imply that their respective subjects have not, or have, the last' UJOTd to 64Y
whether the future action is to take place (par. 21). This
is most important, because a pupil who fails to understand this differeilce loses the significance of the sentence
Par. 21 should therefore be studied with special care,
and the principIe underlying the difference between
shall and will thoroughly grasped. To make this possible,
the number of examples given is extremely large. The
" Oxford Dictionary" has been freely drawn on.
German and Scandinavian pupils should remember
that Ieh 'lDill is not to be translated by 1 will, to express
a present desire which has nothing to do with the future ..
One.frequently hears. a German or Scandinavian speaker
saying, "1 UJill ask you a question," when he really
means, " 1 UJant to ask you a question."
In studying the special uses of should (par. 24) and
UJould (par. 25), Latin speakers will notice that should.
can often be used to. replace the subjunctive form in .
modem Latin languages; and that UJould often replaces
the modem Latin eonditional.




(Also in other uses)
A. PROSE PASSAGE. (See also par. 358.)
"What shall we do this week-end ? " asked Mary, one
Saturday moming. "We never go out nowadays; and
we never shall, unless 1 keep on and on at you. Say what
you will, we shall be getting really stodgy, unless 1 do
something about it." .
" Wl you please leave me in peace ! " grQ)\'led John.
" y ou shall go out as often as you please, when 1 am less
busy. 1 shdll have a lot of work to catch up on, this weekend."
" y ou shall do no such thing ! " cried Mary. "YQU
would find an excuse to stay at home in this lovely weather.
And, unless 1 put my foot down, you always will. You
grumble that 1 should want to enjoy life before 1 am too
old. But then, 1 suppose it is impossible to expect that
a bookworm like you should ever begin to understand the
real meaning of the word ' life.' "
John had heard the joie-de-vivre motif before, and
knew how to handle it, or thought he did. "When you
begin to grow old," he said, "you can start talking. Personally, 1 do not think that you ever will. 1 am surprised
that the idea should have entered your head, even. You


do not seem a day older than, 1 will not say thirty, but
twenty. And. when you are double your age, 1 am sure
you willlook the same."
" Will you stop~ your nonsense!" cried Mary, in a
tone that was supposed to be indignant, but in reality
hid a smirk of self-satisfaction. "And do not think
.that you will get out of it by trying to flatter me."

J ohn knew that, do what he would, further resistance

would be useless. "As Your Majesty wills," he groaned
. resignedly. "Where shall we go? "
" If we get a tent,". said Mary, with a far-away look
in 'her eyes, " wha~ fun it will be! You can carry it wherever you like. We shall have no hotel to return to and
no time-table to keep to; and we shall be able to wander
about from place to place, at our own sweet will. When
we are tired, we can pit(:h the tent in the first field that
we come too It will be great fun ! "
"Yes," said John grimly, "1 should say it will be
great fun. 1 can see in my mind's eye a vision of a long
,line of week-ends, stretching down the years. 1 shall be
trudging and sweating up hill and down dale, bent under
a load of blankets and food, and a tent-thirty pounds,
at least-and you will trip merrily by my side, lightening
the wearymiles with your chirps and squeaks of pleasure,
as sorne new vista presents itself to your delighted gaze.
And one day 1 shall drop in my tracks, another martyr
to the English wife's concept of what constitutes a happy
week.. end. And you will write on my .tombstone something like this: 'He died in hamess, for he willed it so ' ;



or, 'He had served his purpose, so it was time that he

should die.' "
"Now, now," said Mary soothingly, "you know
quite well that it W1:t1 not be as bad as all that. And you
know very well, say what you will, that when 1 do dr~g
you out, you always enjoy yourself thoroughly; And,
indeed, why should you not, with all the lovely scenery
and sunshine."
" As you will! " groaned' John, much as a dentist's
patient who decides that he had better have it over and
done with once and for aH. And then, quickly, lest he
should repent if he gave himself time to thiri.k the matter
overo "You shall have your tent! We will buy the
thing this moming. Will you get ready to go out at
once? "
"Will I? 1 should just think so!" cried Mary ,
surprised and delighted at her easy victory. "Just give
me a few moments, and we shall be able to buy the things
and go to the station early."
"Grr . . . ! " said J ohn.
A few minutes later, Mary reappeared, quite transformed. She was wearing sandaIs without stockings,
a Jersey, blue shorts, and no hato "Will 1 do?" she
John looked at her outfit sourly. "Well, 1 do not
suppose that anyboqy will take us for an indigent circustroupe," he said, and Mary laughed.
" Stop pretending to be grumpy," she said. "Put on
your old grey flannels, and we will go out and buy the


Half an hour later, they were still in the shop. John
was standing unsteadily under the weight of a huge knap8ack, into which an assistant had obligingly packed a
couple of sleeping;.bags, a portable tent, a ground-sheet,
a couple of pneumatic rubber pillows, and other items
which, so he said, were indispensable.
" Shall he bring you two pneumatic beds, J ohn ? "
8uggested Mary.
"No," said. John, "he shall noto 1 fe el too much
like an overloaded camel as it is. We will sleep on the
" Shall 1 adjust the straps for you, then,. sir? " asked
the assistant.
" If you would;" gasped poor John. "The thing will
not fit properly when 1 try to adjust thero myself."
" Shall you go far, sir? " pursued the assistant.
" Not very," said John. "We shall make for Land's
End; and from there \Ve shall walk to John o' Groat's,
and so back to London."
"Quite a tour!" observed the assistant. " When
do you think you W1:U get back ? "
"1 shall never live to get back!" responded J ohn
briefly. And then, in answer to the assistant's politelylifted eyebrows, "You do not know my wife !" And,
with that, he staggered toward the lift.
At the door of the shop, whom should they meet hut
James, John's cousin! "Well, well!" grinned James.
" To think that it should have come to this ! "
" 1t is much to be wished," retorted J ohn, " that you
would mind your own business. As for the pack, it



would seem that 1 am in need of fresh air and exercise ;

and Mary here is determined that 1 shall have it, wi11yni1ly. She would have the whole of London doing the
same thing, so she says."
," John," said James solemnly, "you ,were born to
fame! Let me take a photograph of you in that rig~out,
and 1 promise you that you shall come into your own.
The picture shall appear in very illustrated paper in
England, and your name shall be on everybody's lips."
" 1 will be damned if 1 willlet you take my photograph,
for that or for any other purpose," said J ohn.
" AH right, all right, don't get excited," said James,
with another grin. "It was hardly to 'be expected that
you should appreciate the honour. Anyway, have a good
time. Cheerio!" And off he went.
" Where shall we go to ? " asked Mary.
" H ow should 1 know ? " grunted J ohn. "That is for
y~u to decide. 1 am doing my part in buying the equipment and acting as a beast of burden."
" Let me see ... " said Mary, ignoring rum. "Shall
we go to Worthing? It is on the coast; and it wz'll be
very pleasant there at this time of the year."
'" It will probably rain a11 the time," prophesied John
gloomily. "But as you will. Worthing let it be. But 1
should hurry, if 1 were you. Otherwise it will be too late
to arrive before dark."
And now we will leave the happy pair, and perhaps
take up their advntures latero




Shall, Should, Will, Would.
(The numbers in brackets refer to thecorresponding
articles on "shall" and "will " in the large edition of
the " Oxford Dictionary.")

19. Pure Futurity (see par. 61).

Present Tense.
.Past (Indirect Speech).
1 shall [8]
We shalI
1 shouId
We should
y ou will
You will
You wouId
You wouId
He will'

They will

He would

They would

Exa:mples.-I suppose that this time to-morrow 1

ahall be in Paris. 1 said that 1 shouId probably be in
Paris the next day. He will arrive at about sUc. 1 said
tbat he would arrive at about six.
NOTE.-When the first person is turned into the third
in reported speech, it is usual to retain "shall" or,
" should" [8]. E.g., This time to-morrow 1 shall probably
be in Paris. He says that he shall probably be in Paris
this time to-morrow. He said that he should probably
, be in Paris at the same time on the following day.
" Will" and "would" are used only if there is no
possibility of ambiguity.1

"Shall" and "will'" are not used. to indicate

pure juturity in clauses introduced by the following : on condition that all the time In case while
until .
as soon as

The present tense of the verb con cerned is used instead.

This money is lent on condition that you repay it within
two months. You may occupy this room all the time you
are here. Have the room ready, in case he' arrives before
1 The Oxford DictiQnilry is clear on the point.
See article on
shall ", 'section B 11 8 (introduction), and also sections B 11 8d and
B 11 146.
la Except in the expression of strong determination or obstinacy.




we expect him. BefOre 1 meet him, 1 must have a talk

with you. 1f he gets here in time, we can go to the theatre
with him. Until you learn to address me .in the proper
way, 1 can have no dealings with you. As soon as he
comes, let me know. 1 hope to settle doWn after the war
is overo You must take me to .a cabaret directly this
performance is over. Count the guests as tliey enter.
Unless he gives me the money, 1 am afraid 1 shall find
myself in Queer Street. Suppose he Tfuses to sign, whBt
must do?
21. The contrast between " shall" and " will," when
other elementsbesides that of pure futurity enter nto
their meaning.
(A) "Shall" brings out the fact that the future
action or state is completely, or in a greater or less degree,
independent of the will, consent, or intention of the person
represented by its subject. It should be noted her that
the rule refers to the subject of " shall " whether " shall "
is the auxiliary of the principal verb or noto
(a) First Person.-Where shall we stow the mare?
Shall 1 call a cab? (The expected answer is a command,
diTection, or counsel [8].) They asked where they should
stow the mareo He inquired if he should call a cabo
We shall be impeached with foul actions. 1 shall
probably be sick to-morrow. We said that we should
be impeached with foul actions. He remarked that he
fOould be sick on the following day. (Future events
completely independent of the speaker's volition [8b (a)].)
1 shall get nto trouble if 1 do nt send the letter.
He said that he would get mto trouble. (Unsought result
in a hypothetical case [8 (g)].)
In spite of all my care,I expect that every time 1 see
him 1 shll quarrel with him. (Unsought result under
specific circumstances [9].)


1 know that 1 shall never live to see it. (Oracular
8tatement [8].)
(b) Seeond Person.-Old year, you shall not go. You
,hall do no such thing. He cried that she should .do no
8uchthing. He told the old year that it should not go.
(Expresses the speaker' s determination to prevent the
8ubject of " shall " from doing something [6].)
y ou shall have your jamo If you are a good child,
you shall go to the cinema to-night. (A promise on the
part of the speaker [6 (a)].)
He promised that i she behaved herself, she should go
to the cinema that night.
If you had rather not stay, you shall go down to
8puth Kensington. (She is able to go only because the
speaker WiIl not prevent it [6 (a)].)
You shalllive to regret it. (Oracular statement [8 (a)].)
.He told her tiiat she wOld live to regret it.
(e) Thitd Person.-S~dalous persons sf.all be k~pt
from the Sacramento (Official language: imperanve
l5lb)].) The law laid dO'lJJn . that scandalous persons
should be kept from the Sacramento .
She shall go if she wants too (The speaker could
prevent it, but WiIl not [6 (b)].) He told her that Mary
,hould go if she wanted too
She shall come back. 1 will take care of that. (The
sPeaker will force her to retum, whether she consents or
no [6 (b)].) Th nurse WQS determined that Mary should
He shall get a rise in six months. (A promise on the
part of the speaker [6 (b)].) The Manager promised that
Michael should have bis rise in six months.
He is determined that she shall marry him. They
,hall not pass. Barcelona WQ$ posted With notices expressing the determinatirr that .General Franco' s forces
should not pass [6 (b)].



Shall the visitor. come in now'? (Interrogative,

expecting' a direction or command from the person
:addressed [7 (e)J.) She asked the Manager if the waiting
dient slouId be shown in.
Milton has determined that his life-work shall be an
epic poem [n (e)]. As a child he had already determined
what his life-work shottId be.
So shall it ever be. (Oracular statement [8 (a)].)
(B) In contrast to " shall," "will" expresses a future
action or, state which is primarily dependent upon the
intention, eonsent, or valition of the person referred to by
its subject.
(a) First Person.-I have paid my money, and 1 fOt1
see the show. (Determination, persistence, as in par. I
and the following examples [10].) He shouted that he
had paid his money, and that . he wou,ld see the
. Will you marry this man? I will! (Consent.)
Good-bye, J' 11 (J will) soon be back! 1 have glorified
it, artd will glorify it again. (Implication of intention or
volition, Le., J mean to, J.intend to [1I].) He said that he
wouJd soon be back.
1 will die sooner than give in. l'll be hanWd if J will
do it [15 (b)]. He said he would be hanged If he wO1d
do it.
(b) Seeond Person . -If you will send the cheque
immediately, it will save a great deal of trouble. The
creditor said that if the client w;)J(J send the cheque
at once, there would be no legal roceedings.
1 know you won't (will not te ero How will you
do it? Whom will you send? Archibald remarked that
he was sure that Thomas wouId not tell Mary. (Auxiliary
of the future in questions or indirect statements, with the
implication of intention or volition [n (b)].)
(e) Third Person.-When God will tell us, we shall



know [7]. What will he do 'about it? I do not know

what he will do. Hewill not do anything [Il]. He said
that whel1 God would tell them, they, would know. He
did not know what J ohn would do about it.
22. "Shall" used of the future,' wt'thout excluding
f)olition, consent, or intention on the part of its subject.
(a) First Person.-(I) " 1 shall " may be used instead
of " 1 will " if reference is made to a ptevious, as opposed
to a present, decision; E.g., I shall go t-o Paris to-morrow
[8 (b)]. He said that he would go to Paris on the next day.
(2) " I shall" may be used to indicate the determination of the speaker to do something in spite 01 all opposition
[8b (b)], often in combination with 1 will. E.g., You
are not to go out with that young man again! 1 shall dnd
1'will !
(b) SecOnd Person.-In categorical questions. E.g.,
Shall you sail to-morrow? [8 (c).]
23. The use of "will" with the notion of futurity
either obscured ar lost.
(a) First Person.-(I) In the negative with " say," in
the sense of " 1 do not wish to go to the length 01 affirming."
E.g., 1 will not say that he is a thief, but 1 will say that
he does not seem to have much respect for other people's
property. He is, 1 will not say selfish, but perhaps a little
self-seeking [13]. He said that John was, he would not say
selfish, but perhaps a litde self-seeking.
(2) A proposal, in the sense of " let us." E.g., We
will now sing a hymn. We will leave her out of .the
discussion, if you don't mind [13 (b)]. If there was no
objection, he said, they would leave the lady out of the
(3) Hab# (see Lesson 1, par. 7-). ,
(4) Expressing a, determinate or logical ~on$equence
[15 (c)]. E.g., If my actions of a lifetime 'are examined,
1 will be seen to have worked consistent1y for peace.



He said that if his actions were examined, he would be

seen to have worked consistently for peace.
(5) In the sense of " presumably am" [15 (d)]. E.g.,
From what you say, 1 will be your cousin t and you will
be the heir to the title.
(6) In the sense of "may." E.g., Do what 1 will, 1
canriot persuade him [19 (d)].
(7) In the sense of " Am 1 suitable?" E.g., Will 1 do?
(b) Second Person.--(I) Courteous request. E.g., Will
you please sit down? You will permit me, 1 am sure,
to differ from you. And if you will permit me the liberty
of saying so, you are not exactly the person most suited
to the position. Shall 1 get you a cup of tea? If you will !
[6 (b), 14 (b)]:
(2) Expression o/ impatience or annoyance. E.g., Will
you stop' making that noise ! [6 (b)].
(3) Habit or obstnate insistence (see Lesson 1).
(4) A determnate or logical consequence. E.g., 1 am
sure that if a doctor examines you, you will tum. out to
be a mental defective [15 (c)].
(5) In the sense of " presumably are" [15 (d)]. E.g.,
Then you will be the Income Tax Collector?
(6) In the sense of "may" [9 (d)]. Say what you
wiU, 1 stick to my opinion. 1 told him that say what he
would, 1 stuck to my opinion.
(7) In the sense of" 1/ you pre/er to think o/ it (express
it) in that way" [17]. E.g., He is a ]ew, or, if you will,
an Israelite.
(8) In the sense of "insist on believing (saying),"
with "have" [5]. E.g., If you will have it that black is
white, 1 cannot help it.
(c) Third Person.-(I) In the sense of "to coment
to against the grain" [6]. E.g., Literature thrives where
people will read what they do not agree with, if it is good.
(2) Potentiality, capacity, sufficiency [9]. E.g., My
shoes will not go on. Half ~n hour will see him there.



,The words will bear no such interpretation. He said

Ihis shoes 'lOould not go on.
(3) Habit or obstnate insistenee (Lesson 1, par. 1).

(4) Determinate or logieal eonsequence [IS (e)]. E.g~,

From what has been said, it will be seen that the defendant
has no case at aH.

(S) Presumably is [32 (b)]. E.g., Who is that at the

door? It will be John. It 'lOould be about ten o'clock
when he arrived.
(6) In the sense of " may" [9 (d)]. E.g., Be that as
it will, 1 cannot change my decision.
(7) With " have" in the sense of obstinate assertion
'or belief [5]. E.g., He 'lOill have it thatPatagonia is in
Africa. He 'lOould have it that Patagonia 'lOas in Mrica.

34- Special uses of " should." (Often replacing the

subjunctive of the Latin lq,nguages.)
(a) In all Three Persons.-(I) Duty, deduetion, desirability, advisability (see Lesson 1).
(2) Adviee [19 (d)]. E.g., 1 should get her back as
soon as 1 can.
(3) After clauses jntroduced by that, in dependen ce on
expressions of 'lOill, desire, eommand, request [2 (d)]. E.g.,
1 found the note to contain a request that 1 should go
to the Horse Guards.
(4) Mter verbs expressing surprise or its absence,
approval or disapproval [22 (e)]. E.g., He grumbled that
horses should be brought out. He is surprised that
1 should do such a thing. It is remarkable that he should
have gone there at all.
(S) In clauses dependertt on verbs expressing possibility, probability, Ol negation [22 (d)]. E.g., 1 think it
quite impossible that 1 should not at least have looked jnto it
enough to remember having seen it. lt is impossibl to
expect that such people should be able to withstand




(6) After ~'lest." E.g., However, lest you should

think me prejudiced, 1 will come to the meeting with
(7) Relating to the necessity, justice, or propriety of
something [22]. E.g., Jt was time that he should die.
Jt is not right that people should be' treated in such
a way.
(8) After the interrogative "why," to indicate the
inability to conceive any reason or justification for an act
or a belief [23]. E.g., Why should I do it if 1 don't want
to? Why should people' be forced to do such things ?
(9) After the interrogative "how," implying that
something is impossible or inadmissible. E.g.~ How should
. you understand what is so little intelligible? . Do you
know London? How should J? 1 have never been there.
(b) In the first and third persons,. to express the
unexpectedness of a past incident. E.g., 1 was going down
Oxford Street the other day, when whom should I meet
but John I 1 was telling Peter the incident, when what
should he do but burst into tears r Peter was indu~
in a mild flirtation with the strange girl, when wh
come 3Iong bt biS wife! (In this construction, " should"
is preceded by " who," " whom," or " what," and followed
by " but.")
(c) Jn the First Person only.-(I) To express probability. E.g., I should think ihat such is the case [19 (b)].
(2) Indignant confirmation of a previous statement, or
strong expression of a logical consequence [19 (d)]. E.g.,. 1
am sorry for having done that. 1 shO'ldd think you are t
She asked me to come in; and I should think 1 did.
It is dangerous to look for a gas-leak with a lighted match.
1 should think it is I

25. Special uses of "would" in all three persons.

(Often replacing the conditional in Latin languages.)
(a) With "sooner" or "rather" to express prefer-



ence .[36]. E.g., I 'Would sooner not come, if you don't

(do not) mind.
(b) Soltened Tequest, more so even than "will" in
par. 23 (b) (1) [41 (c)]. E.g., Would you mind calling her
for me? Shall 1get you a cup of tea? . JI you 'Would /
Would you mind telling me the way to Trafalgar Square ?
(c) With " seem" or " appear," to express an opinion
with some degree of uncertainty or hesitation [42 (b)].
E.g., It 'lOould seem that thefindings of science are often
0en, to correction or modification. It 'lOould appear that
the time has not yet come for the change.
(d) In the sense of " in the circumstances one has the
right ta expect" [42 (b)]. E.g., One 'lOould think that she
would .do it, if only out of spite. This is not, as one
fJ)OUld suppose, the final phaSe 01 the struggle.
(e) Ironically, angrily, or in jest, in the sense of " it
.\ is a characteristic action." E,g., To the maid' who has
tripped and spilt the tea things on the floor, her mistress
will say: "Of course, you 'Would ruin my lovely Chinese
carpet." And when James is told that John got drunk
last night and drove his car into a shop window, his
comment is: "He 'l/Jould!" 1 had been trying to avoid
her all day, and of course 1 'lOould meet her comng out
of the post-office !
In a noun clause, even when dependen~ .on a
verb in the present tense, to express the object of desz're,
advice, or request, and implying 'Voluntary action as the
desired end (compare par. 24 (a) (3 [42 (b)]. E.g., It
is much to be wished that someone 'lOould clear up the
tangled web of these peace negotiations. The general
. wish was that James 'lOould govern in accordance with
public opinion.
(g) With " have " in the sense of " to desire to make "
[40]. E.g., He would have us believe that there 'is no




solution of the problem but his own. He would have us

all monks I
(h) To introduce a retorta E.g., If, as the Hon.
Member asserts, the country is not lacking in leaders,
T would ask him how he would explain the complete
disorganization which was notorious during the last crisis.
26. The verb " to will," which is an ordinary regular
verb, must not be confused with the anomalous finite
" will." The verb "to will" is most frequently used
to express the denre or volitian 01 a supreme authority
or 01 a dead persan, to express an effort 01 will, or in the
sense of " to leave a legacy." E.g., The nation wills it.
The King willed ita Cod wiUs ita 1t is true that there
is no stone left to mark his grave, but he willed it so.
He did not will any money to his children. 1 succeeded
because 1 willed too
N OTE.-For the use of "should" and " would" in
conditional sentences see Lesson 6.


Shall, Should, Will,





(a) Rewrite the following passage in the/uture tense :Last night, 1 had a dream. 1 thoughtI was back in
the .sixteenth century. 1 was introduced to Don Juan
Alvarez y Mendoz'a. He was a typical Spanish hidalgo
of his age. . He was fierce, sensitive, and proud. But he
was also brave and kind hearted, as well as deeply
religious. In the dream, we were voyaging together
from ltaly, when the trouble started. Our little galley was
overtaken by a violent storm. For three days and three
nights the crew-Don Juan was in command-battled
with the raging elements, and still the storm showed no



signs of abating. Half the crew had been washed overboard, and the rudder was gone. So we made a vow.
If those of us who were left were saved, we cried, we
promised to make a pilgrimage to the shrine of Montserrat.

(b) Rewrite the f9110wing in indirect sp~ech:

Shortly afterwards, the storm will actually abate,
and the galley, with an oar lashed to the stem as a rudder,
will limp painfully into Barcelona harbour. And Don
Juan, with that little trick of keeping his word that will
always be a special weakness of Spaniards, will set out
with me on the p~omised pilgrimage. The fact that days
and nights of exposure Will have made him too weak and
iU tQ stand on rus feet, will be no obstacle. 1 shall arrange
te have him carried on a litter, and carried on a litter he
WiU be. So on we shaIl go, bumping and swaying up
the steep and rocky road to Montserrat.

(e) Insert shall, should, will, or would where possible,

in the vacant spaces in the following passage, remembering that pure futurity cannot be expressed by ~hese
anomalous finites, in clauses introduced by the words
listed in par. 20:.
When we am.ved at Montserrat, we found the church
packed. "Where - we put this sick man ? " 1 asked a
" How - 1 know ? " was his indifferent answer.
At last we found a small space near the High Altar,
and laid Don Juan there on the stone floor, in his litter.
A tall pilgrim pressed forward to get a better view; and



what - he do, but step on Don Juan! The latter was

naturalIy annoyed that he - be trodden on.
" - you kindly look where you are going I " he said.
" Why - I ? " was the cool reply. "1 am the Dauphin
of France."
"It is impossible that you: - not have seen me,"
insisted Don Juan angrily. "1 - not be used as a
door-mat by anyone ! "
"Yes you _.," replied the other contemptuously.
" Why - I bother about scum like you ? "
" For a good reason," replied my friendo "1 am Don
Juan Alvarez y Mendoza. Or, if you -,'the Admiral
of Aragon. And, if you - permit me to say so, I do not
like your tone.. You - sing a different tune. when 1,,on my feet again.. And,lest you - not understandplain
language, take that!" And he flung his gauntlet up,
full into the Dauphin's face. The latter began to draw
his sword, but thought better of it.
"Very well," he said. "1 - meet you on any field
you like to choose, if and when your old carcass - find
enough vitality to face me ! "
" Good !" said Don Juan. "You - have your
opportunity. - we say next month? "
" As you - !" grunted the Dauphin. "It is high
time that you - die, anyway. - you let me know when
you - ready? And meantime, I - advise you to say
sorne prayers while you have the chance!" And he
began to move away.
"Good-bye, then," smiled Don Juan. "1 - see
you next month! And it is you who - die, be sure of


that! He - pick a church to pick a quarrel in !" he
remarked, as the Dauphin disappeared among the crowd.
" It was too much to expect that he - show any manners
or :reverence. One - think these chaps owned the earth,
the way they behave. And, of course, 1 - be' too ill
to put him in his place! Well, we - see what h!lppens."
A month later, Don Juan's messenger was in Pars.
Whom - the messenger meet in the street but the
Dau phin himself. So he handed him a message to the
effect that he - await Don Juan's arrival in a few days'
Don Juan claimed an audience with the King, within
a few hours of his arrival.
" Ah," said the King, "then you - be the man my
boy was talking about. Well," he continued indignant1y,
" 1 - see y01,1 in Hades before 1 - let you fight him.
- you have princes fighting all the scum that they kick
out of the ~ay during their journey through life? ~
look too hi~h for an opponent."
," Be that as it _," answered Don Juan calmly, "he
accepted my challenge. From what you say, it - now
seem that someone is showing the white feather. And
1 - suggest that he - have thought of that before he
started insulting grandees of Spain. Why - he have
"ridden the high horse, if he had not intended to ~
good his words? Say what you -, there is now only one
honour~ble course opeo to him. Once he has accepted
a challenge, a good knight - fight, even if he fears defeat.
Of course, if you insist that he - not fight, it must be
as Your Majesty - ! But from the viewpoint of the



code of chivalry, your attitude seems to be, 1 - not say

dishonourable, hut at least a trifle irregular. 1 am sure
you - agree with me, if you - stop to think a momento
And now, in plairi words, - the Dauphin shelter behind
your royal robes, or - he back up his insults with the
sword? "
" Re - not fight ! " roared the King.
At this moment, who - come in but the Dauphin
himself. "1 -' and 1 - fight," he shouted. " 1 rather die than risk hearing it said that 1 fear a lousy
Spaniard. If 1 cannot make mincemeat of him, 1 eat my he!met ! "
" Of course, of course !" said Don Juan soothingly.
"lt is impossible to expe.ct that you - take u p any
other attitude. -- you get ready now ?" ~,
" Immediately," said the Dauphin. "If you - have
it that you ar~ the better man, 1 suppose that 1 - have
to prove that you are not."
" 1 am sure you -," said Don Juan sarcasticaIly.
An hour later, the Dauphin was almost ready. "Rere,
- you help me with these gauntlets ?" he said to his
squire. ". They - not go on. Do you think 1 - do ? "
he added, looking at himself in the mirror, and preening
himself slightly. "Let people say what they -.' 1 look
pretty good in armour!" From which it - be gathered
that the Dauphin was not without vanity.
In the subsequent combat, what - Don Juat;t d but
amuse himself by picking embossed fleurs-de-lis off the
Dauphin's shield, with the point of his lance. But the
Dauphin - not see the joke. "This Spa!liard - try to



make a {ool of me," he thought. And, aloud: "We 6ght it out with swords, if you do not mind."
" It - seem," grinned Don Juan, "that the lad is
getting distinetly eross. But as. you -." And it was
only a matter of seeonds before th Dauphin was
stretched bleeding on the sward. Don Juan drew his
dagger to administer. the coup de grlce. But the Freneh
King - not allow the laws of ehivalry to drown his
paternal instincts.
" Stop," he eried urgentIy. "Stop, - you ! "
"Why - 1 ? " inquired Don Juan politely.
~' It is not right that you - kill a prinee. You - have .
.any gift you eare to ask, if only you - spare my son's
life ! "
"That, of eourse, makes a differenee," quoth Don
Juan. "As Your Majesty- then! 1 - think the matter
over, and make my request to-morrow. 1 did not realIy
want to kill him. anyway, lest people - aeeuse me of
ehild-murder." And he strode ealmly baek to his tent,
a Httle surprised that the King - have made sueh a
limitless offer. Though, of eourse, under the cireumstanees, it was only natural that he -.



What questiondid Mary ask John, one Saturday

morning? What eomplaint did she make? What did
she prophesy about J ohn? Why did J ohn growl? What
did he promise? What did Mary ery in answer? What
did she say would hppen unless she put her foot down ?
What reason does she give for John's grumbling? What
does she suppose is impossible? What did J ohn say



about Mary's fears of getting old? What did Mary

answer to that? What did her tone really hide? What
did she tell J ohn not to think. What did J ohn know ?
Why dd he gro,an resignedly? What did Mary say with
a far-away look in her eyes? What did J ohn answer
gr~mly? What could he see in his mind's eye? What
does he say that he shall be doing? Why will he drop
in his tracks? What wiIl she write on his tombstone ?
What does Mary say that he knows quite well? When
does he always enjoy himself thoroughly? Why does
J ohn groan? How does he groan? Why did he answer
quickly? What does he promise? What does he ask
Mary to do? What does Mary. answer? What did she
look like when she reappeared? What did she ask?
How dd John look at her outfit? What did he say?
What dd Mary tell him to stop pretending to be? What
did she teIl him to do? How was J obn standing, half
an hotir later? What did Mary suggest? How did John
receive the suggestion?' What did the assistant offer
to do? And John's nswer? What was the assistant's
next question? Where did J ohn say they were going?
What was the assistant's next question? What was John's
brief response? What reason did he give? What
happened at the shop door? "'''by did James grin?
What did John retort? How dd he explain the pack?
What was Mary determned? What would she have the
whole of London doing? What was J ohn born to?
On what condition did James promise that John shou1d
come into his own? Where should the picture appear ?
Where should his name be? Give John's answer to the
request. '\That did James say was hardly to t,e expected ?
What did Mary ask? What did John answer to her
request for a suggeston about their destination? What
place did Mary suggest? 'Vhy W orthing? What did
John prophesy? In what words did he agree to Worthing? What advice did he give ?





English and North-American film s are now shown
regularly in a large number of countries outside the
English-speaking world. Students of English, after
years of study, go to these films, and find to their dismay
that they simply cannot follow what is being said. A
careful study of the abbreviated forms of the anomalous
finites and of their use will make a surprising difference.
For the abhreviated anomalous finites are, in a sense,
the key to English conversation; and no student wiII
ever converse naturalIy and fluentIy until he Inastcrs them
perfectly. Special attention must be given to their pronunciafion, which frequently diverges so much from
that of the complete forms as to make the fact that they
are the same verbs almQst unrecognizable.




(See also pars. 358-359.)

. The Zulu wal; acting' as guide to the new Inspector
of Native Schools. As they r.ode along, the white man
tried to draw his companion out with regard to his notions



about the riddle of life. "You don't happen to know,

do you, why all men are mortal? " he asked.
"Oh yes, 1 do!" answered the blaek, rather unexpected Iy. "Everybody knows that !"
" Do they?" rejoined the Inspector. "1 understood
not! WeH, I' m afraid that I' m not in on the seeret.
lVon't you tell me about it ? "
. "With pleasure," said the blaek. "It's like this.
When the Deity made man, he didn't make up his mind
at first what he was going to do about it. But one day,
after he had put off his deeision for sorne time, he felt
that he couldn't let the matter stand over a,ny longer.
So he ealled the ehameleon, and said to him: 'You
.wouldn't mind running a little message for me, 'lOould
you ?'
" , Not at aH,' said the ehameleon. '1 rarely re/use,
do I? What is it ?'
" , l' d like you to slip along to those men down there
In the valley, and tell them that they're not going
to die.'
" , No sooner said than done! ' eried the ehameleon,
and off he started.
" But as a matter of faet, he 'lOasn't as quiek as he said
he' d be, for ehamelens can't go fasto . Indeed, he dawdled
so long over the journey, that the Deity began to get
impatient. He even began to suspeet that the men had
been up to something with his messenger. It 'lOas hardly
surprising, 'lOas it, that he should think so? Men used
. to aet naturally, even in those days. So he ,called the


lizard aparto 'I've got a littIe joh of work {or you to
do: he said. 'You don't mind, do you ?'
" 'Of course not!' exclaimed the lizard, with
alacrlty. 'I've always done Iwhat you've asked me to
wllllngly and satisfactorily, haven't 1? 1 never do things
anyhow, do 1 ? '
- " , Yes, yes . . . 1 know you wouldn't let me
said the Deity soothlngly. 'But to ~et on with the
business in bando -1'm afraid that those men down there
in the valley have set upon the poor chameleon and
killed him.'
" , 1 sincerely hope not,' said the lizard, unctuously.
"The Deity distegarded this. 'So if you aren't
afraid of being treated in the same way, , he said, 'l'd
like you to hurry along and tell them that sooner or later
they're all going to die.'
" , Right oh, ,- said the lizard. .' Anything to please an
old friendo I'II be there in no time. If they t7 anything
on, l'II be too quick for them. And in any case, they
shan't touch me, hecause they daren't. They' d scarcely
attack your messenger, would they ? '
" , Scarcely I ' smiled the. Deity.
" So off the lizard started like a streak 'of lightning.
He overtook and passed the chameleon on the way, hut
didn't let rumself be seen. He stole past, and got to his'
destination very pleased with himself. 'You're all going
to die! ' he squeaked pertly to the first man he met."
"The lizard acted rather irregularly, didn't he, in
going ahead separately ? " broke in the Ipspector, at this




point. "And it was rather mean of him, wasn't it?

They corIld either have gone bac~ together and told the
Deity that the chameleon wasn't dead a{ter aH; or they
could have gone on and delivered the first message, cauldn't
they? 1 ,hardly think he did the right thing, do yau ?
You agree with me, don't yau ? "
" 1'm afraid,not," said the Zulu, wlth dlgnlty. "And
in any case, 1'm n()t out. to explain or standup for the
lizard's condutt. The fact is that he acted Independently.
l'm merely telling you what actually took place."
" Are you?" said the Inspector, with the faintest of
grins. "1 had believed not fAtI right. Go on."
And the Zulu went on with his story. "When the
man heard the lizard's message, naturaHy; he wasn't very
pleased. 'So we're aH going to die, are rDe ? ' he burst out
angrUy. 'Well, we won't be the only ones. Yau'll be
the first, anyway,' and with that he grasped a stick tlghtly,
and made at the lizard. The latter tried to jump out of
harm's way, but he wasn't quick enough. The man
smiled terrlbly. 'This'll teach you,' he cried, 'to come
here with such messages ! " And so the lizard was cut
off before his time. 1 think he deserved it, don't yau? "
" Well,I should have thought not," said the Inspector,
a little Inconsiste!1t1y. "But that is neither here nor
" By and by," continued the Zulu, "the chameleon,
who of course didn't know that the Deity had changed
his mind, crept, up. '.Yau're a11 going to live for ever,' he
croaked benignly.
" 'Oh, we are, are we?You're a little late, aren't
yau ?' grunted the same mano The chameleon stood


stJII. 'Why, 'lOhat's happened?' he exclainied uncomfortably.
1" ~ It's not 'lOhat's happened that matters to you, my.
,hoy: it's 'lOhat's going to happen ! "said the man grlmly.
So 'lOe're all going to live for ever, are 'lOe?' he continued, leerlng horrlbly~ 'Well, you're not!' And,
before the poor chameleon couId draw away, he hit him
over the head with a stick too."
" That was pretty hard on the poor chameleon, ''lOasn't
it ? " put in the Inspector at this polnt. "Mter all, it 'lOas
"by no means bis fault, 'lOas it? 1 don't think the man acted
very fal rly in working off bis spIeen on the innocent
reptile in that way, do yau ? "
" I suppose not," said the Zulu. "But the chameleon
,houldn't have taken on the job if he' cauldn't do it.
propeAy. He hadn't the rlght to get off lightIy. But
lot his slowness everything would have ended hpplly.
And we still 'hold it against the ch.ameleon and the lizard. .
Tllat' s why we always kilI chameleons and lizards when
we come across them . . . the chameleons fpr going too
slowly, and the lizards for going too fasto They share
the responsibility for all our woes,so they get treated alike.
Now you know how men carne to be mortal. Interesting,
im't it? Did you ever hear the story before ? "
"No, 1 didn't," said . the Inspector susplclously.
" You didn't make it Ul:? fol' my benefit, did you? You
certainly told it very origlnally."
" I should say not ! " said the Zulu, drawing himself
up Indlgnantly. "What do you take me for ?You
don't think I'd lie to you, do you ? "
" I suppose not," said the Inspector.



But in fact it's true, what the Zulu said about it being
an old tradition. It is.



Z7. 1 amo
He 's
d. 1 have.


1 am
I'm not
You're not
He's not
She's not
It's not
There's not
We're not
They're not


I'm not
You aren't
He isn't
She isn't
It isn't .
There isn't
We aren't

1 have noto

I've not
I haven 't
You 've not
You haven't
. He hasnft :~
He's not
1 would noto
z9- 1 would.
I'd not
I wouldn't
You'd not
You wouldn't
He'd not
He wouldn't

30. 1 hado
31. 1 will.

1 had noto
I'd not
You'd not
He'd not

1 hadn 't
You hadn't
He hadn't

1 will noto
1'11 not
You'll not
He'll not

I won't
He won't



Am 1 not?
Aren't I ?
Aren't you?
Isn't he ?
Isn't she ?
Isn't it ?
Isn't there ?
Aren't we ?
Aren't they ?

Have 1 not?
Haven't I ?
Haven't you?
Hasn't he?

Would 1 not?
Wouldn't 1 ?
Wouldn't you ?
Wouldn't he?

HOd 1 not ?
Hadn't I ?
Hadn't you?
Hadn't he?

Will 1 not?
Won't I?
Won't you?
. Won't he?

3z . The following have no written abbreviated form

for the positive, and only one for the negative : I was
1 wasn't
Wasn't I ?
I do
I don't
Don't I ?
I did
I didn't
Didn't I ?
1 might
I mightn't
Mightn't I ?
Oughtn't I ?
I may
1 mayn't
Mayn't 1 ?


1 dare
1 can
1 should
1 could
1 must
1 need
1 shall
You were
He does

1 daren't
1 can't
1 shouldn't
1 couldn't
1 mustn't
1 needn 't
1 shan't
You weren 't
He doesn't


Daren't 1 ?
Can't 1 ?
Shouldn't l'?
Cguld1't 1 ?
Mustntt 1 ?
N eedn tt 1 ?
Shan't 1 ?
Weren 't you ?
Doesn't he ?

33. The positive abhreviated forms of the verbs " to

be" and "to have " cannot stand alone without a complemento E.g., Are you English? Yes, 1 amo Yes, l'm
English. Have you a watch? Yes, 1 have. Yes, 've a watch.
34. The abbreviated forms of "is," '.' has," and
" will" can. be used with noun or demonstrative pronoun
subjects. E.g., John'll be here in a few minutes. That's
the place. Mary's arrived. John's here. This'll do.
35. The abbreviated forms of the anomalous finites
are used in conv~rsation, and often in public discourses.
They .are also used by ~uthors in reproducing the conversation of characters in novels, short stories, and plays.
And while, on the ,one hand, it sounds stilted or foreign
to use the full forms in conversation, it is generally bad
taste to use the abbreviated forms in' formal letters:-<lr
iOther literature, such as essays, editorials, scientific
works, etc., written in formal style. The abbreviated
forms are used especially in the formulation of commentative and of confirmative questions.
36. Confirmative questions are used when the speaker
expects his hearer to confirm or agree with the statement
contained in the question. Thus a confirmative question
consists of a statement; followed by a question. E.g.,
Tom is ready, isn't he? (Here the statement is: Tom is
ready. The question is: lsn't he? The confirmation
expected is Yes.)
If the statement contains an anomalous finite, the same



anomalous finite is usually repeated in the question.

If the statement contains no anomalous finite, one of the
anomalous finites do, does, did is used in the question.
(a) If the answer Yes is expected, the statement is
affirmative, and the question is negative.
Confirmative Question expecting the
Answer Yeso
You can speak Eriglish, can't you ?
Yes, 1 can.
He must go, mustn't he.?
He should be he"re now, shouldn't he
You ought to write the letter, oughtn't you? Yeso
He will do it, won't he "
1 shall get the money, shan 't 1 ?
1 had better pay you, hadn't 1 ?
You could have seen him, couldn't you ?
He might have bought the book, mightn't he? Yes.
He should,have told me, shouldn't he ?
1 ought to have heard by now, oughtn't 1 ?
You would break that cup, wouldn't you ?
You love your husband, dOJ;l't you ?
They loved their wives, didn't they ?
He speaks German, doesn't he ?
NOTE.-'As neitherneed nor dare may be used as
anomalous finites in positive affirmations (par. 9 (a, they
are treated as ordinary verbs in confirmative- questions
expecting the answer IYes.
E.g., He neetUd to go, didn't he? Yeso
He needs to go, doesn't he? Yeso
He dares to say that, doesn 't he? Yes.
He dared to disobey orders, didn't he? Yeso
1 need to hurry, don't I? Yes.
You 'red to change your clothes, don't you? Yeso

(b) Confirmative-questions expecting the answer No,

or some other confirmation of a negative statement. For
the purposes of this type of construction, statements whose
verbs are modified by negative adverbs such as never,

hardly ever, scarcely, seldom, by no means, very seldom,


hardly, scarcely eveT, rarely~ etc., are considered as
negative statements. The question is positive. The answer
may -be No, or a repetition of any other negative adverb
used in the statement which the hearer confirms. This is
done to avoid ambiguity.
Jones cannot come to-day, can he?
He's hardly a genius, is he ?
Well, hardly I
He musn't go, must he ?
He could scarcely stammer a reply, could he? Scarcely.
You shouldn't tell her that, should you ?
I shall hardly ever be sick again, shall I?
You oughtn't to work any more, ought you? No.
He scarcely ever speaks to you, does he?
You won't tell her, fOil! yoo ?
He is seldom at home, is he ?
He sban't be allowed to enter, shall he?
He is by no means rich, is 1{.e ?
By no means.
He hahetter not wait, haiJ he?
The child rarely mes, does it ?
You couldn't have helped him, C()1!ld yoo ? No.
He might not have gone, might he?
You daren't do it, dare yoo ?
1 needn't answer, need 1 ?
He needn't have done that, need he ?
You don't like cheese, do you ?
You didn't tell her, did yoo ?
She doesn't think so, does she ?

37. Commentative questions do not require an answer.

They are merely a comment on' a statement just made
by another speaker. This comment may be angry,
or threatening, or ironic; or it may express surprise,
disappointment, or anything from deep to mere polite
If a commentative question contains both statement 1
and question, then both statement and question are either
positive or negative. Often, however, the comment
1 The verb in the statement is usually an anomalous finite. But
if the comment is on a lact, then an ordinary verb is used. E.g., So
you speak English, do you? (See examples below.)



consists of a simple question, not accompanied by a

1 won't RO to bed I
I wiU lee the ahow I
He must RO home
You mustn't do that
She can't do the work
She can apeak Ruaaian
They ahouldn't aay that?
You shall die to-morrow
You shan't RO
John ourhtn't to cry
Jom waen't at the dance
He hun't arrived
Peter was iD
I hadn't thougbt of it
I haven't tried
I daren't ao
He needn't come
H ahould have told me
He ougbt to have ROne
Peter uaed to awim
She likes jam
They want more money
He apoke well
They don't work well
He doean't dance
They didn't retum

I'm an artist

Oh )lOU r,oon't, r,oon't )lOU ?
Oh you wl, wiU you ?
He must. must he?
I mustn't, mustn't I ?
She can't, can't ahe.?
She can, can ahe ?
They abouldn't, ahouldn't they?
I ahall. ahaU I I
I ahan't. sban't I ?
He ouabtn't. oughtn't he ?
He wasn't. wasn't he?
He hasn't. hun't he ?
He was. waa he ?
You hadn't, hadn't you ?
You haven't. haven't you ?
You daren't, daten't you ?
He needn't. needn't he ?
He ahould, ahould he ?
He ougbt, ouabt he ?
He uaed. uaed he ?
She doea. does ahe ?
They do. do they ?
He did. did he ?
They don't. don't they ?
He doesn't. doean't he ?
They didn't, didn't they ?
So you paint, do you ?


Won't )lOU ,
Will you ?
Must he?
Mustntt I ?
Can't ahe ?
Can abe ?
Shouldn't they ?
Shall I ?
Sban't I ?
Ourhtn't he ?
Waan't he ?
Hasn't he ?
W.. he ?
Hadn't you ?
Haven't YOu ?
Oaren't you ?
Needn't he ?
Shoulcl he ?
Ought he ?
U,ed he ?
D9.ea ahe ?
Do they ?
Od he ?
Oon't they ?
Ooem't he ?
Oidn't they ?
Ves, 1 do

NOTE.-Confirmative and commentative questions

cannot be introduced by the adverbs listed in par. 10.


(a) Tum the following sentences into confirmative

questions expecting the answer Yes :The leaves whisper in the wind. A monkey is an
animal. The world can live without war. You might
have seen him, if you had been here. John has a good
record for stUdy. He can answer ihe question. Peter
could have continued to sleep. He could get P when
he wanted too He must do as he is toldo
e ought
{or Parliament. He ought to. have stood long


ago. 1 am living on practicaIly nothing. She shall die
the death. You will have dinner with me. He would
play jokes on his friends. A soldier needs to be a good
mechanic nowadays. He had better get married. ,Horfield dared to harm my reputation. Naming it seems to
,be dangerous. She had just turned her eyes in bis
dire~on. Peter used to be clever at mathematics. They
are here now. He alleges that John cornmitted the theft.
We wiIl leave that out of consideration. People were
always afraid of him. They know what they are about.
We feel tired. She could speak with certaintr..
(b) Turn the aboye sentences into confirmatif)e
questions expecting the answer No.
(e) Write commentative questions on the sentences
, in ProsePassage 2 (pages 24-26).
(d)Write commentative questlOns on the sentences
,of pages 59-61.


The Zulu was acting as guide to' the new Inspector
. of Native Schools, wasn't he? The white man tried to
draw his companion out, didn't he? How did he formulate his inquiry with regard to the Zulu's notions of the
riddle of life? What was the black's rather unexpected
answer? What was the Inspector's rejoinder? Dd he
ask the black to let him in on the secret? The black
answered, "With pleasure," didn't he? At first the
Deity didn't make up his mind what he was going to do
about men' s future, did he? He put off his decision
for sorne time, didn't he? After a while, he couldn't
let the matter stand over any longer, could he? He
called the chameleon, didn't he? The chameleon
didn't mind running a little message for him, did he?
In what words did the chameleon actually answer? The
Deity wanted him to slip along to the men down in the .
valley and tell them that they were not going to die,
didn't he? What. did the chameleon cry? What did he



do? Was he as quick as he said he' d b~? Why not ?

'I'he Deity began to get jimpatient, didn't he? Why?
He began to be suspicious, didn't he? Why? Was it
surprising? Why not? So he called the lizard apart,
didn't he? What .did he say to the lizard? What did
the lizard answer? The Deity knew that the. Hzard
wouldn't let him down, didn't he? What did he say to
the lizard about his fears? He wanted the lizard to
hurry to the men down in the valley, didn't he? What
did he tell the lizard to say to the men? The lizard was
willing to do something to please an old friend, wasn't
he ? . How much? How long did he promise to take ?
He reassured the Deity, didn't he? He would be too
quick for the men, if they tried anything on, wouldn't
he? Why was it impossible that themen should touch
him? They would scarcelyattack the Deity's messenger,
would they? How did the lizard start off? .He overtoo k and passed the chameleon, didn't he? Why didn't
the chameleoQ see him? What was bis state of mind
when he got to his destination'? What did the Inspector
say of the lizard's action? How did he describe the
meanness of the lizard's conduct? What did he sav he
thought the lizard should have done? He hardly tho~ght
the lizard had done the right thing, did he ?, What did
the Zulu say to that? Did the Inspector believe that t~e
Zulu had told him the actual facts? The man wasn't
verypleased with the message, was he? What did he
say to the lizard? He added that he and his friends
wouldn't be the only. ones to die, didn't he? He made
at the lizard with a tightly grasped stick, didn't he?
The lizard wasn't quick enough in jumping out of harm's
way, was he? What did the man cry? What happened
to the lizard? What was the Zulu's comment ,)ll the
incident? How did the Inspector express his disagreement with the Zulu's opinion? The chameleon crept up
by and by, didn't he? What didn't he know? \Vhat
did he croak benignly? What was the man's answer?



The chameleon stood still, didn't he? What did he

exclaim? What did the man answer? In what words
<lid he imply that the chameleon would get short shrift ?
What was the Inspector's comment? The Zulu thought
not, didn't he'? Why? The Zulus still hold it against
chameleons and lizards, don't they? Why? They all
get treated alike; don't they? Why? The Zulu thought
the story interesting, didn't he? How did he say so ?
How did the Inspector express his suspicion as to the
veracity of the story? How did the Zulu express his
ihdignation? What did he say? You should understand the use of confirmative and commentative questions
by now, shouldn't you ?


When we want to indicate that a future action will
take place only if something else happens, or that an action
would have taken place in the past Qnly if something else
haO, happened, we use a Conditionalsentence. Such
a sentence may, of course, refer either to actions or
A Conditional sentence is divided into two parts:(i) The part which tells us wha.t is or was necessary
for something else to happen. This is calIed
the Condition.
(ii) The part which tells us what the result will be
or wouId have been, if the condition exists or
had existed. This is called the Result.



If you eat green apples

you will get stomach-ache.



Now the existence of the conditi~n necessary may be

likely or unlikely, possible or impossible, welcome or unwelcome (pars. 39-42). Or the existence of the condition
may depend upon chance, or upon somebody's consent
(pars. 43-44). It is a peculiarity of English conditional
sentences that all these degrees of probability or possibility,
as well as these types of influence uponthe existence of
the condition, are expressed by means of the tenses of
the verbs. We have even the anomaly of past
being used to show that future events are possible but
not likely (par.1-1).
AH this, though seemingly complicated, offers no
difficulty if the student keeps his attention fixed on the
tense of the verb which expresses the condition.



(See also pars. 358-359.)

l. U nless Jim stops buming the candle at both ends,
he may ruin both his health and his prospects. He is
certainly going the pace. If he were able to look into the
future, he would not be so wild. There .is no doubt that
he will go to the bad, unless he changes his ways. In
any case-;-he will not get on in the world, if he gives way
to bis inclinations so easily. If he tried to control himself,
and live more quietly. it would be better for him. But
he is game for anything, when he' is in <?ne of his wild
moods. If a young m.n fools away the time that he
should spend in study, he ca:flnot expect to come off with
flying colours in bis examinatiofls. But Jim makes fun
of steadiness, and says that if it means drudgery, hard work




;$ not worth while. According to him, a lije that did not

include women, wine, and cards, would not be life at all,
but mere existence. He forgets that ij you do not take
advantage of your opportunities while you are you~
youT life must necessarily be a failure afterwards. Even
supposing a man like that got over his folly' later, and
turmd over a new leaf, it would probably be too late. If
you should see him, 1 think you ought to try to persuade .
him of his foolishness. Y ou might tell him that it is a
shame to see a brilliant young fellow like him making a
iool of himself. If you would try, 1 think it might do
'Some good. Do you think you could? Unlesswe lay
our hea:ds together and find sorne way of getting hiffi
away from the com'pany he is keeping, he fJill go to the
dogs altogether. But as long as he meets all attempts
to help him with high words, it will be difficult even for
the friends of a lifetime' to have patience with mm. 1t
'lOould be difficult to expect anybody to lend a helping hand
to ,a man, ij he permted, as Jim does, in placing a wrong
construction on everything that is said to him. If only
he realized that his friends are acting for the best, it might
be possible to do something for him. But if he pers'sts
jn calling everybody a busybody for taking an interest in
his welfare, he must not be surprised if they draw in their
homs. If he keeps on in that strain, everybody will give
him up as abad jobo Supposing everybody were to behave
as he does, what 'lOould become of the world? He says
that it would be a better place to live in; and that he
would be more iIPpressed with myremarks, did he not
suspect that '1 speak'With my tongue in my cheek. It
seems that he has heard rumours of my own gay and



joyous youth. All 1 can say is that if his actions were to he

considered'as a normof natural behaviour, then 1 should
have been consideredan anchorite by comparison. 1
should be the last person in the world to condemn a little
fun, provided it did not interfere with the more serious
business of life. A nation. Cn only prosper on condition
that its citizens work hard and lroe soberly. Ofcourse,
if Jim is bent on picking quarrels with' his best friends,
he may do so, provided that he does not come running to
them afterwa,rds to mak friends again. . If he sows his
wild oats, we are not going to reap the crop.
2. 1 must visit Mrs. X. to-day, because she is not
well again. If she were morecareful o her health, she
would not have these attacks. Things would be dijJerent
with her, if oruy she took the rest that she so badly needs.
But she will not, unless somebody convinces her of the
necessity for 'it. She would get into a state of nervous
excitement,if her relatives were to press her. too much
abo,rtt it. Supposing someone di~ so, it ~ould only aggravate
th already dangerous state m WhlCh she ,now finds
herself. 1 dare. say she could easily get better, provided
she took a Httle more nourishment. But even sUPPQsing
she did, it would probably be of little use, for she would
irnmediately stait overtaxing' her . strength again. Sh~
would work from daW'n to dusk, provided she could stand
op her feet. She tries to pe patient, but finds it diffi~
~he says that if only people would remember how miserable
cantankerousness makes those arouI).d them, sick people
might be more patient. If she let her daughter Mary look
after household matters, it would be a help. But she
says that Mary is very young yet; and that the servants
would probably not obey her, if she were in charge. 1



think that Mrs. X. is mistaken. 1 am sure that the seroants

flJould obey ~ary without hesitation, provided that Mrs.
X. supported her with her authority.
3. In the third exerci$e, we saw that John and Mary
had decided to go to Worthing.
" What station do we leave from r " asked J ohn.
" Waterloo," answered Mary promptly. "If we hurry,
fIJe should get a train at about two thirty. If we should be
late for that, we could get one about half an hour later."
" 11 you would' decide beforehand what we are going
to do over the week-end, and avoid this last:-minute rush,"
said John, " we might have sorne chance of gotting somewhere sometime."
Arrived at Waterloo Station, Mary made her way to
the inquiry-office. "Could you tell me what platform the
trains leave for Worthing from ? " she asked.
" 1 might, if this were Victoria Station," answered the
clerk with a grin. "You might try going there."
" Well now t 1 must have been mistaken," cried Mary
gaily. turning to John. "What do you think of that ? "
" If 1 were to say what 1 thought," growled J ohn,
" this building would go up in flames."
"Oh, well," saidMary cheerfully, "anybody might
make a' rnistake. You might have made SUTe yourself
befo re we started, instead of leaving it a11 to me."
" But what shall we do ?" persisted J ohn. "11 we
'UJent to Victoria at once, we might get a train to arrive in
Worthing somewhere before four. But the afternoon
.'fOould be hall overo Couldn't we get a train for sorne
place from this sttion? We might try Salisbury, where
you were born. 1 wish we had sorne kind of hiker' s
guide-book. "



Ask at that bookstall over there," suggested Mary.

ce And if they have one, huy it."
" Would you mind showing me some kind of hiker' s
guide ? " said J ohn, at the bookstall.
" Certainly, sir," said the assistant. "Might 1 suggest
this one ? "
" Could 1 have a look at it first?" said John, and
examined it.
"1 wish you would consult me before paying for
things," said Mary, on looking J ohn's purchase over.
" 1/ you did, you might huy the wrong thing less often.
This one h3.f nothing about camping-grounds."
u Might 1 suggest," remarked John, ce that 'Saturday
aftemoon is hardly the. best time to buy books of the
kind anyway? Even if roe sJimild find one, it roould be
too late to make any use of it."
Mary stood stock~stil1 in the middle of the station.
"1 want a proper guide - book !" she wailed. " You
would get the wrong one ! You might tryand please me
just for once.. If you roere really a Ioving husband, yau
roould. You have been behaving like a bear all aftemoon.
If you don't stop, 1'11 scream ! "
And she looked as if she roould, too. J ohn cast an
uneasy glance around at the passers-by, who were' eyeing
the pair curlously. "Come on," he said urgently. "If
you go on IYte that, roe will never get anywhere. Let's go
to Victoria, by all means, and see if there is a train.
Though roe should have been in Worthing by n,?w, if you
had not made the silly mistake of bringing us here
,,' Ifyau roere as cleveras you think you are, you roouldn't
have let me make it," retorted Mary.


" Look here, if we go into all that again, we shall be
here all night," answered John im-patlently. "Let's go."
They got into a train at a quarter past three, and had
to take seats separately, at opposite ends of the coach,
the train was so crowded. J ohn refiected that it might
have been wOTse, for he required time to cool down. He
found himself sitting with a married couple and their
child, and got into conversation with them.
" Might 1 ask you," he said to the man, "if your
... likes hiking ? "
" If she does," replied the man, ce she's kept the secret
pretty well. You might ask her, though."
. "If 1 did," replied the lady, with a placld smile, "it
wouldn't make much difference, anyway. It would take
a good deal to move my husband out o his garden over
a week-end."
'" Lucky husband ! " said J.ohn.
4 .. If yQu should happen to meet a seer who could
look into the future as well as into the past, you might
let me know. If 1 had ever met such a person, 1 should
have asked him to drop in and have a chat, long ago.
For-thereare so many interesting questions that 1 could
have asked ~m. For it seems to me that II1any of the
events which have so infiuenced modem life might not
have taken place, and that many of the advantages we now
enjoy could never have been ours, had not cer:tain men
lived in certain countries at certain dates. For instance,
uoIess there are financial or personal reasons to. stop me,
1 can go to America if' 1 want too Do 1 owe this to
Columbus and Isabella of Castile, or should 1 have been
able to go even if these people had never seen the 'light ?
Again, it would be interestirtg to know what would have



happened to Asia l\1inor and North Mrica if Mahomed

had never been born; . and whether the Greek Empire
might have recooered from the decline that had set in
or whether some other power would have hurried it on to
its- ruin and destruction.
If Luther had been a Dominican instead of an
Augustinian, what a difference it might have made. The
jlower 01 the Renaissance need not have withered so soon
in northern Europe; Kant' s philosophy might have taken
a different 'direction; Henry the Eighth might not hav~
repudiated his first wife; and English thought might
perhaps have been a little more logica!. But in that case,
we should not have had the charming destructiveness of
Bernard Shaw, ot the wild and beautiful express ion of
,SheIly's spiritual hunger.
If we had not taken Westen1 ideas to ]apan, need we
,have been WO"ying to-day about her expansion in the
Far East? Dared she have undertaken the Chinese
adventure, if England and thp U.S.A. had put their foot
down firmly in the beginning ?
Would 1 have had a vote to-day, if Rousseau had not
'mtten his "Social Contract," and if Voltaire had not
blazed up in a white flame of anger at the injusticesof
"his epoch?
As for the Great War, could the Allies have been
.successful, if Gettysburg had been lost instead of gained
.by the forces of the N orth ? .
Wh knows . . . ? There are so many " if's " in Hfe !



38. In a simple statement of cause and effect (par. 66),

the verb which expresses the condition is either of the


sam tense as the verb that expresses the result, or one

of the verbs is in the present tense, and the other is in the
pesent perfecto E.g., If yau mix gIycerine with potassium
permanganate, you get spontaneous combl,lstion. If you
live in London, you have learnt what fog is. If yau have
lived in Madrid, yau know the Puerta del Sol. If one
lived in London during the war, .,one had to do without
many luxuries. If yau have been in Rome, yau have
probably seen St. Peter's.
39. Where the possibility of fulfilling the condition
is entertained, we express the result by means of " shall"
or "will" (Lesson 4), or by means of the imperative,
or by IJ?eans o any other suitable anomalous finite in the
present tense. The condition can be expressed hy means'
of any ordinary verb in the present tense (par. 67 (a.
E"g., If 1 drink wine with my lunch to-day, 1 shall feel
uncomfortable all aftemQon. If you break your' joumey
in Pars, yau will have time to see Notre Dame. If John
studies hard, he may pass the exam. If you finish your
work before six, you can go home. If you get the oppor..
tunity, you must meet her. If you go to London, yau must
visit the Brtish l\1useum. If he comes here, you aught to
refuse to see him. If he calls, tell him I am not at home.
He will talk about religion, if he can get a listener. If
you really are unwell, yau had better go to hedo If he gives
the order, I dare not obey it. If his father leaves him the
money, he need not work any mor. If yau really are
diabetic, ;yau must not eat sugary food. If you cannot
control your temper,you should not get into arguments.

40. If the fulfilment of the condition is considered.

less likely or less welcome than some other alternative,
however, "should" is used in the conditional clause.
E.g., Shauld he refuse to do it, arrest him at once. Should
the worst come to the worst, 1 can always leave the country.
Should the crisis come, I shall be at rny post. (See par. 46 (b) .)



41. When the fulfilment of the condition is considered

rather unlikely, the condition isexpressed by the preterite
(q.'V.) of any suitable verb; and the result by means of
"should," "would," "might," 'or "could" (par. 67 (b)).
E.g., II I drank wine with my lunch, /. should be uncomfortable a11 aftemoon. Provided I broke my joumey in
Paris, 1 could see Notre Dame. II she stod up to her
husband, he would not bully her. He might be cured of
his tuberculosis, on condition that he went to some place
like Colorado. 1
NOTE.-In this cIass of sentence, the condition is often
lelt unexpressed. E.g., Do you think that Fred will pass
bis exam.? We11, of course, he might . . . Le.; He might,
if he studied. Will you lend me five pounds? Well,
of. course, 1 couId . . . Le., I could if I trusted you .
..p. Where the fulfilment of the condition is considered highly improbable, or impossible, the cond,'tion is
expressed by means of the anomalous finite "were"
in all three persons, followed by the infinitive with " to,"
or by a noun or pronoun complemento The result is
expressed by "should," "would," "might," or "could."
The use of " should" in the second and third persons
~trengthens the unreality of the supposition .. E.g., Where
should one finish, if one were to act in accordance with that
criterion. If I were y.ou, I should not do it. 1 could never
forget it, were I to live to be a hundred. If he were to live
in Paris, he might change his ideas about Frenchmen.
I would help you, if I were ahle to. If I were rich, I could
do a 10t of things that 1 cannot do now.
43. When the fulfilment of the condition depends on
chance," we express the condition by means of " should"
with an infinitive, in all three persons. The result is
.expressed by an infinitive preceded by the past or present
tense of any of the anomalous finites except " will" and
"would," in the meaning of custom or obstinacy, and
"llsed to." The imperative can a1so be used. E.g., If
1 By analogy: 1 wish that 1 had a donkey. (The fulfilment of the
wish is improbable.)

Or is undesirable.


yau should. see John, you mayas well humour him. If 1

should come into a fortune, T might go on a trip round the
world. If you should find the book, send it along to my
.house. If you should happen to hear from him before
to-morrow, you can telephane me. If you should hear any
strange noise, you must telephone the police at once. If
he should find himself in difficulties, he ought to be able
to extricate himself easily. If you should be unable to
finish the work in time, you had better ask Miss Smith
to help you. If they should find the dog, they flJill let you
know at once. If the lions should escape, they would be
caught at once. If it should get dark before you arrlve,
yau need not be afraid, as the roads are quite safe~ 1 date
not think what 1 might do if he should get ill. 1 might do
44. When the fulfilment of the condition depends on
cansent, "would" with an infinitive expresses the condition in all three persons (par. 21 (B. The result is
expressed by "should," "would," "might," or "could."
E.g., 1 might understand you better, provided you would
speak a little more slowly. 1 couId not do it if 1 'lOould.
If he 'lOould show a little more good will, 1 would help him.
If he would arrange the preliminaries, 1 could go on with
the work alone.
45. Conditionals dependent on consent are often used
incompletely in polite language. 1 The result with "might"
is also used alone, often indignantly. Could you send the
parcel at once? I.e., Could you send the parcel now, if
you 'lOould? You might get the letter written at once. I.e.,
Youmight 'lOrite the letter now, if you 'lOould. You might
at least be polite I You might flJipe your feet before you
come inl 1 had rather you did not go.
46. To indicate a past condition which was not fulfilkd,
the conditan is expressed by "had" or "could have"
followed by a past participle; and the result is expressed

See par. 90, page




by means of ,the perfect infinitive of any suitable verb,

preceded by the past tense o' any anomalous finite except
H had better," "used to," and must (obligation) (see par.
67 (c. E.g., If 1 had told him that, he flJould have been
angry. If the Wf,'reless operator had repaired' his transmitter, the ship could have been sa.ved. If yOu had'received
the order, you should have obeyed. If 1 had got your letter
in time, 1 could have come. If he could have foond a friend,
he need not have starved. If he had been threatened with a
pistol, he dare not have resisted. H ad 1 knOfOn, 1, should
have come. ,Could he have helped me, he flJould have done
,so. Had he lived, he fIJas to have been Prime Minister.
46a. The part of the sentence which expresses the
condition can be introduced by one of the following
conjunctions :,on condition that as long as provided
if only
Examples.-Unless John stops playing the fool, he
will not be a success in life. Supposing everybody behaved
like that, what would become of the world? As long as
he continues obstinate, one cannot do anything about
it. She could get better, provided she took a little
46b. The conjunction introducing the condition is
often omitted when the fulfilment of the condition is
unlt.'kely(par. 41); highly improbable or impossible (par.
42); or unfIJelcome (par. 40). It can also be omitted in
sentences expressing a cOJ;ldition depending on chance
(par. 43); or a past condition that fIJas not fulfilled
(par. 46).
In all these cases, the condition is introduced by an
anomalous finite,' followed immediately by its subject.
E.g., Should he refuse to pay" see your solicitor. Did 1
know, 1 might tell you. Were he to live in Paris, he might
change bis ideas. Should yoo see John, ask him to ring


you up. Had 1 told him, he would, have been angry.
Had 1 got your letter, 1 could have arranged the matter.
There might be some possibility of my helping yQu,.
did 1 have the money.




(a) Change Prose Passage (1) so as to convey that

fulfilment of the conditions expressed is rather unlikely.
(b) Change Prose Passage (2) so that the sentences
express past conditions unfulfilled.
(e) Change the follpwing sentences, so as to indicate
that the fulfilment of the conditions given is unwelcome :--

If people talk scandal in her presence, Mary tells .

.them that they ought not to ron down their friends and
neighbours. If they take it badly and break off with her,
Mary remains as col aS a cucumber. If they drop on
her, she says, she has no need to worry. If they do not
mind their p's and 9,'s while they are wi~h her, it is
necessary for her to bring it home t~ them that they
must not tear other people's characters to shreds. If
they want to make innocent fun of other people, it is
quite another matter. If they send her to Coventry as a
result of her attitude, well and good. She can grin and
bear it.

(d) Change the sentences in the following passage, so

as to convey that the fulfilment of the conditions expressed
is almost or completely impossible :If Solomon comes back to earth again, he will find
everything changed, at least superncialIy, with the exception of the heart of mano He will notice, for instance,
if he picks up a newspaper, that all men are still Hars.
Indeed, he will be enormously surprised if he finds any-



thing else to be the case. As he remarked some thousands

of years ago, "That whic~ is crooked cannot be made
straight." Ifhe enters the divorce courts and listens
to the divorce cases, he will find that model wives are
as scarce as ever. And if anyone tells bim with pride
that women can now be freed from bad husbands, he
will murmur inconsequent1y, "Who can find a virtuous
woman? For her price is aboye rubies !" Should anybody ask him what he thinks of a11 the wonderful discoveries that have been made since his time, he will
.answer obstinately, "Is there anything whereof it may
be said ' This is new . . .' There is no new thing under
tht} sun." But he will notice one new thing, just the
same. He will observe, provided he gets the opportunity
to mix with a few English famili~, that whereas in bis
day the women got their own way with their menfolk by
diplomatically managing them, they now rule the poor
males openly and brutally. And, unless he is more unobserving than 1 take him to be, he will draw consolation
from the fact that aman need not, indeed cannot, any
longer be saddled with a hundred shrewish wi,ves at once,
but can have them one at a time, if he is willing to spend
sixty poun4s or so in divorce expenses.

(e) Where possible, change the following sentences

so as to convey that the conditions depend for their
fulfilinent either on chance or on consent :If 1 get a lot of money left to me, 1 shall start a newspapero Supposing somebody realizes what good 1 can
do in this way, and provides me with the wherewithal,
the newspaper will be a sensation. What will you say
if you pick up a newspaper that tells the truth, the whole
truth, and nothing but the truth? If l get the necessary


capital, and if 1 manage to find ten men or so who are
incapable of lying, the success of the venture is assured.
But it will be difficult to fulfil these conditions. Most
people, including newspaper men, cannot undertake to
tell the truth, even if they want too For he is a brave man
who tries to tell the truth to others, when he cannot tell .
it to himself. If you ever meet aman who can be perfectly
frank with himself, you might introduce me to him.
And if he wants to take on the chief editorship of my paper,
1 shall payhim an enormous salary. By pure force of truth,
he will make the thing a success, even if 1 do not find
any others like him to assist him.
(1) Change Prose Passage (4) so as to make the
sentences express conditions whose fulfilment is rather
, (g) Classify the conditional sentences in Prose Passage
b) under separate headings, according to the class of
condition expressed.



I. May John ruin his health and prospects?

would prevent him from being wild? What is there no
doubt of? Will he get on in the world? What would be
better for him? When is he game for anything? What
cannot a young man expect? What does Jim make fun
of? Why? What kind of life would be mere existence ?
What does he forget? If aman like that got over his
folly, what would be the result? If you should see him,
what ought you to do? What might you tell him?
What might do sorne good? Unless we lay our heads
together, what wiIl happen? If he meets all attempts to
help him with high words, what will be the result? What
would it be difficult to expect anybody to do? Under
what condition might it be possible to do something for
him ? Why must not he be surprised if people draw in




their homs? If he keeps up iil that strain, what will

happen? What does he say would happen if everybody
were to behave as he does? Under what condition
would he be more impresSed with my remarks? What is
your an~wer to that? Would you co~demn a little fun ?
How can a nation prosper? U nder what condition may
Jim pick quarrels with bis best friends? If he sows his.
wild oats, who wiIl reap tQe crop ?
U nder what conditions would Mrs. X. not have'
her attacks? How could things be different with her?
Will she take the rest she needs? If her relatives were to
press her, what would happen? What would aggravat~
her state ? How could she get better ? Would nourishment be of any use? What would she do from dawn to
dusk? What does she say would make sick people more
patient? Wht would be a help? Does she think the
. servants would obey Mary? . U nder what condition
would the servants obey Mary ?

3. Does Mary expect to catch the two thirty? Does

she consider the unwelcome possibility of missing it?
How do you know? What remark does John make about
last minute rushes? What did Mary say at theWaterloo
inquiry office? What did the clerk answer? Did Mary
ask J ohn what he thought of it? And what did J ohn
answer? What does Mary think J ohn might have done ?
What .does J ohn think might happen if they went to
Victoria immediately? What does Mary tell J ohn to
do at the bookstall? What does John say at the bookstall? What did the assistant ~ay? What did J ohn
answer? Why did Mary wish John would consult her
before' buying things? What suggestion did J ohn ask
to be allowed to make? What did Mary do then. What
did she wail that JoOO might try and do? If he didn't
stop behaving like a bear, what would she do? Why
did J ohn cast an uneasy glance around? What did h~ say
urgently ? What did he suggest? U nder what con-



dition would they have been in Worthing by then? What

was Mary's retort, and John's impatient answer? What
did J ohn reflect when he had to take a seat separate
from Mary? What question did he ask the man
passenger? What did the man answer? What did the
lady reply when he asked her if she liked hiking ?
4. What might you let me know? If 1 had met a
seer, what should 1 have done? What could 1 have
asked him? What does it seem to me? Under what
condition can 1 go to America? .What .reflexion do 1
make about Columbus and lSabella of Castile? What
would it be interesting to know about Asia Minor and
North Mrica? What is an interesting conjecture about
the. fate of the Greek Empire? What might have
happened if, Luther had been a Dominican? What
should we probabIy not have had, in like case? What
about J apan ? What re1lection do 1 make about my
. right to vote? Under w\lat coriditions would the Allies
not have been able to win the war?




The present- habitual tense has the same form as
the present infinitive, with the addition of H s" in the
third person singular. 'E.g., To speak; 1 speak; he
speaks (par. 47). ..
The present - progressive 1 tense form consists of one
of the anomalous finites is, am, or are, followed by
the "ing" form of a verbo E.g., l' am speaking
(par. 47).

More accurately, the present definite tense.



Here, again, the forin of the verb very often implies,

not merely present time, hut a speciaI meaning. If one
says, "John sleeps out," this indicates a permanent
state of affairs (par. 48 (b. But if one says, "John is
sleeping out," this means that he is doing so only for
the time being. Again, "John 'lOorks continually"
(par. 48 (b means something very different from " John
is continually working" (par. 49 (d .
.Indeed, the use of the present tense forms is not
nearly so easy as many pupils tend to suppose; and
they should be thoroughly drilled in the matter.



A. PROSE PASSAGE. (See par. 367.)
The followingextract from an old diary may be of
interest. "To-day is Su"nday, and of course everybody
is reading his or her Sunday papero Everybodydoes, in
England, n Sundays. Sorne people like the sports
news; sorne de.finitely prefer the reviews; and almost
all are highly interested in intemational politics. .People
not only read the news, but try to read between the lines
as well. If you travel by train, you find that your fellowpassengers are in the middle of discussing the latest
international developments as you enter the carrige .
. It is the same when you ga into a c1.ub. For people
take contemporary events very seriously, and read much
more importance into them than they usually deserve.
We are living, so 'lOe think, on the edge of a volcano. So,
every day, we look through our papers with a certain



fearful pleasure, to find out what Signor Mussolini and

Herr Hitler and M. Stalin are doing or saying now;
and how the Japanese are getting on in China. We are
always going OVeT'. these things with our friends; and,
if we are given that way, we get angry and excited 'by
turns. Or we lay down the law about them sagely, ad,
, to our wives, a little bringly. It is strange that we never
, get tired of day after day of crises and threats and imminent
,disasters. Our interest never seems to flag. They say
tbat human beings are incapable of living in a state of
mental or. emotional tension for long. We are always
hearing about soldiers joking in the faceof death; and
it seems that' even pious people are continually being,
tempted to yawn at theit prayers. Even the wild flame
of passion generaUy settles down, after a while, to the
warm steady, glow of quiet affection, when it does not
die out altogether. So much depends on the quality of
the fuel! Even those who have the good fortune to be
able to follow that natural bent which indicates a vocation,
are not a state of wild enthusiasm about their
work. .It may be that they govern,. or write, or go in for
scientific research; or they may teach, or paint, or
compose music, or practise the law, or perhaps they
lead armies,. But, whatever they do, even the greatest of
them is willing t confess that his enthusiasm sometimes
wanes; that he finds his work real drudgery; and that he
is constantly having to make efforts of will to continue."
" But in spite of this seeming ihcapa~ity to maintain
ourselve~ at fever-pitch about anything, there has been a
state of poltical tension in Europe for years. The papers
are constantly talktng about it. The nations are feverishly



making preparations for it. The general public is enduring

a lot."
---u But people may soon reach breaking.point; and it
well may be that the world will be astonished at a great
wave of healthy laughter sweeping across Europe. We
shall have recovered our snse of humour, which means
, that we, shall be sane again."
"Meanwhile, this is Sunday, the twenty;.first' of
Decem.ber, nineteen thirty-seven; and, as usual, the
papers are full of the sensational events that are taking
"England and the U nited States are beginning to .
admit that a trade treaty is not beyond the bounds of
Eossibility ; arid Mr. Hull is being congratulated ~y bis
friends on what seems to be the approach of the goal pf
his life's ambition. The English are greeting the idea
with enthusiasm. But' the American public is not committing itself. .It is adopting a ' wait-and-see ' attitude."
" Then there is the visit of Lord Halifax to the Hunting Exhibition at Berlin. The pretext for the visit is
appropriate, for he is hunting . . . hunting for a way
out of the intematioru..l impasse. It looks possible, at the
moment, that it may' be found. Germany is continually
pressing for her one-time colonies, but nobody seems to
want to give therh to her, and there exists a continual
threat to peace. Anyway, Lord Halifax is meeting members
of the German Government daily, and everybody is
hoping that sorne good may come out of It.' t
" It seems that peac now reigns in Italian East Africa;
for Marshal Graziani, who is governing there now, will
retire in December; and the Italian press announces the
appointment of the Duke of Aosta in bis stead. This is



taken as an indication normal conditions now

"The Japanese are still advancing in China. 800chow has fallen, and the Chinese Government are now
tro:oelling along the thousand miles o the Yangtze,
to take up their quarters at Chung-king. The Japanese,.
as they try to break through, are meeting with stubbom
resistance on several fronts. Nobody knows how long the
war will last, or whether the Chinese resistance will
break down. The Japanese announce that they are trying
to take Nanking before Christmas, for they expect quick
. results from their strategy. Reports from the north
'shoro that the Chinese are .strongly entrenched on the
banks of the Yellow River, and are preparing to fight to
the last mano Fighting is going on under winter conditions. It appears that th~ Japanese are suffeiing a good
deal from the cold. Meanwhile the Nine- Power Conference is fJJondering what to do about it all."
"Everybody in England and America is hotly taking
sides over the question of the civil war that is now being
fought between the contending parties in 8pain. It ii
proceeding at a rather reduced tempo, though the
general impression seems to be that it is the lull before
the storm, as General Franco is concentrating large
masses of troops on the Aragon Front."
" At the moment, everybody is wondering who the
famous ' hooded men ' may be in France; and why they
thought fi.t to accumulate large quantities of arms. The
English conservative papers re/use to take the matter
seriously. One of them goes so far as to say tha,t when
the French take up politics, they get excitedand romantic ;
and that the Govemment are playing on this weakness,.



to rally public opinion around them.

they are succeeding."





1 waIk
You walk
He walks

We walk
You walk . .
They walk

If this is true,



1 am waIking
You are walking
He is waIking

We are walking
You are waIking
Th~ are waIking

With the exception of sorne anornalous finites, all

verbs take the inflexion " s " in the third person singular
of the present-habitual tense (pars. 1, 3)'

48. The habitual present expresses:(a) Ability, or usual occupation. E.g., He speaks
Spanish. He plays the piano. He works at themill.
(b) Perrnqnent habit, often accornpanied by adverbs
of frequency such as the following :near1y always

once a week

twice a day
how often?

every day
hardly ever
scarcely ever

Examples.-He walks in bis sleep. He goes to the

theatre t'lJJce a week. Peter scarcely ever gets up before
nine. James is nearly always late for class. Charles
sometimes goes to his club of an evening. Thomas never
smiles. Frederick 'often tl:inks of his boyhood. Dick
generally wears grey suits. George goes to church daily.
Joseph hardly ever takes a drink.. 1 wonder if Francis
ever thinks of his father. 1 don't know how often Edward
has his hair cut. " Christrnas Pie" comes out once ayear..
Mary hardly ever. remembers my birthday nowadays.
Elizabeth works continually in her German garden. J ane
always thinks that Poland is the best place in the world.



Jack spends

his time mainly in dancing. Ha'rry goes for

a swim regularly every morning. Richard rarely reads.
Joe seldom dances. Frank buys sweets for his sister weekly.
Bill goes to town by tube every day. Wiliy goes to France
yearly, in search of sunshine.
488. The present-habltual form is also used: (a) To
describe a senes of relatively short actions in the
present tense, especially when one is describing such
actions to somebody else while they are taking place.
B.B.C. announcers do this a good deal when making
, running commentaries on sporting events, public functions, etc. E.g., Now the band is playing, and the'King
enters the hall. He stops, greets the 'Lord Maycr, and
takes his seat.
(h) To describe a shorter action, in relation to a longer,
in he present tense. E.g., Mary wakes as 1 am getting
the breakfast.
(e) To describe the action of a play.
49. The Present Progressive (par. 61 (e indicates:(a) An action eoincident with the time 01 speaking. 1
"E.g., He is talking to Mary. Ethel is opening the door.
(h) An action habitually in progress at eertain
times or on eertain oeeasions. E.g., When 1 eall on him,
he is always having a bath. He is generally dressing for
dinner at eight o' e/oek.
(e) A habit begun relatively recently, which will
probably not eontinue indefinitely.' E.g., 1 am taking
the medicine three times a day. 1 don't know how often
he is attending the c1asses. He is paying the instalments
on his piano monthly. The company is paying dividends
yearly. He is eontinually aeeosting me in the street.
(d) A permanent tendency, in association with the
adverbs always, eontinually, or eonstantly. E.g., Dolly
is always laughing. Doreen is eonstantly getting into hot
water. He is eontinually worrying about his wife's health.
1 Such an action can be instantaneous. E.g., John is thrO'lving
himself out of the. window. Thus the present progressive does not
necessarily indicate durative action.



(The adverbs continually, constantly, and always, jollow

the anomalous finite.)
(e) Twa. or more continuous habitual actions which
are in progress at the same time and cover approximately
the same periodo E.g., While John is getting Mary's breakfast, the water is heating in the bathroom.
(f) A longer action in relation to a shorter. While
J ohn is working, Mary makes tea.

50. The folIowing verbs 1 are not usually jound in the

progr,essive form', even when they denote actions or states
in progre ss at the moment of speaking:. Perception: to see, to hear, to smell, to notice.
Thought: to think (opine), to 'feel that, to forget,
to remember; to know, to believe, to suppose, to
understand, to recognize, to mean.
Will: to want, to desire, to refuse, to forgive.
Emotion: to care, to love, to hate, to be fond of,
to adore, to be angry, to like, to be annoyed, to be
Miscella.neous: to seem, it appears, to signify, to
belong to, to contain, to h91d (capable of containing), to matter, to consist of, to pertain to, to possess,
to be (except in the passive progressive), to have
(possession, obligation).
Examples .-1 like that picture. Here is ajar. which
holds one' pinto Peter wants to go to J apan. 1 see a By
. in the soup. When John smells cabbage cooking, he gets
annoyed. That child notices that his mother is annoyed
to-day, so he is minding bis p's and q's. lVlost people
think that Goya is a great painter. Mary jeels that
she is not being treated properly. 1 jorget what her
name is, but 1 think it is Mary. Do 1 understand you to
say that you come frotll Timbuctoo? He believes that
the time has now come for action. 1 suppose that
Patagonia' s ultimatum means war. 1 recognize that he

Most of the verbs in the list describe psychological states.


1 want some fried fish and chips.

means well.
He wishes
to go at once. Baby refuses to eat beans to-day. 1 forgive
you, but don't do it again. Yqu think that 1 hate you,
but -1 still care for you very mucho 1 adore this picture.
She is angry. The Queen is pleased to accept your
invitation. She is very annoyed at you for asking her
age. It seems that thereis no hope of her recovery. At
the moment, it appears that there is danger of war. This
box contains tea. N othing matters at the moment, except
to get out of the hole that 1 am in. The procession
consists of men and women. Jersey belongs to England.
Peter has to go home at once. He has a house in the

SI. When the verbs listed in the previous paragraph

take the progressive form, there is usually at least a slight
change of meanmg. (For the present-progressive forms
used with a future meaning see par. 61'.)
Examples.-He is seeing' (interviewing) John. He is
thinking of (not quite resolved on) going to France.
He is forgetting (little by Httle) rus German. 1 am
remembering (gradual1y) my vocabulary better now. He
is caring for lookin after) his aged mother. She is being
angry (afIecte y.
e 1S hearing (judging) a case. 1 am
supposing (presupposing) that you are honesto Peter is
appearing (acting) in the new play. Mary is having
(taking a meal) lunch.





The following is an account of what J ohn is engaged

in doing at certain hours of the day, and of bis subsequent
actions. Replace the bracketed infinitives with their
present-habitual or progressive forms as necessary.
7 A.M.: John (to hear) the alarm ringing. He then
(to get) up, (to put on) bis dressing-gown, and (to go)



down into the kitchen. There he (to put) the kettle on

for a cup of tea for Mary.1 He (to make) tea well. Mter
that, he (to start) the fire in the boiler. He (to make)
fires well, also. This done, he (to take) the tea up to
Mary in a pot which (to hold) just one cupo She (to wake)
up as he (to enter), and (to have) the tea in bed. John's
breakfast (to be) such a simple thing to prepare, that she
never (to feel) it worth while getting up and getting it
for him. While John (to get) Mary's tea, the water (to
heat) ID the bathroom geyser, and he (to go) to have a
bath and a shave. This (to take) him about twenty
minutes, and another ten to dress. Then he (to go)
downstairs, and (to fry) himself an egg and a rasher of
bacon. He (to cook) well, from long practice. While
he (to do) this, Mary, in bed upstairs, (to hear) him
moving about. She (to be) in agony lest he should wake
the baby. She (to go through) greater agonies still at
the thought of the mess he probably (to make). There
(to be) a lot of grease spilt on the stove, when she (to come
down) at ten, and he always (to leave) breadcrumbs on
the floor. She always (to try) to train him into doing
things tidily, but his fingers (to be) all thumbs. She
(to say) that she (to clean up) for a good hour after she
comes down at ten. She (to say so) every evening when
he (to get) home. In fact, it (to be) the first thing she
(to greet) llm with when he (to arrive) home from work,
and the last admonition she (to give) him as he (to go)
upstairs to his room to bed. By dint of constant repetition, he (to remember) tobe careful. He (to sleep) in
a separate room. Mary (to insist) on this. She ~ays that
she (to lie awake) for hours listenihg to his snoring,
when they (to occupy) the sa.,me room. Besides, she very
1 It will be obvious that this lady is a different person from the
Mary whose adventures are described in other prose passages of this



reasonably (not to see) why he should wake her up

immediately he (to get up) in the moming. The baby
(to sleep) ~t that time, also, and it (to be) a pity to wake
die poor Httle thing. The baby (to sleep) when John
(to go) to work, and it (to sleep) when he (to come back)
at night. He often (to see) it for hours on end," however,
dUJ;'ng the week-ends. That is, when he (not to weed)
in the garden, because the weather' (to be) too bad, and
he (to look after) the child while Mary (to be thrilled)
by the latest film at the cinema. He (to amuse) babies
without difficulty, Mary (to say), and (to love) being
with them. J ohn is content, because the child (to belong)
to him at least for a few hours. He feels that he (to
possess) a son, if only for the aftemoon.,
At about half-past eight, John (to see) by the dock
that it istime to go off to work. He (not to say) good-bye
'to Mary, because by this ,time she (generally to doze)
again, and naturally (to get)irritated if he (to disturb) her.
By eight thirty-five, John (to lSuy) The Times at the
tube station. He always (to buy) The Times surreptitiously, and (to throw it away) before he (to get) home.
This because Mary (to prefer) the Daily Express, and
(not to like)', John to waste money on an extra paper,
especially as The' Times (to cost) twopence, to the penny
of the Daily, Express. She never: (to understand) what
John sees in The Times, anyway. It (to be) so dull and
heavy. In any case, the Express (to have) just as much
news. John (to grunt) and (to say) nothing, while Mary
(to tell) him this. He never (to say) mucho His happiness
(to be) too deep for words. He (to love) her voice more
and more with the passage of the years.
vVhile the tube (to bump) and (to sway) along, John



(to try) to read 'his paper. He (to tke) a great deal of

interest, these days, in the French political situation. He
(to think) it (to have) great repercussions on the international situatiol. He (to get through) the most important
news before the train (to reach) the Bank. He (to walk) to
bis office. By the time he (to get) there, everybody (to
settle down) to work for the day. John (to manipulate)
figures well, and Cto keep) the books of a small City firmo
He (tQ' get) five pounds a week for it. He (to hate) his
job very much, nowadays, and (to like) to think that one
day he wiU get a legacy and be independent. He (no,t to
feel) very secure, because he now (to be) on the wrong
side of forty. He (to know) that other members of the
staff consta:ntly (to intrigue) to oust him. He (to make)
no mistakes, because he dare noto His chief, who (to
know) that jobs are hard to come by, in these days, (to be)
very exacting. He continual1y (to hint) that he (to believe)
this is the day of youth, and that the law of the survival of
the fittest (to hold good) even in an office. At least, so
he (to understand).
1.5 P.M.: John (to have) his lunch. He usualIy (to
have) roast beef and potatoes and cabbage. He (to do
without) the 8weet, to pay for his Times, hec~use Mary
natural1y (to ask) him to account for every penny he
(to spend). She always (to say) , quite rightly, that if
-you (to loo k after) the pennies, the pounds will look
after themselves. To-day, John (to have) only the meat
and greens, because he (to follow) a dieto He continually
(to have) indigestion these days. He (to have) bis hot
meal in the middle of the day, because Mary (to say), very
reasonably, that he cannot expect her to stay in aH after-



noon to cook a hot evening meal for him. She (to be) a
wife, not a slave, she always (to say). She (to need) a
certain aqlOunt of free time to see her friends. And on
two aftemoons a week, a girl (to take) the baby out, and
she (to go) to her bridge ~lub, or (to play) badminton.
By seven o'clock she (t9 think) of returning home. If
John (to be back) before her, he (to fend for himself),
with regard to supper. He (to fend for hi.mself) quite
Nominally, his work (to finish) at five. But John
generally (to have to) put in overtime. He (to do) the
work of tw men; and his chief (to say) constantly,
. in so many words, that if he (not to like) it, there (to be)
plenty o others who (to be willing) to take his place.
So J ohn hardly ever (to g~t) home befo re eight. As he
(to walk) up the garden path, he (to remember) always
that he. (to have) forgotten to buy something Mary asked
him too But he (to be) happy in the thoug~ that she
always (to remind) him that he has forgotten. Mary
always (to kiss) him when he arrives. If his breath
(to smell) of whisky, she (to tell) him so. If not, she
to gol straight on to the matter of the mess in the kitchen
that moming. She then tells him what a trying time
she has alone at home all c4ty., while he (to chat) with his
friends in the City. She (to wish) that she were aman,
",ith a man's 'freedom. Then there (to follow) a certain
amount of information about what the suburb (to say)
about Mrs. Smith and that horrid commercial' traveller.
However, Mr. Smith, who (to seU) cars, (to smell a rat).
It (to seem) that the parish to be u in arms) against the
Vicar, because he (gradually to ecome) too High. 1t
(to al>pear) a1so from a letter, that Mary's sister Jane's



children (to catch) continually mumps, or measles, or

something. Jane's husband-he (to teach)-(to notice)
that J ane is not well herself, and (to think) of sending her
on holiday. He (to feel) it might do her good. Mary
(to suppose) he (to be right), and (to believe) that she
could do with one herself. . During all this, John (to
have) his boiled egg and bread artd butter. He (to want)
another egg, but (not to ask) for it, because he (to know)
that Mary (to want) him to keep bis figur~. At nine
o'clock, he (just to setde down) in front of the fire
with a Polish grammar. He (to learn) Polish, for he
(to think) of studying Polish literature. But it (to seem)
that sQmething (to be ou-t of order)-the electric iron,
or the front-door bell or something, so he (to get up)
and (to fix) t. He (to 'mend) things rather cleverly.
Then it (to 'appear) that there (not to be) enough coal for
the boiler, so he (to go out) to the coal-house to get some.
At ten he to make a move) to setde down to his book
again. He (to concentrate) easily. But Mary (to feel
tired}. Her eyes (to refuse) to remain open. She (to
feel) more than ever that a housewife's work(to be) pure
drudgery. So she (not to care) to stay upany longer.
Besides, it (to get) late, and late hours (not t be) good for
John. AIso, if he (to stay up) after her, he always (to
wake) her and the baby, the way he (to make) the stairs
creak as he (to go) up to his room. As it is, she (to take)
sleeping draughts, she (to get) so nervous. John (to
agree) she (to be.right). He (to be pleased) to have a
wife that (to look after) him so well. She constantly
(to think) of his welfare these days, and she (to understand) his needs better.






What is everybody doing in England on Sunday

morning? What are their several interests? What do
people try to do when they read the news? What do you
find when you travel by train? How do people take
contemporary events? Where are we living? How do
we look through the paper' every day? Why? Whom
are we always going over these things with? How do
thse conversations with our friends afIect us? What
do we lay down the law about? What is strange? What
never seems to flag? What do they say about human
beings? What are soldiers always doing? . What happens
to pious. people? What generally settles down after a
while? What does it settle down too What i~ the alternative? Why? Who are not always in a state of wild
enthusiasm about their work? What may their occupations be? What is the greatest of them wiUing to con, fess? In spite of this, what has there existed in Europe
for years? What are the papers doing? And the nations,?
And the public? What may people soon reach? What
may well be? . What shall we have recovered? What
does this mean? What are the papers full of to-day ?
What are England and the U.S.A. beginning to admit?
Why is Mr. Hull being congratulated by his friends ?
What is the American public not doing?' What is it
~dopting? Why is Lord Halifax's visit to Berlin appropriate? What looks possible? What is Germany continualIy pressing for? What exists? Whom is Lord
Halifax meeting? What is everybody hoping? What
reigns in 1talian East Africa. What makes you think so ?
What is this taken to mean ?What are the J apanese
still doing? Who are travelling, and where? Why?
What are the Japanese meeting, as they try to
break through? What does nobody know? \Vhat do
the Japanese announce? What do reports from the
north show? How is fighting going on? What are the



Japanese stiffering from? What is the Nine Power

Conference wondering? What is everybody in England
and America doing? What is happening in Spain?
What is the general impression? Why? What is everybody wondering at the moment? What do the English
Conservative papers refuse to do? What does one of
them go so far as to say? Are the French Government
. succeedin~ in their attempt to rally public opinion round


The formation of the Preterite of the regular '~r
weak verbs is explained in par. 53. The mastery of diat
of the irregular or strong verbs is a matter of memory
and practice.
The Pr~sent-Perfect tense is formed by using one
of the anomalous finites have, has, followed by a past
partidpJe. E.g., 1 have spoken.
The Preterite - Perfect tense is formed by using the
anomalous finite had, followed by a past participle. E.g.,
1 had spoken.
Expressed in the widest and loosest terms, it might
be said that the difference in function btween the
preterite and the present-perfect tenses is this; that the
preterite accepts the fact that the dead past is dead, while
the present-perfect rather stresses the fact that the past,
though dead, still lives, at least in ts effects. In other
words, the preterite inclines to break the continuity
between the past and the present, while the present-perfect
tends to preserve it. (See especially par. 55 (d), page 1I8.)
If 1 say, "Napoleon [ived an adventurous life," 1
am thinking of alife and of a career that ended over a


century ago. But if I say, "The events of. the French
Revolution have had enormous repercussions on modero
history,'" I am bringing the effeets of the French Revolution down into our own day. Again, if 1 say, " I visited
Rome last year," I imply nothing but an incident that is
closed. But if I say, "1 have been in Rome," there is
the implication of results which last into the presento
The cultural or material effects, or the memory of the
visit, linger on.
. Again, if I say," 1 have been in London ten years,"
I am s~i1l in. London, because the present-perfect here
indicates an action which began in the past and continues intothe presento This use of the perfect tense s
very English, and should be carefully studied.
In parallel fashion, the preterite-:perfect can indicate
a state or an action eontinuous between two points 01 pasto
time. (See par. 56 (e), page 118.)


A. PROSE PASSAGES. (See also pars. 364-:366.)
I. tC To-day is
Monday, the twenty-second of
November, and nothing sensationaI has happened slnce
yesterday~ Perhaps we have grOfOn blas to sensations,
there have been so many dutlng the paSt'Tew years. Lord
Halifa~ has been in Germany for the last few days, and
he amved back thls afternoon. He should have got here
this mornlng, but his plane was late. Neither he nor the
Goveroment have' yet made any statement on the results
of his visito But the Foreign Secretary, Mr. Eden, has
a lready promised to make an announcement early, probably



to-rnorrow or the day after. Mr. Eden, by the way, haJ

been in almost every country in Europe. Indeed, sornE
years ago, the foreign press nicknamed him the 'Diplomatic Commercial-Travellr.' Once, when he 'lOas in
Russia sorne years ago, a Spanish paper commentea
humorously on the appropriateness of the English Eden
.visiting the Soviet paradise. People have begun to take
him more seriously since then. He has been in political
life for sorne tirne already, but starled as a member of the
Diplomatic Corps. For the past few years, he has been
F oreign Secretary ; and, as such, has taken part in sorne
of the most important intemational conferences of the
decade. Lately, 'he has been laid up with a cold which he
caught at the Nirie - Power Conference in Brussels last
week. This conference met a few weeks ago, in an attempt
to mediate in the Sino-Japanese conflict."
"The Japanese have now taken OVe1' the sovereign
rights forrnerly exerCised by China in Shanghai. People
expected this to happen eventually. in any case. Last
night, the Japanese seized a number of customs-vessels.
They have now reached a point within eight miles of
Nanking, and have advanced eighty miles In the last ten
days. The'Chinese have fallen back on a line about forty
miles from the capital. The Japanese left flank has
advanced through the lake district to Tai-hu; and already
a naval force has assembled near the Kinagyan forts,
to force a passage up the river."
"There have been more outbreaks of typhoid in
Croydon. Thirteen new cases have been notified since
noon yeste rd ay. The press is complaining that the
Govemment have done nothing yet about the' inquiry
into the outbreak, which they promised about a week ago."



" Flying-Officer Clouston and Mrs. Kirby Green have

arrived back from their record-breaking flight to and
from the Cap~. They landed at Croydon yesterday
afternoon, after having done the round trip in five days
and seventeen hours. They have beaten the previous
record by three days. six hours, and twenty-five minutes.
1 suppose that eventually the trip will be done in a day
or two."
"There have been a number of raids on private
houses in Surrey, Sussex, and Hampshire, during the
past th ree months. The thieves have made it their
practice to work while the occupants of the houses have
heen at. dinner~ This has led the police to wam people
who live in lonely houses to be especially careful, as
help generally arrives late."
"The Duke of Guise, Pretender to the French
Throne, has Just issued a manifesto too the people of France.
He maintains that the present political system has proved
itself a faHure time and again; and that the only solution
for the political difficulties of the, contry is the restoration of the monarchy. nter alia, he snubs the royalist
paper Action Fra1lfaise, and says that it has never been
the official organ of the Royal :FIouse of France. Contrary
to current reports, his son has not been expelled from
Switzerland so far, since he was still there this afternoon.
He has already lived there for some time."


1 have often Crossed the Atlantic; and, so far, whenever

1 have done so, sorne striking incident has BJWBYS occurred,
to make me remember the tripe The one 1 am going to



record took place in Octobar nineteen elghteen. We

'lOere somewhere in mid-oeean, on our way to New York,
via theWest Indies. The route we w(''Te following 'lOas
;-;ather roundabout one, so as to avoid any German submarines that might be lying in wait for uso We had not
yet -TUn into any, and feZt thankful for small mereies.
But we had not the slightest idea where we 'lOere, because
the Captain. could not and 'lOQUld not tell uso He had
recei'lJed striet orders to keep his passengers in ignoranee
of' their whereabouts, and to destroy all notes of the
ship's position wlthin twenty-four hours of taking them.
We afterwards leamt that at one time wehad been within
sight of Brazil.
It 'lOas about nine o'cloek one night, and we 'lOere still
sitting over our dinners, suspecting anything
untoward. Our fears had been lulled to rest, as the voyage,
up to that time had been 'uneventful to the point of
dullness. As a matter qf faet we 'lOere t~ent at my table,
diseussing the latest seandal. Somehow or other, there
. always is a latest scandal on board ship, on a long voyage,
though the protagonists generally deny it indignantly
afterwards. People seem to let themselves go at sea,
in a way they would never dream of doing at home.
Well, we had been commenting on a certain passenger's
goings on for about ten minutes, when one of our friends,
Saunders by name, rushed into the saloon to breaf the
news. At first he 'lOas too excited to speak, but in the
~he managed too "There's a German submarine
quite close to us ! " he gasped breathlessly.
There 'lOas a moment of awe-strieken silenee; and
then, immediafely, a wild rush to the deck. The eooler
ones rose to their feet mOfe slowly. They went to their



cabins; wrapped themselves up 'Well in mufflers; tested

their life-belts alld put them on; and then followed their
less serene companions on deck.
There, 1 joined a long tine of passengers who were
already leaning over the rails. Sure enough, about. a
couple of hundred yards away, we could see a light on the
water, gleanling through the darkness. There was
a heavy sea running; and, as 1 looked down at the waves,
1 did not at all fanfY the prospect of a nig~t in an open
boat on that cold wild waste of waters, let -alone the
possibility of soon being plunged into them. In the
indescribable confusion that reigned, it was impossible
immedlately to get a true explanation of what was happening. The Second Mate, ,a middle-aged man, whose
language had to be heard tOhbe appreciated, WQS seeing to
the lowering of a boato The tackle of one of the davits
had got jammed; and he SfJJOTe like a trooper at the Chinese
sailors who were working under him. 1 had not been
watching for more than a few minutes. however, when
the boat WQS' fi:nally lowered. Once they had done this,
the crew began to row, as fast as the rough sea would
allow, towards the light-presumably to come to
with the enemy. We hoped for the best; but" Fritz "
had the reputation of being a pretty ugly customer, in
those days. and we supposed that the chances were pretty
strong in favour of our being blown sky-high before we
were much older. So far. it had never entered into anybody's head to inquire why the other boats had not been
lowered immedlately; or why the stem-chaser, which
every boat carried in those days, had not been brought into
action at once. When. after ten minutes or so, our boat
at last reached the light, the latter, to our no small astonish-



ment, disappeared; and soon our searchlight showed the

boat returning slowly to the ship. We breathed a sigh of
relief, realizirig that our time had not yet come.
Then, at last. the truth came out. Four of the Chinese
sailors, so it transpired, had been playitig. cards earlier in
the evening. One of them had suspected a companion
of cheating. He had immedJately jumped to his feet,
and had stabbed the supposed delinquent. He had then
jumped overQPard; and somebody had at once thrown
him out one 'of tho~e life:-buoys with a lighting arrangement attached.
Irnmedlately we knew the truth, everybody wen( to
look for the man who had origJnally started the scare.
Those who had put on life-belts felt foo!l~; and those who
had shown panic feZt bigger fooIs stilL And now everybody wanted to take it out of him. He was soon having
a hot time of it. He probably remembers that quarter
of an hour yet!




.52. The following irregular or strong verbs are the

most frequently used :-,
Present Tense.
Preterite Tense.
Present Perfect Tense.
1 abide
I abode
1 have abode
1 have been
I awake
I awoke
1 have awakened
1 bear
1 bore
J have borne
1 beat
1 beat
1 have beaten
1 become
1 became
J have become
1 begot
1 beget
1 have begotten
I begin.
I began
I have begun
1 bend
1 bent
1 have bent
1 bereave 1 1 bereft
1 have bereft
1 besech
1 besought (beseeched)
1 have besought (beseeched)
1 bet
1 bet
. 1 haye bet
lThis verb is most often used in the passive voice, when it is
generally regular., i.e., 1 am bereaved, 1 was bereaved, 1 have been



Present Tense.
Preterite Tense.
Present Perfect Tense.
1 bid
1 bade
1 have bidden
1 bind
1 have bound
1 bite
1 bit
1 have bitten
1 bleed
1 bled
1 have"bled
I blow
1 blew
1 have bloWn
1 broke
1 break
1 have broken.
1 bred
1 breed
1 have.bred
1 brought
1 bring
1 have brought
1 build
1 built
1 havebuilt
1 bumt (bumed)
1 have burnt (bumed)
1 burst
1 burst
1 have burst
1 buy
1 bought
1 have bought
1 cast
1 cast
1 have cast
1 catch
1 caught
1 have caught
"1 chide
1 chid (chided)
1 have chidden (chided)
1 choose
1 chose
1 have chosen
1 cleave
1 cleft
1 have cleft
1 clove (c1eaved)
1 cleave
1 have cloven (c1eaved)
1 cling
1 have c1ung
1 clothe
1 clad (clothed)
1 have ciad (c1othed)
1 came
1 have come
"1 come 1
1 cost
1 cost
1 have cost
I creep
1 crept
1 have crept
1 crew (crowed)
1 crow
1 have crown (crowed)
1 cut
1 have cut
1 cut
1 deal
1 dealt
1 have dealt
1 dig
1 dug
1 have dug
1 do
1 did
1 have done
1 drew
1 have drawn
1 dreamt (dreamed)
1 dream
1 have dreamt (dreamed)
1 drink
1 drank
1 have drunk (drunken, adj.)
1 drive
1 drove
1 have driven
1 dwell
1 dwelt
1 have dwelt
1 ate
1 have eaten
1 eat
1 fall
1 fell
1 have fallen
1 feed
1 have fed
1 fed
1 have felt
1 felt
1 feel
1 have fQught
1 fight
1 fought
1 have found
1 find
1 found
1 have fled
1 flee
1 fled
1 have flung
1 fling
1 flung
1 have flown
1 fly
1 flew
1 have forgotten
1 forgot
1 forget
1 have forgiven
1 forgive
1 forgave
1 have forsaken
1 forsook
1 forsake
1 have frozen
1 freeze
1 froze
1 havegot
1 get
1 got
1 have girt (girded)
1 girt (girded)
1 have given
1 gave
1 give
1 have gone
1 went
1 go
1 have ground
1 ground
1 grind
1 The meaning of a verb is sometimes changed by prefixing a
preposition, but without affecting the irregular forms 9f the verb
itself. Not all these compounds appear in the listo E.g., 1 overcome,
1 overeame, 1 have overcome.



PTelent 7'ettse;




Prelent P"~ct Tenlc.

1 grew

1 bave grown


1 bad


1 hewed
1 bid
1 bit

1 bave had
1 bave heard
1 lu\ve hewn
I bave hidden
1 bave hit
1 bave held
1 have hurt
1 bave kept
1 have knelt
1 have bit
1 bave known
1 bave laid
,1 have led
1 bave leapt
1 bave leamt (learned)

1 har

1 bit
1 bold
1 hurt
1 kneel

1 bit

1 leaiu
1 lean
1 lie
1 light
1 lose

1 malee
1 mean
1 lJleet
1 pay
1. put
1 read
I rend
1 ride
I rid
I ring
1 run
I saw
1 say
1 see
I seek

1 sen
1 send

I sew
1 sbake
I shear
1 shed
I sme

1 hung

I heard

I held

1 hurt

1 kept

, I knelt
I bit
1 laid
1 learnt (learried) ,
I J.eft

1 1eant (teaned)

I lit (lighted)
1 t08t

1 meant
I met

1 mowed
1 paid
1 put
I read
1 rent

1 rode

1 rid
1 rang
I rose
I ran

1 sawed

1 saw
1 sold
I smt


I sewed
I ahook
I shore (sheared)

1 shed
1 sbone (shined)

1 havehung

1 have left

1 have leant (leaned)

1 have lent
1 bave let
1 bave Iain
1 bave lit (lighted)
1 have l08t
1 have made
I have meant
I have met
1 bave mown (mowed)
1 bave overthrown
I have paid
I have put
1 bave read
1 haVe rent
I have ridden
1 bave rid
I have'rung
lhave risen
1 bave run
lhave said
1 have seen
1 have sought
1 bave sold
1 bave sent
1 bave set
I have sewn
1 bave shaken
1 have shom (sheared)
1 have shed
1 have shon~ (shined)
I have shod


Presetlt Tense.
I shoot
1 show
1 shrink
1 shrive
1 shut
1 sing
1 sit
1 sleep
I slide

1 sling


1 slit

1 amell
1 smite

1 speak

1 speed
1 spell
1 spend
1 spill
1 spin
1 spit
1 split
1 spoil
1 spread
1 spring
1 stand
1 steal
1 stick
1 stink
1 stride
1 strike
1 string
1 strive
1 swear
1 sweep
1 swell
1 swing
1 take
1 tear
1 tell
1 think
1 thrive



1 shot
1 showed
1 shrank
1 shrove
1 shut
1 sang

1 sank
1 sat
1 slew
1 slept
1 slid
1 slung
1 slunk
1 slit
1 smelt (smelled)
1 smote
1 sowed
1 spoke
1 spelt (spelled)
1 spilt (spilled)
1 span (thread)
1 spat
1 split
1 spoilt (spoiled)
1 spread
1 sprang
1 stood
1 stole
1 stuck
1 stung
1 stank
1 strewed
1 strode
1 struck
1 strung

1 strove
1 swore
1 swept

1 swelled
1 swung
1 took
1 taught
1 tore
1 told
1 thought
1 throve (thrived)


Present Perfcd Tense.

1 bave shot
1 bave shown
1 have shrunk (shrunken, adj.)
1 have shriven
1 have shut
1 have sung
1 have sunk
1 have sat
1 have s1ain
1 have slept
1 have sUd
1 have slung
1 have slunk
1 have slit
1 have smelt (smelled)
1 have smitten
1 have sown
1 have spoken
1 have sped
1 have spelt (spelled)
1 have spent
1 bave spilt (spilled)
1 bave spun
1 have spun
I have spat
1 have split
1 have spoilt (spoiled)
1 have spread
1 uve .prung
1 have stoad
1 have stolen
1 have stuck
1 have stung
1 have stunk
1 have strewn (strewed)
1 have stridden
1 have struck
1 l)ave strung
1 have striven
1 have swom
I have swept
1 have swollen (sweUed,
1 have swum
1 have swung
1 have taken
1 have taught
1 have tom
1 have told
1 have thought
1 have thriven (thrived)



Present Teme.
I tMow
1 thrust
I tread
I understand
I upset
1 wake
I wear
I weave
I weep
I win
1 wind
1 work
I wnng
I write

Preterite Tense.
I threw
I thrust
I trod
I understood
I upset
I woke (wakened)
I wove (weaved)
1 wound
1 wrought (worked)
I wrung
I wrote

Present Perfect Tense.

I have tMown
1 have thrust
I have trodden
I have understood
1 have upset
1 have woken (wakened)
1 have wom
I have woven (weaved)
I have wept
1 have Won
I have wound
I have wrought (worked)
1 have wrung
I have written

NOTE.-(I) " 1 was born," with reference to birth.

(2) "Blowed" is heard colloquialIy in the expression
" Well 1'11 be blowed."
(3) " 1 hang, 1 hanged, 1 have hanged," i.e., execution
on a gibbet.
(4) The verb "to. smite" is now used humorously,
except in verse. _ E.g., He smote mm hip and thigh.
The expression " He was smitten with remorse" is also
heard in serious use.
(5) The past participle "stricken" is found in the
passive, usually in figurative applications. E.g., He was
stricken with cancer.
(6) "Wrought" is found in such expressions as:
A great deal of harm' was wrought by subversive propaganda.
53. The preterite and past participle of regular verbs
are formed :(a) By adding "d" to the infinitive of verbs which
end in "e." E.g., 1 live, 1 lived, I have lived.
(b) In the case of verbs whose infinite ends in "y"
preceded by a consonant, by changing the "y" into
ce ied." E.g., 1 defy, 1 defied, I have defied.
(c) In all other cases, by adding " ed " to the infinitive.
E.g., 1 slight, 1 slighted, I have slighted.


54. The pretente tense is used :(a) To replace the preSent-habitual form in reported
speech. E.g~, 1 live in Putney. He told me that he lived
in Putney.
(b) After a verb in the present-perfect tense, with
reference to an action or series of actions which took
place during the period of completely past time implied
by the verb in ~he present perfect tense. E.g., 1 have been
in Rome; and there 1 sa'lO Signor Mussolini, and had
an interview with the Pope.
(e) In conjunction with an adverbial of time; when
both the action or state, and the past time, have definitely
ended befo re the time o speaking. E.g., W~en I was a
boy, 1 'lOas more ambitious than 1 aIp now. Germany
had a large number of colonies befo re the War. 1 was in
Brussels ten years ago. 1 sa'lO him at six. He amved
befo re I left. Peter spoke here at six o t dock.
NOTE.-If the speaker can legitimately suppose that
his hearer knows, at least approximately, when the past
action or state occurred, the accompanying adverbial is not
necessary~ E.g., Napoleon was a great mano
'lOas one of the decisiye batdes of history~ 1 sa'lO John
last nigh~. He told me that his mother 'lOas ill.
5S. The present-perfect tense is used : -

(a) Of an action or state completely past, where the

time of such action or state is not indicated, l and th
speaker has no legitimate reason for supposing that his
h~arer knows the time when it took place. E.g., I have
met the King. I have been in Greece. (See Introduction,
page 106.)
- (b) With the implication of "already." E.g., When
are you going to ring Mary up? I have done so.
(e) To indicate that the past action is customary, and
may occur again. E.g., Whenever 1 have spoken to
Germans, they have expressed their surprise at our attitude
towards their regime.
1 This is peculiar to English. Most foreigners say "l. have been
in England ten years ago." It should, o course, be "1 was in England
ten years ago." (See par. 54 (e).)



(d) When the state or action which began in the past

has not yet endedat Me time of speaking. E.g., He has
lived here for ten years. (And he is. still living here.)
1 h,atoe been fond 'of wine all my life. He has hnown that
for months. (foreigners often say wrongly, "He knows
that for months.")
(e) When, though the action or state has ended before
the time of speaking, the time menti!med has noto E.g., 1
hafJe fJJOrked.hard all day. (The work has finished, but the
day has not.) I h,atoe 'Written to my mother thls week. I
have been in Brighton thls month.
NOTE.-The preterite can also be used in these cases,
if Me idea of "already" is not implied. E.g., 1 worked
hard alI day. I 'lOTote to my mother thls week. I was
in Brighton this month.
(f) When the action or state ,has terminated r(!latively
recentIy, but the end of the perlod is not indicated by
naming a definite #me. Thus, in answer to the question,
"Where have you been for the past six months, t' the
answer given in England might be :1 have been ID France for the past six months.
1 was in France until two days ago.
Or 1 hafJe been in Japan for ayear.
1 was in Japan untlf three weeks ago.
(In this use the verb is often modified by justo E.g.,
I have just seen Peter.)
56. The pretente-perfeet tense is formed with " had "
followed by a past participle. It is used :(a) To replace the present-perfect in reported speech.
E.g., :1 have seen Michael. He said that he had seen Mjchael.
(b) With the implication of "already," to indicate
that the action or state tenninated hefore the eompletely
past time indieated by the adverbial. E.g., 1 had passed
my examinations in May. 1 had met him in 1914.
(Compare: 1 met him before 1914.)
(e) To indicate a state or action continuous betwe~n
two points of past time. E.g., In 1940 I had been In
Russia ten years, i.e., I resided there continuously
between 1930 and 1940.






(a) In the following passage, rep1ace the bracketed

infinitives with either preterite, present-perfect, or pret..
erite-perfect tenses, s necessa.ry :Four men once (to dwell) or, if youwill, (to abide),
in a foreign ,country. They (to dea1) in cotton, which
they (to seU), to Europeans, who (to weave) it into cloth.
Peop1e (to know) them as Peter, James, Terence, and
Archibald. One day an idea (to strike) Peter, and he
(to tell) it to the others. As a resu1t of the idea which
Peter (to beget), they all (to put) their capital together,
and (to gol into partnership. First, they (to buy) a site.
Then they (to bui1d) a warehouse near the docks on part
of it, and part of it they (to let off} Some time after they
(to do) this, Peter (to speak) to the others. "1 (to think
it over)," he (to say), "and my meditations (to bring it
home to) me that though up to now we (to bear) the
responsibilities of the firm joint1y, tfle mistakes that one
man (to keep making), (to cost) us a lot. They (to eat into)
our profits. Archibald's carelessness (to drive) me to
desperation." After he (to exp1ain) his idea further, the
others (to catch) what he (to mean), but (to shrink) from
the solution he (to seek) to impose. But he (to win them
round) , and they (to faU in with) his idea. So they
(to tear ue) the old' deed of partnership, and (to draw
up) a new one. They (to split upl their responsibilities
equally, and each (to write off) what his q.epartment (to
lose) as a personal 10ss. They (to strive) to make ihe
business pay and the firm (to thrive) for a while. But
soon they (to begin) to have trouble with rats, which (to
eat) the bales of cotton which the workmen (to sew up)



ready for exporto So they (to buy) a cat, (to take) it to

the warehouse, (to shut) it in, and (to leave) it there.
When it (to try) to escape, they (to thrust)-it back. Each
partner (to hold) shares in the cat, one leg to each partner;
and they (to feed) it by tums. Luckily it (to eat) very
Httle. Qne day they (to see) that the cat (to be) lame.
A dog (to bite)it, or somebody (to tread) on it; and its
leg (to bleed) and (to swell): So it (to stand.) pathetically
on three legs. The partners (to find), on c~nsulting their
books, that the leg wruch the cat (to hurt) (to b~) Terence's.
When Terence (to leam) this, he (to take) the cat into the
office, (to put) it on the floor, (to kneel)down, (to wind)
a rag soaked in oil round th leg, and (to bind) it careful1y.
The cat (to' feel) cold; so it (to go) by the fue,. where it
(to le down) and (to sleep). But it (to cre~p) too close,
and the bandage soaked in oil (to catch fire ). The cat
. (to awake) terror-stricken, (to sit up), (to fly) into a panic,
(to spin) round, (to overthrow) a small table and (to spill)
a bottle of ink, (to run) into the warehouse, and (to set)
the cotton-bales on fue with its blazing lego A strong
wind (to bl~w) at the time, so that the fue (to spread),
and the whole warehouse (to burst into flames). This
(to draw) a crowd, who (to fight) to get a good view, and
(to bet) each other considerable sums for and against
the possibility of extinguishing the blaze. The firebrigade (to speed) to the scene, (to thrust) the crowd back,
and (to hack) and (to hew) to get into the buming building. But to no purpose. The building (to bum) too fast,
and the whole water-front (to smell) of buming cotton.
Numberless rats (to flee) from. the buming building, (to
slide) into the water, and (to swim) away. The partners
(to look on) helplessly; and their blood almost (to freeze)



in their veins, as they (to think.) what their fate might have
be~n, if tl}ey (to be caught) inside. The cat (to Durst)
through the flames, (to spring) into the street, (to shake
off) the burning bandage, and (to rid) itself of the trouble.
But its fur (to be burnt off), and it (to look like) a sheep
that someone (to shear) .. The partners (to catch) and
(to smite) the cat, which (to dig) ita claws into them, and
(to break 100se). They (to fling) stones at jt. It (to steal)
off and (to hide). They (to seek it o.ut) and (to find) it.
They (to slay) it, and (to slingl the carcass on to tbe
nearest rubbish heap, where, after a few days, it (to stink).
Mter they (to slay) the cat, the partners (to remember)
again what they (to lose)~ They (to tear) their hair,
(to rend) their garments, (to beat) their breasts, (to wring)
their hands, (to shed) tears of rage, and (to swear). Mter
they (to strew) the place with tufts of their hair, they (to
become) calmer, ando (to bend) their heads to their fate.
They never (to dream) of the possibility of such a calamity.
Now, they (to understand) their 10ss; and it (to teach)
them the transient nature of earthly things. Gradually,
the first effects of the disaster (to wear off), and they (to
begin) to think of what to do.' Suddenly Peter (to hit on)
the solution of the problem of damages. He (to send)
for Terence. They (to meet) at their club. "1 (to
, forget)," (to say) Peter, "that it (to be) your leg that
(to do) the damage. You must therefore pay us damages."
At this Terence (to grow) paleo Then he (to knit) his
brows, (to stick out) his jaw, (to grind) his teeth, and
(to swing) his stick menacingly, like a scythe. But befo re
he (to mow) Peter down, he (tri change) his mind, (to
lean) on his stick instead, and (to spit) on the ground.
He (to say) nothing; but, though he (not to spill) any




blood, he (not to need to), for he (to show) Peter

eloquentlyenough what he (to think) of the idea.
When Peter (to see) the reception he (to get) he
(to be) afraid to say any more. Indeed, his tongue
almost (to cleave) to the roof of his mouth from fear.
So he (to retire) hastily, thankful that Terence (not to
cleave) his head in two, or at least (to slit) it open. He,
James, and Archie (to meet) and (to make) their d~cision.
They (to ring up) and (to spend) a lot of money
on legal advice. Then they (to clothe) themselves in their
Sunday best, and (to bring) Terence before a judge.
The case (open), and the lawyer (to lead off). He (to
read) the deed of partnership, and (to begin) to develop
his argumento The judge (to lend) him his attention for
a while; but he (to spin) out the argument to such a
length, that in the end the judge (to cut) him short, and
(to chide) him for wasting the time of the court. The
lawyer (to feel) disconcerted, and (to shoot) uneasy glances
towards his clients. Then th.e judge (to lay) down the law
as a good judge should, and (to saw) the air with his arm
as he (to speak). Everybody (to hang) on bis words.
The three still (to cling) to the hope of success, and
Terence (to cling) also, like a drowning man to a straw.
He (to be) justified. For the judge (to override) the
plaintiff's contention. He (to hear) the arguments which
the plaintiff's lawyer (to string out) to such inordinate
length, he 'to say). It (to be) true that Terence's leg
(to be on fire), he (to go on), but it (to be) also true that
the other three legs (to take) the flaming leg to the
inflammable cotton- bales. Those three legs and their
owners (to bear) the. burden of responsibility for the
damage. He therefore (to bid) the three reimburse



Terence for his 10ss. At first, when the three (to hear)
this decision, it (to bereave) them of speech. As their
hearts (to sink), Terence's spirits (to rise). His face
(to light up), and his heart (to leap) with joy, as he S.!2
drink in) the judge's words. But while his eyes (to
shine) and his heart (to sing), the plaintiffs (to fly) into
a rage, aIid (to protest) angrily, for the decision (to spell)
ruin to them. But the judge (to sweep) their protests
aside, and (to beseech)' them to be calmo It (to be) those,
he (to say), who (to choose) to litigate, who (to bear) the
consequences. They (to reap) what they (to sow). The
decision (to come) as a shock to the three, and they
. (to slink) out of the courtroom. When they (to get)
outside, they (to cast) aspersions on Tereilce's character,
and (to spit) reproaches at him. Terence (to ctow over)
them joyfully. He (to feel) like a sinner newly (to shrive),
and (to stride) off with a song on his lips. This (to sting)
the others into fresh reproaches. The matter (to breed)
bad blood~ and (to spoil) the friendship, for Terence's
former friends never (to forgive) him, and they (to
forsake) his company entirely. It (to make) them angry
every time they (to remember) the money they (to lose) ;
and they (to weep) with rage when they (to think) of t.
Lacking capital after they (to pay Terence off), they
(to give up) the cotton trade, and (to shoe) horses for a
living instead. They (to leam) the lesson of litigation
too late. Perhaps the reader (to hear) this story
(h) Give the present perfect forms of the preterite tense
verbs in the aboye ex~rcise, and the preterite forms of
the verbs which are in the present perfect tense or the
preterite perfect tenses.



(e) Write a short.account of a visit you have made ~o

sorne place, telling what you saw and did there, but
without indicating even the approxjmate date of the visito



What is the date? What has happened since

Why have we grown blas to sensations?
\Vhere has Lord Halifax been for the last few days? When
did he arrive back? Why did he not arrive this moming ?
Has there been any statement yet, on the results of his
visit? Tell me something with regard to Mr.Eden's
career, e.g., his travels, his nickname, his journey to
Russia, people's attitude towards him, his professional
beginnings, and his later activities. What has happened
to him lately? When and why did the Nine-Power Conference meet? What have the Japanese taken over in
Shanghai? Did people expect this? What did the
Japanese do last night with regard to the customs vessels ?
What point have they reached, and how far have they
advanced in the last ten days? Where have the Chinese
fallen back? What has assembled near the Kinagyan
forts? What outbreaks have there been in Croydon?
How many new cases have be en notified? What i~ the
complaint of the press? What have Flying - Officer
Clouston and Mrs. Kirby Green done? When and where
did they land? Have they beaten the previous record ?
Do you remember by how much? What has happened
in Surrey, Sussex, and Hampshire? How have the
thieves worked. What has this led the police to do?
Why? What has the Duke of Guise just done? What
does he maintain? What does he say about the royalist
paper Action Franfaise? Has his son been expelled from
Switzerland? How do you know? How long has he
lived in Switzerland ?
2. What have 1 often crossed?
What has always
occurred? When did this incident take place? Where




were we? What kind of route were we following? Had

we run into any German submarines yet? What did we
feel thankful for? Why had we not the slightest idea
where we wete? What striCt orders had he received ?
Where did we afterwards learn that we had been in sight
of? What time, was it? Did we suspect anything untoward? Why had our fears been lulled to rest? What
were we doing at my table? What do people seem to do
at sea ? What had we been commenting on for about
ten minutes? Why did Saunders rush into the saloon ?
Was he calm? 'Vhat did he manage to gasp, in the end ?
What kind of silence was there, for a moment? What
did the cooler people do? Where did they go? What
did they do when they got to their cabins? Whom did
1 join on the dec}t? .vVhat were the passengers doing ?
What could we see on the water? What kind of sea was
there? What were my thoughts as 1 looked down at the
waves? Was it immediately possible to get a true explanadon of what was happening? Why not? What was the
Second Mate doing? What had got jarnmed? How did
he swear? At whom? After 1 had been watching for a
few minutes, what happened to the boat? . In what
direction did the crew begin to row? What did we hope
for? What kind of reputation had "Fritz?" What
did we suppose that the chances were? What had never
entered into anybody's head so far? What did the light
do when the boat reached it? What did our searchlight
soon show? What did we breathe? What did w~
realize? What carne out, at last? Who had been playing
cards? What had one of the Chinese suspected? What
had he immediately done? After stabbing the man,
what did he do? What had somebody on deck at once
done? Whom did everybody go to look for, when we
knew the truth? How did those who had put on lifebelts feel? And those who had shown panic? What
did everybody want to do. What was the man soon
having? What does he probably remember yet ?





The Pret(rite Progressive is forroed by using one
of the anornalous finites 'lOas, 'lOere, followed by the
" ing " forro of a verbo E.g., I was trying.
The Present-Perfect Progressive is forroed by using
one of the anornalous finites have, has, followed by the
past participle been, and the " ing " forro of a verbo E.g.,
1 have been trying.
The Preterite-Perfect Progressz've is forroed by usillg
the anornalous finite had, followed by the past participle
been, and the "ing" forro of a verbo E.g., I had been
. trylng.
In general, and in so far as these tenses are
progressive, the rules in Lesson 7 apply. In so far
as they are past tenses, they come under the rules
laid down in Lesson 8. The few aifferences are noted
in pars. 58-59. See also par. 50, page 9 8.



(See pars. 358-359, 364-365.)

John and Mary 'lOere travelllng by train frorn Madrid
to Santander; and John 'lOas regaling sorne serninarians
from Valladolid with stories, to while away the tedium of

an all-night joumey. He was drawing on bis experiences
in Africa, for their benefit.
"On one occasion," he said, "a certain man 'lOas
riding along a road through the veld, thinking of the
strange stories he had been hearing of hoop - snakes, of
which there were plenty haunting the bush in that,
district. It appeared that they had ,been getting holder
of late, for they had been attacking human beings. The
danger ''lOas getting serious, and was difficult to cope with,
because of the peculiar habits of this particular reptile.
As he WBS thinking about it, he noticed that something
had gone wrong. His horse 'lOas trembling like a leaf,
and it took bim aH his strength to stop it from holting.
He was still trying to calm the animal, when something
made him look back. Then he saw what was troubling
hls mount. ,For, down the road, about thirty yards
behind, a kind of hoop fiJas trundling rapidly after them.
In a flash, the rider realized his danger. One of the
dreaded hoop-snakes was approaching. For it was, as he
knew, the habit of this reptile to place the tip of its tail
in its mouth, for the purpose of speeding up its movements. NaturaHy, the rider gave his hoise its head,;
and it shot forward. As they flew'along, he was 'lOondering
what would happen, if they failed to reach the village
ahead in time. He looked hack again as the village
appeared over the brow of a hill, and saw that the snake
was gaining ground. But he managed, with one last
despairing effort, to reach safety before it could catch up.
11 As he galloped wildly down
the street, the natives
who were idling round rushed to see what 'lOas happening.
It was unusual to see aman galloping at that mad rateo
The hoop-snake, which was stilJ following close behind,



found that it 'lOas being su"ounded by a crowd of gesticulating natives, while others 'lOere running to their huts to
fetch sticks. They soon retumed, but rneanwhile the
hoop-Snake had been doing sorne rapid thinking. Delicately
balancing itself in an upright position-no mean feat
for a stationary hoop-it began to swallow its own tail.
Now a snake is, of course, all tail; and the astonished
natives realized that the snake 'lOas swallowing itself alive.
The body of the reptile 'lOas rapidly disappearing down
that cavernous jaw, and everybody 'lOas 'lOondering what
w,ould happen next. And while they were stlll watching,
the last of the snake's body disappeared down its own
throat; and, as there was nothing left of itself to swallow,
it naturallyvanished completely. And while the spectators
were rubbing their astonished eyes the reptile, smiling a
snaky smile, 'lOas calmly unswallowing itself on a hill about
half a mil e away. It is not difficult to gues~ what it 'lOas
thinking. "
"1 don't know what it 'lOas thinking," said Ma:ry,
severely, "but I do know what I amo I am 'lOondering
how I carne to marry such a liar."
"1 wouldn't say that!" protested a young Sdbth
Mricanamong the group, smiling. "Your husband has
been entertaining us delightfully. For one who is not a
native of South Africa, he has been yarning as one to the
manner born."
"A lot of strange things are always happening in
Africa," remarked a young Irishman, pensively. "1
'lOas hunting lions there myself, sorne years ago; and
invented a method of catching them that the natives
have been imitating ever since. 1 'lOas alwdys 'lOondering
how it could be done; and then, one day, while looking



at a native shield, the idea carne to me. 1 had four holes

of about four inches in diameter made in a board measuring three feet by five. .Each pair of holes was about two
feet apart; and the two pairs were separated by about
three feet. 1 had four little wheels attached, and off we
started to look for a lion. As we were settlng out
the whole village watched us with puzzled expressions;
and even my beaters, who knew me well, 'lOere shwing sorne
doubts about my sanity. After we hlld 6een mllrc:hlng
for some hou rs, vve saw a lion that had been stalking us
almost from the time that we had left the village.

. motioned to the natives who 'lOere getting the guns ready

not to bother; . and meanwhile 1 'lOas raising the board
in front of me as a sort of shield. The lion was getting
ready to spring, but h~sitated. 1 suppose he 'lOas 'lOondering what the. new wrinkle might be. But his hesitation
was only momentary; and in a second the terrified
natives saw that he 'lOas Ieaping straight through the air
at me. And, while tl}ey 'lOere thinking that my last hour
had come, the lion landed square on my board. In an
instant, the natives had forgotten their fears, and 'lOere
cheering wildly. For the lion's four feet 'lOere sticking in
the four holes that had been 'lOaiting for him in the board;
and he 'lOas struggling vainly to extricate himself. He 'lOas
roming with mingled rage and humiliation, as though to
~ that 1 'lOas playing a dirty joke on him. '1t simply
wasn't done,' he seemed to be saying; and he ought to
have known, for he had been prowling the desert for twenty
years and more.

"Well, as 1 have already said, the board was fitted
with wheels, and, after having attached a rope to t, we

;;;; $oon pulling the disconcerted lion ho~e."



There was a pregnant silence. Then an Englishman

spoke. "Somebody 'lDas yawning as you were IJnlahing
your story," he said, ,( and I thought of the fox and the
rabbit. The rabbit had been out daniing all night, and
'lDas dragging himself wearily home. But the fox 'lDas
'lDaiting for mm, and sprang out from behind a tree where
he had been hldlng. In a flash the rabbit 'lDas scuttling
towards his warren, with the fox hard at his heels. Scared
though he was,' the poor' rabbit 'lDas having the greatest
difficulty in keepin~ awake. At last, though only a few
feet from his hole, he could resist the impulse no longer.
He stopped, sat down, and yawned. The fox,. who
'lDas congratulating himself on having the rabbit in his
power, suddenly found himself under the imperious
necessit: 'of yawning too. For, as yoo know, yawning
is catching. And whlle the fox WBS flnishlng his yawn
the rabbit slipped into his hole, and was saved." .
There was another silence. "Yes," said Mary, with
her hand over her mouth, "yawning is catching: And I
think it is about time 1 'lDas getting to sleep myself."
Everybody agreed, for the yawns 'lDere becoming general.


THE USES OF THE .ProgresS'ive FORMS OF THE Preterite,

Present-Perfect, AND Preterite-Perfect TENSES.


Preterite 1
1 was speaking.


1 have been speaking.

1 had been speaking.

58. The p1feterite progressive is used :(a) To replace the present progressive in reported
speech. E.g., I am studying English. He said that he
'lDas studying English.
(b) To implythat a past action is not infrequent. E.g.,

T4e $nglish preterite progressiv.e is not always equivalent to the

Roni~ct: preterite imperfecto


13 1

1 'lOas speaking to the King yesterday, and he asked me my

opinion about the international situation. 1
(c) To indicate that an action began before the point
of past time mentioned, and continued after it. E.g., At
ten o'dock yesterday morning, 1 'lOas talking to John.
(d) When the action expressed by the progressive
formsthe background t'n time to a shorter action. ]ohn
'lOas putting on his coat as Mary entered.
(e) To express t'lOO continuous past actions which
took place together during a period of completely past
time. E.g., While Mary 'lOas bathing the baby, John
was reading.
NOTE.-The progressive form is not usually employed
after the first of a series of verbs describing a series of
successive continuous actions in past time. E.g., What
were you doing yesterday? 1 'lOas studying for some
hours; then 1 'lOent for a walk, and afterwards 1 played
59. The present-perfect progressive is used :(a) In place of the present progressive, when the latter
indicates a habit that has begun relatively recently, and
will not continue indefinitely. E.g., 1 have been learning
English lately. 1 have been seeing a lot of Mary during
the past few weeks.
(b) With reference to continuous actions, to replace
the present-perfect tense, in the uses .indicated in par. SS
(b), (e), (d), (e).
Examples. -.
(i) When are you going to speak to Mary? 1
have been doing so.
(ii) When 1 have been speaking to Gennans, 1
have noticed their resentment at our attitude..
(iii) He has been living here for ten years. (Par.
SS (d), page 118.)
(iv) 1 have been 'lOorking hard all day.

1 In
sentence like this there is often an implication that a certain
intimacy exists between the speaker and the King.



60. The preterite-perfeet progressive :(a) Replaces the present-perfeet progressive in reported
speech. E.g., 1 have been talking to Janet. She said that
she had been talking to Janet.
(b) With the implication of already, indicates a
continuous state or action previous to the point or
period of past time indicated by the adverbial. E.g.,
When Rose eame to see me, 1 had been having trouble, with
the servants. [Compare: Before Rose carne to see me, 1
'lOas having a rather trying time with the ,servants (see
also par. 56 (b.]
(e) As in par. 56 (t), pag.e 118. 1
TENSES. (See aiso par. 55 (ti), page 118; and
par.60 (e).) ,
Change the bracketed infinitives into suitable finite
tenses in' the following passage :John (to traveI) all over the place during the past few
years. Last year, he (to journey) through Italy, on his
way to England, and his train (to stop) at Turin, ~here
he (to have to) change. John (to be glad) of the three
hours' wait, for he (to want) for sorne time to see the
town. His next train already (to wait) at its platform,
so John (to put) one of his suitcases on a seat in o~e of
its compartments, and another under the seat, and
(to go off) to see the sights and have lunch. He (to look
forward) to a good hot lunch for some hours, as it was a
cold J anuary day; and it (to be snowing) for sorne hours.
But wasn't it over-trustful of him to leave his luggage
like that? Perhaps. But he (to travel) about ltaly
long enough to feel confident that nothing would be
touched. It ww? about noon when he (to leave) the
station, and it still (to snow) slightly. So he (to decide)
to have lunch at once. As he (to walk) alOJ,lg the street,
1 This tense tends to place emphasis on the duration of the action
or state. (But see par. so, page 98.)



he (to see) a good restaurant, and (to enter). The waiters

(to have) an animated discussion in a comer, as he (to
go in); but one of them (to come over) at once, and (to
present) him with a' menu. Joho (to make) a ,selection
that (to open) the waiter's eyes, but (to explain) that he .
(to teravel), and that he (to be hungry). The waiter
grinned; and he still (to grin) in a friendly way, as he
(to return) with the first course and a ftask of Chianti.
" 1 (to look forward to) this alI moming," remarked John,
as he set too "Yes, sir," (to say) the waiter. "We (to
expect) snow for the past week, and it (to begin) to fall
this moming. But it (to begin) to stop now.'~
As John' (to eat), he (to take in) the atmosphere of
the place. It seetped a good-cass. restaurant, with, at
the moment, on1y two or three other customers. J ohn
(to like) the relations, free and easy, but without undue
familiarity, which (to se~m) to exist between
and the customers. It (to remind) him ofthe atmosphere
of sorne of the smaller Italian restaurants in London.
Indeed, he almost (to imagine) that he (to sit) in a favourite
one of his, off Tottenham Court Road. At that moment,
probably, the dark-eyed, pretty Italian waitresses there
(to rush about) amiably (quarrel) among themselves and
(to exchange) jokes with their customers. They (to
transmit) the orders, he (to be sure), by simply tuming
their heads and shouting, "Fritto mixto e vino rosso"
to the man behind the counter. Students and Bohemians
(to crowd in), glad to escape from the stiff formality of
other restaurants.
While he (to think) these and other thoughts, John
(to finish) his enormous lunch. He (to order) coffee
and a cigar, and (to call for) the bill. As he (to go over)



it, he. (to l:,eftect) ,thac this (to be) the best five shillings'
worth he (to have) for many a long day. "1 (to have)
meals in all sorts of places during the past few months,"
he thought, "but 1 (to enjoy) this one more tOOn any
of them. And 1 (to choose) only the best places." He
(to be pleased) with the ten per cent. added for" service."
- He (to remark) to himself that one always (to know)
where one (to be) when .one (to live) in Italy. No worries
about how much one ought to tip.. And a sixpenny tip
for a five shilling meal was (not to ask) too much, according to English standards. While he (to think) this, he
(to finish) his coffee. Then he (to get up) to go. He
(to walk) over to the counter, where the proprietor (to
talk) to a friend, and (put) his han~ into his breast-pocket
to get out his wallet, as he (to OOve) no small change.
To his surprise, his breast-pocket (to be) empty. He
(to search) the other pockets. The proprietor, who (to
tum) to attend to him, (to watch) him curiously. A
careful search of all his pockets (to prove) fruitless. He
(to get) dismayed. There (tobe) his ticket to London
and about forty pounds n English, French, and ltalian
notes in tOOt wallet. His heart (to thumg) as he (to tum)
to the proprietor. "1'm awfully sorry," he (to say)
to him, "but 1 seem to have lost all ""nty money. 1
must have dropped my wallet as 1 (to come) here." And
he (to look) at the proprietor nervously. The proprietor
(to look) at him in retum. He evidently (to size) John up.
The result of the scrutiny (to seem) favourable. "WelI,"
he (to say), ~, if you find it again, you might come back
and pay thS bill." John (to look) at the padrone in amazemento He (to expect) him to call a policeman. "Pretty
good sort," he (to think). And then, aloud, "Thanks



awfully. Sorry to have caused you the inconvenience.

1 will certainly come back."
Then he (to get) directions to the police-station.
"What have you (to do) since 'your arrival?" they
(to ask) him, after he (to fill) in a form which (to demand)
even the names of his grandparents. "Did you (to walk)
about the city much ? "
" No," said John, " 1 (to sit) in a restaurant for the
past hour, having lunch. 1 (to take) my time, because 1
(to enjoy) the meal, and (not to see) any ncessity for
hurry. As a matter of fact, 1 (to think) of strolling around
for a few hours, and then catching my train. But now 1
(to be) absoluteIy stranded. Could you send a telegram
for me to my peopIe ? "
" 1 shall have to get authority for that," (to be) the
answer. "In the meantime, while you (to wait), you had
better collect your luggage at the station. You will have
to spend the night here, anyway, in Turin."
John (to think) the same thing himself, so off he (to go).
He (to find) that his luggage (to lie) where he (to leave) it,
guite intacto And his pocket-book also (to lie) on the
Hoor. It (to falI) out of his breast-pocket as he (to bend)
over to put his suitcase under the seat.


Where were J ohn and Mary traveIling? Why was
J ohn regaling the seminarians with stories? What was
he drawing on? Where was a certain man riding, on
one occasion? What was he thinking of? What were
haunting the bush? What made it appear that they
had been getting bolder, of late? What was getting
serious? Why was the danger difficult to cope with?
When did he notice that something had gone wrong?



What was the horse doing? What took him all his
strength? When did something make him look back?
What did he see? What was happening down the road ?
What did the rider realize? What was approaching?
What was the habit of this reptile? When did the horse
shoot fnvard? What thoughts did he have, as they
flew along? What did he see, as' the village appeared
over the brow of the hill? What did he manage to do ?
When did the natives rush to see what was happening ?
What was unusual? What was the hoop snake doing ?
What did it find? What were others of the natives
doing? What had the hoop snake been doing meanwhile ?
What did it begin to do? Was it easy for it to balance
itSelf ? What did the astonished natives realize?
What was the body o the reptile doing? What was
everybody wondering? When did the last of the snake's
body disappear down its o:wn throat? Why did it variish
completely? What was happening while the spectators
were ruhbing their astonished eyes? What is it not
difficult to guess? What was Mary's severe comment?
What did the young South African protest? How had
John been yaming? What did a young lrishman remark
pensively ? . When did he invent a method of catching
lions alive? What effect has this had on the natives?
What was the Irishman always wondering? When did
the idea come to him? What did he have done to a board
three feet by five? When did the village watch the
expedition with puzzled. expressions? What were the
beaters showing? When did they see the lion? What
had it been doing? Whom did he motion to, not to
bother? What was he doing, meanwhile? When did
the lion hesitate? What did the lrishman suppose was
the reason? What did the natives see the next second ?
When .did the lion land square on the board? What
happened in an instant? Where were the lion's four
feet? What was the lion doing? Why was he roaring
with mingled pain and indignation? Why ought he to


have known that it simply wasn't done?' What happened
after they had attached a rope to the board? What made
the Englishman think of the. fox and the rabbit? What
happened after the rabbit had been out dancing? What
was the fox doing? What did the fox do when he saw
the rabbit? What happened in a flash? What was the
rabbit having the greatest difficulty in doing? What
did he do a few feet from his hole.? What was the fox
doing when he had to yawn too ?When did the rabbit
slip into his hole? What did Mary think? Why did
everybody agree ?
The use of the present-habitual and
,tenses with a future meaning should not present any
difficulties to the average student, as the same usage is to
be founcl. in most European languages. Such variations
add flexibility to what is already an extremely flexible
language. Of special importance is the footnote to
par. 61 (i), page 143.


(See pars. 365-366.)




3r d December 1940.

y ou will be glad to hear that at last my

financial troubles are overo 1 have just inherited thirty

thousand pounds. You will realize how much ihis means




to me. From now on, 1 shall be able to face life cheerfully.

y ou will remeinher the talks we used to have; and how
you used to laugh at my dreams as impracticable. Your
favourite remark used to be that in .these hard times it
is difficult enough to keep body and soul together, much
. less travel and see the world. WeU, 1 think that my
body, at least, is going to be pretty well looked after; at
least, for some time. As for my soul, 1 hope that comparative wealth is not going to change my character to any
marked degree. Of course, 1 know that many people
who formerly ignored me or kept me at arm's len~
will be willing to reeeive me with open arms. But 1 ;;;;,
going to see to it that my friends remain to me exactly
what they were before, and my enemies the same.
Certainly, not going to tum my back on old chums,
or be offhand with them. As soon as my passport is
fixed up-I am going to Whitehall for it to-morrow1 shall get a roUnd-the-world passage for myself and the
family. As soon as that part of the arrangements is made,
1 am going to start getting the necessary oufit together.
And then, when everything is ready, we are going to start.
But that is not going to be for a couple of weeks yet, so
come and see us whenever you feel like it. We are always
at home to you. You will be hearing the definite date of
our departure within a week or so. But there is gO'ing to
be plenty of time to say good-bye, unless you happen to
be on one of your trips.
We are taking the baby with US, though 1 am not
very pleased at the prospecto 1 am afraid it is going to be
an intolerable nuisance. However, we are taking a trained
nurse along with us, and she will take the child off our
hands a good deal.


Our itinerary, as I have planned it up to the present,
will be something like this. We sail on the tenth for Cuba,
where we arrive on the twentieth, or thereabouts. There,
we leave the boat for another, and cruise right rou,nd
South America. We continue up the Pacific coast toSan
Francisco, where we land and stay for a couple of weeks.
Of course, we are Visiting the principal ports on the
way.From San Francisco, we sail to Japan, landing
at Honolulu, which will be our stepping-stone to Asia.
From Japan we go to India. From India wepass through
the Red Sea and the Suez Canal to Italy, where we are
staying for several months, visirlng the principal cities.
After tourlng Italy, Germany, France, and Spain, we
shall land in England again, about eighteen months afte r
setting out. So you see, this time next year, I shall be
somewhere in Europe, doing . . . who knows what ?
But I hear certain rattlings in the Inext room which
indicate that my wife is just about to call me into lunch.
I 'lOaS on the point 01 closing anyway.
Let me know when you will be coming. Be good.
Affectionately yours,

Taking it all in aH, life is a funny affair. When we

were fourteen, we thought that we should be aple ro do
everything worth doing, and know everything worth


when we reached the ripe age of twenty-one.

We were going to make 'our mark. We were going, in fact,

to set the Thames on fire.
So far as 1 am concerned, 1 realize now that 1 shall
have finished my tife before 1 have begun to do even half
the things that 1 thought 1 should do. Most of my ideas
and projects have turned out mere castles in the air.



Next birthday, I shall have been on this planet forty years,

and with very little to show for it. In another twenty
years, if 1 am still alive, at best 1 shall be having difficulty
in making meet; and at worst 1 shall have gone to
the wall. Like the architect who invented a bomb-proof
hut the day before the war ended, 1 have always been
Just about to make my fortune. But the opportunity has
always just slipped through my fingers. Somebodyonce
said: "1 am the master of my fate; 1 am the captain
of my soul." Did he say that when he was just abou~ to
die; or was it during his prime. in the pride of his manhood l I fancy it was in his prime. And when Cresar,
during the storm, quieted his sailors with his: "Fear
not, you have Cresar and Cresar's fortune witfl you," did
he know that he was going to dte at the height ofhis power,
by the hand of his best friend? When Napoleon announced to his court that he started on the following" day
for Russia, did he realize what a hot reception he was
going to get when he arrived there, and that his power'
and prestige would never recover from the blow? None
of all these great men was realIy master of his fate.
And all those laughing, carefree boys who left home '
in August nineteen fourteen, did they know how utterly
futile their sacrijice was going to be? They thought that
they would be home for Christmas, but what aChristmas
it was going to be! They thought, and everybody with
them, that the war would bring out the best that \Vas in
them; and so it did, in a sense. But did they anticipate
that they would come back embittered and. disillusioned,
at best; and, at worst, sometimes even degenerate and
But it is an il1 wind that blows nobody any good.


There were the profiteers. Did they fqresee the wealth
that the war was to bring them? Did they know that for
years t!tey would be battening on the blood and misery and
tears of the nation; and that they were to become rich
beyond the dreams of avarice as a result? And did they
gain this wealth because they were masters of their fate ;
or because Fate, their master, had decreed that they
should be born without scruples, and at the right .tlme 1
It is no use making any,bones about it. Such people
will aJways manage to escape scot-free, and it is going to
be so until the endof the chapter. In two thousand years
from now, the only difference will be that the simple and
the upright and the brave will have been under the thumb of
the unscrupulous and the cunning and the cowardly
for twenty centuries longer. No matter what revolutions
will have taken place, the same type will have survived, to
scourge and afilict the human race.


61. Besides the use of" shall" and " will" (Lesson 4),
the future can be expressed in the following ways.
(a) By using the present- haln'tual tense, to express
a settled plan (par. 48). The verb "to be" followed
by " to" can a1so be used (par. 3). E.g., 1 go to Paris
to-morrow. He gets his money next week. He leaves
Waterloo at six, catehes the boat for Dieppe at nine,
arri"ces .in Pars at seven, and ehanges there for Rome.
1 am lo see her at six o'clock.
~ OTE ..-.The preterite should be avoided in expressing
past future in direct or indirect speech, owing to the
danger of ambiguity. E.g.," He said that he went to Pari~
on the following day" does not, in itself, show whether a
past or a future action was referred to by the speaker.



(b) By using the preSent progressive of the verb "to

go," followed by a present infinitive (par. 49). E.g., I
am going to .write to her to-morrow. He is going to get
the money to-morrow evening. He said that he was
going to write to her on the following day. He was going
to get his money the next evening.
(e) By using the present progressive of verbs other than
those which ex:press purely subjeetive states (par. 49)' E.g.,
John is killing the pig to-morrow. 1 am speaking at the
meeting on Tuesday. He is jlying to America the day.
after to-morrow. We are walking to Brighton on the
tenth. He is buying a new car sometime this week. The
King is leaving for Windsor soon.
N oTE.-Rere, . again, ambiguity should be avoided in
the use of this form as a past future, in direct or indirect
speech. Thus" He told me that he was speaking at the
meeting on Tuesday" can refer clearly to the futUre only
if the hearer happens to know that the remark reported
was made on a day previous to the Tuesday referred too
(d) By using the verb "to 'be" followed by " about "
and a present infinitive, to indicate an immediate future
E.g., He is about to sail for Sweden. He remarked that
he was about to sail for Sweden. He was about to write
the letter, when 1 stopped him.
using the form "just going to " after the verb
" to be" to express an immediate future. E.g., 18 dinner
ready? I am just gO'ing to serve it now. He was just
going to serve the dinner as I entered the room.
(1) By using the verb "to be" followed by "just
about " and an infinitive, or by " on the point 01" and the
" ing " lorm of a verb, to express a very immediate luture.
E.g., He is just about to enter the caro He is on the point
01 going out. He is just on the point 01 posting the letter.
He was just about to enter the ear when he was arrested.
He told me that he could not grant me an interview as
he was on the point 01 going to a board meeting.




(g) By using the future-progressi'Ce tense. E.g., 1 shall

be going to Venezuela next year. He told me that he
fJJould be going to Venezuela the (ollowing year. This
tense is often used between friends. "1 shall be seeing
you to-morrow" is less stiff than" 1 shall see you, etc."
(h) By using afuture progressive, to show that a future
state or action will begin before, and end after, the pint
ol. future time indicated by the adverbial. E.g., This time
to-morrow 1 shall be travelling across France. He told me
that at the same time on the following day, he would be
traveiling across France.
(i) By using the future-perfect tense, to show that the
action or state wilI have already ended befdre the future
time mentioned. 1 E.g., 1 shall have finished my book
before Mary arrives. He will have passed his examina~ons when he Is twenty-flve. She told me that she
fJJould have finished the book before Mary arrived. 1
knew that he would have'. passed his examinations when
he was twenty-flve..
(j) Byusing the future-perfect progressive, to show
that a continuous state or action will begin before a point
of future time and will, or may, end after ita E.g., At six
o' dock 1 shall have been working for eight hours. She
told me that at six o' dock she would have been working
for eight hours.



(a) Using the future forms treated of in this Lesson,

change the Prose Passage of Lesson 8 into a description
of what is going to happen to-morrow.
(b) Change the stories told in the Prase Passage of
Lesson 9, and reten them as though the events described
are going to take place on the thirty-first of next December,
paying special attention to the uses of the future-perfect
and future-preterite tenses.
(e) Rewrite the Prose Passage of Lesson 7, on the
supposition that the events described will have begun
1 This tense is also frequently used In the same way as the futureperlect progressi'Ve. (See the following paragraph.) Speaking in 1970

aman might say "In 1980 1 sball have been in London ten years,"
i.e., between 197~ and 1980. (See par. 50, page 98.)



before ten o' dock to-morrow, and wiIl probably continue

after that time.


What will Archie be glad to hear? What has Peter
Pan just inherited? What will Archie realize ? What
will Peter be able to do from now on? What does
Peter remind Archie about? What used Archie's favourite
remark to be?, What does Peter think about his body?
And about his soul? What will many people who formerly
kept Peter at arm's length be willing to do? What is he
going to see to? What is he not going to do? What
will he do after his passport is fixed up? When wiII he
start getting the necessary outfit together? When is he
going to start? Why may Archie come and see Peter
whenever he feels like it? When wilI Archie be hearing
the definite date of Peter's departure? At what prospect
is Peter not pleased? What is he afraid of? VVhat are
they taking along with them? What happens on the
tenth? What will happen in Cuba? Where does the
voyage continue, after rounding South America? From
San Francisco? From Japan? From India? After
touring Italy, Germany, France, Spain? This time next
year, what will be happening? What does Peter hear ?
What do the .rattlings indicate? What was 'peter on
the point of doing, anyway ?
What did we think when we were fourteen? "Vhat
were we going to do? What were we going to set on fire ?
What do I realize now? What wiIl happen next birthday ?
And in another twenty years at best? At worst? lNhy
am 1 like a certain architect? What has the opportunity
always done? What did somebody once say? "Vhat
.question do 1 ask with ,regard to this statement? What
question do 1 as~ about Cresar in the storm? What question do I ask about Napoleon's state of mind on the eve
of starting for Russia?' What about the soldiers in
1914? What did they think about Christmas? What

did they think about the effects of the war on themselves ?

What do 1 suggest that they did not anticipate? What

proverb indicates that some good generallycomes even
out of evil? What question is asked ah,out the oresight
o profiteers? About their knowledge? About the
wealth they gained? What is it no use doing? How
long will such people manage to escape scot-ree? In
two thousand years from now, what will the only difference
be? What will the same type have done ?


English is almost alone among modem languages
in using the verb "to be" with a past participle as its
only way of forming the passive voice. 'The passive voice,
o course, indicates that !,he subject o the verb, instead
o acting, is acted upon.
, The formation of the passive voice is easily mastered,
for the rules are mechanical (par. 62-63). But the use of
the passive voice is not quite so easy. English, like sorne
other Ianguages, often refuses to use the passive when,
by the Iaws of logic, the student has the right to expect it
to be used (par. ,64). This is bad enough; but a further
difficulty arises from the fact that, while, we use sorne
verbs in the active form with a passive meaning, other
languages do the same, but with different verbs. Thus,
while we say, " This room needs cleaning/' when we mean
" This room needs to be cleaned," a speaker of a Latin
language will say, " It is much to desire that you should
come," when what he really means is, " It is muc,h to be
, desired that you should come."
In studying the passive voice, therefore, the student
will do well to note, not merely the illogicalities of the



English language in this matter, but the illogicalities of

bis own. Otherwise, he is liable to be misunderstood.
For, so far as English is concemed, "much," in the
sentence " It is much to desire," is necessarily a pronoun,
whereas in the sentence "It is much to be desired,"
." much " functions as an adverb. The meanings of the
two sentences are quite different.




PASSAGE. (See par. 367.)

There was once a village teacher in a country that
need not be named here. This teacher was aifticted with
partial blindness. He had been deprived of one eye as
the result of infection from a dog with ophthalmia,
which he hadcared foro His blind eye had been taken
out, and a glass one had been inserted in its socket in its
stead. It felt hard to the tOlJch, but was, i'n fact, quite
comfortable. And it wore well.
Now the teachers in this country were a very happygo-lucky lot; and it was quite usual for their pupils
to be left alone for hours on end, while their masters
gossiped with the neighbours.
One day our teacher wished to leave his class alone
for half an hour or so; because a friend of his was passing
by. and he wanted to ask him how the cows were milking,
and whether the milk was selling well. He also wanted
to know how the new houses put p by the Town Council
were letting. They could talk the matter over in the bar
across the way. and see how the new barrel of beer tasted.



All this the teacher wanted to do, but he was held

back by one consideration. The children of his school
were realIy unruly; and if they were left alone for any
length of time, a pandemonium was sure to be raised
in the classroom ; . and complaints' would be made by the
Suddenly,he was struck by a bright idea. In a trice
his glass eye was taken out of its socket, and placed on
the table. "Now, children,'e he said, ". I am going out for
a few minutes, and you will require watching . . However,
my eye will be kft here, so that you will be observed all the'
time. If anything is done which would not be approved
by me, it will be seen by my eye, and the culprit willbe
punished when I retum."
The children seemed to be very mw;h impressed, so the
teacher took himself off very pleased with himself.
But when he returned, an hour latet, and drew near
the school, it seemed as ifBedlam itse1f had been kt loose
in the classroom. The teacher was astounded. " Evidently," he thought, "1 have been outwitted. I wonder
how f"
As he entered the classroom, squibs were firing off
by the dozen, and the room was smelling with the acrid
scent of gunpowder. Toy drums were beating; tables
were overturned; and the -walls were bespattered with ink
from ink-bombs which had been thrown during a miniature
battle which was still being fought out as a manifestation
of high spirits. In fact, in terms of the schoolboy's
famous essay, a good time was being had by aH. The scene
had to be viewed to be appreciated. One glance showed that
the whole place required c/aning, and that the furniture
needed mending, before classes could be resumed at all.



The teacher wondered why the presence of his glass

eye had not been respected. He looked round for it, but
it was not to be seen. True enough, it was still on the
table, but it had been covered with a hat !

If this stpry does not read well, it is because too many

verbs in the passive voice have been used in writing it.
An over-use of the passive makes a narrative stilted,
and must be avoided.



62. A transitive verb can be made passive by using

a suitable tense of the verb "to be," followed by the
past participle of the verb in question.
to teach
to have taught
1 teach
1 am teaching
1 taught
1 was teaching
1 have taught
1 had taught
1 shall teach
1 shall have taught
1 shall be teaching

to be taught
to have been taught
1 am taught
1 am being taught
1 was taught
1 was being taught
1 have beert taught
1 had been taught
1 shall be taught
1 shall have been taught
1 shall be being taught

N OTE.-The juture - progress':ve pass':ve "1 shall be

being taught " is seldom used. The passive forros of the
present-perject progressive (par. 59), and of the juture ...
perject progressive (par. 61 (j)) are never met with.

63. When an active verb in a sentence is made passiver

the direct ,or the indirect object of the verb becomes the
subject; and the original subject, preceded by the pre- .
position "by," usually follows the direct or indirect~
object of the new sentence. E.g., 1 gave a book to John.



A book was given to John by me. John was given a book

by me.
64- The following verbs are frequently passive in
meaning, though they retain {Ile active form:to feel
to let
to seU
to smell
to read
to taste
to wear
to fire
to beat
to milk
E.g., Your hands feel soft, i.e., When your hands are felt,
they give a sensation o. softness. This soup tastes nice,
Le., When tasted, it proves nice. This room smells horribly,
i.e., It proves disagreeable when it is srhelt. Your letter
reads very well, i.e., It proves to be of good literary style
when it is read. Houses do not let well in this district,
i.e., They are not easily let. Wireless-sets sell well, i.e.,
They are easily soldo Good serge wears well, i.e., It is
worn .out only after a long time. The rockets are firing
off well, i.e., They function well when they are ignited.
The tom-toms. are beating, i.e., They are being beaten.
The cows are milking weIl, i.e., When they are mt'lked,
they give a lot o- milk. ' .
65- After verbs indicating necessity of some kind, the
" zng" form of the verb (q.v.) is often used insteadof the
. passive infinitive. E.g., The stairs need sweeping, i.e.,
The stairs need to be swept. This room wants dusting.
The matter requires careful thinking overo


Tum extracts from Prose Passages in Lessons 7- 1 o

into the passive voice, where possible.



Where did a village teacher once live? What was his

aftliction? How did this come about? What had been
done to the blind eye? What was the glass eye like ?
How did it wear? What were the teachers like? What
was quite usual? What did our teacher wish, one day ?
Why? What did he also want to know? Where could



they talk the niatter over? What advantage had this ?

What consideration held the teacher back ? What would
be the result o a pandemonium? What struck him
suddenly? What happened to the glass eye? What
. would the children require? What would be the result
o leaving the glass eye behind? What was the effect on
the children? What seemed to have happened an hour
later? How did the teacher feel? What did he think ?
What were firing off? What was the room smelling of ?
What about the toy drums? The tables? The walls ?
Describe the sene in terms of the schoolboy's essay.
How could the scene be appreciated? What did one
glance show? What did the teacher wonder? Was the
glass eye visible? Was it still on the table? Why does
this story not read well? What must be avoided ?



. So varied are the uses of the infinitive in English

that the student, after having studied this lesson, may
well feel inclined to express his conclusion in the words,
ce When in doubt, use an infinitive." This would, of
course,. be an overstatement; but it is true that the
uses of the infinitive in English are multifarious.
The infinitive can be used as :.
(a) A noun subject (par. 66).
(b) The noun object o a verb (par. 73b (d.
(c) An exclamation (par. 77c).
(d) Adverbial clause modifying a 'verb, to express
purpose (par. 73c), cause (par. 77a), occasion (par. 77a), or result (par. 77 b).
() An adverb qualifying an adjective (par. 78d).
(/) An adjective (par. 69)'



The infinitive can also replace the verb in :(a) A conditidhal sentence (pars. 66-67).
(b) A noun clause (par. 73a) .
. (c) An adjectival clause (par. 73).
(d) A subjunctive construction (par. 73b (b)-(d.
Moreover, the infinitive can :-,
(a)' Replace an indirect question (par. 70).
(b) Introduce a parenthesis (par. 77).
(c) Reintroduce,a topic'of conversation (par. 76).
In spite of these seeming complications, i~ is usual
to find that students master airly easily those rules whose
correct application is a matter o thought; and that they
usually, in practice, tend to break rules which merely
require an elfort 01 pu~e memory or their mastery. This
is particularly true o the use o those infinitives which
are not introdced by to (pars. 79a-7C)g). These latter
should, thereore, be given special attention.
O special interest, also, is the use o the inlinitive to
~eplace the subjunctive ater verbs or expressions o desire,
command, etc. (par. 73b). The infinitive, in this use,
has almost entirely ousted the true subjunctive in English
(Lesson 14 (B.
Since the terms are used a good deal in this lesson,
it may be as well to explain what is meant by a noun
clame and what is meant by an adjectival clame. Incidentally, clauses can al so be used adverbially. (See
,par. 35'7.)
A noun clause is a sentence which unctions in the
same way as a noun. Such a clause may replace :(a) The subject 01 a verbo For instance, in the sentence
"John died," John is the subject o the verb died. And
in the sentence " Whoever committed the murder died,"
the clause whoever committed the murder is the subject
o the verb died in exactly the same way ,as John is, in
the first sentence.
(b) The direct object 01 a verbo E.g., In the sentence



"1 know Peter," the direct object of the verb know is

Peter. And in the sentence " I know who did it," the
clause who did # is the direct object of the verb /m0fJJ,
in exactly the same way as Peter is.
An adjectival clause is a sentence which does the
work of an adjective, i.e., it qualifies a noun. E.g., In the
sentence "A black roan visited 'me to-day," the word
black is an adjective qualifying the noun mano In the
same way, in the sentence " Aman who had a dark skin
visited me to-day," the c1ause who had a dark skin is an
adjectival clause which does exactly the same work as the
adjective black in the first sentence, i.e., it qualifies the
noun mano
An adverbial clause is a sentence which does the
work of an adverb, i.e., it modifies a verb, to indi~te
the time, manner, place, etc., of n action. E.g., Whm
he toM me Ibis, I stood open-mouthed with astonishment.
He has gone where the good financiers go . . (For other
adverbial uses see Lesson 30.)


(See also pars. 367-368.)
In the old days, it wa's said to be much easier for one
to get into Spain, than to gel out of it. 1 found, this to be
,very much the case on one occasion, when. 1 decided
to arrange for Mary and myself to go on a holiday-trip to
England, to visit our relatives. Of course, I ought to
have had everything fixed up weeks ahead; but this I
had quite neglected to do, and had let everything hang
over to the last minute. It had been imprudent t~
this, and now there was no time to lose. 1 had to spend



two days rushing from pillar to post, from agency to

agency, to find out about fares and sailings from the
northem Spanish ports. 1 was prepared to do anything
rather ~han travel overland. But 1 had to pay for having
left everything over to the last minute. By night, 1 was
completely done up~
1 had also several visits to pay to my bank. A friend
of mine whom 1 had happened to meet had advised me
to change my money before 1 left, and told tne how to do
it. It is usuaIly cheaper to huy sterling in Madrid, than
seU pesetas in London. 1 rather wished to make my
funds go as far as possible; so 1 went to my bank, to try
and get themto let me have sorne English currency.
After all, why not save a little money if one can. Few
people have money to bum.
At first the bank did not want to let me have it. But
in the end, they agreedeo, because my friend pers~aded
them too He was a useful man to know. 1 had to wait
twenty-four hours' for it, though, as it was difficult to
obtain the sum 1 wanted at such short notice. Even
then 1 had to pay sixty pesetas to the pound. At first
1 refused to accept the rate, as 1 considered it to be
exorbitant; but in the end, 1 had lo give in.
1 was also lucky enough to get a boat to travel across
on; and the agent congratulated me on having managed
to strike the best one on the route. At the time, 1 did not
suspect him to be laughing up his sleeve at me. 1 understood him to say that she was- second to none for luxury
and speed-a boat, to put it mildly, to gladden any traveller' s
heart-and 1 believed him to be telJing the truth, and
did not hesitate to book a cabin. It would have been
better for him to remember to tell me that she rolled like



.a pOrpoise and pitched like a rocking-horse; and that,

in fact, she had no equilibrium at a11, to speak of. That
means something, .In the Bay of Biseay! I am not aman
to grumble, and I am the last pers.on in the world to make
a fuss, but I should have liked to write and tell him, after'ward-;: what 1 thought of his boat and of him. To have
.done ~, would have relieved my feelings. Not to put
too fine a point on it, it doesnot seem like playing the game,
.as he should be the first to admit, to endeavour to get
people to book a cabin on a ship, without telling them
what they are up against. 1 am beginning to become a
cynic with regard to travel agents' clerks. Had 1 known,
1 should have arranged to get a smaller but steadier boat
to travelon. It would have been better to do this, than
suffer the discomfor~ we did. 1 should never have consented to go on the ship, had 1 known. But when 1 did
know, it \Vas too "late to change.
1 suspect the agent led me to believe it to be comfortable,
in order to get me to huy the tickets. 1 was only another
victim to make a commission on. 1 should like to invite
him fo make a trip on that boat himself. He would not
care to repeat the experiment, 1 am certain. He might
not be so ready, then, to advise people to travel on It.
Anyway, 1 asked him to be good enough to have the
tickets made out at once, and told him to have them ready
when 1 dropped in. This he promised to do.
Mary-I have the honour to be her husband-was
supposed to be packing; so 1 went horne, expecting to
find it done. She had been in doubt whether to take a
trunk,. though personalIy, 1 had thought that we ought too
" Why not just take a few suitcases to carry our things in ? "
she had suggested. "We really don't need to take very



much with us on such a short trip." So I had told her

togo ahead and try and get it done as soon as possible.
But 1 didn't know my Mary. It was no. use beseeching
her to hurry,or requiring her to be ready at a certain
time. She is not the person to hurry for anybody. She
says she is not a servant, to be rushed or ordered about.
If only she would Ieam to be punctuaI! I wish someone
would teach her to be. To be frank, 1 ain coming to
believe her to be incorrigible. 1 suppose one gets to accept
that . sort of thing as unavoidable, after a few years.
What she had Ied me to beiieve would be a "few" suitcases, turned out to be six. If semed a Iot of Iuggage to .
travel with. She had been pleased to jit us o;ut with
clothes enough to take us round the world. Why she
had felt compelled to do this, pas~es my understanding.
Afterwards, 1 had to tryand get the suitcases Into our
rallway compartment, and succeeded. But I got into hot
water al! along the route:' We were not the only ones
;-;;ant to put our luggage on the rac;.!<s. Our feIlowpassengers wanted. to put theirs on a,g well, only to jind
that we had left no room to speak oj. 1t was enough to
moRe anybody angry. When they tried to dump their
suitcases in the corridor, the cond"!lctor would not have
them do ita They tried toconvince him that it was nothing
to make a fuss about; but he answered that corridors
were to walk through, not to store Iuggage in. The poor
people were just bursting to tell us a thing or two; but
we pretended not to understand ~panish, when they tried
to protesto If they had guessed us to be as conversant with
their language as we really were, they would have h~d
plenty to sayo But we were not so foolish as to bett;ay
ourselves; and we found it ver. convenient,. to say the



least, to be foreign. In the end, after someone had pressed

him to accept a little present, the conductor relented.
He was not the kind of man to resist the right kind of

When we changed stations, and though I was unwilling
to, Mary wanted me to carry all the luggage. She is,
to say the least, an unsatisfactory persQn to travel with.
" I won't have yau waste money on tips," she said. "And
inany case, why hove a porter do it, when I have a great
hulking husband to do it for me?" I did not know
whether lo laugh or to be angry. But I am not the man
to work when there is" no necessity for me too So
I answered, "Why not?" There were the porters to
turn to, bigger and more hulking than I was, and able and
willing lo do the work. Indeed, they had pothing to do,
hut caN')' suitcases. And here was 1, struggling unnecessarily under a ridiculously heavy load. I was not a camel,
to have my back broken. If bcks were to be broken at
aH, better let the porters break theirs, than break mine.
I really believe tnat fo have done it myself would "have
meant a hernia. In any case, it is foolish to take risks.
So I went on strike, and in the end she gave way. She
is shrewd enough to see when I have real1y made up my
mind. So up went the baggage on to 'a porter's back.
It took him three trips to transjer it aH. When he "had
finished, he had no breath left to speak oj. And the
beauty of "it is that Mary had us drag all that luggage
al! those weary miles to England, only to leave half ofit
unopened, when we did get there. About the only thing
she forgot to bring was the dining-room tableo Or,
perhaps, she had no suitcase to pack it in.
But to get back to the packing. 1 got home to find



that there wasstill more than half of it to do. 1 was at

my wit's

end what to do, for 1 saw it' to be impossible

,us to catc.h the train at this rateo To have bought the
dckets and then missed the train would have bee~, to say
'''eleast, a shame. But it is difficult, as 1 have said
before, to make Mary hurry. She prefers to take ,her
time, and hates to be rushed. And, though she is good
look at, she is quick to get angry and slow to cool down.
To try to speed her up, is to make her excited and bad
tempered. - N or would she let me help her pack, for-;he
hites me to touch her things. But with only, an hour
'o spare, the packing to do, and ,the city' (o cross, 1 could
"ot hut ~e impatient, though 'usually 1 am slow to rouse.
1 had either to accept the prospect of missing the train,
or tak the law into my own hands and simply throw
the things into the sUitcases,without folding them. There
ie a time to be ~ygoing, and a time to be firmo And this
was no time to mime matters. So in went the things,
helter-skelter, filling the cases to hursting point. 1 was
willing to hurst a dozen suitcases, to catch that train.
Better that than delay our departure. , So, within twenty
minutes or ,so, we were ready lo go, and 1 was trying to
find a taxi to take us t the station. When we got to
England, Mary had to have everything ironed again.
1 could not hut eeZ satisfaction to see her face as she'
unpacked. Perhaps it will teach her not to put things' off
to the last momento
But to get back to my search for a taxi. It seemed
almost too good to be true, hut 1 found one almost immediately, and requested thedriver to hurry and get us to the
,station in good time. He said4 that in his capable hands
we had nothing to worry about. He went further. He





swore to have us there in time, even if he swung for it.

"In you get," he said, and off started the taxi. 1 shall
never beg a Spanish taxi-driver to hu"y again, for he was
as good as his word. How, onthat ever-to-be-remembered
drive, he managed to get us to the station alive, passes
my comprehension. The. Puerta del Sol is qot th;;;t
place in the world ro drive through. As I felt the car
bump and sway, and heard the engine roar, and noticed the
traffic seatter like chaff before us, I thought that he had
done for uso He was certainly a reckless fellow to be
driving a caro 1 cannot hear to think of it even now. It
was useless to tell him to mind out. He was not the man
to fJJorry. Other people could d-;; that. In any case, he
said, there was no danger to speak aj. He was not satisfied
merely to race. He did everythng but climb over the
cars in his way. He was, to use the expressmliterally,
a dangerous man to cross! It must have been a sight
to take anybody's breath away, to see that taxi eareer
round each corner and dodge the traffic at breakneck
speed. Though scared, I could not but. smiIe to see the
faces of the people whose cars we grazed or frankly
humped. They protested loudly, only to be ignored, as
away we drove. I may have instructed my driver to
hu"y, hut I did not order him to destroy Madrid in the
Mter having taken our lives in our hands a dozen
times, we got to the station, strange to relate, quite safely,
to find the train still there, and with a few minutes to spare.
Strange to say, Mary was rather disappointed to lee the
station. She was just growing to lihe the thri1l.
As we drove into the station, and to our dismay, there
was a long lill;e of. police cars strung along behind us,



in full cry. Their occupants surrounded our taxi-driver.

They seemed to have much to say to him. Leaving
to explain matters as best he could to the outraged
guardians of the law, we began to ,look for an empty
carriage. As 1 w~s partIy to blame, I hope our driver
did not do his best for us only,to gel into trouble. If they
did arrest him, he did not have a leg lo stand oo. But 1
wish someone would teach me to drive as he did.
Sorne friend$ of ours 'were waiting on the platform
to see us off, but we hardly had tme to say more than
" hullo" to them. We were almost the last passengers
to amve. "In you jump," I said to Mary, and bundled
her into a compartment. There is a time to be gentle,
and a time to be brusque. Up went the mountain of luggage
into the racks; down plumped . Mary in a comer seat;
and away went the train. Phew! It, was a close shave.




66. The infinitive can be used to replace both verbs

in simple statements of cause and effect (past or present)
(par.. 38). This infinitive construction strengthens the
inevitability of the effect resulting from the given cause.
E.g., To live in London in November is to knOfO what
fog means, i.e., 1f yoo kve in London, yoo learn what
fog means. To have knO'lOn him is to have loved him,
i.e., 1f you knew him you necessarily loved hm.
67. In the following types of conditional sentence,
the infinitive can replace the verb which expresses the
coodition, most usually when the subject of the result
clause ls "it." The infinitive then becomes the subject
of the clause inditating the resulto If the infinitive has a
subject of its 0'l0n, this subject, preceded by for, is
placed in front of the infinitive.
(a) When the fulfilment of the condition is enter-



tained (par. 39). E.g., To go there to-day willbe

dangerous. For me to go there to-day will 1:le dangerous. 1
1t will be dangerousfor me to go there to-day (par. 7 (B.
111 go there to,-day it will be dangerous.
(b) When the fulfilling of the condition is unlikely
(par. 41), E.g., To see him would be p1adness. For me to
see, him would be madness. It would be madness lor
me to see him. 1f 1 S(JfJ) him, it would be madness.
(c) Past condition unlulfilled (par. 46). E.g., To ha'lJe
done that would have been suicide. For him t ha'lJe done
that would have been. dangerous. 11 he had done that,
it would have been suicide.

68. The infinitive can also be used to replace the

anomalous finite 01 an adjecti'lJal clause. E.g., He had not
a stone on which to lay his head, i.e., on which he might
lay his head. To /mow the worst is the one way whereby
to better it, 'i.e., whereby one may (or can) better it. He'
has much to say, i.e., much which he tan sayo This is the
best part of the garden to grow f10wers in, i.e., in which
Qne can grow flowers. There is an hour to go yet, i.e., an
hour which must go. There is still plenty of work to do,
i.e., which must be done. He has a visit to pay, i.e., which
he must (ought to) payo There is one more river to eross,
.e., which must be erossed. On an roer-to-be-remembered
occasion, Columbus crossed the Atlantic, i.e., on an,
occasion which must (ought to) be roer remembered. There
is nothing to make 'a luss about, i.e., about which one need
make a fuss. There is no rain to speak 01 in the Sahara,
i.e., which can be spoken 01 (worth mentioning). There
is no one here to speak to, L., to whom one can speak;
who can (may) be spoken to. Alexander sighed for fresh
worlds to conquer, i.e., which he could conquer. 1 want
something to drink, Le., which 1 can drink. I have no
information to go by, i.e., which 1 can go by. He is not the
man to do such a thing, Le., 01 the type who wou),d do
such a thing. She was not the person to misbehfi'lJe, i.e.,
1 "It is \dangerous for John to drive a car" may mean danger
either for John or for pedestrians.. To show that the danger is exclu
sively John's one, would have to say so~thing like "To drive a car
is dangerous' for John.'



who would misbeha'iJe. It was a sight to gladden one's

heart, Le., which would gladden one's heart.
69. Preceded by the verb "to be," the infinitive
~ be used adjecti'iJally to replace an anomalous finite
followed by the pasSi'iJe infinitive. E.g., It was much
to be rec'ommended that you s~ould be careful, i.e., it ought
to have been 'iJery much recommended, etc. 1,,; was recommendable. John was to blame, i.e., John was blameworthy.
John had to be blamed.
70. Should in indirect questions may be replaced
by the infinitive. E.g., To be or not to be. That is the
question, i.e., The question is, whether one should exist
or not existo He is. in doubt whether to .act or not, i.e.,
He is in doubt whether he should act or noto

71. Should in clauses which express the grounds

for the statement in the principal clause, may be replaced
byan infinitive. E.g., What a strange little mortal he is,
to be the ruler of a mighty nation, Le., What a strange
little person he is, that he. should be the. ruler of a mighty
nation. He was no servant, to be ordered about like that,
i.e., He was no servant, that he should be ordered about
like that. (The reason for the statement He was no
seroant is inspired by the fact of seeing him treated as one,
by being ordered about.) You are a fool to do it.
72. The infinitive may replace the verb in a quest~on,
el(iptically. E.g., AlI 1 need is the money. Ah, but how
to get it ?
73. After first, last, one, or only, the infinitive may
replace the indicati'iJe verb of ari adjecti'iJal clause. E.g.,
He was the first to do it, i.e., He was' the first who did
it. He was the only one to c~, ':.e., He was the only one
who came. He was the last to am'iJe, t.e., He was the
last who am'iJed. England was the first country to de'lJelop
railways, i.e., England was the first country which developed



73a. The following verbs can be followed by an accusative and infinitive to replace a noun clause with an indicative
verb :suspect think
believe know suppose take realize
expect see
conside~~ feel (think)
Exampus.-Because of his accent, they thought him
to be a Pole, i.e., Because of his accent, they thought
that he I'wQS a Poleo Sorne people still believe the world
to be f1at, Le., that tlie world is flato The police knew
the murderer to be hidden in the foresto If you suppose
him to be aliar, why do you consult hirn? 1 did not
realize him to be as sick as he turned ot to be. His mother
understood mm to be preparing for an exam. They
suspected her to be a spy. John saw mm to be cleverer
than he had thought. They found mm to be the man
they had been looking foro 1 should guess her age to be
about forty..
73b. The infinitive' is used to indicate an action to
which that of the principal verbo (trnsitive, passive, or
reflexive) is in some way directed. This e1iminates the
necessity for the use' of the subjunctive. The following
verbs are therefore followed by an infinitive.
(a) Verbs followed immediately bx;,an
infinitive :-.
try ,
(b) Verb~ followed by an accusative and an infinitive : beseech instruct
encourage influence request
show how allow
take (guess)
(e) Verbs followed by an accusative,.and an infinitive
without to. (Par. 81 (b).)



(d) Verbs whicoh can be followed immediately by an

infinitive, or by an accusative and an infinitive :ask
wish prepare love 'intend
. choose trouble mean
expect decide
NOTE.-For those of the aboye verbs which can take
the "ing" form as well as the infinitive after them, see
the following Lesson.
Examples.-(a) 1 should hesitate to give an opinion
on the matter. 1 do not care to go to the cinema too often.
y ou must try to concentrate more. 1 shall endea:vour
to do it as quickly as possible. If you are prepared to
advance one-half of the money. 1 can arrange to raise
the other half. Peter said that he could ,not manage to
come sooner. He swore to do t. The Government have
undertaken to rearm within the year. He agreed to come,
under certain conditions. The girl consented to marry
him, but her paren~s refused to sanction the wedding.
y ou must learn to do as you are told.
(b) They besught t/Je K,'ng to have mercy on her.
The Attorney General has instructed the police not to
arrest in such cases. They encouraged the child to read
a good deal. The special circumstances influenced him
to take an immediate decision. 1 must request you to
leave the house immediately. The Captain ordered
the sailors to come on deck. She has just invited me to go
to the cinema with her. Piease do not press me to stay
any longer. He" told the servant to make tea. The law
obliges all able-bodied Frenchmen to serve in the army.
They forced the refugees to leave the country. In the
end he compelle(l Gerald to accept the offer. I cannot
permit yau to take such liberties. The leak caused the
ship to sink. When a young lady is to be presen.ted at
. Court, they teach her how to cfl,rtsy properly. They show
her how to walk correct1y. He was allowed to en ter ~he
house. They allowed him to enter the house. He helped,
his son to do the work. I should take her to be forty.



(c) I cannot have yau do that. They let him see his
sister. It would be wrong to leave him starve. You
must help him do the work. The police heard him
approach, and observed mm enter the room, where they
heard him open the safe. The thief did not notice them
lollow him. For a few minutes they watched him work,
and then he felt one 01 them tintch him on the shoulder.
(d) England has asked France to take part in the
. negotiations. John asked to go home. France begged
to be excused. I want to see the play, and I want you to see
it too. The Prime Minister wished to make a speech,
but the rest of the assembly wished mm to be silent. I
must prepare her to receive the news. Peter prepared
to go. I love to go to the cinema, and I love yau to come'
with me. Sorne people prefer to go to the theatre. I
prefer cheese to be toasted. Cromwell did not, desire
them to condemn Charles. He desired to escape the
responsibility. I cannot bear to hear people grind their
teeth. I cannot bear people to grind their teeth. 1 hate
to wake with a headache. He hates plays to be too long.
He chose a tractor to do his ploughing. Peter chose to
remain away from the party. Please do not trouble to
get me a cup of tea. May I trouble yau to pass me the
salt? Mary always means to be in time. His mother means
him to be a parson. I expect to be there by six. The
weather-prophets expect it to rain to-m~rrow. 1 cannot
decide to buy it until I have seen it. The cold weather
decided John to remain at home. He is determined to
cross the desert, come what may. A combination of
circumstances determined him to change his course.

73e. So also, the infinitive can be used after any verb,

to indicate the purpose which actuates the subject of the
principal verbo E.g., 1 bought a machine for slicing
potatoes, to cut tobacco,' i.e., Though the machine was
put on the market as a potato-slicer, my purpose in buying
it was to cut tobacco wit'h it. . One eats to satisly one's



hunger. He starts work ear1y, so as to have more free time.

She washes her woollens in tepid water, so as not to
shrink them. He bought the goods in large quantities,
in order to get them cheaper. In order to hear better, he
sat in the front row .
. N otice the difference between the following :He descended to sell rnatches. (Expresses the subject's
purpose in going downstairs.)
He descended to selling matches. (The" ing" form
expresses the result of the subject's social downfall.)
(See par. 81 for an explanation of the prepositional use
of to.)

74. Gradual progress is expressed by the following

verbs and an infinitive :come
Examples.-As time went on, he carne to lave her
very dearly, and she grew to reciproeate his affection.
He was begint:ling to think himself the happiest rnan in
the world, when he began to notice that she was starting
to pay too rnuch attention to the young man next door.
The latter, he observed, was beginning ro aceept her
advances with some pleasure, and was commencing to
appear at the garden gate rather too often.
75. When the following verbs have personal-pronoun
(not. antjcipatory) (pars. 2, 7 (A or noun subjects, they
are followed by the infinitive :happen
Examples.-He happened to be there when I arrived,
and Mary chanced to be there also. He seerned to be
uneasy, because Mary seemed to want him to do something rash, and he appeared to be unwilling.

76. When, after a digression, the speaker wishes to

return to the tapie originally under discussion, he will do
so by means of an infinitive, with or without but.



E.g., What you say is very interesting, but beside the

point. To get baek to the French crisis, my opinion
is . .. But to get baek to what we were talki~g about . . .
77. The infinitive can be used parenthetically, most
frequently after the verb to be. E.g., He is acting, to
say the least, "rather rashly. He is behaving, not to put
too fine a po'int on it, like a madman.
77s.. The infinitive is used after a verb sometimes
preceded by "but," to indicate 'lOhat' occasioned the
activity indicated by the principal verbo E.g., I could
not but smil to hear her talking in that way. He could
not but regret" to hear that the child had 10st his father.
"1 smiled to hear her talking in that way.
" 77b. The inflnitive may follow a sentence describing"
an action, to indi~te the result, gene rally unexpected or
un'lOelcome, of the action. E.g., He returned home,' to
find his wife gone. He applied for the post, only to be
turned down. He has only to speak, to sho'lO what he is.
77c. The infinitive can introduce an exclamation.
E.g., To think that Mary should do such a thing I
78. After a noun, an infinitive (usually followed by a
preposition) may be used to show the use of the thing
represented by the noun. E.g., He has bought a scythe
to cut grass with. He has bought a car to go to" 'lOork in.
It is mine, to do what I like with.
78s. Mter abstraet nouns of action or quality, the
infinitive shows the object or application of the noun.
E.g., He is conscious of an inclination to be lazy." 1
have the honour to be a Member of Parliament. He
showed little willingness to 'lOork.
78b. After time, room, place, and similar nouns the
infinitive replaces 11n adjectival clause containing can,
could, or should. E.g., There is no room to swing a cat,
here, i.e., There is no room in which one could swing a
cat. There is a time to 'lOeep, and a time to laugh, i.e.,




There is a time in which one should weep, ,and a time in

which one should laugh. He has no place to go to,' i.e.,

to which he can go.

78e. The passive infinitive may follow a noun or an
adjecti'iJe, to express logical consequence. E.g., He is a
slave, to be treated as such. 1 am not mad, to be treated
in that way.
78d. The infinitive may followan adjecti'iJe, to indicate
why the adjective is used in this particular case. This
is especial1y so after adjectives :(i) Preceded by too.
(ii) Preceded by so and followed by as.
(iii) Followed byenough or foro
-E.g., Apples are good to eat. He is use/ul to know. Cider
is nice to drink. 1 am ready to go. He is swift to anger,
and slow to forgi'iJe. Horrible to relate, he was killed Jast
night. Strange to sal', he has }lever been in the British
Museum. He is too old t work. He is not so mad
do it. He is /oolish enough to do it. The weather is not
bad enough for me to stay inside. 1t is too good to be true.
79. To is suppressed before the infinitive in the
following cases. (See al so par 73b (c:798. After the anomalous finites (par. 9), except the
foIlowing :have to (obligation) am to, etc. (settled plan, obligation)
used to'
ought to
NOTE.-( 1) To make an emphatic repetition of 'a
verb still more emphatic, the infinitive which usually
follows an anomalous finite can go be/ore, in front of the
subject. E.g., 1 have told you' to work, and work you
must. John ordered him to go, and go he did.
(2) When need and dare are not used as anomalous
finites (pars. 9, 16), they are folIowed by an infinitive
with too E.g., Peter needs to study more. He does not,
need to go. He dares to He to me.




79b. After why, when the following infinitive is

accompanied by the idea of should, ought to, it is not
worth while'. E.g., If you have plenty of money, why
work? You are not going to die, so why worry? Why
lose your temper over a little thing like that ?
79c Mter better, in sententious remarks. E.g.,
Better be poor and able to enjoy life, than rich and crippled.
Sometimes the whole infinitive is suppressed. E.g.,
Be careful when youcross the street: better sale than
sorry! i.e., It is better to be safe than to be sorry.
79d. After but following can or do, and after
than when' the latter introduces the second term 01 a
comparison. E.g., He did everything but murder him. I
cannot but think that you are wrong. A man can but do
his best. He could not do less than smile at her behaviour.
It is better to delay than act foolishly.

7ge. When the second of two infinitives joined by

and indicates the proposed result of the action. E.g., He
promised to come and see me. I promised to try and
persuade his brother. He ought to have come and seen me.
79'. After the first of a series of infinitives indicating
a series of actions. Eog., His idea was to go to London,
catch ~ train for Dieppe, cross Europe, and sail for India.
His idea was to have gone to London, caught a train for
Dieppe, crossed Europe, etc.
79g. After the first 01 a series of infinitives expressing
. purpose. E.go, He is studying French to prepare for
business, broaden his culture, and get more out of his
trips to Pars.
NOTE.-When an infinitive is used to replace another
verb, often only Ito is retained, and the infinitive itself
and its' complement are suppressed. E.go, They invested
their money in. wild-cat shares but I refused to, i.eo, 1



refused to invest my money in wild cat shares.. Though

1 didn't want to, they persuaded me to go.

80. The inflnitive should not be split in wntmg.

That is, an adverb should not be placed between to and
a following infiflitive. E.g., Incorrect formo I am unable
to thoroughly understand the problem. Correct formo
I am unable to understand the problem thoroughly. I
am unable thoroughly to understand the problem.
The split infinitive is, however, often heard on the
lips of educated people in conversation. Its use in
speech cannot, therefore, be absolutely condemned.
NOTE.-The adverb not is always placed before the
infinitive and to (see par. 9 (e. E.g., He told me not
to go.
C. In the following passage, where possible, use infinitives
in accordance with the rules laid down in pars.
68-78c :Charles the Fifth, Emperor of the West and King of
Spain, deci4ed that he would hold his Court in Toledo.
He had found that this was the most convenient place.
AlI the nobles were summoned, in order that they might
pay him homage. There were also a large number of
festivities which they could attend. Charles also sent
an invitation to the Duke of Burgundy that he should
come, in order that they might hold a consultatiolT.
Charles did not like doing this, but the busine~s .was
important; and in any case, he felt that he had a debt of
hospitality which he ought to pay to Burgundy. For
Charles was fighting the French at the time, and he had
found that Burgundy's help had been very useful.
Burgundy was in the neighbourhood, and the least that



Charles could do was to offer him hospitality. The

difficulty was in arranging that he should g~t adequate
accommodation. On the one hand, it was necessary that
Charles should treat his guest well, and find a place in
which he could be put up in accorda~ce with his high
rank. Charles did not wish that such a valuable alIy
should be offended by any suspicion of being slighted.
On the other hand, Charles guessed that Burgundy was
unpopular with the Spanish nobility. But he had to
choose between the sentiment of the nobles and Burgundy,
and he chose culti'Vating Burgundy. The nobles realized
that Burgundy was a useful ally against the French, but,
putting it mildly, they felt that he was a traitor to his
own people. And, thoughthey accepted t~e help of a
traitor, it 'was too much to expect that they should consort
with him, or r~ceive him into their homes. They could
not bear' having to treat him as an equal and a friend,
especially as they suspected that. he was at heart a traitor
to their cause as well. He was aman who would betray
his own brother, in order that he might furtper his own
ends. Charles's problem was, how he should persuade
the Spanish nobles to adopt a different attitude, in order
that the visit might be successful. It was going to be
difficult. The nobles required of aman that he should
be honourable as well as ~seful . . . like the English
Prime Minister o' whom it was said that he remarked
that he believed certain members of his Cabinet were
unfit to be invited to his house. Severnl members of the
Cabinet must, putting it blunt1y, have had guilty con:"
sciences, for each of them thought that he was the one
referred to, and there was trouble. It happened that the
one man who could entertain Bur~ndy adequately was



Count Benavente. He was the only 'one who had a

mansion in Toledo big enough for the purpose. In most
of the poky residences~ there was hardly room in which
one could swing a cat. But Benavente was the leader ~f
the opposition to Burgundy. Charles knew that this was
the case. But" It is better," he thought, " that 1 should
keep Burgundy in a good humour and offend Ben~vente,
than that 1 should offend Burgundy and pander to an
old crank." So Ch~rles sent a message to Benavente
that he should come to see him. Benavente presentt;d
himself with his hat on. For grandees of Spain were
the only ones who kept their hats on in the royal presence.
This was in order that they might show thei, independence.
Charles, who combined a sense of hmour with his
German blood,' and was not a roan who would object
to local customs in his Empire, made no comment. He
was gradual1y reaching the point of understanding the
Spanish character. So he went straight to the point.
" Count Benavente," he said, " I desire that you do me
a favour."
" My house can confer no favour on yours," answered
Benavente amiably, though he didn't mean it. "But
we Benaventes hold it as a privilege that we should serve
our King whenever we can. We believe that this. is the
greatest glory of our h~use. Your Majesty may recall, for
example, an occasion which should never be forgotten,
" Quite!" interrupted Charles hastily. He knew
what was coming; and, once bitten, twice shy. For the
ceremony of creating a grandee involved the narration
by the latter of his own and of his family's exploits in the
service of Spain; and, as none of the grandees had any



talents worth mentioning, as raconteurs, Charles was

reaching the point when he dreaded hearing them. And
he had fo~nd that Benavente was even more loquacious
than most, and that he loved talking. So," Quite I "
repeated Charles. " You needn't 'trouble going into
that now. Let us get back to my motive ,in summoning
you here. As youknow, I ~~pect that the Duke of
Burgundy will visit Toledo within the next week, for the
purpose ofhaving a consultation with me. And I expect
that the diplomatic ~onsequences' of the visit will be
far-reaching. It is therefore essential that the Duke
should be entertained in style. There is nobody whom
1 can tum to but you. 1 know that Burgundy is badly
thought of by your seto I cannot use force for the purpose
of making you receive him. But 1 should be obliged if
you would instruct your servants, that they make the
necessary preparations ID order that he may be adequately
accommodated. I ask that you do this at once, and I
beg that you do it with a good grace." There was a
pause. Charles observed Benavente's face getting red,
and his voice choking with anger, as he began speaking.
Charles felt the tension growing, but retnained calmo
" Sire," said Benavente haughtily, "whenever a King of
Spain has looked for somebody who could serve him,
we Benaventes have always been the first who have
answered the callo Indeed, we have always been, the
first who have been asked. We have even gone out of
our way for tbe purpose of looking for opportunities by
means of which we might serve. But, if I may be frank,
s:uch services have hitherto redounded to the King' s
honour and our own. 1 come expecting some honourable
commission, and 1 am asked to put up. a cad and a traitor.



Never have the Benaventes kept houses in which traitors

could be entertained. We are not low-class innkeepers,
that we sJ.:ould receive the dregs of Europe. 1 hate
placing obstacles in the way, but 1 am not the type of
man who' wuld consort with Burgundy. He is a traitor,
nd should be ostracized as such. . 1 will not descend to
defiling my home. Why should you put me' in the
position of refusing? 1 beg that you excuse me."
Charles was good humoured, but he knew how to
be firm as well. And he was gradual1y getting impatient.
He could not have the grandees defying him. He had
tried gentleness, and had only been rebuffed. He saw
that he could not persuade Benavente into poing his
behest.. Experience had taught him how he should
handle such a situation. "1 understand that you refuse,"
he said coldly, " 1 accept no refusals from my subjects.
Moreover, it is impossible for me not to think that you
are being unduly fastidious. For there is nothing in my
request about which anyone need makea fuss. 1 know
that there is much which can be said in favour of yQur
attitude, and 1 djslike having to insisto But there is a
time when one should make concessions to public necessity, as well as a time when one should be fasti~ious,
and this is an occasion when one should make concessions.
1 have asked a favour of you, and have only received what
is tan~ount to a refusal. So 1 must make it an ;;de;
that you put Burgundy up. You have a week, and there
are plenty of preparations which must be made for his
reception. If any hitch ocClirs, 1 shall consider that you,
and you alone, are blameworthy. 1 am Only doing this
for the purpose of furthering Spajn's interests; and 1
have the right to exp~ct that you should co-operate."

, 174


Benavente pressed his grandee'shat more firmly

down, for the purpose of showing his dis~st, and scowled.
Charles noticed him doing it, and cou1d not avoid smiling
when he saw how angry the man was. "Your Majesty
has pressed for my obediencet 'said Benavente, and I
will obey, in so far as my house is co~cerned. I will
leave food that Burgun~y may eat, and wine that he may
drink, and beds in which he llnd his company may sleep.
But on the eve of his arrival, 1 wiIl be called to the bedside
of my sick mother in Ciudad Real. I will not return,
until 1 know that Burgundy is riding out of' Toledo.
And, in any case," he added grim1y, "why should I
worry? I can always fumigate my house, for the purpose
of cleansing it from al1 traces of vermiQ ! "
"Very well!" said Charles, doubting whether he
should laugh, or whether he should show anger.. "If
you prefer staying away, do so by aH' means. All I ask
is that you do nothing to show your feelings openly."
Secretly, Charles was relieved that he had got bis way so
easily. For Benavente, at the most moderate estimate,
was powerful, as well as p,;oud; and Charles hesitated
in alienating the loyalty of such a man.And even though
this was a time when it was necessary to be firm, Charles
used every endeavour in order that he might not offend
Benavente too deeply. For Ben'avente was not aman who
,would tolerate much pressure. So, Burgundy arrived,
butfound that Benavente had been called away. However,
he was royalIy entertained by Charles ando his nobles,
whom Charles had besought that they should refrain
from, any overt acts of contempt. He told them that they
should remember the issues at stake. Burgundy diplomatically expressed regrets at the reasons which had caused



Benavente's absence, though he knew that they were not

.genuine. "After all," he thouglit, "why need 1 take
offence at the eccentricities of an old crank ?" So he and
his suite occupied Benavente's mansion quite comfortably.
After three weeks of conferences -and Court festivities,
it was time that Burgundy should departo So, with many
compliments on both sides, he and his~suite set out for
home. When they were about a mile from Toledo, it
chanced that Burgundy drew rein and looked back.
Toledo, rugged and steep, rising sheer out of the CastiHan
plain, was a sight which would gladden any man's heart.
As he looked, Burgundy noticed clouds of smoke rising
from one of the houses. It was impossible for him not
to be surprised. "Why," he said, "that is the mansion
where we were staying. It appears that Benavente's
place is on fire! 1 wonder what could have caused it ? "
The others guessed, but dare not tell him. But the whisper
went round. It seemed that Benavente had retumed;
and it appeared that he was fumigating his home. It
seemed that his methods were, expressed in the most
moderate terms, drastico

D. (1) Change the sentences in Exercises (e) and (d)

and (e) in Lesson 6, using, where possible, infinitives,
to express that fulfilment of the conditions is (a) entertained, (b) unlikely.
(2) Change the sentences in the same exercises, using
infinitives to express past conditions unfulfilled.
(3) The following questions are based on the story
of Count Benavente abpve. Answer them, using
adjectives :(a) Preceded by too.
(b) Preceded by so and followed by as.
(e) Followed by enough or foro



Why did Charles choose to cultivate Burgundy. Why

did the nobles not wish to associate with Burgundy?
Why did Charles not dare to slight Burgundy? Though
they accepted the help of a traitor~ what were the nobles'
feelings towards him? Why was Benavente the one man
to entertain Burgundy? What were the houses of the
Benaventes not meant for? What was Benavente rich
enough for? Why did his suite not tell Burgundy tne
truth about the fire ?



What was said of Sp'ain in: the old days? What did
I find, on one occasion? What did I decide? Whv was
I going to England? What had I quite negle~ted?
Had this been imprudent? How had I to spend. two
days? What for? What was I prepared to do? What
did I have to pay for? How many visits ~had I to pay
to my bank? What did a friend of mine advise me?
What is usually cheaper in Madrid? What did 1 rather
wish with regard to my funds? Why did I go to my
bank? What have few people money for? What did the
bank not want, at first? Why did they agree in the end ?
What kind of man was my friend? Why had I to wait
twenty-four hours for the money? What happened at
first, when I found I had to pay sixty pesetas to the
pound? Why? What was I also lucky enough to get ?
Why did the agent congratulate me? What did 1 not
suspect, at the time? What did he say the boat was
second to none for? Putting it mildly, what kind of
boat was she? What did I not hesitate about? What
would it have been better for him to have remembered
to tell me? Am laman to grumble? What am I the
last person in the world to do? What should I have
liked to write and do? What would have relieved my
feelings? What does not seem like playing the game ?
What is my present attitude towards clerks in travel
agencies? What should I have done, had I known what



this boat was really like? Would it have been better to

have done this? Why? Was 1 able to change ships ?
Why not? Why did the agent lead me to believe it would
be comfortable? What kind of victim was I? What
should 1 like to invite him to do? What am 1 certain of ?
What might he not be so ready to do then? What did
1 ask him to do, anyway? When did 1 tell him to have
them ready for? What did he promise? What is my
relation to Mary? How was she occupied? What did
1 expect, when 1 went home? What had she been in
doubt about? What had 1 thought? What had she
suggested? What had 1 told her to do? What was it
no use heseeching Mary to do, or requiring of her?
Why not? What does she say about orders? What do
1 wish? What am 1 coming to believe? What do 1
suppose happens, after a few years? What tumed out
to be six suitcases? What did it seem to he? What
had she been pleased to do? What passes my understanding? What had 1 to try and do afterwards? Where
did 1 get into hot water? What did our fellow-passengers
want fo dQ with their luggage? With what result?
What was this enough to do? What would the conductor
not have them do? What did they try to convince him ?
What did he answer that corridors were for? What were
the poor people just bursting to do? What did we
pretend ? On what condition would they have had
plenty to say? What were we not so foolish as to do ?
What did we find very convenient? When did the
conductor relent? What kind of man was he not?
What did Mary want when we changed stations? What
kind of person is she to travel with? What did she say
about wasting money? And what about a great hulking
husband? Did 1 know what attitude to take? What
kind of manam 1 not? So what did 1 answer? Who
were there, to turn to? Describe the porters. What
had they to do? What kind of animal was 1 not? If
backs were to be broken, what did 1 suggest? What



did I really believe about the consequences of carrying

the suitcases. What is foolish, in any case? Why did
Mary give in in the end? What is Mary shrewd -enough
to see? Where did the luggage go? What took three
trips? How much breath had he left when he had
finish6d? What was the result of dragging that luggage
all those weary miles? What was Mary' s reason for not
taking the dining;.room table? To get back to the
packing, what did I find \Vhen I got home? Did I know
what to do? What did 1 see to be impossible? What
would have been a shame? Is it easy to make Mary
hurry? What does she prefer to take? What does she
hate? In spite of her good looks, what kind of temper
has she? What is the result of trying to speed her up ?
Why would she not let me help her pack? Why could I
not but be impatient? Am I usually quick to rouse?
What altematives presented themselves to me? 'Must one
always be easygoing? Was this a time to mincematters ?
How did the things go into the suitcases? With what
resuit? What was I willing to burst? Why? What was
.better? What happened within twenty minutes or so ?
Why was I trying to find a taxi? What had Mary to do
in England? What made me feel satisfaction? What
will it perhaps teach her? To get back to my search for
the taxi, what seemed almost too good to be true? What
did I request of the driver? Had we anything to worry about? What did he swear to do? What did he say ?
What did the taxi do? What shall I never again beg a
Spanish taxi-driver to do? Why not? What passes my
comprehension? Is the Puerta del Sol a good speedway ?
When did I think that the taxi-driver had done for us ?
Why was he a reckless fellow? What cannot I bear?
What was it useless to telJ him? Why? What did he
say about the danger? What was he not satisfied merely
to do? What kind of dangerous man was he? What
must have been a sight to take anybody's breath away ?
What could I not help doing? Did the people's protests



have any effect? In what way did the driver misunderstand my orders? Did we get to the station quite safely ?
With what result? What disappointed Mary? Why?
Describe what was behind us as we. drove to the station.
What did the occupants of the police cars do to our taxidriver? Did they seem in 9onversational mood? What
did we leave the driver to do? What did we begin to
do? Why do I hope that the driver. did not get into,
troublc? Had he any defence, if they did arrest hiril?
What do I wish someone would teach me? Why were
some friends of ours waiting for us on the platform?
What had we hardly time for? When did we arrive?
What did I say to Mary? Must one always be ~ntle ?
Where did the luggage go? Where did Mary plump?
What did the train do ?


The "ing" - form of a verb is simply the infinitive
form without to, with the suffix "ing" added. (The
orthographical modifications involved in adding this
suffix to certain verbs need not be gone into here.)
The " ing ". form is used after certain verbs :-.
(a) As an alternative to the infinitive form (par. 81 (i)
(a), (b) (ii.
(b) To give a shade of meaning slightly difierent from
that which the use of the infinitive form would give
(par. 81 (iii)-(v.
(c) Because, quite unexpectedly, certain verbs "annot
be followed by the infinitive form at aH, except, occ;asionaHy, to indicate the purpose which actuates the subject
of the sentence (pars: 73c, 8Ia). These must be studied
carefully, and learnt by Mart.



(d) Because certain verbs are' foIlowed immediately

by a true prepositioo or a prepositional'adverb (par. 8Ib),
and aIl such true prepositions and prepositional adverbs
automaticaUy change the following infinitive into an
"ing "- formo Thi~ caust;fo. sorne c~nfusion, and pars.
81b to 83 must be glven Speclal attentlon.
NOTE.-A prepositioo is a word which introduces
an adjectival or an adverbial phrase. In the expression :-,,-',
(a) "The leg o/ the table," o/ is a preposition introducing the adjectival phrase o/ the tableo
(b) ce He has gone to the station," to is a prepositin
introd!lcing the adverbial phrase' of place,
to the statWn.
A prepositional adverb is a word which, while it can
act as a preposition in the way explained aboye, can also
stand alone after the verb, and act as apure adverb. E..g."
He is too tired to go oo.
The difference between a phrase and a' clause (Introduction to the Twelfth Lesson) is that a clause is always a
sentence complete with subject and v'erb, and a phrase is noto
It must be emphasized that experience shows that
there are two points, especially, which present difficulties
to pupils in this lesson. The first is, to remember the
verbs which cannot be followed by the infinitive form
(par. Sla). The second is that pupils find difficulty in
distinguishing between to when it is a real preposition, and
lo when it merely acts as a sign to i'IJtroduce the infinitive
(par. 8Ib).


(See pars. 357, 364-365,)
Mary /oves being mixed up in a little excitement;
and she is not abo've indulging her weakness. Hearing





a shot, for instance, goes to her head like wine. She had
the opportunity 01 pandering to this weakness a good
. dea1 during her stay In Spain, especially In the autumn
of 1934. It was the time-of the rebellion in Asturias,
'when the miners there decided on resisting the new
Government by force of anns. We wereln Madrid at
the time; and the first indication we had 01 the unrest
having spread so far south, occurred one afternoon at
about four o'dock. We were together in our flat-the
sixth floor-when suddenly we heard the sounds of
violent explosions in the street below. ~.21! hearing the
noise, l\Iary rushed to the window, and I with her, with
the idea g[ stopping her. In the street beIow, two Civil
. Guards, a-~!, baving taken cover behind some wine
barreIs ;-front of a' lavem, were firingup the str~et.
The noise reverberated like thundei: I was just on the
point 01 pulling her away,: when she saved me the trouble.
Before seelllg me reality -she had been quite eager. But
now . . . "1 don't like it, I don't like it ! " she wailed ;
and rusheq. back to the bed. It was a: good liaIf-hur
before I succeeded In calmlng her. " But it was just as well,
.her being scared; for the house porter told me a IIttle
. later that the soIdiers had been ordered to fire on seelng
anybody at an open window. He also added, ln passing,
that somebody had shot at the Civil Guards from the
roof of our house. My repeating this to Mary was perhaps
imprudent. But, alter havlng recovered from the initial
shock 01 witnessing her first skirmish, she gave the impression 01 being more interested and excites than ever.
At about six o' dock, firing having ceased, we decided
on go':ng to a place near the Puerta del Sol, for dinner.
On our stepping out of the street door, I was toldin a





sharp voice to put my hands up. 1 tumed to see

two stern-faced young soldiers with their gitns at the
ready. As I did not feeZ up to arguing with those= faces
and those rifles, I complied. Running through my pockets, ,
,they could find nothing more dngerous than a pipe.
" You had better not be seen feeling for that wh!leln the
street," remarked one of them. "It looks too much like
a pistol; and you migIi~ be shot in the act 01 takJng It
out. ,. Mary seemed delighted' at the thrilling prospecto
There being no vehicular transport of any ki,nd, we
walked down the street called Alcala; I, in common
with every other male pedestrian, with my hands held
high in the airo We saw men being serched for arms
a11 along our route; and whenever~' espJed such 'a gr.oup.
I tried to avoid hitting into it. N ot so Mary. She edged
me towards the soldiers, in the hope of my being searched
again. She said she enjoyed seeing me .look so deliciously
idiotic. Privately, I believe she liked being apologized
, to by those' dark and handsome Spanish soldiers. For
apologize ~hey always did, and profusely, for, trOubling us ;
and never molested her. I can sympathize with Mary's
liking. My own resthetic sense is also highly developed.
I insist, for instance, on our having pretty maids. Mary
has a prejud!ce in avour o their being efficient. Carmen,
for instance, might have been one of rvfurillo's models;
b~t she had a weakness for burning the food. Pilar, tiny,
delicate featured, and dainty, had a blind spot in regard
to dust. Both got short shrift from Mary. But to get'
back to our story:
Firing broke out again Just as we were on the polnt
01 reaching the Puerta del Sol. Dn hearlng t, everybody,
myself included, threw himself flat on his face. Every-




body, that lS, except Mary. 1 shall never forget the sight
of her standing there, shaking with laughter. "You all
look so funny," she gasped, "lying on your tummies
in that silly way. Really, 1 can't help laughing. 1 do so
enjoy looking at you ! "
1 shouted to her to give over playing the idiot, and
that her standing there like that was dangerous. But .she
was deaf to reasoning; so 1 grasped her by the waist,
and pulled 'her forcibly down. 1 did not fancy the idea
of her being wounded or killed by a stray bullet; and
there, were plenty of them flying about. She did not seem
to understand that her joking was out of place, and
wriggled like an eel as 1 held her'. In the end, she succeeded in escaping, saying that. she didn't like my stopping
her fun. Running to the kerb, she took refuge behind a
car drawn up at its edg~; and passed the rest of the
time of the skirmish, in making a running commentary
on it.
After ten minutes or so, the soldiers and the revolutionaries had done firing, and we continued on- our way.
lt was a nightmare progress; for Mary insisted on
darting down every street froro which she heard a shot,
and called me a coward every time I prevented her from
following her impulse. 1 don't mind having a l~ttle fun,
even with a spice of danger attached to it; but 1 do
object to taking my Hfe in my hands, unless it is absolutely
necessary. lt was useless felling her ihat it was madness,
her running her head into danger like that; and that it
was difficult to excuse a woman f her age going on in such
a way. She onlylaughed. "This," she said, " is lt'ving ! "
Alter wsnderlng by devious routes-l was determined



to avoid hitting -into any new skirmishes-we got to our

restaurant, only to find it c1osed. A passer-by told me~
however, that by gmng round to the back and knocking,
1 might gain admittance,' if they knew me. After some
lo ud rapplng on my part, the door slowly opened, .and a
girl's head was thrust out gingerly. It was like trying
to get into aNew York" speak-easy." On seeing us, the
girl recognized us and let us in. After dinner, the proprietor advised us not to delay getting home, as there was
no knowing what might happen as the nlght wore on.
So we joined a stream of people hurTying down the
. Alcala with their hands up; and arrived home afte-r hsvinJl
been searched a few times, but without having been
further molested. We were in bed by eleven; but Mary,
under the stress of the day's excitement, was' incapable
of sleeping. She lay awake, ,oing over all her adventures.
After half an hour or so, 1 felt her shaking me. "1
heard someone moving in the room next door, just now,"
she whispered.
" Don'tbe silIy," 1 answ~red somewhat impatiently.
" The room is empty."
"No it isn't !" she insisted. "l'm certain 1 heard
someone moving. And 1 remember seeing light under
the door as we came in. 1 took no notice of it, as being
probably the light from the street. Maybe it's the man
they saw shooting from the roof ! "
. " Very well," 1 groaned resignedly, " 1'11 get up and
go and see."
" Don't you do anything of the sort ! " she whispered
in anguish. . " I'm afraid 01 your getting hurto r d never
lorgive my letting you do it if anything happened to you.
He' d shoot you if you ~ed disturbing him."



In the end, she almost persuaded me to believe in the

possibility o/ her suspicions being well founded. "Well,
then, 1'11 'phone the police,'" 1 said.
" N o, no l " she almost cried out. That room opens
on to the dining-room, where the 'phone is; and he'd
~ you in the back, if he heard you 'phoning."
" All right, then," 1 said, " I'll ask the people in the
flat downstairs to let you stay with them, while I am out
fetching the police. I hope they won't mind being
" Good f" she whispered. "Don't be long in
returning. "
The couple below, though not unnaturally alarmed,
undertook the responsibility o/looking after Mary during
my, absence. If they had known of her escapades during
the day, though, they might have been more chary o/
doing ita
I returned in about ten minutes with about six or
seven armed police. They tramped into the dining-room,
.taking u p their positions round the door of the suspected
room, with drawn pistols. 1 shall never forget the sight
of them standing there, grim and alert, waiting for the
signal. Their leader shouted to the man inside: "Come
out! It's no use your hiding; ~nd it's no use your trying
to escape." There was no answer. So, smashing down
the door, the six rushed in, casting rapid glances round
the room as they did so. There was nobody. They
looked at each other, and then at Mary and me. .The
tension broke. They grinned. They were not beyond
appreciating the funny side of the situation. Poor men,
most of their inves~gations had a habit o/ not ending so



hannlessly. Mary, for once, looked too sheepish to

indulge in her usual gurgling. 1 tried to excuse my calling
them on a wild-goose chase, hut the leader would hear
none of it. "Not at aU'! ,; he said. "Bette"rsafe than
sorry 1" And he tramped off with his me~.
-Mary and 1 went hack to hedo



"ing". FORM


81. The "ing". form can take the place of the in

finitive in the following cases :(i) (a) When the infinitive is the subject of the
sentence (pars. 7 (B), 66-67). In such cases, if the " ing'~
form has a subject o/ its own, th~ latter takes the possessive
formo E.g., Eating causes indigestion, if it is done in a
hurry. My eating too much always give~ me indigestion.
Doing such a thing will he dangerous. It will he dangerous,
doing such a thing. Going there would have heen imprudento My seeing him would be madness. It would be
madness, my seeing him. Peter' s dying would he a tragedy.
;.l1ary's laughing was out of place. Your speaking like
that was very diplomatic. My acting in that way would
he a very great mistake. His getting oetter was a surprise.
Jly telling you that was an act of confidence. Their going
away so soon broke up the party. Her dressing up like
that was ridiculous.
(b) As the direct objeclof the following verhs. U nless
otherwise stated, the suhject of the " z'ng '!. form, if there
is one, becomes a possessive in writing, hut may hecome
a possessive or an accusative in speech.
choose dread
permit trouble
hegin have (allow)





Examples.-I dislike John's (John) doing that. She

likes my (me) going to the cinema with her sister. 1
1 The infinitive tends to imply a statement of principIe, e.g.,
1 don't like my children to go to the cinema.
The "ing '':form more often implies a comment on a fact, e.g., 1
don't like my children going to the cinema. (They do in fact go.)



prefer seeing a play to reading it. l' cannot bear (him)

his speaking to his mother in that way. My husband
loves 1Ily (me) buying new clothes. 1 hate seeing children
.ill-treated. If 1 must choose between going and remaining, 1 choose remaining. She dreads hearing his footstep.
They intend travelling by sea. He neglected posting
the ~etter. You omitted telling me the whole story.
Circumstances over which 1 had no control caused mv
being late. 1 cannot permit his (him) wasting his tim"e
like that. PIease do not troubIe getting me another cup
of tea. You must not attempt taking the exam. this year.
It is .difficult for me to imagine you doing that. Father
says that he cannot have me coming home at all hours of
the night.
(ii) The following verbs, when not followed by an
infinitive, usually take an " ing ". form with an accusative
'after them :.1
observe see hear feel smell watch notice perceive
Examples.-The police heard him approaching, and
observed him entering the room. They noticed him
trembling with excitement, and saw him trying to open
the safe. Mter a while, the burglar felt someone touching
him on the shouIder. When he turned round, he perceived the policeman eyeing him sorrowfully. Mary smelt
the 'dinner cooking.
(iii) When the verbs encourage and advise are followed
by the "ing" form instead of by the infinitive, it is
usually because the action of the verb on the "ing"form object. is rather indirecto E.g., 1 did nothing to
encourage his going there. 1 did not advise his doing it.
(iv) When verbs of instruction are followed by an
" ing "- form, the latter is usuaJly a real noun which can
be qualified by an adjective, possessive or otherwise.
E.g., They taught perfect curtsying at the dancing schooL
She learnt her dancing at an academy. The pilot explained
1 Here the infinitive simply expresses a fact, 'e.g., 1 saw him ent~r.
The ing-form implies a certain duration in the action, e.g., 1 saw hlm
entering, i.e., 1 saw the whole or a great part of the action.



stunt-flying to the visitor. She learnt her painting in

(v) After remember, recollect, jorget, regret, the " ing'!'
fonn implies an action which did, in jiJet, take place
before the action of remembering" forgetting, or' tegretting. 1 remember telling him yesterday that you were
to meet him at six. 1 must have invited him to dinner,
but I completely forget doing so. Within an hour o my
arrival, 1 regretted going there. 1 recollect seiing him in

81B. The following verbs cannot be jollowed by the

infiniti'Ve as direct object. They must take the "ing".
form as direct ()bject, if the latter is verbal.
have done
delay escape (avoid) dispute (call intQ question) impede
excuse explain admit fancy mind (object)
. miss
keep (continue) can help (avoid) understand (comprehend)
grant (admit) celebrate

Examples.-The child cannot help getting into ~chief.

I cannot avoid thinking that you are' overwol'kiri.g. You
must not delay sending the message. If he stops fJ)Q1'king,
he will .die. When I finish studying Gennan, 1 shall
begin French. It is foolish to postpone paying one's
debts. She ha$ done S'UJeeping the room. I do not enj9Y
sittitg a dance out. Have you fuiished writing the letter
yet ? 'Would you mind telling me the way to Trafalgar
Square? One cannot excuse thieving. Shesays that she
does not fancy going to the cinema to-night. I could not
impede his coming. He does not understand driving a
caro The man denied entering the house. Don't defir
sending the invitation. They detest having' to work.
You must risk losing a little. It was impossible to escape
meeting her.

It will have been already noticed that when

to foUows a verbt to introduce an infinitive, the .pre-



positional force of to is obscured or entireIy lost. It

has become a mere sign of the infinitive. When, however,
to retains. its prepositional force, the verb which follows
it must take the " ing ". formo If to can he retained when
a noun follows it, then to is a real ;'preposition.
Examples.-He applied his talents to literatur~.
He applied his talents to writing. The evidence pointed
to rus guilt. The evidence pointed to his being guilty.
He swore to the fact. He swore to having seen him do it.
I alIude to your conducto lallude to your behaving in
that way. I must see to the dinner. I must see to getting
the dinner. I do not leeI up to tennis. 1 do not feeI up
to playing tennis. He testified to my standing. He
testified to my being a doctor. He made arrangements
with regard to the joumey. He made arrangements
with regard to going to France. He was very close to
death. He was ~ery close to dying. From studying law,
he tum~d to literatUre. He tumed to writing. He took ttJ
drugs. He took to tak-lng 1~:h'Ugs.
82. So also, all verbs p~eceded by any other preposition
must take the " ing "form. E.g., After saying good-bye, '
he left. In saying this, I am' serious. Forgive me for
intruding. He succeeded by persevering. It is a wonder
bezond alI telli~
He has money beyond reckoning.
Before leaving, e sajd good-bye. He is above ding
that. He broke the furniture, bendes insulting Mary.,
Betr.oeen placatingMary and picking up the furniture,
1 had a marvellous time. He is above infticting corporal
punishment, but against abolishing its use by the
State. From studying medicine, he turned to literature.
1 love every amusement except pIaying polo. ,1 have
something to say concerning' your duing that. WlUit is
lik .eating an egg without salt . The da*- 01 rechoning,
has anived. On arriving, he was met y the Mayor.
y our ignorance is past believinK. ' Through taking the drug,



he became delirious. Without exaggerating, 1 think it

is marvellous.
83. It will have been noticed that the prepositional
force of a large number of prepositions has become
obscured owing to their having become identified with
the verbs they lollow in what are known as compound
verbs. The function of such prepositions is to modify
or change compIetely the meaning 01 the verbs they lollow.
Such compound verbs are always lollowed by the "ing'~
lorm. E.g., 1 will not put up with receiving your impudence. Peter fell to dreaming. Get on v;ith telling me the
story! Go on trying!" He 'lOent without s~eing her for a
whole week. He has not yet got into using the verbs
correctIy. Her husband allowed himself to be talked out
01 going to Pars. Y ou had better set about preparing for
the exam. You will have to answer lor' doing that. He
has turned agaz'nst havz'ng eggs and bacon for breakfast.
y ou had better see to getting the dinner.
84. The "ing" form is also used as a participle.
E,g., Being an Englishman, 1 stand up for my country.
Knowing how sick 1 am, how can you be so unkind?
So saying, he drew his gunand fired.

"ing" FORM.
(a) Where possible, change the infinitives into the
" ing"-form, in the exampIes given in par. 73 (a), (b).
(b) In the following passage, substitute " ing "forms
for the bracketed infinitives, where this m~t be done.
Where either. form can be used, note the fact by bracketing the alternative inftnitive after the " ing ".form.
" Your policemen," said the Polish lady, " are wonderfuI! "
"1 keep (to hear) that," answered John. "But
wouId you mind (to tell) me what makes you (to think)
so ? "




" Well," said the Polish lady, " 1 had (to go) to Bow
Street yesterday, about my permit (to reside) here. They
gave me a form (to fin in); but, as 1 do not understand
(to fin in) English forms, 1 asked a policeman there if
he would mind (to help) me. He answered that hewould
enjoy (to do) it; and 1 do not deny (to feel) ~ little shy
as the huge handsome man stood over me with his pencil
poised, and looking as though he wanted (to eat) me.
Even his ugly helmet did not prevent me (to notice) how
very good-Iooking he was.
He began (to ask) me
" y our name?" he said. 1 told him. ) "Are you
married ?" "Yes." "ls your husband in England ? "
"yes." "ls your married life happy ?" "Why, yes,'"
I said, a Httle disconcerted. 1 could not help (to feel)
a h.ttle taken aback. But he seemed (to be) perfectly
serious. "1 mean, does your husband treat you
affectionately. Because," he continued stemly, when
he saw that 1 didn't answer, " we couldn't risk (to allow)
him (to stay) here a moment longer if he were unkind toyou. There would be riots in the streets, and his life
would be in danger. We detest (to give) the hospitality
of our shores to unkind husbands ! "
His face was severe, but his eyes'were laughing, soI decided (to put) him in his place. "When you have
done (to joke)," 1 said primly, "perhaps you will finish
(to attend) to my business! "
"Yes," said John, "our policemen have (to have) a
sense of humour. 1 should imagine their study of law
would bring it out, if "nothing else.' For i\nstance, if a
policeman has reason for (to believe) that the dog which
he sees aman carrying away is stolen, he cannot (to



arrest) the man on mere suspicion. For (to steal) a dog,

even though it is worth -kSO, is a misdemeanour, and a
policeman cannot arrest aman on suspicion of (to commit) a misdemeanour. But if the dog is wearing a collar
worth sixpence, the policeman can arrest on auspicion,
because (1:0 steal) a dog's collar is a felony, and a policeman can arrest a' man on suspicion of (to cornmit) a
felony. 1. Anybody would enjoy (to study) laws like 'that.
TalkiI).g of dogs," continued John, "Muy l08t hers in
Oxford Street, the other day.Naturally, she asked all
the policemen she rnet (to look out for) it. None of them
would consent (to take) h~r seriously. 1 don't blame them.
When a pretty lady comeS along with a tearful expression
and a e the-world-has-come-to-an-end-because-I-havelost-my-dog' look in her eyesi!J aad practically tells them
(to suspend) the whole business of the Metropolitan
Police Force until it is found, it is difficult even for a
policeman (to be) serious. They love (to take a: rise out
of) people like that. So when Mary carne along, they
smiled on her, benignly. ' WeU, well!' they said in
effect, e And has it lost its darling little dogsy-wogay?
Can't it bear (to live) without the little dear. Never
mind, big policeman will find the pet and send it horne
to mummy.' Mary thought it' was nothing (to joke)
about, and hated (to have) (to listen) to their levity,
but it was no use (to protest). They would not stop
(to make fun) of her. She was teased by every, policeman .
from . Sto Giles's Circus to the Marble Arch. ,She was
in despair, until she saw somebody (to throw) .the dog
out of a tearoom. It appeared (to have mistaken)~e
waitresses for mice; and, as it preferred (to hunt) mice to
anything in the world, it had started (to bite) their legs



" And then," continued J ohn, " There was my young

South American friend, Pepit. Pepito, like all foreigners
here, had (to carry) his permit of residence about with
mm. One evening, at a party, a young English lady
friend asked him (to let) her look at it for a few minutes,
as she liked (to examine) such things. He could hardly
avoid (to comply) with her .request; so he left it with
her, and forgot (to ask) for it back. At the end of the
evening, however, she handed i~ to him again. He did
not trouble (to eiamine) it, but just put it back in bis
breast-pocket. t, He did not have occasion (to look) at it
for sone months, when he presented it at a police-station
(to register) a change of address. A sergeant took it and
looked at it; arid, as he did so, Pepito noticed hi& brow
(to darken). ' What is the meaning of this J' growled .
the se~geant. Pepit felt the atmosphere (to grow) tense~
'The meaning of what ?' c; asked, puzzled. 'l\1ay 1
look at the permit?' +he sergeant haDded it .back.
Then Pepito remembered (to give). the penDlt to bis
girl friend (to look) ato He saw that she and her com~anions had covered the blank pages headed Remarlu
2nd Endorsements with amorous and humorous verses.
rhey had not even 'forgotten (to Sign) their name$. 'Do
rou realize, young man,' said the sergeant, ' that this
s a pubIic document which you have allowed (to be
nutilated)? We cannot permit (you to treat) public
locuments in such a way. 1 must show this to the
nspector. Here, Jones '-this to a constable on dutydon't allow this young fellow (to move) until 1 come
.ack. If he attempts (ro escape), you know what (to do).'
lnd the sergeant stalked out of the room~
" ,. Am 1 under arrest ? ' agked Pepito timidly.



" " Well, just try (to move), that's a11,' was the grim
response from Jones, and Pepito subsided. As he waited,
he thought he heard somebody (to laugh) in the next
room. He felt like anything but (to .laugh) hirnself.
Mter a few rnoments, the sergeant carne back 'with the
inspector. Pepito looked at the inspector anxiously. 'lt
seems,' said the inspector, , that you have taken (to use)
public documents as souvenir albums, and that you have
rendered yourself -Hable, to a heavy fine or six months'
irnprisonrnent. But, as 1 suppose that you don't fancy
(to go) to prison, and that you do not feel up (to face)
your mother with a request for fifty pounds (to pay)
your fine, you will be let off this once, after (to pay) the
sum of one shilling (to defray) the expenses inevitable
in (to issue) a new permito In (to make) this decision,
1 am influenced by the fact of (you to have) made yoursel~ so popular among th~ young female population of
London. Tliese verses testify you ( to have' been)
extremely successful at (to break) hearts. You have taken
(to do) this kind of thing very earIy in 1ife, though, and,
in the interests of my country-women, r must ask you to
exercise a certain amount of moderation. We cannot
have yopo (to scatter) broken hearts all over the '\Vest End.'
"Pepito saw the inspector's eyes (to twink1e) as he
spoke, and the whole police station staff, who had preserved their seriousness up to then, began(to gnn) openly.
And Pepito began (to rea1ize) that the English were not
quite so solemn as he had thought. But he resolved that
in future, V he had to choose between (to offend) an
English girl and (to let) her play with his permit, he would
choose (t offend) her. For he disliked (to bemade) a
fool of, by policernen or by anybody else."




.form as much as possible.)
What does Mary love? Does she indulge her weakness? What goes to her head like wine? Could she
pander to this weakness in Spain? When? What did
the Asturian miners decide? What indication did we
have of the unrest having spread south? Where were
Mary and myself? What did. we suddenly hear? When
did' l\lary tush to the window? Why did 1 rush after
her? Mter what, did the Civil Guards fire up the street ?
How did the noise reverberate? What was 1 on the point
of doing to Mary? When had she been quite eager?
What did she wail? How long did it take me t calin
her? What was just as well? What' did the house
porter tell me later? What did he add? What was
perhaps imprudent? When did she give the impression
of being more interested ~nd excited than ever? What
did we decide at six o' clock ? Why? When was 1
. told to put my bands up? What did 1 tum to see?
Why did 1 comply? What did one of them remark
about my pipe? When might 1 be shot? How did Mary
take this? Why did we walk down Alcala Street? What
did We see all along our route? What did 1 do when 1
espied such ~ group? Why did Mary edge me towards
th soldiers? What is my private belief? Why did the
soldiers apologize? What can 1 sympathize with? Have
1 an eye for beauty? What do 1 insist on? What prejudice has Mary?' What was Carmen like? Describe Pilar.
What was her weakness? What did Pilar and Carmen
get from Mary? What broke out again? When?
When did everybody throw himself flat on bis face?
What sight shall 1 never forget? What did she gasp?
What did 1 shout to her? What was she deaf to?
What idea did 1 not faney? What did she not seem to
understand ? What did she say when her efforts at
escape were successful ?How did she pass the rest o



the time of the skirmiSh? What happened alter ten

minutes or .so? What kind of. progress was it? What
did Mary insist on doing? When did she calI me a
coward? What don't 1 mind? What do 1 object to ?
What was it useless to' tell her? . What was difficult to
excuse'? What was her answer? .When did we get to our
restaurant? What was 1 determined to avoid? Was the
restaurant opeo when we goto to it? What did a passer-by
tell me} When did the door slowly open? .What was
it like trying to get into? When did the girl recognize
us? What did the proprietor advise u~ after dinner?
What stream of people did we join? When .did we
arrive home? Why could Mary not sleep? What did
she do? What did 1 feel after haIf an hour or so? What
did Mary whisper? What did Mary insist that she was
certan of? What did she remember? Why did ahe
take no notice of it? Whory. did she think it might be ?
What was Mary afraid of, if John went to investigate ?
What would she never forgive? On what condition
would the hidden man shoot John? What did Jrihn
say he would ask the people downstairs ? What. did he
hope they wouldn't mind? What answer" did Mary
whi$per ? What did the couple, . below undertake?
Would they have done this if they had known o. Mary's
escapades during the day? When did 1 retum? Alone?
How did the- men enter? What sight shall 1 never
forget? What did their Ieader shout to the man inside ?
Was there an .answer? What did the six do as they
rushed in? Who was there? Whom did they l.ook at ?
What broke? Why did they grin? How did most of
their investigations eQd? How did Mary look? What
did 1 try to excuse? What did the Ieader 'answer? '\Vhat
did he do then? What did Mary and 1 do ?






Foreign speaker:a, under the necessity of making
a request in English, often solve the problem by an
amusing, and":flOmetimes even. irrita~ng, over-use of the
imperative withplease. The following lesson gives a
number of pleasant cons~ctions which t'ake the edge off
die harshness of the imperative.
With regard to the subjunctive, which can be used in
conditional sentences and after certain verbs and expressions o des4"e, command, necessity, etc., the pupil need
not be surprise<i if, in spite o the remarks in par. 91 (a),
he occasional1y finds it in the editorialcolumns of papers
like Tite Titnes.The cnsensus o educated opinion
with iegard to the editorial style 01 The T'imes is that it
should, like fue saints, be admired, but not always imitated.
The .Times is often as 'ultra~conservative in its. editorial
style as it is in its poltica. Ald pedantic forms of expression are always undesirable, either .in speech or in
writing. -




(See par. 364.)

There was a knock at the office door:. "Come in,"
called Brown. "Ah, it's you, Miss Smith. Good
morning. Would you mind taking down a coup~
letters? The first is to Jones & Co. Make it something
like this: 'Gentlemen, 1 should tike it as a favour if you
would give me an idea of the business standing of Abou
Ben Adhem & Co., of Calcutta. They have given me



your firm as a reference.' Write a1so to J. H. Mooney,

to trus effect: 'Sir, Kindly note that unless the account
outstanding against you is settled wlthin twenty-four
hours t 1 shall be forced to hand the matter over to my
solicitors !' You might get the letters 'ready for signature
, ~t once. And, by the way, 1 believe my nephew is waiting
to see me. Ask him to come in, will you, as you pass. tt
"Very well, Mr. Brown," said the girl, and then
hesitated. "Would you mind letting me have the afternoon off? 1 want to go to my grandmother's funeral."
" Hm !" said Brown. ce There seems to have been
a high rate of' mortality among your aged grandparents,
since the football seaso started! However, you may go
this time. But in future t take a littI more care of the health
of your ancient relatives, won't you? And youmight
ring me.up at the Club at half-tlme and let me know the
." Thank you very much, Mr. Brown," said the girl, a
little confusedly. "1 will." And she hurried from the
The next mlnute t in walked Bemard, Brown's nephew.
"What have you been doing to that typist of yours ? "
he asked breezily, by way of greeting. "She was grinning
like a Cheshire cat when I ~w her a moment ago: t
" Don't jump to conclusions, my boy," said' the old
man severely. "1 had Just given her permission to go
to the cup-tie this aftemoon. But to what do 1 owe
the---er-unexpected pleasure of this visit ? "
"Oh, nothing in particular. I'm going to Brighton
for a coupl~ of weeks t and 1 thought I'd just drop in and
say good-bye."
"Well, make it short!" grunted his unde. "I'm



" The fact is," said Bemard calmly, "that 1 haven't

the fare. Could you [etme have it ? "
His uncIe gazed at him for a moment in speechless
amazement. "Well, of all the confounded impudence ! "
he burst out, at lasto "Get out of here at once, you cheeky
young brat. Get out, before I have you thrown out! It
"Oh, all right, all right [" said his nephew soothingly. "Don't get excited. But you mighi' do .me a Httle
favour. It sn't much to ask of an only uncIe. Come
now. Be a good sport! "
His uncle touched the bello "Briggs," he said to the
cIerk who entered, " have the goodness to show this y~ung
man off the premises. And please remember that he is
not to enter this office again until further orders."
. I "Very well, sir," said Briggs.
And to Bemard:
" This way, sir, if you don't mind."
" Quite [ " said Bernard" and retreated in goad order.
"And Briggs," remarked Mr. Brown, as Bemard
disappeared, "you might tell the cashier to give my.
nephew a fiver, as he passes."


Imperative AND OF THE Subjunctive.

(A) The Imperative.
8S' The imperative, both in tl1e singular and in the
plural, is formed by using the inftnitive present of a verb,
without to, and usually without an accompanying pronoun.


The use of a pronoun is slight1y or emphatically con/"

temptuous. E.g., Come here, you !
But a noun may accompany the imperative, usually
after it. E.g., Come here, John. Sit down, Peter.
Otherwise: Come here. Go away! Run to the door I
Let me see you.
86. The negative imperative is formed byplacing
do nO,t (usualIy abbreviated to don't) before it (par. 15 (f.



Do is placed before th positive imperative to give it a

persuasive or impatient shade (par. 15
E.g." Don't
send for the doctor yet. D.o stop making that awfulrow I
87. The imperative mood and tone are used when the
necessities of discipline or of social difference are felt to
exclude the desirability of using the less harsh modes of
address; as~ for instance, in giving military orders. Often,
also, they'are used insultingly, or in anger. E.g., Present
arms! Right turn! Be quiet, children! Get out of here !
88. The imperative with a courteous, pleading, or
affectionate tone, is often used in polite conversation, or
among relatives or friends. E.g. t Tell me, what do you
think of women? Don' t think, that, as, a woman, 1 am
prejudiced. Just give me your -frank opinion.
89. Please may be placed before or after an imperative.
1t may diminish or add to the harshness of the imperative,
according to the tone, and should be used with care,
since correct tone is extremely difficult to acquire. E.g.,
Please come here. Come here, please.
90. The harshness of the imperativtl may also be
softened by using a complete or incomplete conditional
sentence, in which the fulfilment of the condition g~nerally
deperids on consent (par. 44). This is the best form for
foreigners to use, not only because it is the most polite,
but because tone plays a less important part in its use.
It is extremely difficult for a foreigner to acquire the.
correct tone for using the ordinary imperative.
Examples.-(i) For use on all occasions, to inferiors,
superiors, or equals. Would you mind telling m~ theway
to Trafalgar Square? Le., Would you tell me if you could ?
Could you tell me the way to Trafalgar Square? i.e.,
Could you, if you would? Would you mind closing that
window ? Would you mind if 1 closed this window?
ShaIl 1 send 'you the parcel? If you could; i.e., 1f you
could, 1 should be glad. If you would, i.e., 1f you would
send it, 1 should be obliged.




(ii) Familiarly to equals, or courteously to iriferiors.

E.g., You might have lunch ready at one, my dear. as 1
should like to go out at two, i.e., You might, if you would.
Miss Brown, you might have this letter ready for signature
as soon as possible.

908. Will you? is often added to the imperative,

familiarly, or when speaking to inferiors. E.g., Get me
a cup of tea, will you ? ,
91. Let us is used in the plural, in making a suggestion.
E.g., Let us go out now. Let's all go down the Strand.
Let' s not decide at once.

(B) The Subjunct-ive.

92. The interest of the subjunctive is more academic
than practical, in modero English; since, with the exception
of were in conditional sentences (Par. 42); it is never
used in conversation, and seldom in literature. . Even in
the latter case, its use is never necessary, fox: it can always
be replaced either by the, indicative, the infinitive, or
one of the anomalous finites (see par. 73 (b), and the
special uses of should in Lesson 4)' The present subjund-ive,
which is the only tense which d~ffers from that of the
corresponding indicative, is characterized by lack of
injlex-ion (see par. 47)'
If 1 be
. If we be
If 1 Iove
If we love
If you be
If you be
If you love
If you love
If he be
If they be . If he love
If they love
The following are examples of the subjunctive replaced
by:(i) The -infiniuve. 1 desire that he tome, i.e., 1 desire
k-im to come. (Par. 67, page J59.)
(ii) The\-indicative. If he be a gentleman, he will not
molest you, i.e., If he -is a gentleman, he will not molest
(iii) An anomalbus. finite. Lord God of HQSts, be'
with us yet, lest we forget, lest we forget, -i.e. Lord God of



Hosts be with Uf:! yet, lest we should forget. Lord God

of Hpsts, be with us yet, so that 'lOe may not forget.
NOTE.-May is often used, followed by its subject,
to express a wish. E.g., May your shadow never grow
less 1 (par. 1).



What did Brown caH out, when he heard a knock
at the office door? How did he framehis request to
Miss Smith, with regard to taking down a couple of
letters? How did he frame his request to Jones & Co. ?
Why did he ask them for the information? How did
Brown frame his demand in regard to J. H. Mooney?
How did he ask Miss Smith to get the letters ready for
signature at once? Repeat his request to her with
regard to asking his nephew. to come in. Whatdid the
girl ask, as she hesitated? What reason had she? What
was Brown's comment? Did he give her permission?
\Vith what request did he qualify this permission? What
did he say to her with regard to the score? And how
did the girl show her gratitude? Who walked in, the
next minute? What question did he ask, by way of
greeting? How was lVliss Smith grinning? What did the
old man tell his nephew not to do? What permissiQp
had he just given Miss Smith? And how did he expreS$
his curiosity with regard to the object of his nephew's
visit? What explanation did his nephew give? What
did the unde grunt? Had Bernard the fare? How did
he ask his unde for it? How did his unde gaze at him ?
What exdamation did he make? What order did he give
his nephew? What soothing answer did his nephew
make? What persuasive forms did Bernard's remarks
take, in order to get the money for the fare? What did
his unde touch? What orders did he give Briggs, when
the latter entered ? How did Briggs ask Bernard to go?
\Vhat did Bernard answer? How did he retreat? What
final request did Brown make of Briggs






General Rules
The indefinite article a (an) , and the definite article
the, are real1y adjectives with special functions." .
The use of the indefinite article should present no
special difficulties, except perhaps those noted in par. 94 (a).
\:Vith regard to the definite article, in spite of the fact
that English usage is different enough frorn that of other
languages to rnake it a real pitfall to those who are not
ative -English speakers, the tendency both on the part
of teachers and pupils is too over-simplily the problern.
This is a rnistake. It is, o course, possibl to rnake an
accurate definitio~of the uses of the" definite article in a
paragraph. This"has been. done, in fact, in par. 94 (b).
But unhappy experience has shown that unless the
applications of such a definition to every kind of noun
:(lre explained in detail, the student will never learn to
use the definite articIe without making rnistakes. And
they are rnistakes that really grate on the English ear.
The general explanation of the use of the . definite
artic1e given in par. 94 (b) should therefore be studied
. carefully in the light of the detailed explanations given
in pars. 95-96. .
Most of the exceptions to the General Rules given in
pars. 94-96 are to be found in stereotyped exprssions
like by word 01 mouth, where one would expect the nouns
to be preceded by an article or sorne other determinative.
Prose Passage (2) contains a nurnber of these expressions.
It should benoted that, in the Prose Passages of this
Lesson, only those words which illustrate the application
of the General Rules, or are direct exceptions to thern,
have been printed in italics.





General Rules
PROSE PASSAGE 1. (See par. 360.)
There is a theory-though personally 1 know little
about .it-that external circumstances have exercised are
enormous influence on the development and modification
of animallife. Rightly or wrongly, it is said that heat and
cold, water and ice and sno'lQ and desert sand, have all
had their effects. The snow has made Arctic animals
white; and the cold has made them grow l warm fur.
Camels have flat padded leet, because they walk on the
sand; and -they have a special reservoir 'of water inside
them, so that they can drink the water and conquer thirst
when the sun is blazing like" a disk of bumished copper
aboye them. Fishes have to live in water, so they are
constructed to consume less oxygen. The teeth of sorne
animals took on a certain form, owing to the necessity of
living on grass; and those of others another form, because
they had to live on meato 9n the strength o~ the same
theory one must, 1 suppose, blame modern life-perhaps
machinery is responsible-for a new and strange species,
a puzzling monstrosity, which has appeared in recent
times. The members of the species referred to are called
intellectuals. Intellectuals must not be confused with
intelligent meno 1 once called. an intelligent man an
inteUectual. . Suddenly, and without any warning, he
hit me on the nose. Personally, I thought the indignation
a little overdone. Still, an intelligent man is pyre" gold ;
while an intellectual is simply dross. Of the intelligent
men, fortunately, we still have a good supply.



But what is an intellectual? By his pwn definition,

he is a person who, by pure force of superior intelligence
and vast erudition, rises aboye the prejudices and vain
superstitions of less gifted mortals like you and me; and
would, if we would only consent to submit ourselves like
clayin his hands, solve all the world's problems, and
put the life we live on a rational basis. Perhaps people
don't like being thought of as potential pottery; but,
rightly or wrongly, they don't se~m to want a Utopia
such as the intellectuals promise. They seem to have a
suspicion that an Englaml of the intellectual type migh t
be a second edition of Hu:xley's "Brave New World."
1t would be worse. There have been countries that have
fallen jnto the clutches of intellecttlllls who cried that they
brought liberty .of thought and fredom oi action and
enlightenment. But the liberty of thought tumed out to
be merely the liberty to think as the intellectuals did
and the freedom of action was translated into an obligation
to obey the intellectuals and the intellectuals alone. At
least one such country went through two sanguinary
revolutions; and the blood of half a million brave men
had to be shed, and countless treasure wasted, before
the incubus could be shaken off. An intellectualism that
could produce such results found its fit endin destruction.
1t was a failure, as all systems based on loose thinking
must be. For when they rise to power, intellectuals are
always handicapped by an impotence to carry out their
reforrhs, which is, to them, a source of puzzlement and
bitterness. Their reforms never work out in practice.
They say that it is because they are helpless against
superstition and selfishness and greed and narrowness 01
mbzd. But the superstition that they ral against is often
based on sound common sense; and the selfishness they



denounce is very likely a disinclination to cornmit cultural

and economic suicide. And it has been said by someone
that broadness oi mind is like the broadness of rivers. It is
often accompanied by lack oi depth. And lack of depth is
a serious defeet, in intellectual lije.
I think that the real reason for the failure of the'
intellectuals is to be found in the faet that the intellectual
life that they have built up is upside down, like a pyramid
balanced on its apex. . The more successful intellectualas opposed to the intelligent man-usually begins by
acquiring .a reputation for proficiency in sorne branch of
science or art; and uses this as a justification for dogmatizing on everything. H. G. Wells, for instance, as a younger
man, wrote what 1, rightly or wrongly, and in all humility,
consider to be the finest novels of this century. 1 mean the
novels of tle style and period of "Mr. Polly." Naturally,
Mr. Wells got the ear of the publico But unfortunately, he
used this popularity to make literature an instrurnent of
propaganda for his ill-balanced ideas on history,philosophy,
and social science. Those who loved literature, as such
might well have cried out in bitter disappointmnt, "We
asked you for bread, and you have .given us a stone ! "
And they would have been right. A natural genius for
writing fiction, coupled with an intensive training in
that art, are, to say the least, a definite handicap to a
philosopher or a historian or a scientist. Such aman
is in the position of the unfortupate detective'story writer
who lived in a cottage where a woman writer of sicklysweet romances had dwelt for twenty years. Her spirit
haunted him without his knowing it; so that al! at once
the policemen in the books he was writing started falling
in love with the pretty girls tbey were supposed to be



questioning; and a11 the criminals suddenly blossomed

out into romantic gallants.
Or take the case of Freud. He was responsible for
epoch-making discoveries with regard to sex; and,
n;t.t urally, acquired a high reputation. But when he
started to explain everything in lije, from football matches
to the Crucifixion, exclusively in terms of sex, he was,
,at best, taIking sheer nonsense; and, at worst, cold
Again, 1 had a friend, an economist with an international reputation, who tried to prove that considerations
based on economics were at the bottom of every historical
ph~nomenon. Now this also seems to me to be sheer
nonsense. St. Francis of Assisi exercised a definite
historical influence.' So did Florence Nightingale. And
St. Francis certainly did not go around preaching poverty
because he thought that 1ieduced national consumption
would restore the balance of trade and increase Italy's
holdings of foreign currency. Nor do 1 believe that
Florence Nightingale wanted soldiers to survive the
wounds of battle so that after the war they might swell
the ranks of England's industrial population, and so
strengthen the commercial position of her country.
Personally, 1 think that she just wanted to do away with
As it is with the more prominent intellectuals, so it is
with the lesser lights. We have deans who are famous
for their writings on everything save theology. We have
company directors turned into mediocre politicians. They
are legislators, but they lnow nothing about law. There
,are doctors who are second rate novelists; civil servants
who are essayists and incompetent junctionaries.' Hyue
Park is infested with ranters who hold forth on subjects



for which they have no qualifications, attacking institutions and countries tbey know nothing abouto Naturally,
when they start talking about physical science, and
especially about evolution, they are apure joy to listen
too One almost expects to hear them say that wine was
evolved under the overwhelming necessity of finding
sorne use for the cork in the neghbourhood; or that
ham and eggs, and liver and bacon, were a necessary
evolution of the restaurants that were dotted about the
world in the stone age; or that lovers like the moon
because they are green, the moon being made, of course,
of green cheese o And most of these jntelIectuals, from
the best seller to the tub..;thumper" / have the qual~ties
that are born of vanity and stupidity and jailureo They
are distingUished by superdliousness, ignorance, inSolence,
intolerance, and priggishnesso Fortunately for th~ir own
peace of mind, they cannot see their own jeet of clay.
They think that their intellectual edifice is a palace of
marble, full of porcelain a~d gold and silver and precious
stoneso But the porcelain is only earthenware; and the
gold and silver are only dross; and the precious stones
are merely paste o As for the marble, it is in reality mud
and wood. In their overweening vanity and pedantry)
they cannot understand the simplicity and .kindliness and
tolerance that come frorn a clear brain and a great hearto
Luckily t however, 'intellectuals are a so urce of more
irritation than harm among uso There are still people
who believe in religion, in spite of dilettante deans. Fortunately t we preserve the political heritage of our fathers,
incotnpetent politicians notwithstandingo Literary civil
servants provide us with a healthy safety valve for our
pent-up ernotionso That is the advantage of our modern
ideas about the liperty of the subject. For when public



functionaries annoy us, we can permit ourselves a freedom

of speech which in other days would very likely have cost
us freedom of movement. In other fOords, we may swear
at them without the risk of torture or imprisonment. And
in spite of himself, Mr. Wells still writes with occasional
jlashes of magnificence;" so that one can still enjoy the
work he does, as long as one remembers that after all
it is only fiction. The fact that we permit prigs and
ignoramuses-unfortunately so many intellectuals areto rant in public places and fill the shelves of booksellers'
shops, instead of giving them a merciful death by drowning in the Serpentine, at least proves one thing. It proves
that we are able to restrain our natural impulse to liberty
of action, and practise toleration, by permitting liberty of
thought and freedom of speech even when the liberty of
thought and freedom o( speech are abused by prigs.
Natu rally, one can lay claim to greatness of virtue only if
bne- practises it. For the greatness of virtue Hes precisely
in tite practice of it when, all at once, we find ourselves
under gtievous temptation. And the presence of prigs is
most certainly a grievous temptation.
One understands the 'inadequacy of intellectuals great
and small,Jf dl).~ considers what goes to the making up of
a really ihtelligent mano The more successful intellectual,
as has been remarked, usually knows something about one
thing; -and, on the strength of that, sets himself up as
an authority on everything. The really intelligent man,
on the other hand, first tries to increase the breadth of
his outlook, by acquiring an intelligent understanding
of the broad outlines of all branches of knowledge -; with.out, however, pretending to be a specialist in any branch
but the one which he has made his own. He thus achieves
an intelligent appreciation of the contributions that these



sciences have made to human knQ'Wledge in general, and

to rus own science in particular. He tries to have a working acquaintance with everything, in order that he may
speak with a knowledge that isadequate \and complete,
-of one thing. An astronomer is a better astronomer,
fOt example, for having a general understanding of,
,among other things,geology. History, ethics, andpsychology
-are of greathelp to the economist. A philosopher investigating the problem of primary substance can get aid
from radio-chemistry. These are sorne of the more
obviously necessary co-ordin~tions of kno'Wledge. Very
likely the reader can think of others. There is, in fact,
hardly a bran~h of human knO'Wledge which is independent
-of the investgations of aH, or nearly a11, th~ others. An
inteIlectual life which is not built up ort this broad
foundation, and is characterized by inadequacy of preparatiO!l, is penalized by poverty in achievement. Naturally.
aman who suffers from the limitation of outlook which
is the result of one~sided development, tends to look at
.lije through the narrow aperture of his own speciality.
He is quite capable of peeping into. the Louvre through
a keyhole; and then going off and writing a book on the
,artistic treasures that are housed there. Or, if he is an
intellectual of slightly higher mental development y he.
tries to explore the temp~e of kno'Wledge with a lighted
match. And all he gets with the feeble flame at his
disposaI, Is an illcompIete and distorted :view, set against
wavering shado'Ws and darkf#Jss.
But the inteUigent man-Iuckily for us there are many
such-uses all human knO'Wledge to heIp him fill his littIe
shrine with light. For alI the shrines in the temple o
knO'Wledge are open shrines; an~ the lights which shine
from each one of them gather brilliance from one another,



to flood the whole edifice with the blaze of the glory that
is truth.


(See par. 363.)


Christianity and Islam had long been engaged in a
life-and-death struggle. At last, in fifteen seventy (1570),
Pope Gregory definitely formed the Holy Allianee between
Venice t the Papal States, and Spain, to declare war against
the'Turk. 2
The allied fleets set sail; and the Turks also put to sea.
The Christian fleet found the Turks at anchor in the Bay
of Lepanto, andgave battle. The opposing fleets grappled ;
and the Spaniards sprang on board the enemy ships,
~OTd in hand, and fell on the foe. Onee they had set [oot
on the enemy decks, !he. Moslems [ought tooth and nqil.
Cervantes, ill and weak with [ever, played the part of a
gallant Spanish gentleman. At first the rival commanders,
had their men weJl in hand. But after a while, the
Venetians wavered. They were never, however, really
out o[ hand, and soon rallied. Little by Httle, the Moslem
ships began to catch jire, and sink, and their resistanee
broke down completely. Those whieh the allies did .not
set jire to drew off, arid stole away under .caver o[ the
darkness, making for a friendly port. The Christians
pursued them, and many eould not get away. But others
shook off their pursuers and made port xi. safety. By
the evening, the rout was complete. Don Juan of Austria
leaned on his sword to take breath. But he would not
rest on his oars. Soon ~e was to follow up the vietory;
and, after having beaten the enemy by sea, would live up to
1 It is only in the case of idiomatic expressions that one finds
exceptions to the rule given in par. 96, page 219.,
I Or, the Tr1is7 (See footnote. page 217.)



his newly gained reputation by thoroughly routing them

also on land; thus definitely finishing off his task.
When Thomas, the new Archbishop of Canterbury,
took . office, he fought Henry the Second tooth and nail,
in delence ofecc1esiastical privileges. Henry badly wanted
to get rid ~f him, by hook or by CTook. .So, one day at
dinner, in the presence of three knights who he knew
would stick at nothing, he complained strongly that' he
had no friend to strike his enemy down. He distinct1y
hinted that now was the time for his real friends to prove
their real worth. The knights, who knew very well what
he was driving at, took ship at once, and crossed the
Channel from south to north. Sword in hand, and c10thed
in armour from head to [oot, they burst i~ on !he Archbishop whlIe he was saying Mass. Sorne' of the people
who were In church at M ass tried to stop them; but the
knights put them to ftight, and murdered their victim at
the altar. TJze news spread !z word 01 mouth from east
towest, from south to north, and the 'outcry grew more
enormous f!o1n day to day. Henry, greatly fearing that
his people wOlild take up arms against him and' that
his dominions, would ,be ravaged by jire. and "sword, by
his indignan! neighbours, st sail at once from France,
to make peace with his people, and with the Church.
He found the nation in mouming, dressedin black in
honour of the martyred prelate. To placate them, he sent
word to have the murderers arrested. But they had
left horne and taken to flight. Henry's guilt weighed
heavily.on his conscience, so that, for his peace 01 mind
as much as to calm mblic opinion, he had to go to the
Abbey, hat in hand, to 'ask for pardon,and do penance
thorough Iy. by permitting the monks of Westminster to



scourge him with rods. But the memory of his deed

lived on, and he was never abl really to live down the
disgrace of it. From ftrst 10 last, the incident constitutes
an unpleasant page in the history of England.


Francis Thomson left home to take up medicine. But

he soon deflnltely threw up all idea 01 becoming a doctor,
for he desired greatly to go in for literature. His father
fully believed that this was a mistak~, and tried to talk
him out of it. He particularly disliked the idea of an
untried boy throwing up a profession for 'a gamble like
Ziterature, which he much despised. But Francis stood out
though he well knew what the consequences would be.
Almost beside himself, his father turoed him out 01 house
and home, forbidding hini to set [oot under his roof again.
Disowned, but dogged in his determination to follow his
own hent, Francis had to turn to and find work. He lived
Irom hand to mouth as a street matcl?--seller. In spite of
his wretched existence, however, he found time to read
the works of Shelley, Crashaw, and others,/rom cover to
cover. Incidentally, he took to opium. In short, he
went from bad to worse. He bad Iy needed money; and
if he CQuld get sorne kind of a meal once a day, he thanked
Heaven deeply for small mercies.
At last, a great critic of the day found him out and
took him in. This kind-hearted gentlemannursed hirl
back to heaZth and strength, and encourageg. him heart
and souZ to go on with the work for which he was so
naturally fitted both in Mart and in mind. Thomson
finished up as one of the first poets of the younger schooL



Even so, his benefactor outlived

in his early forties.


Thomson died


Indefinite ARTICLES.



93., The indefinite article is a, or, before a phonetic

vowel, ano It does not appear in the plural,and has
~no variation for gender, e.g.,
a dog
a woman
an ass an . egg

a bitch
a horse
1m imp

a cat
a mare
an ox an unde

a hat
an usher

Before a phonetic consonant. E.g., a unicorn, a utility,

a usage, a unity, a university.
Before aphonetic vowel. E.g., an heir, an hour, an
938. The definite article is the, both in the singular
;and in the plural; and it does not vary for gender. E.g.,
The King of England. The' Queen of Belgium. The
peers of EngIand. The peeresses of England.
93b. F or the purposes of this Iesson, nouns are
.divided into the following groups :(a)' Nouns representing what can be counted. These
include many common nouns wruch have the same form
as pure abstract nouns (q.v.). E.g., He is always taking
liberties.My thoughts are aIways with you. A dog -is
oOn the tableo The ftowers need watering. The horse is
dead. The boys are of different heights.
(b) N ouns representing things. which cannot be counted,
but which can be physically measured. E.g., water, coal,
sugar, cheese, air, gas, soap, etc., etc.
(c) Some few nou~ which, to the English mind,
represent actions which cannot be counted, but which can,
in other languages, be used in the plurl. E.g." He gave me



aduce on several occasions.

1 received inlormation on
the matter from severa! difierent people.
(d) Pure abstraet nouns.
These represent sorne
action, quality, or state, considered apart Irom any special
object 1; and insusceptible, in this use, of being counted.
In this use, therefore, they cannot take the plural. E.g.,
liberty, cleverness, humility, sweetness, thought, laughter,

94. The indefinite artiele is used :(a) When a noun representing what can be counted
is introduced into the conversation lor the first time, and
is undetermined in the mind of the person spoken to
(par. 104). E.g., 1 live near a bridge. (Bridges can be
count.ed, and th hearer has not heard of this particular
bridge before.) A man carne to see me to-day.
(b) Before a noun representing what can be counted,
in the sense of any. The speaker picks out an example
of a elass at random. E~~., A cow eats grasS.l
NOTE.-In this use, especially in definitions, the
definite artiele can also be used. E.g., A dog is an animal.
The dog is an animal.
(c) In the meaning of any, when a noun is followed
by a descriptive clause implying 01 the kind, 01 the type.
This is the only Icase in which apure abstraet noun can
be preceded by the 'indefinite article. E.g., 1 cannot uphold
an idealism which permits the wholesale destruction of
private property. 1 want aman who can drive a motor caro
948. The indefinite artid~ t'almol be used :(a) Before nouns which represent what we c~nnot
count, but which we can measure phySicaUy. . E.g., This is
good silk. (To say, " This is a good silk " is shop English,
and should not be imitated.) Water consists of Ilydrogen
and oxygen. Coal is a mineral. (Coal cannot be counted,
but. minerals can.)
NOTE.-Money was formerIy weighed, and not counted.
Wecannot therefore say " a mone,y " (see also par. 166).

"Any cow eats grass" is much more emphatic.



(b) Before the nouns mentioned in par. 93 (c), aboye.

E.g., The man gave me advice. 1 bave received information on the subject.

946. The definite article is a kind of signpost, which

warns the hearer that the use of the noun is to be narrowed
down by a following cltl'use or phrase. h shows that the
idea or thing which the noun stands for is to be thought
of only in connection with sorne individual person or
persons, animalor animals, thing or things; or in connection with some fixed place or time, indicated by die
following clause or phrase.
To put it more briefiy, the definite article warns the
hearer that the application of the following noun is to be
limited in terms of number or space or time.
The following clause or phrase is said to determine
the noun, and the definite article itself is classed as a
determnative adjective.
NOTE.-The use of certain other determinatives, and
of the inftected genitives of proper nouns (par. 341), obviates
thenecessity for the presence of an anicle before a noun.
Such determinatives are:sorne .
our .
E.g., The man is sck. This rnan is sick. The house that
he lives in is large. John' s house is large.
But if a noun is preceded by an ordiriary qualifying
adjective, or by the infiected genitive of a common noun,
the rules in pars. 95-96 below hold good. E.g., The man
is sick. The blaek rnan is sick. The man's house is large.
This general statement (lf the function of the definite
article can, however, be thoroughly understood only in
the light of the following rules.
95. The definite article is used before a lloun which
is followed by a determining clause or prepositional phrase.
In the case of pure abstraet nouns, this determining clause



or phrase must be expressed; unless it is implied in the

immediately preceding sentence. In' the case of ot~er
nouns, the determining clause or phrase may be omitted,
if it is understood in the mind of the hearer~l
Examples.--(a) Nouns followed by an expressed deterrnining clause or phrse: The serfdom which existed in
the Middle Ages has been abolished. The death 01 Nelson
was a calamity. The liberty 01 the English was vindicated
in the Magna Charta. The goat which butted me is now
dead. The King of Sweden is an old mano The coal 01
Newcastle is rich in carbono The water of a hundred years
ago was never filtered. .
(b) With determining clauses implied in the imrnediately preceding sentence: The French won liberty after
great struggles, but the liberty was soon lost. You
asked for advice, and 1 gave you the advice. They
laughed, and the laughter was good to hear. 1 live near
a bridge, and the bridge is wide. 1 did it, 'S~ 1 get the
blame, i.e., the blame for fJJhat 1 did.
(e) With the detenDining cl~use (Ir phrase understood
in the mind of the hearer. The cat is sick, Le., The cat
which belongs to us is sick. The King is dead: long live
the King, i.e., The old King of England is dead: long
live the new King of England. The sugar has not yet
.arrived, i.e., The sugar which he ordered has not yet
arrived. The coa! is finished, Le., The coa! which we
need for use in the home is finished.
NOTE.-Care should be exercised so as not to confuse
an adverbial phrase with a determining phrase. If the
phrase can be shifted to some otheT part 01 the sentence,
the phrase iS' adverbial, and the noun does not take the
article, unless there exists sorne other reason, in conformity with pars. 94-95. Notice the difference between
the following sentences :.
He studied fegal procedure in England; by attending'the
Law Courts. (In England is an adverbial phrase of place,
and its position may be changed without altering the
1 An exception is the use of the definite arti~le with plural names
of nationals to indicate whole' nations. E.g., The RUssians were
fighting the Tartars. This is sometimes done with nouns in the
singular. ~age 21 l. note 2.)
8 11



meaning of. the sentence, i.e., 'n England, he studied

legal procedure by attending the Law Courts.) He studied
the legal procedure in England by attending the Law
Courts. (Here in England really determines legal procedure by narrowing it down to one special country and
the position of the phrase cannot be changed. The
definite article must therefore be used.) So also: Wine
at dinner rounds off the meal nicely. At dinner, wine
rounds off the meal .nic~ly. But: The wine at dinner
to-day rounded off the meal nicely.
95B. With regard to pure abstract nouns, the following
further points should be borne in mind : (a) If an abstract noun is followed by an infinitive,
the definite article may be used OT omitted at will. E.g., 1
demand liberty to think. 1 demand the liberty to think.
(b) If an abstract noun is followed by a phrase consisting of a preposition and. an undetermined abstract
noun, no article is used, unless the abstract noun followed
by the prepositional phrase is emphasized.
(i) An unemphasized abstract noun followed by a
preposition and an undetermined abstract noun.
Liherty of thought is respected in sorne countries.
Freedom of speech was defended by the French
encyc1opredists. Greatness of virtue. is all too
(ii) An abstract noun followed by a preposition and a
det(!Tmined abstract noun. The freedom of
his speech was notorious.
(iii) An emphasized abstract noun followed by a
preposition and an undetermined abstract
noun. The greatness of virtue is not sufficientIy
~. As a natural consequence of the aboye rules it
wil1 be seen that, except in the cases explained in pars.
94-95a, nouns representing what catanot be counted are
not preceded by an article. E.g., Give me liberty or give



me death. lVater is good to drinlc . Beer is best.

Philosophy is a science. (Nouns representing what can be
counted,almost invariably take an article in the singular. 1
They do not always have an artic1e before them in the
plural, only because the indefinite article has no plural
formo The only exceptions are of the type found on
pages 211-213.)

Where' necessary, place a definite or an indefinite

article before the nouns in the following passage : " 1 am," said Peter, " in - quandary ! "
,~ Really? " remarked John. "What;;=- diffic~lty ? "
" 1 am thinking of - marriage," explained his friend.
" 1 ~houldn 't call that - quandary," remarked Paul.
" l should characterize it as - sign of - impending
disaster ! "
ce Cut out cheap wit and listen to me, there's good fellow," was Peter's answer. "I'm in - real
difficulty.' ,
"What's - matter? Short of - furids? Mraid of
losing - liberty you prize so much? - liberty is precious thing. 1 know, of course, that - liberty of
- action and - freedom of - speech are in - serious
jeopardy in an~ marriage."
" If you don't stop talking - nonsense," said Peter
'impatiently, "1 will permit myself - freedom of speech and - liberty of _. action that will be - source
of - surprise and - distress to you. Show - little
seriousn~ss for once. difficulty lies in - fact that 1
haven't quite Idecided on - lady yet."
c, That is quite - important consideration!" murmured
Paul incorrigibly. "But go ahead~"
ce There are two ladies who 1 know would accept
1 This is important beca use in some languages this rule applies
only to the subieet of a sentence. Thus we cannot say, "He is lawyer."
It must be, el He is a lawyer."



me," continued Peter, ignoring - interruptiQn, "and I

honestly don't know which to ask. I would lilte, advice from you."
" Who are - fortunate ladies between whom you have
- liberty. to choose? I might be able to offer - counsel
jf I knew - identity of -'.happy pairo Though I know
it is - height of - folly, an4 - serious danger to friendship, for - ' friend to give - adviceabout inarriage~ One is apt toget - blame if - advice is
taken, and -, marriage tums out - failure. 'It .is one of
- drQ.wbacks of - knd-heartedness. But - gehuineness
of - kind-heartedness ~n only be demonstrated in fu11 when ~ practice of 1t involves - risk to oneself.
So, at -' risk of - loss of our - friendship, 1'11 make exception in your case. Though what y01l are really
asking me to do is to say which o. two numbers will win
in - sweepstake. In other words - marriage, forgive
-' platitude, is --!. lottery. Still, who are - lames ? "
"One," said Peter, " is Mrs. Brown. You know, Mrs.
Brown, - rich young widow. - other is Mary Pearce.
You know Mary. She works at - office' in London.
And - position is tWs. Mrs. Brown is - woman of -intelligence and - education, and she -would be able
. to sbare my interests, espeeially in regard to - book I
amwriting. I shouldn't lik~ - wife with whom I couldn't
discuss ~ work which is - life itself to me. ':- community of - interests Is, so I am told, - essential lor ffiarried happiness. And then, of course, , she has
- wealth. -, ,material, wealth, I mean, not merely wealth of - intellect. As you know~ I have been wrking
on -' book for - long time, now. But orte has to live;
ad - lot of my time has to be given up to - work
which, while not uncongenial, .is really - waste of -

-intellectual, though she has -

sound common sense.

1 could never discuss - work with her. 1 should take
- years to finish - book if 1 joined my life to hers,
because, far from having - extra leisure, 1 should have
less. Where Mrs. Brown loves - sedentary life, and
would leave me in - peace to work, Mary .likes - hiking
and _. camping and - physical activity, whether in -



,form of - violent exercise or of -. housework. And yet,

though I have - feeling that 1 could live with Mrs. Brown,
1 know that 1 could not live without Mary Pearce ! "
"1 should put it in - slightly different terms,"
grinned Paul. "If 1 understand correct1y - point of
view you have expressed, Mary Pearce means - life
itself, and Mrs. Brown means - good living. Well, 1
don't blame you for .,- hesitation you are showing. - '.
poverty is - distressing thing, and without finan~ial stability has not much chance of survival.
But before I make - dedsion which you ask of .me,
there is - point on which 1 should like - information,
How does -' regard of - two ladies manifest itself
towards you ? "
"Each shows her feelings in - 'different way,"
answered Peter. "Mrs. Brown never shows - slightest
interest in - more practical details of my life. She
spends - hours and - hours talking to me about things literary, and leaves - domestic matters to servants. She has - soul above - mundane problems.
She admits that - servants rob her shamefully, and that
- work is always badly done. But her calm. of - spirjt
remains undisturbed. 1 had her round to '- tea - other
day, to my house. You know -, state - house is usual1y
in. - signs of - disorder and - neglect everywhere.
Mrs. Brown only showed -. faint amusement. 'How
delightfully Bohemian,' she said, though 1 don't know
what -' Bohemians hve done to have their names used
as .- adjective to describe - state my houst was in.
But when - couple of days latr, Mary Pearce came,
jt was - different story. She lookd round with pursed lips, and asked if she could take - charge for - '
aftemoon. Of course, I gave her carte blanche, and she



called - ' housekeeper, and gave her - ta~ for the good
of her sou!. -. housekeeper was inclined to resent it,
and Mary's eyes were like - flameo She looked'picture of - beauty in - anger. She told - housekeeper that if - cleanliness is next to - godliness, she,
had - poor chance' of - salvation. Had - housekeeper ever heard, she asked, of - soap and - water?
Couldn't .she recognize - dust when she saw it? Had
she no feeling o - house-pride? - china was in disgr8:ce~1 condition. Didn't she know that china
should be washed after - ~se? Had she never heard
that - furniture should be kept bright with - polish?
Here was -' furniture. Where was - polish, or -, s;gn
that - use had been made of it? What was - uSe of
being civilized, if one lived like - Patagonian savage ?
- housekeeper left on ,':- spot, of course. Then Mary
took off her hat and got to - work. In - couple of
hours, you wouldn't have known - place. She certainIy
made - dust fly, or would have, if she ha~n't used vacuum cleaner. Then she started on - clothes which
- housekeeper had - charge of. 'Just look at - way
she looks after them,' she exclaimed, and showed - pile
to me. 'Half your things have - buttons missing; and
you haven't - pair of socks without - holes. - underwear an needs mending; and I can't find - wool or cotton in, - house. You poor man! Fancy having woman like her to take care of - things !' Well, the
next day she sent - new woman round to take - housekeeper's place; and I must say that - life has been good deal more comfortable since. - coal burns longer ;
- tea tastes more like - tea; - butter is never rancid ;
and - milk is never sour. Moreover, 1 find that my
bilIs for - cal, - tea, - sugar, - butter" -' bread.



etc.! seem to have undergone - miraculous reduction.

Mary keeps - eye on - new housekeeper for me; and
has - way of fussing over my welfare tnat gives me distinct pleasure. And I like bei.Q.g with her, though for
- life of me, I don't, know why. She just seems to
belong. ,And honestly, 1 don't know what I should
do. Mary or Mrs. Brown. Which is -'wife for me ? "
While Peter had been talking, Paul had been thinking
hard. "1 don't think there should be - slightest doubt,"
~id. "You should marry Mary Pearce. I t is -, heart
that should decide in -:.. cases like this, not - ' head. It
is true that Mrs. Brown has - money. But - money
is not everything,' and -' cleverness is not everything,
either. 1 think that - awfullot of - rot is talked about
- necessity for - woman to take - intelligent interest
in her husband's work. Look at Robert Browning and
his wife. They were - notoriously unhappy' couple.
In any case, 1 think it does - man good not to be always
talking - shop. - home should be - home, not debating society. And - wife should be -' lover, not
- fellow don. Indeed, - ability to talk. is rather disadvantage, than - point in -, woman's favour. She
may not always limit - discussions te> - philosophy.
- eloquence can take on - sharp edge, and -, fluency can
become - nuisance, when - woman cotnmands thero.
,- fact that you cannot say just why you love Mary is in
itself -' sign that you feel something more than affection for her.. - real love has in it something of mysticism. And - mystic experience is something too
deep to describe or explain in - words, except inadequately, and 'by - analogy. That is why we have
- poets. If you could tell mewith - clarity and distinctness just how and why you love Mary, I should



know that - true dept~ of - love is absent, and ,it

wouldn't matter - farthing which you marrjed. Mor;
over, the fact ihat Mary seems to have - irresistible
impulse to mother you shows that she herself is deeply
in - love with you. Mrs. Brown likes you because you
are - good conversationalist, and have - good manners~
- love does not enter into thematter, or very little.
And it is - depth of love that counts in - wife, not size of' her banking account. -' money isn't - onIy
thirig to tak' into - consideration, nor even - most
important thing. - married life without - love is' not
- married life at all.' So marry Mary Pearce, and you
wiIl know - true happineSs. AIid - ttue happiness
is worth all - gold that ever glittered."
" AH right," said Peter. "1 will.'" And he did, soon
after. - rapidity of - a~tion was characteristic of him,
once he had reached - decision. And, in - faci, he
never had - real cause to regret - action. .
But one day, six months after -.. marriage, Peter
had - shock. He was having his breakfast, and, was
,looking over - letters that had come by - moming
post. He looked up from - one he was reading. "WeH
,'l'm blowed !" he exclaimed.
" What' s - matter ? " asked Mary. '
"This lettet," said Peter, "is - invitation to wedding. Paul is going to marry Mrs. Brown ! "
"Wel1, 1 don't see - motive for surpriSe in that,"
said Mary. "you feH in - love with me, and there was
- wedding. Paul falls i~ love with Mrs. Brown, and
there is - wedding too. - love rules - world, doesn'
it ? "
" 1 wonder, 1,', said Peter grimly.



What influence have extemal cirumstances exercised ?
What do you know about the theory? What have alI had
their effects on animals? What have the snow and the
coId done to Arctic animals? What kind of feet have
camels? Why? What does a camel's reservoir or hump
contain? Why? How does the sun blaze? How are
fishes constructed ?Why? Why did the teeth of sorne
animal s take on a certain form? Why a different form
in others? On the strength of the same theory, what
must one bIame modem life for? What is perhaps
responsible? What are the members of this species
called? Who must notbe confused? What did the
writer once do? What was the intelligent man's reaction?
What did the writer think ?Whaf is an intelligent rnan ?
And an intellectual? What hav:e we a good supply of?
What is the intellectUal's definition of himself? What
kind of .submission does he want of us? If we suhmitted,
what wouId he do? What do people perhaps dislike.?
What don't they seem to want? What suspicion have
they ? Would it? Into whose clutches have sorne
countries fallen? What did the intellectuals cry? What
did the liberty of thought tum out to be? And the freedom
of action? What did one such country go' through ?
What was shed? And wasted? What was shakeil off?
What found its fit end in destruction? Why was it a
failure? What happens when intellectuals rise to power ?
Do their reforms work? What explanatioh do they give
for their failure? What is the basis of the superstition
thy rail against? What is the seIfishness they denounce ?
What has been said about broadness of mind? What is
it accompanied by? What is a serious defect in intellfctual life? What does the writer think is the real
reason for the faiIure of the intelIectuals? How does the
more successful intellectual begin? How ddes he use
this reputation ? . What is the writer's attitude towards
the earlier novel s of H. G. Wells? Which are the best
of his novels? What did Mr. Wells get? How did he



use this popularity? . What might those who Ioved

literature have cried out? What are coupled together in
Mr. Wells? What are these a definite .handicap to?
What position is such a man in? What did her spirit do ?
And the policernen? And the crirninals? What case
does the writer take next? What was Freud responsible
for? What did he natlJrally acquire? How did he explain
everything in life? What was he talking? What friend
had the writer? What did he try to prove? 'What was
this? What did St. Francis exercise? Who else? What
did St. Francis not have in mind when he went around
preaching? What does the writer not believe of Florence
Nightingale? What did she want? What are sorne
deans farnous for? What cornpany directors have we ?
What are they? What are sorne doctors? And civil
'servants? Who infest Hyde Park? What do they hold
forth on and attack? When are they apure joy to listen
to,? What do you expect to hear thern say of wine?
Where were the restaurants? What evolution did they
cause? Why do lovers like the rnoon? What qualities
have these intellectuals? What are they distinguished
by? What cannot they see? F ortunately for what?
What do they think of their intellectual edifice? What
is it fuIl of, in their minds? What is it really fulI of?
And the marble? What cannot they understand? What
are intellectuals a source of, arnong us? What do sorne
peopte still believe in? What do we preserve? What do
literary civil servants provide us with? What is that the
advantage of? What can we do when public functionaries
annoy us? In other words, what may we do ? . In spite
of himself, what does Mr. Wells still do? What. can
one still do? On what condition? What do we permit ?
What might we give prigs and ignorarnuses? What are
we able to restrain? What are we able to practise? How?
What can we claim onIy by practising it? Where does the
greatness o virtue He? What is the presence of prigs ?
How does one understand the inadequacy of intellectuals
great and small? What has been rernarked of the more



successful intellectual? Whatdoes the intelligent man

first try to increase? How? What does he not pretend
to be? What doeshe thus achieve? What does he try
to have a working acquaintance with? Why? What is
an anstronomer the better for? What helps the economist? What c~n a philosopherget aid from? When?
What kind of co-ordiriations are these? What is hardly
. a branch 'of human knowledge independent of? What is
penalized by poverty in achievement? Who -tends to
look at life through the narrow aperture o his own
speciality? What 'is he quite capable of peeping into ?
Who uses a Hghted match? What doeshe try to explore ?
What does he get, with the feeble flame at his disposal ?
What does the intelligtint man fUI his little shrine with ?
What does he use for this purpose? What shrines are
oRen. shrines. ?, What do their lights gather from one
another? What do they flood? With what ?
What had Christianity and Islam long been engaged
in? Whom did Pope Gregory form the Holy Alliance
with, and against whom? What did the allied fleets do ?
What did the Turks also do? Where did the Christian
fleet find the Turks? What did the Christian, fleet do ?
What did the opposing fleets do? What did the Spaniards
do? Once the Spaniards had set foot on the enemy decks,
how did the Moslems fight? In what state of health
was Cervantes? What part did he play? What was the
state of disciplin at first? Mter a while, what did the
Venetians do? Were they ever out of control? What
did the Moslem ships begin" to do? Which ships drew
off? How did they steal away? What did the Christians
do? What did .those which sQook off their pursuers
manage to do? What was complete by tbe evening?
Why did Don Juan lean on his sword? Was he satisfied ?
How would he definitely finish off his task? How did.
the new Archbishop of Canterbury fight Henry n.?
When? Why? How did Henry want to get rid of him?



Describe the knights he was with at dinner. What did

he complain? What did the knights know? What
did they do at once? How did they burst in on the
Archbishop? What was the Archbishop doing? Who
tried to stop the knights ?,. What did the knights do to
thein and to the Archbishop ? How did the news spread ?
In wha,t directions? What was enormous? What did
Henry fear? So what did he' do? Why? How did he
find the nation ? How did he try to placate the people ?
What had the murderers done? What weighed heavily
on Henry's conscience? Why did he go to the Abbey?
How? What lived on? What was he never really able
to Hve down? What does the incident constitute ?
, Why did Francis Thomson leave home? What did
he soon throw up? Why? What did his father fully
bel~eve? What did he try to do? What was the response
of Francis to this? What'did his father do, when Francis
refused to obey him? Did Francis falter in his determination? What did he have to do? How did he live? Did
this stop his studies? What did he flnd time to read ?
What did he take to? What gradually happened to his
character? What did he badly need? When did he
thank Heaven forsmall mercies? Who found him out
.at last? What did the great critic do? How did he
encourage Francis? What did he encourage Francis to
do? How did Francis finish up? Who lived him out?
When did Francis die ?


Special Rules
In this lesson we deal with a number of exceptional
cases' in which the use or omission of the article is deter-



mined, not by the General Rules laid down in pars. 9396, but gene rally either by fixed custom ot by the necessity
foc giving a difierent meaning or shade of meaning to a
word or to a sentence.
In many of these exceptional cases, nevertheless, the
influence of the General Rules can be felt, if only indirectly.


Special Rules

(See par. 362.)


In this year of grace nineteen th,irty-seven (1937),
international complications ilnd deadlocks follow one
upon another thick and fasto On everybody's lips we
hear the names of Italy, Germany, China, Japan, to say
nothing of England and France. We are about tired of it
aH. It is hard to know where to start in a review of
the situation. We go to bed wondering what the new
development will be when we wake the next morning.
Italy is watching the l\1editerranean. France has her
eye on the Rhi.ry.e and on the Pyrenees. Germany is looking
to the east and to the south, and fai rly fretting over the
fact that the U nion of South Africa seems bent on holding
on to the one-time German colony of South- West Africa
England is feverishly building warships on the banks of
tIte Clyde. And Poland sits armed and watchful, with
her gaze turned! now to the east, and now to the west.
Russia is afraid that submarine piracy will extend to the
Black Sea. The English and the French have practically
given up their patrol of the Bay of Biscay. In the future,



they will merely protect the interests of their own

nationals in the usual way.
There is fighting going on aH over Spain, since General
Franco's first check on the banks of the Manzanares, and
in the Guadarama. General Miaja is his chief adversary.
It is not thought likely that King Alfonso will be restored
General Franco wins, though there is some talk of his
son, Prince Juan. King Leopold of Belgium is having
trouble with his Cabinet. And all the world has its eye
on the Pacific, where Japan is trying to clinch her hold by
bringing China to her knees. U p to the present, she has
hardly succeeded.
In fact, about the on1y person who seems to be happy
at the moment is the Duke of Windsor, Prince Edward,
who gave up his throne ayear ago, for personal reasons.
His abdication caused a great sensation at the time. At
the moment, he is peacefully hunting on the slopes of
the Alps.
My friend, Mr. Eden-not the Mr. Eden, but a neighbour of mine-shakes his head and. thinks that Japan
will about burn her fingers; that Signor klussolini has
almost overreached himself; that Herr Hitler has
absolutely lost his head in his struggle with the Churches;
that the Spanish civil war will peter out, because Spain
is rapidly approaching a state of complete exhaustion;
and that, in spite of high-sounding words, the average
politician speaks about peace with his tongue in his
But none of these things really ~orry my friend,
Mr. Eden-not, I repeat, the Mr. Eden. The latter,
poor ma~, has a great deal on his mind at the momento
Well, my Mr. Eden sends his children to school every day,
where they are taught to be good little Englishmen by a

23 2


Mr. Jones. He-Mr. Eden-tranquilly puts on his hat

and coat, and goes out to dinner twice a week at the Conservative Club, generally with a Mr. Robinson, whom I
scarcely know. There he talks about topies such as the
dinner that Herr Hitler gave Signor Mussolini in Berlin, a
short time ago. He wonders' whether, as a result, they
divided the Canary Islands and the Balearic group between
them. He thinks it very probable, because, accorcling
to him, it goes without saying that Herr Hitler would like
to control the trade routes to the South Atlantic. He
believes that he will practlcally stop at nothing.
He hopes against hope that England has not really
lost control of the Red Sea, and therefore of the sea-route
to India, by the ltalian occupation of Abyssinia, but he
is prepard for the worst. .He rather thinks that
Prime Minister or the Foreign Secretary should do
something about it.
He talks of how the weak are downtrodden by the
strong, and the helpless by the mighty. He thinks that if
the good in human nature coufd free itself from the evil,
. things might be better, and the machinery of the League
might not have broken clown. He takes off hi6 hat to
Mr. Eden-the Mr. Eden, this time, bis namesake-and
gets quite put out if anybody hints that this gentleman has
hard Iy set the Thames on fire in the iiiplomatic world.
He rather wonders why England and America do not roIl
up their sleeves and take a hand in Cht'na. He feels th;t
they will hard Iy live down their loss of prestige in the
East, if they do noto Evrybody agrees with him, much
to his satisfaction. And then he goes off at a tangent,
and wonders if it is possible for London to be bombed.
1 think he half xpects it any day, butjust dare not contemplate the resulto In fact, his general conclusion is that




the . whole situation is a pretty kettle of fish; and that

Europe will about go under, unless she puts her house
in order.
Next week, 1 shall see him at the Club, and rather
expect to get some fun out of him. At the Town Hallhe is a Counci110r-they think him rather a jQke, because
he is always putting up the most unheard-of schemes for
the defence of the town against air raids. Last week he
suggested that a11 the public buildings-the Town Hall,
the Cathed'ral, and the Museum, among others-should
be covered with green mats, to .make them look like grassgrown hilIs. In the last meeting of lastyear, he only.
just failed inpersuading the Mayor and the rest to vote
untold sums for research, to find a death-ray that could
be used Oli invading aircraft. One of his colleagues
suggested that such aeroplanes might be brought down,
if only one could find a ~chine to throw salt an' their
tails. Eden falrly lost his temper at that, and said it was
no laughing matter. He added that he Just could not
believe such flippancy possible in such a serious assembly.
1 believe that the next time there is a meethlg, he is going
to suggest building a dummy town
the outskirts,
complete, witlt street lighting and everything, so that the
ralders, with this to put them off the scent, will both
mistake it for Chesterbury, and waste their bombs on it.
He is doubly impressed with the scheme, because he really
thinks that it would work, and because he is a building..
Last time he was in Germo:ny, he spent the last few
days of his visit in studying the air-raid precautions of
that country. He quite believes he can go one better than
the Germans. Next ti~e, he is going to do the same thing
in France.





97. Certain nouns are listed below as not taking an
article before them. U nder the conditions indicated in
pars. 95 (e) and 96, however, they must conform to the
general rules there laid down.
98- The names of countries are not preceded by ;m
artic1e, unless they contain a prepositional phrase (par. 95):
or unless they contain the words " republie" 'or " state.'
E.g., The Commonwealth of Australia. The Dominion
of Canada. The U nion of South Afriea. The United
States of Amtrica. The French Republic, The Irish Free
State. The Orange Free State. The Federated Malay

But: England. France. Germany. ,Spain. Portugal.
Sweden. Norway. Belgium. Holland. Eire. Switzerland. P,?land. Finland. Denmrk. China., Japan.
India. Czechoslovakia. Lithuania. Roumania. J ugoslavia.. Italy. Greeee. Turkey. Arabia. Iraq. Iran.
Egypt. Bulgaria. Albania. Latvia.
NOTE.-Most of the exceptions are the names of
prooinces rather than countries. E.g., The Netherlands.
The Tyrol. The Crimea. The Decean. The Ukraine.
The Transvaal. The Gold Coast. The Holy Land.
99. The names of islands and cities do not take an
article before them, except in the case of groups. E.g.,
Jerser. Cuba. Bermuda. Ceylon. Heligoland. Palma.
Corsica. The Canary Islands. The British !sIes. The
West Indies. The Malay Archipelago. The Isle oi Wight
(par. 95). The Isle of Man. London. c.orunna. Paris.
Liverpool. Berlin. Stockholm. The Cinque Ports. The
Hanseatic Cities. (Exception: The Hague.)
lOO. The names of rivers, seas, oceans, chains of
mountains, bays,l gulfs, and estuaries, are preceded by the
definite article. Kg., The Thames, the Clyde, the Rhine,
the Rhone, the Mediterranean, the Black Sea, the Atlantie,
the Pacific, the lndian Ocean, the Arctic, the Antaretic,
1 This is true only if "bay" is determined by a following phrase.
E.g., The Bay '01 Bengal. But, Durban Bay, Table Bay, Chesapeake



the Gulf of Mexico, the Bay of Biscay, the Bight of

Biafra, the Alps, the Pyrenees, the Guadarama, the
Rockies, etc.
101. Though there seems to be a tendency, .especially on th part of the B.B.C.,not to place the
definite article before the names of battleships and airplanes, the definite article is generally placed before
names of ordinary ships, hotels, theatres, clubs, and daily
newspapers. E.g., The "Queen Mary." The" Vaderland." The" Queen of the Pacific." The Savoy. The
Dorchester. The Metropole. The Cuinberland. The
Athenreum. The Overseas Club. The Conservative
Club. The Times. The Daily Mail. The Daily Telegraph
and Morning Post. The Daily Herald. The Observer.
The Manchester Guardian. The Evening News. The
Star. (The) H ood. (The) Rodney.
102. The proper names 01 person's are not preceded
by the definite artiele; unless :(a) When referring to a. family. E.g., He lives with
the Browns.
(b) To indicate the head of an lrish sept or of a Scottish
clan. E.g., The O'Donnell. The MacGregor.
(e) To indicate that the person concerned is the most
lamous 01 that name. E.g., Are you the Mr. Wells? 1
lunched with the Mr. Chamberlain. (Before common
nouns, the force is not quite so strong, and the artiele gives
the idea of " well known." E.g., He is Smith the nerve
specialist. Jones the poet died to-day. Get your suits
from Peterboro, the West-End tailor.)
103. The indefinite article is used before the proper
name 01 a person :(a) To indicatethat the speaker knows little or nothing
abollt him. E.g., A Mr. Smith called to see you while
you :were out.
(b) To indicate "a person 01 the same qualities as."
E.g., John is a regular Demosthenes. He thinks he is a
1 If the name of a third person is qualified by 'a preceding partc:iple, the definite article is used. E.g., "Come in," said the smiling
Cesar. The disgusted Charles wa1ked ollt.



104. The definite article precedes a title 01" the name

of a thing if it is the only one 01 its Mnd in the place or in
the society to which the speaker refers. E.g., 'The Mayor
is cOlpulent, i.e., Tne Mayor 01 this town is corpulento
The Captain was sober to-day, i.e., The Gaptain 01 this
skip. Have you seen the Town Hall. The Cathedral is a
magnificent specimen of architecture. The Kmg is dead !
long live the King. The sun has risen. The moon is
15. But if the title is followed or preceded immediately
by the name of a person the artiele is not used, except in
the case of "Reverend." E.g., King George the Sixth.
Captain Joties. Sir John Davis. The Reverend Dick
Shepherd. (Foreign titles, however, sometimes take the
artiele. E.g., The Grand Duke Nicholas. The Archduke
Paul. The Emperor Charles V.) GefJrge, King of England.
John, Duke of Gaunt.
106. We prefer the possessive to the definite artiele
when speaking of the parts olour body, or of our clothes.
E.g., He has cut his hand. He has a mole on his cheek.
My head is aching terribly. George took off his coat.
Don't keep your hat on in the house.
17. But we can use the reflexive with the. definite
article, wjth reference to the parts of our bodies. He has
hurt himself in the t~igh. He likes to pat himself oh the

- 17

The definite article can have the force of a demonstrative. E.g., I waS there at the time, i.e., 1 was there
at that time.
loS. The definite article before suitable adjeetives
transforms them mto class nouns, or into abstraet nouns
(see par. 353a). E.g.:(a) Class nouns: None but .the brave deserve the
lair There is. a perpetual conflict between the rich and
the poor. The sick need proper care. 1
(b) Abstraet nouns: Ruskin expatiates on the good,
the beautiful, the powerful, and the true, in archite~ture.

Note that the verb is p'lural because the subject, though singular
181, page 301.

in form, is plural in meaning. See par.



109. "Next" and "last'; do not take an artic1e

before them if they determine the week, month, or year
immediately proximate to the one during which the speaker
makes the statement. E.g.," I shall see him next month,"
if said in February, means: "1 shall see him in March."
" 1 saw him last month," in the same case, would refer
to January. ,But: I was in France in 1923, and the n~xt .
year I was in Germany~
lio. When "next" indicates position, the artic1e is
usually suppressed. When" ~xt" and " last" indicate
order, the definite artic1e may be used or not at wiU. E.g.,
Peter .lives next door. She sa't next to John. Maiy was
(the) next to John on the listo Peter was (the) last.

The points,of the compass used as nouns :(a) Take the definite artic1e when preceded by a
preposition. They also take the definite artic1e when
standing alone to indicat~ recognized geographical. divinons. E.g., He tllmed ro the north. He lives in the
south. He comes lrom the east. They fled towards the
west. The N orth beat the South, in the American
CivilWar. He lives in the Far East ..
. N OTE.-If movement from one point of the compass to
anotlzer is expressly, indicated, the use of the definite
artic1e is not necessary. E.g., The aeroplane flew from
north to south.
(b) In all other cases, the definite artic1e before the
names of the points of the compass may be used or not
at wiIl. E.g~, If you look to the north, (the) south is
behind yo~, (the) east is to your right, and (the) west is
to your left.

"Right" and " left" used as nouns are preceded

by the definite artic1e, usually, when govemed by preposition. E.g., He looked to the right and to the left.
(The omission of the artic1e is licit.)
N otice: M. Herriot is one of the most prominent
men of the Left.



113. ,The

following nouns are not preceded by an

article .in sentences implying that the place or thing is
put to the use lor which it was primarily in~d :bed
gaol (jail)
Examples .-As it was Sunday, and he did not have to
go to school, he stayed at home, and afterwards went to
church. In the aftemoon, he and his father went to
the gaol to visit J ones, who was in prison for larceny. J ohn
went to the hospital to see Peter. He remarked that he
was glad not to be' in hospital himself. The magistrate is
in court hearing a case. Mary goes to college every dy
at nine. 1 went to bed at six. The plumber went to the
church "to repair thedrains and to the school to fix up
a leaking tapo Mary went to the bed to fetch a book that
she had left on it.
114. '~ Home" is used without an article,. unless it
refers to sorne kind of charitable institution. E.g., I am
going home now. My mistress is not at home to-day.
He lives in ahorne for aged meno
NOTE.-As she had no where to go, he offered her a
home, i.e., out of charity.
115. The definite article is usually employed with
cinema and theatre, implyingattendance at a performance. E.g., 1 was at' the cinema to-day. I am going
to the cinema this afternoon' (see also par. 94). '
116 .. The definite article is used before the names of
musical nstruments, when their playing is expressed or
implied. He knows the violn well, i.e., He knows how to
play the violin well.
117. " Town" is not used with an article:-'
(a) In contrast to the district 01 which it is the centre.
E.g., He is not athome: he has gone to town.
(b) Preceded by a prepositioll iridicating presence or
absence from the town in which the speaker is. E.g., John
is in town. He is out oi town.



(e) With reference to LOndon. E.g., He has a h~use

in Town. (Capital" T.")
(d) In juxtaposition with "cou1ttry." E.g., He knows
to'Wn and country well.
1'18. But" country," in the sense of " rural district(s),"
takes the artiele. E.g., My father has a house in the
119. An article is not used before the names of meals, '
except to indicate public or formal social junctions. E.g.,
The Ambassador for Poland gave a dinner to the Diplomatic Corps yesterday. He made a speech at the dinner.
1 was invited to-day to a wedding breakfast. He gave a
lunch last Friday. 1 had lunch with Peter to-day. We
have dinner at seven.
120. The names of months, days oj the week,jeast days, '
holidays, parks, and squares, as wdl as Parliament anq,
Congress, do not take an artiele before them. E.g.,
January. Monday. Bedford Square. Whitsun. August
Bank Holiday. Hyde ParJi:
The names of streets do not take an artiele if they
contain the word "street." E.g., Oxford Street. But:
The Strand, Charing Cross Road, The Ol~ Kent Road,
Pall Mall, PiccadilIy, The Haymarket. 1
120B. "Less" preceded by " any" or " none" takes
the definite artiele. E.g., 1 may be strong, but 1 am
none the less tired. 1 am not any the less happy for. what
you have told me.
NOTE ALSO: Nevertheless. E.t., 1 have promised to
go. Nevertheless, 1 am not happy ~bout it.
12Gb. "The" before a common noun, can make it
abstracto E.g., He is trying to act the lord.
IZOC. Notice the use of the indefinite artiele in the
following :.
That darling 01 a John has sent me another. presento
That 1001 01 a milkman has forgotten to leave 'the milk
lzod. In the use of "man" without an article,


The usage varies very mucho




"any" is understood. E.g., Man is a social animal,

i.e., Any man is a social animal.
12oe. The artiele is omitted altogether after kind oj,
sort oj, class oj, species oj,variety oj, ~nd, expressions of
similar 'meaning. E.g., The lion is a species oj cato He
is the type oj working man the co~ntry should be proud
of. He is not the kind 01 man to be friendly with.





Where necessary, place the definite or the indefinite

artiele before the nouns and adjectives in the following
Many years ago, in ... town called ... Boston-not
.. . Boston, but ... obscure' town in ... Middle Westthere lived ... married couple in ... Main Street, .,. next
,Towrl Hall. .. ~ Brown,
door to
hardly be numbered among ... industrious. He had more
taste for ... exciting than for ... humdrum. In other
work. It was well known that
words, he disliked
Browns-for that was ... name 'f ... couple-were not
very happily married. Indeed,. . . violence of their
bickerings verged on . .. sordid. Things were Fapidly
going from ... bad to
worse, from
day to ... day.
One morning-to be precise, at six o' elock on ... Tuesday
]anuary ... thirty-first- ... Brown was seen riding to
, .. south-west. Nobody suspected that he had left ...
home for good. He was often out of ... town-... Boston
was ... small ranching centre- on ... business; and nobody
took much notice, at ... time, of ... fact of his being away
from ... home. . .. Mrs. Brown did not stir from '... house
for ... next few days; bui then she was, at . .. best,
.. . solitary little soul. But when, on ,.. next Sunday,
. .. Mrs. Brown did not go to ... church, ... neighbours









became anxious. She had never been known to miss .. .

morning service.. Mrs. Satchwelf noticed if first, for .. .
Mrs. Brown always sat ... next to her. ... Mrs. Brown
was ... delicate woman, and had been unwell during .. .
last month. During ... previous year, she had been in .. .
hospital, and had spent another month in ... convalescent
home. So. .. Mrs. Petersen, ... friend of hers, called.
There was no answer to her knocking, and ... house
seemed to be 10cked ue. As it was ... noon, ... Mrs.
Brown would hardly be in ... bed if she were well; so
Mrs. Petersen went back in alarm to call ... Mayor,
... Mr. Kennedy. ... latter, with ... sheriff, ... Mr.
Steel, and ... druggist, ... Mr. Swift, decided. that ...
circumstances justified ... use of violent methods, so
t~ey broke in. To their horror they found ... Mrs.
Brown stretched on ... floor of ... bedroom, dead. She
had a number of gashes in: ... head, and she was bruised
all over ... body. She had evidently been in ... bed
when ... murder was committed, for ... bedclothes were
rumpled and bloodstained. She had then been dragged
out of ... bed, and thrown on' ... floor. ... clothes were
torn, which .indicated ... struggle.
.... hue and '" cry was raised, but to no purpose .
. :. Brown had completely disappeared. . .. peculiar
brutality of ... murder attracted ... nation-wide attention,
and ... public opinion was roused. . .. matter was taken up
by ... great dailies-... New York Times, ... Ba/timore

Sun, ... Philadelphia Public Ledger, ... -Washington Post,

. . . Chicago Tribune, and others. .. . matter was even
mentioned in ... Congress, which is ... equivalent of our
institution called ... Parliament. ... most people thought
that ... Brown had managed by .. : hook or by ... crook
to get across ... border, into ... Mexico. He had probably



managed to slip across under ... cover o ... dark.ness.

This was also ... Jones's opinion. When 1 say ... Jones,
1 mean ... Jones, ... great private detective. ... people
said that he was ... Sherlock H;olmes' and ... Arsene Lupin
roUed into. one. . .. J ones threw himself ,.. heart and .. .
soul into ... investigation, because he happened to be .. .
murdered woman's brother. Unfortunately ... brothersin-Iaw had never mC(t. .. ~ sister had married away from
home, against ... wishes of ... family. Because she had
refused to break off ... engagement, ... father had turned
her out of .:. house ~nd ... home; and she had gone to
. . Boston, and married ... Brown there. After ...
marriage, . .. father had sent . . . word that he would
forgive ... couple they apologized. Butoo. Brown
refused to do ... penance by gQing ... hat in ... hand and
asking ... old man for ... forgiveness. . .. detective was
still at ... college when a1l this happened, and he had not
seen his sister since. He had refused ... invitation to
come for the ceremony and . . . wedding - breakfast.
Further, ... Jones could not get oo. photograph of '0.
Brown. AH he could do was to go to ... Boston, and get
as accurate . description as he could of
man, from
.. neighbours. He leamt, among other things, that ...
Brown played . .. ukulele well. This was not much
to go on, but J ones was not discouraged. He had, in
any case, . o. hatrt.d of ... cowardly and ... cruel. Also,
o. murdered woman was his sister. He swore to follow

.. .. murderer by sea or by '" land, and avenge crime.

So he drew a11 his money from ... bank; and set out on
his quest, like ... modern Angel of Wrath in pursuit of
modem Cain. From... Boston he took ... road to ...
south-west-... same one ... Brown had been seen taking.
.. J ones's inquiries on ... wa.y were not altogether fruitoO.


o o o.

o .



leas. . .. man answering to ... Brown's description had

crossed ... Arkansas, ... tributary of .... Mississippi. ......
Iones traced him across :.. Oklahoma and ... State of
Texas, aitd so on across '... Ro Grande. . .. latter is ...
river which divides ... United States from ... Mexican
Republic. Once in ... Mexico-formerly ... territory of ...
Emperor Augustine . .. First-. . . things were. easier;
'because, naturally, ... wandering American attracted .. .
more attention. Hot on . . . tr:ail, . .. Jones crossed .. .
Mexican Republic, bearing ... south-east, until he arrlved
at ... Vera Cruz, ; .. port ,on ... shores of ... Gulf of Mexico.
It was ... trying joumey, in ... heat of ... Mexican summer,
and ... Jones was often bathed in ... sweat from ... head
'to ... foot. In. .. Vera Cruz, ... Jones stayed at ... Grand
Hotel, where ... proprietors, ... Mr. and Mrs. Swinburne,
told him .that his quarry had stayed at ... same hotel,
but had sailed on ... " Otinoco "-she had put to ... s~
a week before-for ... Cuba. .... Brown, they said,
seemed .to have ... idea of going on to ... West Indies ;
. . . Swinbumes were horrified to hear that they had
given ... hospitality to l... Crippen. (Crippen was ... man
who gained ... notoriety by killing bis wife.) . .. Jones
was undismayed. If his man chose to go to ...W~t
lndies, to ... West lndies he would follow him. And if
from there ... Brown wanted to go to ... England, or ...
Netherlands, or ... Germany, or ... Ukraine, or ...
Australia, or ... Transvaal, there also would ... Jones go
in ... pursuit. From ... Falklands in ... South Atlantic
to ... Philippines in ... Pacific, from ... Alaska in .. : Far
North to ... Shanghai in ... Far East, from ... Hague
in ... west of ... Europe to ... Istambul in... N ear East,
relentless, unswerving . .. Jones would run his quarry
down. . . . cargo boat called . . . "Grampus" was at



. ',' anchor in ... harbour, and ,would set ... sail for ... Cuba
that night. So. J ones went on ... board and saw .. .
Captain, who gave him
berth. On ... voyage, .. .
" Grampus" caught .. fire; but
crew got
control, and .. ship arrived safely at ... Havana
' ... harbour where ... " M
' " . Am ertcan
.. . 1atter lS
war vessel, was sunk at o.. beginning of ... Spanish
American War. . .. Spanish fleet was destroyed ... first
time it gave ... battle. In. .. Havana, ... J ones stayed
friend tl}ere, ... Captain
at ... Yacht Club-he had
Ogilvy. . . . J ones had once stayed with . . . Captain
Ogilvy in ... London. . .. Ogilvy had a house in ... Town.
They had first met at o.. dinner at ... American Ambassador's. In ... Havana, ... Jones wastold that his man
had sailed ... south across ...' Caribbean Sea to ' ...
Venezuela. So ... J ones took ... next boat, ... "Queen
of ... Atlantic," and followed. While he was at
... violent storm rose, but the boat made ... port in safety.
Jones went to
capital, glad to set
foot on .. . land again. His man had departed for ..
interior ... few days before. o.. Venezuelan Republic
is famous for having produced
Bello-... Bello, ...
Spanish grammarian-and when .. . J ones arrived, ...
General Gomez, ... dictator President, had already taken
... office, ... sword in ... hand, some years before. From
Caracas, ... J ones tumed ... right and followed his man
through ... Venezuela, across ... river Orinoco, and jnto
lovely country, but
... Columbia. It was
was in no mood to meditate on oo. beautiful and ... aweinspiring. . .. Andes showed themselves before him, like
. . . insurmountable barrier, . . . living symbols of ...
magnjficent and ... powerful. Higher than ... topmost
point of ... Mount Blanc in ... Alps, higher than ... Pico
de Europa in . . . Pyrenees he climbed, until he came
o o

o .

o. o












to ... Bogota, ... capital of ... Columbian State. His man

had passed through only ... week before. Jones turned to
. . . right, and followed his man .. . north through ., .
Panama. On he went to ... north across ... Canal, through
... Costa Rica, into ... Nicaragua-... birthplace of .,.
Ruben Daro ... poet; and at ... last ran his quarry down
in ... Republic of Guatemala, at ... San Julio, ... little
banana exporting centre on ... coast of ... Pacifi~.
But ... unexpected difficulties arose. There were only
two North Americans in ... town. He met them together,
near ... Cathedral. . .. both were recent arrivals, ... both
quite legitimately refused to give . . . account of their
recent movements, and ... appearance of ... both tallied
exactly with ... description of ... murderer with which
... Jones was fumished. It was ... coincidence, but ...
usual one. There are so many men six feet taIl, with ...
grey ey~s, ... aquiline noses, ... low foreheads, ... curIy
black hair, ... gait of ... horsemen, and ... scars on ... left
cheeks. Both, even, so it appeared, played ... ukulele
well, and were living ... hand to .. . mouth existence.
. .. J ones told ... both men that he was looking for ...
J ohn Brown, on ... charge of ... murder; and. .. both
affected to treat .. . matter as .. . glorious joke. "
innocent are strong in ... confidence of ... innocence,"
reflected J ones, "but ... guilty can simulate ... innocence
quite well." He displayed no animosity, however. He
knew that ... Government of ... Republic would not
allow him to arrest ... two men on ... suspicion, and he
was prepared to mark ... time until something should
happen to reveal '" identity of ... real murderer. " ...
last wee~," he said, "1 had almost given up ... hope
though it turned out to be ... last stage of my journey.
.. this week, when 1 seemed on ... verge of ... triumph,

has produced .. . stalemate. Perhaps. .. next. week, 1
shall have ", better luck. And if not ". next week, . ~ .
next week after that. But, in .,. end, 1 shall take one of
dto .... electrIC
' ch'"
" ... en,
you t O oo, gao,
1 and , In
Then he invited the two to ... dinner. Mter. .. dinner,
they went to .. cinema together: When ... performance
was over, they found , .. tavern, owned by . . . Seor
Gonzalez, and decided to pass . . . rest of ... evening
chatting, drinking ... ' whisky, and playing . .. cards.
There was plenty of ... material for . . . conversation.
.. . Prince Edward, . .. son of ... King of England-...
King George-was touririg ... South America at .... time,
and .. . whole continerit was exchanging ... anecdotes
about him. Qne of ... two men, who called himself .. ~
Meadows, told ... story of ... cartoon tha~. appeared in
... Washington Post, purporting to represent ... proposed
equestrian statue to ... Prince of Wales. . .. latter was in
Washington at ... time.
cartoon showed ... riderless
horse bucking furiously, with . . . Prince of ... Wales
nowhere ill ... sight. During ... laughter that followed ...
story, Jon~s got up from ... table, and walked over to ...
dog that was sleeping peacefully in ... comer to .... left
of ... door. Without any warning, Jones gave
dog ....
most brutal kick, quite undeserved. . .. dog ran off to
... right, howling. Meadows stared at J ones in ... amazemento "What on ... earth did you do that for?" he
exc1aimed. . .. dog was doing no harm." But ... indignation he showed was nothing to that of ... other man, who
had jestingly called himself ... Q'Donnell, though there
was nothing of ... lrishman or of ... chieftain about him.
This man jumped to his feet with ... blazing eyes, ...
revolver in ... hand. But Meadows was too quick for him.
He sprang at ... angry man from behind, ~md managed




to wrest ... revolver from' him. In. .. struggle, they

knocked ... lamp over, and nearly set ... fire to ... building. While ... two were fighting ... tooth and ... nail
for . possession of ... revolver, ... Jones walked quiet1y
over to them, and calmly slipped ... pair of ... handcuffs
, ... so-called O'D onne11' s wrlS
. ts.' " y ou ,re ... man, "
he said briefiy. "1 knew that ... test could not possibly
fail. . .. Brown, for it was he, paused to take ... breath,
staring bitterly at ... manacled wrists. "How did you
krlow," he asked, at ... length.
"Easily," replied Jones." Though 1 could not get
... photograph of you, 1 did get ... idea of your character.
You not only murdered your wife. People told me that
yu had been systematically cruel to her, and they gave
me ... detalls.. Now 1 have noticed,during ... long life
that people who are cruel to ... human beings, 'especially
helpless and ... w~ak, are 'very often inor,tinately
fond of ... animals. ,. .. exaggerated sentimentality about
. .. animals seems to change '... people in ... heart and
in ... mind. 1 did not learn this at ... school. Only ...
life can teach one ... lesson. So when you drew ... gun
on me, and 1 saw that ... dog meant more to you than
... human life, 1 knew that you were o" murderer."
J ones handed his man over to ... local police, until ...
extradition formalities could be gone through, and .sighed
with ... relief. From. .. first to ... last, it had been ...
tiring quest.





What follow one upon another thick and fast? What

names do we hear on everybody's lips? What is our
reaction? Wnat is it hard to know? When are we
wondering what the new development wiIl be? What is
ltaly watching.? What has France her eye on? . Where



is Germany looking? What is she fairly fretting over ?

Where is England feverishly building battleships? How
does Poland sit? Where is her gaze tumed? What is
Russia afraid of? Who have practical1y given up the
patrol of the Bay of Biscay? What:will they do in future ?
Where is fighting going on? Since when? Who is
General Franco'.s chief adversary? Who is not likely
to be restored to the throne if General Franco wins?
Who is there so me talk of? What is happening to King
Leopold? Where has all the world its eye? Why?
Has Japan succeeded? Who is about the only per90n
who seems to be happy? What did he do ayear ago ?
What did his abdication cause? What is he doing at
the moment? Who shakes his head? What does he think
of Japan? Of Signor Mussolini? Of Herr Hitler?
The average politician? Whom do none of these things
really worry? What has Mr. Eden on his mind at
the moment? Where does my Mr. Eden send his
children every day? What are they taught there? By
whom? What do es my Mr. Eden do twice a week?
With whom? What topics does Mr. Eden discuss?
What does he wonder? Why does he think the division of the Canary Islands and the Balearic group
very probable? What does he believe of Herr Hitler?
What does he hope? What is he prepar,ed for? Whom
does he think should do something about it? What
does he sar about the weak and helpless? Under
what eonditlOns might not the machinery of the League
have broken down? Whieh Mr. Eden does he take off
his hat to? When does he get quite put out ?What does
he rather wonder? . What does he feel that England
and Ameriea will hardly live down? Does everybody
agree with him? What does he wonder when he goes off
at a tangent? What do I think? What, in fact, is his
general conclusion about the situation? How will Europe
go under? Where shall I see him next week? What
do I rather expect? Why do they think him rather a
joke at the Town Hall? What did he suggesrlast week ?



What did he only just fail in p\!rsuading the lVIayor to do

last year? Whieh of last year's meetings was it? What
did one of his eolleagues suggest? What was Eden~s
reaetion to that? What did he add? What do 1 believe
he is going to suggest the next time there is a meeting ?
Why is he doubly impressed with the seheme? What
did he do in Germany? Whieh visit was ~his? Wha t
does he believe? When is he going to do the same thing
in Franee?


The student will already have notieed the struetural
differenee between English positive affirmations, on the
one hand, and English negative and interrogative sentenees
on the other (pars. 4-5, 9 (b), (e), 15). lf he remembers
this, par. 122 will have no'.real diffieulties for him, though
it is usually a stumbling-bloek.
The ban ~n the double negative, used with a negative
meaning, is absolute; and this in spite of the faet that
one often hears it used in this way by less edueated
English people (see pars. 126-127)'


A. PROSE PASSAGE. (See pars. 369-37.)
Somebody or other is always advaneing remedies for
out eeonomie ills. Some of these remedies are cIever, and
some are noto The tragedy is that none of them ever seem
to be effeetive. 1 suppose that one of these days somebody will hit on a soIution that will work. It would be too
pessimistie altogether simply to take it for granted, even
1 Any is not a negative word. "1 want anything but that" means
something quite different from "1 want nothing but that." (Par. I2S,
page 255.)



after all these failures, that there is none. But if there is

(me, we hadbetter find i~ at once, as we cannot afford
to wait much longer.
Some \of the trouble seems especially to be due to the
fact that certain nations have quite evidently got away
from the basic realities of life. Certalnly, they have lost
;grt of the fact that the first and real1y fundame;;i
problem of existence here below is the very practical one
of hunger and cold. We must have something to eat;
and we must have the wherewithal to clothe and shelter
ourselves. Before we begin to produce anything else,
we must begin to produce these things. Some will say
that man does not live precisely by bread a~one. But
actually, the unhappy truth is that we none of us can
very well live without it. If we'.have no shelter or food
or clothes, or if we have an insufficiency of them, we are
too miserable to devote ourselves to the spiritual and
intellectual development without which no nation can
.really be called civilized or happy.
To-day, certain nations are in fact producing anything
and everything except the bread they need. (Bread is,
of course, used here in the symbolic sense of the basic
necessities of life.) For some people think-and in such
nations they are the people whose word actually goesthat the. highest manifestation of civilization is the turning
out of machines and of machine-made things. These
they give to other people in exchange for bread.
But it someti'mes happens that, for one reason or
another, the people to whom these machine-made things
are offered do not at all want them. Sometimes they tum
them down because they are making the same thing~70~
themselves; sometimes, because sQmebody else is offering
the same things cheaper; and sometimes-and this, of



course,'is really no reason at all-because they merely

do not want refrigerators, or wireless-sets, or bridges.
AI1 . this gives rise to international complications.
Some nations get cross with others who exchange machinemade things for less bread thaIl they do, and want to fight
them. But war is a very serious ihing, nowadays; and
we do not wi11ingly enter into it. We are so elever; and
we have discovered such good explosives to blow one
another up with, that the last time there was a big war,
some milfu>ns of men lost their lives.
Indeed, nowhere is it easy, in these days, to deal with
people who merely do not want our machine-made things.
At one time, indeed, if a nation was small enough, or weak
enough, and inhabited some corner of Asia or Africa,
very likely some European power would conquer it, so
as to make it sufficiently civilized to want wireless-sets
'and refrigerators and bridges. Naturally, the result was
that there was always some war or othergoing on .; and
somebody or other was always getting killed.
But the trouble is, to-day, that the surv~vors make
such a fuss about it. People who turn out machinemade things have so many rival s in the same trade; and
these rival s make so much noise about it if their competitors kili a few Mricans or Asiatics during their
well-meant efforts at civilizing. And, of course, everybody
is very touchy about being mixed up in anything so vulgar
as a scandal; especially as some scandals take such an
unconscionable time in blowing over. So people
getting more and more unwilling to civilize Mricans and
Asiatics in this way; chiefiy because any benefit they
may reap is n9t worth the hubbub.
Another reason why the -system of exploiting other
nations is breaking down, is that some of the nations who




used to be exploited are doing a little exploiting on their

own account; and are freezing the pioneers ot of their
old markets. We cannot wel J;;bject to their taking a leaf
out of our notebook.
Thus it happens that fewer and fewer people are
willing to give us bread for our machine-made things ';
and any attempts to recover 10st markets generally fall
through. And the people who formerIy relied on machi~
are wondering if there is anything to be done about it.
F or not even Mr. Wells has yet thought of machines
that we ca.1l eat.. And, of course, one musteat something !
So it is, no dobt, all to the good, that in England
some people are at last taking an interest in the idea of
one man, one cow, and ten acres. , Nobody, surely, can
at all object to the idea in principIe; though some might
say that it would, in fact, be impossible to carry it out
into practice. For, although everybody likes the country
at a distance-distance lends enchantment to the viewyet everybody seems to draw the line when anybody asks
him to live and work in it. People perhaps think that
any novelty there might be would soon wear off. When
it comes to action of any kind they draw back, and say
that it is hard lines ort aman to ask him to i forgo the
good times that he can have in a city, in exchange for the,
to say the least, primitive comforts of a farm. Nl)body
feels up to the sacrifice. Any such change, so such people
say, would be a change for the worse.
Not at aH. No reasonable person would at all prefer
to continue unhealthy and hard up in some grimy city,
when he could be both healthy and comparatively \Vell off
on some farm, with no position to live up to, and therefore
no temptation to ve beyond his means.



Yet, with millions of acres idle in England, and with

some two million unemployed living 011 public funds,
nobody seems to have thought of such an obvious solution
to' this burning question; with the exception of sorne few
lonely pione''ers whose ideas, for the moment,at least,
do not seem to be especially catching on. If you quote
them, people will cut you short with the remark that
you have been listening to sorne crazy intellectual or other,
or to some nobody with a grievance. As though it makes
any difference to the truth of a statement, whether it is
made by a sornebody or by a nobody I
The opponents of the back-to-the-Iand movement
maintain that England, for better or for worse, is an
industrial country; and that she can, afford to draw on
her capital to pay an those idle men, until things get
better. One wonders if there is any truth in this. For
it seems that if there is any change in prospect at all, it
is a jump from the frying pan into the fire. We must
~it on some solution at once, or the problem will ~et out of
hand. In any case, issues are never made less dangerous
by refusing to face them. We must keep in view the fact
that the world is changing. Anybody can see it with half
an eye. If we do not wish to let our children in for sorne
terrible catastrophe, we must necessarily put our shoulders
to the wheel in a common effort. We stand in need of
a reform as much personal as social; and it is foolish to
try to hold lt off. Nobody denies that our standard of
values .is too materialistic, and that our standard of living
is too high. Never shall we get out of the wood until we
notably readjust our outlook on life. We have to take the
bull by the horns, if we want to win through. 1t would
be cowardly to throw up the sponge. And to those who



say, " Let things run their course, " the answer can only
be, " Anything hut that ! "

Some, Other, No, Any, Non~, AND One.

121. To supply the need for an article that is neither
completely definite nor completely indefinite, we use the
intermediate form "sorne," to signify "a small quantity
of," "a few." E.g., 1 want some cheese. 1 saw some
wild geese to-day.
122. In inte"ogative and in negative sentences, and
in sentences introduced by "ij," and "whether," we
generally use "any" instead of some. In conditional
clauses, either "some" or ",any" may be used. E.g.,
He said that he knew sorne Poles; but I answered that I
did not know any. There is ,never any. use in crying
over spilt milk. Is there any sugar left? 11/ there is any,
1 shall be surprised. It is doubtful whether any machine
will ever travel at ten thousand miles an hour. 1 do not
know whether I shall have any money left over after the
trip. 1 shall come to see you at Brighton, provided 1
have some (any) cash left at the end of the holiday. 1f
you have any (sorne) cash, you can come.
123. If " sorne" is stressed when it replaces or determines plural nouns or nouns representing things that can
be measured only, we imply a contrast between two or
more types embraced within the meaning of the nouns
so determined tir replaced. E.g., Some coal contains as
much as ninety per cent. of carbono (But other coal
does not.) Some tropical countries have quite a pleasant
climate. (And others have not.) Some Frenchmen are
nice. (Others are not.) Do. you like Chinamen? Well,
1 like some. (But 1 dislike others.)
124. "Sorne" before singular nouns representing
things which can be counted,shpws a rather studied
indifference towards the thing in question. The addition
of " or other" can accentuate this indifference almost to





tM point 01 contempt. E.g., Some man put this advertisement under the door. He is always talking of sotne'
adventure or other of his.
125- "Any" in positive affirmations acts as a kind of
emphatic indejinite. E.g., What will you have to drink ?
Oh, any drink wiIl do 1 That man wiIl steal anything he
can lay hands on.
126. The negative of the indefinite article, and of the
adjective "some," is "no." The negative of the pronoun'
" some " is " none." 1 In English, a double negative makes a
sentence positive. In the construction of a negative'
sentence, therefore, a positive verb must be used in combination with " no " and " none."

1 have a dogo
1 have not a dogo
1 have no dogo .
1 want some water. 1 don't want any water. 1 roant no water~
1 want some.
1 don't want any.
1 roant none .
. 127. The determina,tlve "no" and the pronoun
" none" are used emphatically; and, often, to expresS'
indignation. E.g., Of a boy we wiIl say: "He is not a
roan yet." But of a wife-beater: "He is no man!"
Again, a rnoderate drinker might refuse a glass of whisky
with: "Thanks, 1 dan't feel like any. more." But a.
rabid teetotaler would be more likely to exclaim: "1
want none of your poison ! "
128 _ The indefinite article cannot stand alone as a
sort of indefinite-article-pronoun. To the question, "Is
there a woman in the room?" one cannot answer, as
one can, for instance, in some languages, "Yes, there is.
Instead, we use the indefinite-article-pronoun
" one," and say: "Yes, there is one." "No, there isn't
29- That " one" used 'in the aboye manner is not a
numeral, can be seen from the fact that when qualified
by an adjective, it can take the plural formo E.g., What
apples will you have? 1 wiIl have sorne big anes. 1 will
1 When the subject none is the alternative to some representing a
plural noun, the verb should logically be singular; for none tneans
no one. Educated people, however, often make it plural. E.g., 1
wanted apples, but none were on sale.



not have any small ones. 1 will have no rotten onet. 1

will have red ones.
130- With the definite article or a demonstrative before
it, "one" becornes a definite-article-pronoun. E.g.,
Which dog bit you? That one. The black one. The
one over there. Which apples will you have? The big
ones. Those red ones.
131- The indefinite-article-pronoun "one" is not
preceded by the indefinite article. The vulgarism "you
are a one" (translated by a Cockney with "vous tes un
un ") should not be used.
132- "One" can also be used as an indefinite personalpronoun in the sense of "any person," or "no person."
It is often used with the irnplication that the attitude or
opinion or action in question would be that 01 any normal .
person under similar circumstances. E.g., One ,cannot
accept that kindof thing without protesto Togo to
America frorn Europe, one must cross the ocean.
133- The alternative, when expressed, of "some"
and of " one " is " other " or " others." . E.g., 1 shall take
neither the one nor the other. 1 like neither this one nor
the others. Some people are good and others are noto
1 shall take either this one, or anotlter..
134- The rules laid down aboye for " some," " any,"
and "no," hold good also for their compounds. E.g., He
is always mending something or other. He is always talking to somebody or other. Do you know anything about it.
No, 1 don't know anytmng. No, 1 know nothing.
11 1 lmew anything, 1 should tell you. 1 don't know
anybody in Patagonia; and, whether 1 knew anybody
or not, it would not help me mucho Shall we let
things slide? Anything but that! Would you like
John to see you horne? Anybody (anyone) but
John! 1 saw somehody. 1 saw nobody. 1 didn't see
anybody. Did nobody tell you about it? Nowhere does'
literature flourish more than in Ertgland. 1 have not
seen hirn anywhere.



13S. " Someone," "somebody," "anybody," and "nobody " always refer to persons, and have no plural form,
except in the special meaning givc:.n below.
136. "Somebody" can have the special meaning of
" a person 01 importance "; and "nobody," that of " a
person 01 no importance." Both can be preceded by an
article, and both can be found in the plural. E.g., His
daughter married a nobody. He thinks he is (a) somebody.
lt is the nobodies who make the world go round. Society
is divided into two classes: the somebodies and the



In the following passage, fill in the space left by the

dotted lines, using some, oth(!T, no, any, none, or one, as
necessary :" Chicken-farming," said Matthew, "does not attract
as many people as it used too Mter the war, ... people
with a little capital and, ... thing else to db, took it up .
. .. made ... thing of a success of it, but ... -and they were
the unlucky ... -made ... thing, and lost everything. 1
doubt whether ... body has ever made a fortune from eggs."
"Yes," said l\1:ark, "I am afraid that ... would-be
chicken - farmers do not realize that ... thing worth
while can be done in . . . profession" without proper
training. 'No !raining, ... profits,' is what they should
learn from the first. They have the idea that chickenfarming just means putting up ... sheds as chicken-houses,
wiring off ... land for chicken-runs, putting ... chickens
in, throwing them ... chicken-feed, and collecting the
eggs, if.... If ... could make money like that, life
would be worth living. They never dream that thereTs
... thing more in it than that. But there is, as ... soon
finds out, for instance, when ... starts handling things



like incubators. 1 had a friend whoput ... eggs in .. "

once. fle w~s surprised when, after ... time, he did not
get ... chickens. Then he found that all theeggs had
been cooked hard, because he had kept the incubator at
a temperature of ... hundred and thi,rty degrees. His
wife, who can never get ... real heat in her stove when she
wants to make ... cakes or mast a joint, does her baking
in the incubator, and hatches the chickens in her oven;
or so she says, whenever there are ... visitors. My
friend counters her story with another .... 'Did ... body
~ver hear " he asks, ' about the letter my wife sent to tbe
Information Bureau of the Ministry of Agriculture?
"Dear Sir," she said in the letter, "there is ... thing
wrong with my chickens. ~V'ery morning, 1 find ... of
them on their ~acks,quite stiff, with their legs in the~air.
There must be ... thing the matter, which 1 don'i understand." Back carne the answer by the next post. "Dear
Madam," it ran, "your suspicions are well founded.
There IS ... thing the matter with your chickens. 1ndeed ,
.. ;.body could have explained the trouble to you., Your
chickens, Madam, are dead ! " She was ... too pleased
with the answer, but there was .,. thing to be done about
it. If .. , official or .. , has a) slack daI and a sense of
humour, and indulges it, 1 do not think that the poor
, public has ... protection. If you write angrily that you
want ... funny letters from him, but information, he will
probably send you another .... ' "
" She was Iucky to get ... kind of answer at an in that
time," grinned Matthw. "Had they had .... real answer
'10 give her, it would probably have taken ..,. thing like
six months for them to send .... 1 am not surprised
that they had ... , though. They could scarcely have been
expected to make ... suggestions, before they got ... further



details. And with chicken epidemics, there is rarely

... thing to be done. We know hardly ... thing ab9ut
them, as yet; and 1 doubt whether \.Ve shall know ... thing
for '" time to come. I t makes .. . realize how little
modern science real1y knows."
"1 had, a lady friend once," remarked Matthew,
H who was thinking of going in for chicken-farming, and
asked me iI I could give her ... advice.She had been
attracted to the, idea by reading ... agricul~ural journal
which ... tout or ... had pushed under her' door with the
idea of getting her to subscribe to it. She thought 1
might ha:ve ... knowledge of the matter, because 1 had
told her that ... relations of mine ,had had... success in
the industry. As a matter of fact, so far as advice was
concerned, 1 had ... to give, for 1 knew absolutely ... thing
about it. 1 am ... chicken~farmer. So, not wanting her
to suffer ... disappointment, 1 drew ... what on my
imagination, 'andmade up ... thingfur her benefit." An
uncle of mine, 1 said, got a record number of eggs,and
big ... at that, from his 'hens, by the use of a very simple
. device. She was all ears. 'What was the device?'
she asked eagerly. . .. thing much, 1 said. . .. thing very
simpleand inexpensive. My uncle had ... special nests
made, with a trap-door under each .... When a hen laid
an egg, the weight of the egg was sufficient to weigh the
trap-door down, and the egg would slip through it, and
the trap-door would close again. Meanwhile the hen,
who had ... idea of the trick that was being playel on her,
would begin to cackle with ... excitement, and ron off
to call ... of her friends who might be near, to come and .
view her handiwork. In hen circles, you know, the
... bodies are those who lay eggs, and the ... bodies, those
who don't. And, being anxious to prove that she belonged



to the ... body - cIass, arid not to the ... body - cIass, the
heJ;l was naturally anxious to prove that she was on the
right side of the line that separated the ... from the ....
When her friends gathered round, the hen would proudly
turn to show them what she had accompijshed. Of
course, there would be ... *ing in the ne~t, and her
riends would begin to cackle with ribald laughter. They
would show her/... merey, because, as 1 have already
hinted, there was ... thing of a rivalry in this matter of
laying eggs. So. .. of them would believe that there had
ever been ... egg in the nest at all. 'Dear me!' the
poor hen would exclaim, '1 could have swom that 1
had laid a lovely ... , but it certainly seems that there
isn't ... there in the nest. 1 must have been mistaken.
1 couldn't have laid ... after al1.' And she would scratch
her head, with her c1aw in a disconcerted sort of way.
Did you ever see ... hen scratching its head? 1 don't
think there is ... thing quite so comical. Anyway, disappointed in her first egg, the hen would sit down and
lay another .. .. This. . . would suffer the same fate.
After she had laid three or four eggs in the same way,
and had called ... of her friends who might be about, to
come and see them on each occasion, her reputation for
veracity would undergo ... thing of a setback. On .. .
days, she would lay as many as six eggs, ... after the ... ,
until she finally became discouraged, decided that she
was off he~ stroke, and gave up for the day. . .. times
my friend would stop the trap working for a day or two,
just to make thero feel that not all their efforts were
wasted. So that they did see ... of the eggs that they
laido If they had found ... at aH, they would have given
it up as abad jobo My friend made ... thousands of
pounds in this way, but his hens suffered a good deal



for it. They used to go round looking at ... another

with ... what puzzled expressions on their faces, and their
former plumpness was replaced by a ... what ascetic
scragginess. Of course, the chickens in the chicken
farm next door knew aH about it. When a hen announces
that she had Iaid an... egg, you can hear her for a good
mile. So, when ... of my unc1e's hens would cackIe,
the neighbour's chickens would put their heads through
the wire netting, and crack . .. joke. Among chicken
circ1e~, my unc1e's farm got the reputation of being
stocked with Iunatics or social c1imbers, or ... thing of
the sort. For, as 1 have already said, only hens that can
lay eggs are considered ... bodies in the chicken world,
and the ... chickens could not understand why they did
not lay a normal number of eggs, and be quiet about it.
One egg every two days was considered enough for ...
well-bred heno But it lS always the ... bodies who try
to push themseIves forward, thought the neighbouring
" My lady friend heard the story out without saying
... thing. Then, , 1 hve heard that ::. before,' she
remarked, 'and 1 didn't see ... thing funny in it then,
and 1 don't see ... thing funny in it now. Moreover, 1
want ... of your nonse':lse. y ou are always trying to
tell ... si1ly story or other, and you always choose old ...
at that. .... would think that a friend would try to help
... instead of clowning. But then, you're ... friend, to
try and make fun of me when 1 need ... advice: Why is
it," asked Matthew, " that most women have ... sense of
humour? They can see ... thing but a joke. My
wife can see ... sometimes, but only if it is of the
most distorted kind. She laughs if 1 fall off a pair of
steps, or hit my thumb with ... tool, or ... thing of th



kind. But ... th~ng about an Englishman, an Irishman,

and a Scotsman, leaves her cold. 1 think there is ... cruel
streak in most women. That, I suppose, is why ...
tribes, like the Tuaregs, hand their' prisoners over to
their women to be tortured-:--:As members of the -;;'ker
sex, ... would think they would do ... thing rather than
inflict pain."
"Talking of eggs," remarked Mark, "at ... time
my nephew, aged three, used to like ... thing but eggs.
He would have . . . of' them, under ... circumstances,
whether they were big ... or small ... , white ... or brown
.... But once, when he was With his mother at ... hotel
or ... at ... place or ... on the South Coast, he won the
heart of the chef. 'Fhe latter was a Russian or aSlav,
or ... thi~g of the kind. The chef used to draw'a funny
picture on the end of a boiled egg, and send it up for
my nephew's breakfast. My nephew loves funny pictures.
so hismother had an idea. The end of the egg with the
picture on it was placed at the bottom of the egg-cup,
and the little chap had to eat the egg before he was
allowed to turn the shell and see ... thing of the picture
the chef had dra wn. Theil he would throw back his
head and shout with laughter. He has his egg ev~ry day
now without a ,murmuro But ~e will have ... thing but
picture eggs, which is ... thing of a strain on the fami1y's
inventiveness. . .. of the drawings must be alike, and
if ... of them are, the child says so in long:-drawn howls.
Moreover, in his mind, ... thing funny is necessarily associated with egks. The other day he was in ... shop with his
mother, when ... woman with an extremely funny face
and rather ridiculous clothes entered. My nephew went
into screams of laughter. 'Mummy, mummy,' he cried~
pointing at tJle freak. 'Look, mummy: Funny egg,



funny egg!' The woman said ... thing about a rude,

spoilt little brat, and walked \ out, in ... thing but a good



\Vho is always advancing remedies for our economic

ilIs ? What are these "remedies like? What is the tragedy ?
Who will hit on a solution tbat wiIl work? When?
What would be too pessimistic altogether? Why bad
we better find the remedy at once? What does
sorne of the trouble seem to be due to? What fact
have . certain nations lost sight of? What must we
have ?, When must we begin to produce these things ?
What wiIl sorne say? What is the unhappy truth?
If we have no shelter or clothes or food, what
bappens? What are certain nations producing to-day?
What do sorne people sincerely think? What do they
"do with their machines and machine-made things? What
sometimes happens? Why de sorne people turn down
the machines, etc., which are offered to them? What
does a11 this give rise to? Whom do sorne nations get
cross with? What is war nowadays? Do we willingly
enter into it? Why not? What is not easy anywhere,
nowadays? U nder what conditions would sorne European
nation conquer sorne Mrican or Asiatic nation? Why?
What was the natural result? What is the trouble to-day ?
What have people who tum out machine-made things got ?
When do these rival s make a scandal? What is everybody
very touchy about? For what spedal reason? Why
are people getting more and more unwilling to civilize
Africans and Asiatics? What is anotherreason why the
system of exploiting other nations is breaking down?
What is it that we cannot well object to? What happens
as a result? What are the people who formerIy relied
on machines wondering? What cannot even Mr. Wells
do? What must one eat? ' What is a11 to the good ?
What can nobody object to? What might sorne say?



What does everybody like? Why? Who draws the line

when anybody asks him to live in the country? What
do they perhaps think? When do they draw back?
What do they say? Who feels upto the sacrifice? What
do they say about such a change? What would no
reasonable person prefer? What kind of a position must
one Uve up to, on a farm? What temptation does one
lack? Has anybody thought of the obvious solution to
this burning question? Are the ideas of the pioneers
catching on? If you quote thern, what will people cut
you short with? What difference does it make to a truth,
if a somebody or a nobody utters it? What . do the
opponents of the back-to-the-Iand movement maintain?
What can England afford to do? What does one wonder ?
What change does there seem lo be in prospect? What
must we hit on at once? What will happen if we do not ?
Are issues made less dangerous by refusing to face them ?
How can anybody see it? Why must we put our shoulders
to the wheel in a common effort? What do we stand
in need of? What is it foolish to do? What does nobody
deny? Shall we ever get out of the wood? If we want
to win through, what shall we have to do? What would
it be cowardly to do? What answer must we give to
those who say, " Let things run their course ? "





The teacher will notice, and it should be pointed out

to the pupil, tha the frequent use of sorne of the less
artic1e-lik~ determinatives in a text gives a distinctly
academic touch to its style. This stands out c1earIy
in toe Prose Passage.
This is especial1y the case in regard to :Such, with its combinations (par. 141).
Certain (par. 141).



Eith(!T and neither with positive verbs (par. 140).

A very (par. 142).
All used in the plural where every in the singular
would do (par. 144)'


A. PROSE PASSAGE. (See pars. 358, 363.)
Everybody fu lIy subscribes to the principIe that it is
the function of a judge to interpret the laws of bis country ;
and, when anybody breaks such laws, to impose a punishment for such violation. The legisIator rigorously limits
such .discretionary powers as each judge naturally enjoys
with regard to the degree of punishment to be imposed,
so that such powers may properly be exercised only in
conformity with' the circumstances of each case. Such
is the principIe upon which the whole concept of our
judiciary system is based i'. and the very limits which the
legisIator carefully and deflnitely imposes upon the scope
and powers of such functionaries as judges, and magistrates,
plainly constitute a certain guarantee against arbitrary
and unjust sentences. And these precautions have been
justified by the resuIts. Our courts of justice are famous
the world over for impaFtiality and freedom from corruption. But it is a mistake to think of judges and
magistrates as such, as lawmakers or moralists. A judge
may be a very Justinian; but, if he seriously wishes to
make or criticise the laws of his country, the Bench is
no place for such as he. His place, clearly, is in Parliament, where the value of any reforms he may in his
wlsdom wish to bring about, may be freely tested in open
discussion such as he would never tolerate patiently in his
own court. For the principie that no one man alone is



nt to make the laws on his own initiative, or rbltrarily

interpret the principIes of justice according to certain
preconceived notions of his own, is the very foundation
of our social system. Such problems are too delicate,
and their solution has too much of a ,bearing on the
lives and happiness of individuals, for us to leave their
working out in the hands of one man, however intelligent
and sincere he may be. In such matters we feel, righdy
or wrongly, that two heads are better than one, and six
hundred better than two.
Now, whiJe aIl willwilllngly agree that the limitations
wlsely imposed: on the functions of a judge are, on the
whole, cleai- enough; it is almost impossible effectively to
check small abuses that may easlly arise from his neglect
to confine his court activities within', ~h limitations.
For our judges ae completely free froIn governmental
control. lt is not at al' easy summarily to dismiss a' judge,
except by Act of Parliament, and for certain crimes.
They can even pass sentence fearlessly against the
Go~ernment. Most judges do not meanly tak advantage
of this fact, but sorne few do. Thus, a certain judge
would feelingly commiserate' with parties in divorce
cases, because he felt strongly that the motives for divorce
accepted by the law were not extensive enough. Now,
a judge may rabid Iy uphold the old Christian concept of
the indissolubility of, marriage, or he may bold Iy express
all the enthusiasm of an ultra-modern for free love; but,
whether he halds either of these opinions or n;jher, he
haS no right insolently to take advantage of his privileged
position to express such private opinions openly in court.
He is there to interpret the law impartially as it is, not
to tell the world what he thinks it ought to be. The latter
is the function of Parliament.



People oftenpdmlrlngfy refer to suchjudges as " frank "

and "outspokeQ"; but they have really no right to
either qualificative.
Frankness and outspokenness
definitely presuppose a certain moral courage. But no
COurage is required on the part of a judge to take advantage
of such a position as his, by making observations which
none of hishearers are permitted to answer.
Besides the would-be legislators, there are the facetious

judges, and the self-righteous ones. Neither are pleasant

1t must be a terrible ordeal for anybody who has
been unwlllingly brought before a judge, to stand in the
dock wi'th his liberty and his. reputation at stake. To
;;;;;;.~, he is a nobody; but to himself, at least, he is
somebody. The prospect of eating his heart out in sorne
prison. rises up threatenlngly' before rum. Nobody!.::!!
for him. Everyhody seems to be against him. The wheels
~ the law revolve pitilessly,' and he stands alone in his
miseiy and shame. And,amid all the stark tragedy of
his ruin and disgrace, the judge joyously finds food for
laughter. He looks complacently around at everybody
for approval, and feebly cracks rus senile jQke, while the
subservient lawyers and clerks dutlfully laugh their
servile laugh; and the prisoner holds himself in to keep
back the protest that indlgnantly springs to his lips.
There was even the gallant old decrepit with one foot
in the grave-he has since. died-who so far forgot his
own dignity. and that of the court of justice over which
he was presiding, as to pay compliments to a beautiful
witness. He may stupldly have thought himself goodlooking and attractive; but she could not possibly have'
thought him either. All she saw, if she saw anything at
aH, was a disgusting old man leering bold Iy across at her,



and making remarks to which she could easily have

given the adequate answer anywhere eIse, but could not
there in court, because she dare noto
A judge, as such, is not a moralist. All judgements as
to the degree of gravity of a crime have already been made
by Parliament, and have been definitely expressed in the
class of penalty imposed for such a crime. It is not for
the judge presumptuously to add his opiniot;l. The only
power that a judge has for punishing, be receives from
Parliament. If Parliament had wanted judges to indulge
in tongue-lash~n~ their prisoners, Parliament would have
said so. But Parliament has not, and therefore all such
tongue-Iashing is a cowardly and caddish usurpation
Qf powers. If judges can remember nothing else, they
should remember one thing; that it is justly considered
to be beneath an Englishman and a gentleman to hit a
man when h~ is down. The insoIent self-righteousness,
the concentrated scorn and venom which such judgesfortunately they are few and far between-show towards
their prisoners, make one understand why the cruellest
monster in English history - Judge Jeffreys - was one
of their colleagues.



I37. The folIowing are not preceded by an article,

and can be used onIy to determine or repIace singular
nouns representing things that can be counted :- '
Ca) Every (without exception)
(b) Each (every individual)
(e) Either (one of two altematives)


Every one
Each (one)
Neither (excluding both alternatives)
I38. Every can be compounded with " body," " thillg,"
" one," and " where " in the sense of " all (persons, things,
places) without exception." "Every" can also be used to



and making remarks to which she could easily have

glven the adequate answer anywhere e1se, but could not
there in court, because she dare noto
A judge, as such, is not a morallst. All judgements as
to the degree of gravity of a crime have already been made
by Parliament, and have been definitely expressed in the
dass of penalty imposed for such a crime. It is not for
the judge presumptuously to add his opinioIJ-. The only
power that a judge has for punishing, be receives from
Parliament. If Padiament had wanted judges to indulge
in tongue-Iash~~ their prisoners, Parliament would have
said so. But Parliament has not, and therefore all such
tongue-Iashing is a cowardly and caddish usurpation
Qf powers. If judges can remember nothing else, they
shouId remember one thing; that it is justly considered
to be beneath an Englishman and a gentleman to hit a
man when he is down. The insolent self-righteousness,
the concentrated scorn and venom which such judgesfortunately they are few and far between-show towards
their prisoners, make one understand why the cruellest
monster in English history - Judge Jeffreys - was one
of their colleagues.



I37. The following are not preceded by an artide,

and can be used only to determine or replace singular
nouns representing things that can be counted:- .
(a) Every (without exception)
(h) Each (every individual)
(e) Either (one of two alternatives)


Every one
Each (one)
Neither (excluding both altematives)
I38. Every can be compounded with " body," " thing,"
" one," and " where " in the sense of " all (persons, things,
places) without exception." "Every" can also be used to



Such aman should not be permitted .to govem the country.

Of sueh is the Kingdom of Heaven. Such is the stoty he
told me. He thinks too much: sueh'men are dangerous.
(b) " Such" does not take the indefinite article whel1
preceded by "some," "any," "no," "every." E.g.,
1'11 do no sueh thing! Any sueh request will be turned
down. 1 won't do any sueh thing. 1 quite believe that
some such monster as that of Loch Ness may have survived.
1t sometimes gets hot in N ew York; and, on every suck
occasion, dozens die of collapse. What do you think of
attempts at suicide, sueh as those of jilted lovers? 1
think that all sueh people should be severely spanked.
(e) "As stlch" following a noun, reduces the application
of a nonn to within the stTiet limits 01 its essential melfning.
E.g., Commercial drawing, as sueh, cannot be true arto
Judges, as sueh, are not legislators. War, as such" is cruel.
(d) The meaning of " sueh a'~ can be expressed by
placing "so" before an adjective, and the indefinite
article after. E.g., 1 did not think that he would be so
barefaced a liar, i.e., Such a barefaced liar.
(e) " A eertain" is used to determine a noun, when
it is unnecessary or inexpedient' to give tlie name of the
person or thing concemed., E.g., A eertain, man went
down from Jerusalem to Jericho. On a eertdin night in
the December of 1795, eertain men might have been seen
battling their way through a storm, up a eertain mountain
path. It is welrknown that the morals of eertain public
men leave much to be desired. lt is said of a eettain lady
that she is no better than she should be. Certain people
develop extraordinary powers of thought. Who told you
that? .Oh, a eertain little bird !

142- The following cannot be used with the indefinite


Singular and Plural.

The same (identical)
The very (identical)


The same (one)
The very one

The same (ones)
The very ones



NOTE.---(i) " The very "is an emphatic form, and can

be followed by "same" to make it more emphatic still.
(ii) " A very" is sometimes met with in the sense of
u a veritable." E.g., He thinks himself a very Justinian.
Examples.-He was boro on the same day as 1 was.
His birthday is the thirteenth of January; and mine is
the same. Yesterday 1 saw a fire in Regent Street; and
my friend saw the same one. The gypsies who stole your
chickens yesterday must be the same ones as those who
robbed J ones of his turkeys. All gypsies seem to be
muen the same. You are the very man 1 wantedto see.
Tom is the very person to lend me sorne money. He is
the very same man as the one who was here yesterday.
Are you sure he is the very same? Yes, he is the very one.
The people who hate one most, are the very ones whom
one has done most favours for.
J43. Whole. (Entire, entirety, complete unit.) Replaces or determines nouns which stand for things which
can be counted. E.g., The whole town was abuzz with
\excitement. Whole toWns could be destroyed by air bombardment. When 1 go to the cinema, 1 canriot sit through
the whole of the show. A whole is greater than its parto
144- All is used to replace or determine nouns representing things which cannot be counted, or plural nouns.
E.g., When one is tired, all things seem to go wrong. All
the people went to sleep. All things are for the best in
the best of all possible worlds. To the citizen of the
world, all places are home. She toId him all. All doctors
prefer vitamins. All applauded.
NOTE.-Where possibIe, it is more usual to make the
above constructions singular, by using "every." E.g.,
When one is tired, everything seems to go wrong. Everything is for the best, in the best of all possible worlds.
The citizen of the world feels at home everywhere. Sbe
told her husband everything. Every doctor recommends
vitarnins. At all events, we have saved our honour.



145. Other can be preceded by any article or determinative; and can itself be used either as a detepninative
or as a pronoun. E.g., Win you have another drink?
Thanks, another would be one too many. John and
Mary are here. Where are the others? Other people
do not look at it iti the same wa as you do. Sorne people
said one thing; and others sai another. Qne. does this,
and another do es that. 1 did not see any other person
besides AIgy. N o other cheese is good enough. Any
other solution is irnpossible.
Note the following: Every other day, 1 go for a swim,
i.e., 1 go for a swirn every alternate day. 1 saw the
Prince of Piedmont the other day, i.e., 1 saw him a few
days ago.




In the following exercise, the writer strenuously

opposes the idea that there should be such a thing as the
" colour bar." Insert any suitable less article-like de terminative or pronoun in the spaces left for the purpose.
In almost ... discussion on the social problems of
the European colonies in Africa, there crops up the
question whether it is desirable 'or ... wise to encourage
the rnixing of the black and white races by permitting
marriages between them~ ... people take it as an axiom
that, owing to '" alleged biological differences between
the two stocks, ... an interrningling of the two racial
strains results in a type which has ... the defects of ...
of the two races, and the good qualities of neither; and
that therefore ... of the two racial groups should be kept
unadulterated by any ... mixture. In ... such discussion,
to question the validity of this theory is to raise a ...
storm of disapproval. Invective is not unusual, ... , 00
... occasions, ... is the bitteroess engendered. It is held



that the ... act of questioning the validity of the theory

is a betrayal of white civilization, as well as being
thoroughly unscientific. No ... thing! It is ... !
Superficially, however, the upholders of the colour
bar have a . .. number of facts to base their case on.
They affirm that the results of ... such intermingling have
proved their contention up to the hilt, in ... and every
case. They point to the half-caste population of ... parts of
Mrica; and particularly to ... sections of it, ... as tnose
~ho live in the notorious District Six of Cape Town. This
half-caste population is the result of the in_termingling
of Africans, Malays, or . . . caloured races on the one
hand, and Europeans on the other. The men -C?f two
European nations have been responsible, and ... of the
two types produced is, in fact, attractive. For the fact
is that, in .. . parts of Mrica the criminal population,
as a. ... , is recruited from among the half-castes. This is
particularly true of the Griquas" who occupy ... districts,
and who are, on the ... , of an inferior mental, moral,
and physical type. This 'has naturally led . . . people
to the conclusion that ... such mixed marriages are, as
... , undesirable, and that their results wilI always be much
the ....
But there is an... side to the picture. In strong
contrast to the half-castes just mentioned, there are
'certain ... called French creoles, who are ... of mixed
French and African blood. They are to be found on ...
parts of the south-east coast, working mainly as mechanics
and artizans. . .. sugar 'mills are staffed by them. They
constitute, on the ... , an exceptionally law-abiding,
intelligent, and industrious section of the community
is their intelligence that ... ones among them have risen
to positions of eminence. A few years ago, a creole was



admittedly one of the best criminal lawyers to be found

among the ... legal profession in South Mrica. His ...
:name helped him, for it was Renaud. An. .. h~ld a high
-reputation in the medical profession. . .. of them would
have been at home in the most cultured European society.
An ... \Vas one of the richest and most successful of the
sugar planters. . .. could be brought forward as examples,
and a11 ... examples are illuminating.
Moreover, there are .:. parts of the worId where this
racial admixture of black and white has, on the ... , had
much. the ... results. It has been done in ... Latin
American countries, and notably in Cuba and Brazil. In
, .. of these countries do the half-castes' as a ... impress
Qne as being in any way inferior to white people of their
clss. In ... of the countries mentioned, h~lf-castes are
to be found in ... walk of lfe, in politics, in the liberal
professions, in business, and among the working classes.
The colour bar, as ... , is not understood in ... country,
except perhaps among a small and unimportant group
under ~oreign influence. Whether ... half-castes are
accepted or not, socially, by their colleagues, depends,
not so much on their colour, as ... , as on ... moral and
inte11ectual attainments as they may possess, . . . one .
... attainments are frequently of the very highestorder.
It must be admitted, a11 the ... , that both in Cuba
and Brazil, these mulattoes are, on the ... ,' to be found
among the working classes; and that ... of thesecoloured
peons are ... literate. nor particularly intelligent; But
some ... state of affairs is to be expected, and much the ...
can be said of the working classes of most of the countries_
of the world, not exc1uding Europe. And there are ...
circumstances, in the case of American mulattoes, which
explain and excuse ... backwardness as is to be found



among them. F or in ... o' the two countries mentioned

ab ove , the half-castes have laboured, and still labour,
under cruel handicaps. The . marvel is, not that they
have achieved so little, but that, under the circumstances,
... ones among them have achieved so mucho For the
coloured people in Latin America started their fight
for social and intellectual advancement from tht( .. '.
lowest rung of the social ladder. Their grandparents
or their great-grandparents were slaves. Slavery, as ... ,
produces the slave mentality; and it takes. a ... long
time for sI aves and their descendants to catch u p in the
battle of life with those who, like the whites, start tife
from a more advantageous position on the social ladder,
without the stigma of slavery, and with the spirit of ...
one uncrushed by the memory of generations of degrading
servitude. . ... negroes and half-castes of genius, like
Toussaint l'Ouverture of Haiti, andDumas the novelist,
were able to do this with comparative ease. . .. would
have been a great man in any society. But for the
remainder, their ... effort has to be spent in overcoming
... cruel initial disabilities. The scales are weighed even
against ... members of an English working-c1ass family
as wish to rise to the professional class, and comparative1y
few succeed in the effort. For though, in their case,
the obstacles are not so great, they also labour under
... social and economic handicaps. Apart from ...
social handicaps, it is difficult for an English working
man to give his children . . . a university education.
They may get a ... amount of help for purely academic
expenses, from ... scholarships as they may be able to
win, but their parents have to keep them in food ahd
clothes ... the ... , while they are studying. And one
must remember that, serious though they are, the economic



handicaps of an E~glish working familyare as nothing to

those of an American mulatto, who has to start at a lower
economic leve}, and is weighed down by the influence
of the slave complexo . .. obstacle, the economic or the
social, would dismay the most courageous people.
Why is it, then, that in spite of ... seemingly insuperable handicaps, so ~any hundreds of thousands of
mulattoes in Latin .America have been able to overcome
. .. economic and social handicaps, and mise themselves,
. . . one, to the ... level of civilization. as that preyalent
among their white fellow-citizens; while the half-castes
in ... parts of Africa, whose ancestors were not even slaves,
remain, in almost .. .. case, at a level ... low as to be the
despair of all who come into contact with them? . .. a
contrast requires, and must have, sorne explanation. The
following facts may throw a ... light on the dlfficulty.
In .:. parts of Mrica, half-castes, as ... , are looked
on as merior beings. . .. is the implication of the " c010ur
bar." The white officials and colonists constitute, as
... , an exclusive caste. At the ... time, marriages between
black and white are frowned upon, and, in ... parts of
the continent, -are legally invalido The result is that halfcastes are usually the fruit of irregular unions, and are,
as ... , .. . of illegitimate birth, or the descendants of
illegitimate offspring. In the case of ... children as are
born of irregular unions, their white fathers abandon
them, in almost ... case, to the care of their black mothers.
It would be almost incredible that there could be ...
inhuman a type of father, did not ... cases occur almost
... other day. . .. a system is a ... well-spring of social
evils. For the education 'of a child requires the influence
Tafather, as well as that of a mother, if it is to be complete. If. .. dies, or is for some ... reason missing from



a child's life, ... a child almost always sufferS from .. .

moral defects of'cl1.aract~r. It is a law of Nature that .. .
child -requires two parents, notone. If he lacks ... , the
result is catastrophic. ,
Even where marriages between black and white are
not absolutely prohibited, any ... half-caste children as
may be born of them are social outcasts just the ....
Their .... effort to raise their social, economic, and cultural
level is thus handicapped at ... turno They share .. in
the social life nor in the civilization of the whites from
whom they are partIy descended. And they do not have
the advantage of the fairly highly developed social and
moral codes of the black tiibesmen .... For the blacks
look doWn on them, and exclude them from the framework
of tribal society. Connected by birth with both the
types of society which surround them, ind accepted by
... , the half-castes natura1ly react, to become, in
other case, the enemies of o.. society'. This means that
almost all . . . people are potential or real criminals .
. . .thing pushes them to this desperate course. . .. such
result is only natural, in ... an unfavourable environment.
In the countries, however, where marriages between
black and white are . .. frowned upon nor forbidden;
where the offspring of o.. marriages have nothing to be
ashamed of, because they are the respectable. children
of respectable marriages; where, as ... , they have
the benefits of' patrnal as well aS of maternal influence
in their upbringing; and where they have ... the political
and social rights, and all the opportunities for education
and advancement which are enjoyed by white citizens
of their class-in ... countries, the results are as good
as can be expected from ... just and humanitarian a
system. That is, the proportion of good citizens and



intelligent men to be found among the half-castes is about

the ... as that to be found among people of pure white
stock of the ... class and with the ... opportunities. And
the proportion of imbeciles and of criminals does not
seem to be any greater or any less .... . ,
That is, while. the Latin Americans, by giving the ...
chances to white and mulatto, do ... thingpossible to
remove ... social, psychologic~l, and ecnomic disabilities
... have resulted from the unjust enslavement of the
mulattoes' ancestors, the white people in . . . parts of
Africa refuse to do any ... thing. These whites in Africa
do ... thing possible, indirectly, but effectiveIy, to create
the ... social evils and introduce the ... social injustices,
that the Latin Americans have set themselves out, with
... energy, to destroy. lt would almSt seem that, in ...
parts of Africa, ... whites regret that the slaves were evcr
liberated at ... ) . .. great are the efforts they make to
reintroduce all that was bad in the slave system.



What principIe do es everybody fully subscribe to?

What should a judge impose, if anybody violates the laws
of his country? What does the Legislator do, with regard
to the degree of. punishment to be imposed? Why?
'V'hat is the significance of this principIe? What does
the Legislator impose these limitson? What do these
limits constitute? What must we not think of magistratcs
:and judges as? What may a judge be? When is the
Bench no place for such as: he? Why is his place clearly
in Parliament? What principIe is the very foundation
{lf our social system? Why can we not leave the working
out of such problems in the hands of one man? In such
matters, what do we feel? What will all willingly agree ?
What is it almost impossible effectively to check? What
is not at all easy? Do sorne judges meanly take advantage



of this? What would a certain divorce judge do '? Why?

What may a judge rabidly uphold? What may he boltlly
express? What has he no right to do? What is he there
for? .Who~e function is it to express an opinion about.
the merits or demerits of laws? How do people often
admiringly refer to such judges? Why have they real Irno right to either qualificative? wpat does not require.
any courage? What other types of judges are there?'
Are they pleasant types? What must be a terrible ordeal ?~
What is he to others, and to himself? What rises up,
threateningly before him? Who feels for him? Who,
seems to be against him? What revolve pitilessly? How
(loes he stand'? Amid what does the judge find food for
laughter ? Why does he look complacently around?'
What does he feebly' crack? What do thesubservient
lawyers and clerks do? Why does the prisoner hold
himself in? What did the gallant old decrepit with one
foot in the grave do? What may he have thought himself ?
And the lady? What did :she see.? Is a judge a moralist ?
Who has already passed all judgments as to the degree
of gravity of a crime? How have such judgments been
definitely expressed? What has the judge no right to
do? What does a judge receive from Parliament? If
Parliament had wanted judges to indulge in tonguelashing' their prisoners, what would Parliament have done ?
Has Parliament said so? What is therefore a cowardly'
and caddish usurpation of powers? What should judges
remember? What makes one understand why the cruellest
monster in English history was a judge ?



The influence of the type of sentence used-negative,
interr.ogative, or positive-on the use of much and many,
should be stressed in the study of pars. 166-168.



By a stereotyped expression (par. 158), is meant a

group of words, most usually a phrase, which has become
a fixed expression in the language, and never changes
either in regard to the words or their order. The number
of such expressions is legion, and the pupil can only
learn them by dint of wide reading and close observation.
The very fact of their appearance before instead of after
the noun they qualify, is a sufficient indication of what


(See pars. 364-365.)

The four of them were exchanging their experiences.
They often did. There was always a good deal of tension
in the air on these occas.lons, because the member of the
circle whose story was voted the biggest He, had to stand
the drinks. And one can get through quite a lot of
alcohol, in the course of an evenlng's story telling.
White started the ball rolling. "1 have' a Spanish
lady friend in Madrid," he said, "who is very much
interested in things English, but. hasn't had much opportunity for indulging her liking. So she decided, once, to
go to Gibraltar for a lew -days. Her sister went. with her.
Both were very interested to notice the signs of British
occupation, which, as soon as they had crossed the border,
were evident on all sides. 'Look at the policemen's
uniforms !' remarked my friend to her sister. 'We
might almost be in London l' But she did not know
her Gibraltar yet. She and her sister wanted to cross a
street; but there was a good deal of traffic, and the policeman on point duty saw them hesi~ating. In a few seconds
he put up his hand to hold up the traffic and let them



pass. 'Come on, dears ! ' he bawled, in cheery Spanish,

for all the world to hear. And, when they still hesltated,
he called out loudly agaln: 'Come forward, visions 01
delight, roses of my sad heart! Have no fear of the dangers
that threaten yoo. 1 myself wiIl protect you with my.
own life; yea, even to the last drop 01 the blood that you
have sent coursing in fiery streams through my burning
veins! ' Then, directing himself particularly to my
fnend: 'Don't hesitate, lovely one, handful 01 earnations,
sweet dream 01 desire, beautilul pug-nose! Would that
you were a lollypop, that 1 could eat you right down to
the stick ! '
" My friend could not help smiling at this volley 01
eompliments, and this encouraged the policeman to proceed
further. 'Oh,joyous mom~nt!' he cried. 'dh, never to be
lorgotten hour, when two ladies 01 Spain hring the light
01 their smiles to illumine the dark recesses 01 my sad
heart! Some like lair wopen and so me like dark, while
others like them fluf/y. For me, the adorable heauties 01
Castile, whatever their complexions may he, and whatever
the colour 01 their hair ! '
" My friend turned to her sister. '1 see,' she said,
, that 1 was mistaken. This may he British territory, but
weare still in age-old Spain.'
"The Bobby," added White, "was, of course, ~
native 01 Gibraltar, and a Spaniard pure and simple.
A leopard might change its spots, hut not even British
citizenship could make a Spaniard lose his knight-e"ant
gallantry, or turn his nature eold."
" That reminds me," said Brown, when the laughter
had suhsided, "of an incident which occurred once.
when I was at college in America, still at the eat - drinkand-be-merry stage of my development. We were on our




way to play baseball against a Pennsylvania township,

and had stopped at a village to get ice crearn. ' There was
a srnall tearoorn sort of place, there, about thirty feet
square inside; and we' all crowded In t , fifty or so of' US,
for we had brought sorne supporters along. A very shylooking girl of about sixteen was trying to make ,the place
tidy as we entered. Of cpurse, our irruption made her
shyer still. N ow your American student is' nothing if not
a hurnorist, and Reilly-six- foot Rei11y who afterwards
becarne Reil1y the motor- magnate-saw his chance to
embarrass her further.' Once everybody was settled down,
he stood up and intoned the first words of ' Down by the
Old Mili Stream.' Tl).e others WeTe ~uick on the up-take,
,and joined iQ !he songo But when it carne to the polnt
where fifty stentorian voices thunde~ed,
, 1t was there 1 knew
, That you loved me tn~e,'
and fifty pairs of brawny arms were stretched <?ut yearningly
and tenderly towards her, the poor girl tumed crimson and
fled. There is something terrifying in nurnbers ! "
This story was well' received. " You fellows were
braver than most, Brown;" rernarked Blue. " Wornen
generally manage to be one too rnany for, the mere maleo
At least, my wife does, when 1 try to take a rise out of her.
The other night 1 happened to glance at an evening paper,
when 1 noticed the picture, full length, of a singularly
beatttiful woman. 'There,' 1 said to my wife, with a grin,
, why aren't you like that? You're beautiful, you know,
and wonderful, and there's an indefinable something about
you that renders you singularly attractive; but still,
there's something lacking. If you had this wornan's face
and figure, now, you could twist me round your little



My wife, who is' used to my nonsense, and never

takes such. chaff seriously, was, however, constramid to

pick up the paper and look at it. Then she' smiled.

, There's certainly nothing strange in your enthusiasm/
she said. 'She has a Iot in her favour. And she is the
kind ofwoman 1 have often thdught you ought to have
married. l'm ,no~ at all the.log-in-the-manger tyl?,e;
and 1 surrender you to her cheerfully, if she wants y.pu,
and finds anything desirable. about you.' And then, in a
matter-of-fact way: 'Have you noticed what is printed
at the bottom of her picture ? '
" 1 had not, and there was something peculiar about
m)' wife's smile as she asked the question; so 1 quickly
picked up the paper again. At the bottom of her picture
was prinied ~e name of theplay in which
lady, a
telebrated actress, wa~ taking the leading parto And
what do you think the name of the play was? 1t
was 'The Idiot's Delight.' 1 looked at my wife sadly.
, y ou win ! ' 1 said. 'Yo,! win. But no wonder we .1ead
a cat-and-dog life ! ' "
, There was a roar of Iaughter at Blue's expense. Then
it was Grey's turno "Have you ever," he asked, " been
to St. Albans? Wonderful place, with a great deal of
historie interest attached to it. 1 was there once myself.
A resident, who knew his St. Albans very well, took me
round. There is a street with a house where a Duphin
of France passed a good many months of captivity. There
is the Cathedral, the longest in England. And there ~re
Roman roins galore. The age-old jifteen-foot wall still
stands. In places the fragments are at least a hundred
yards long. 1 believe that St. Albans was the capital of
England, in a bygone age, and that the Roman equ~valent
of a Governor General had his headquarters there.




"It was at the ruins that something very, curWus

happened. 1 am very much interested in things archeeological, and was watching a new excavation. They had
done a great deal of work, for the ttenches were aIready
fOUT feet deep, where they had discovered the buried
ruins of a Roman villa. ~he latter was about thirty feet
wide by fifty long, and must have belonged to a well-to-do
family. J ones the archr:eologist was explaining things to
uso You know Jones the archeeologist. We used to call
him William the Conqut:r0r, at school, because he once
remarked that his family carne over with that gentleman.
He stands six foot four in his socks, and looks more like
a major general than a dry-as-dust scientist. While he was
speaklng, my wire-haired terrier began to bark furiously
and most indignantly. She seemed to get more put out
with eactt bark. At ftrst 1 thought that her excitement
might be caused by a rat, or a rabbit, or something.
But there was nothing provocative in sight. In any case,
the dog was barking at a fragment of wall that had just
been exposed, which was something very unusual with her.
But 1 didn't know my Conchita. (That, by the way, is
her name.) I went closer and examined the wall curiously.
Then 1 understood. On its surface, faint but unmistakable, were carved the words 'Cave canem!' This,
for your information, means: 'Beware of the dog ! ,,,
Grey paused anxiously. There was something grim
about the way his friends looked at him. Then Brown
gave one of his slow grins. "Thanks, old man," he said.
" 1 see that I shan't have to pay for any drinks to-nlght.
As aliar, you absolutely bear the paIm away. I think,
some~imest that you ought to turn detective-story writer,
or novelist, or something equally profitable. There's a lot of
money' in talent like yours. In any case, it's lucky that



you're the well-off one amongst us; for with that story
you certainly deserve to have to pay for the drinks:"
There was a chorus oi assent from the others; and
Grey took it with a good grace. "In for a penny, in for a
pound ! " h said. "We mayas well have a last round
before -1 set~le up. What'll it be ? "
" 1'11 have a light ale," said Brown.
" 1'11 have a brown," added White.
" The same for me," said Blue.
" AlI right," said Grey good humouredly. He 'was a
good loser, and never backed out. And then, to i:he
barman: "Two light ales and two brown,ifyou don't mind."
And that settled that.



146. The demonstrative adjectives agree with their

noun in number, but have no variation for gender.

This (near me) 1

That (further from me)

These (near me)
Those (further from me)

Examples.-This cat is an Angora, and that is a nondescripto These dogs are spaniels, and those are bloodhounds. (See also pars. 258-259, page 360.)
147. The possessive adjectives agree with the possessor
in number, and, in the third person singular, in gender.
Examples.-One possessor.

. It is my heno
You .
It is your heno
. It is his heno
She .
It is her heno
It is its heno
. It is one's heno
More than one possessor.
It is our heno
. It is your heno
It is their heno

They are my hens.

They are your hens.
They are his hens.
They are her hens.
They are its hens.
They are one's hens.
They are our hens.
They are your hens.
Theyare their hens.

1 "This" and "that" should not be used instead of le the latter"

and "the former." (Par. 259, page 360.)
11 We do not address an officer as .. My~' Captain. We simply say

The possessive adjective is sometimes used to indicate
personal or specialized knowledge. E.g., Kipling knew his
India. 1 know my Mary, i.e., She being my wife, 1 am
supposed to have specialized personal knowledge of her.
He is beginning to forget his Gehnan, i.e., He is beginning
to lose the knowledge of German which he personally hado
148 . .Possessive adjectives are made emphatic by adding
"own," and more emphatic still by adding "very own."
E.g., This is my ow1t heno That is his very own house.
He wants to have his very own car.
149. AH other adjectives are invariable for getder and
for number.
E.g., It is a w/zite CQW.
They are white cows.
It is a black bullo
They are black btuls.
150. Adjectives usually precede their nouns, even when
such adjectives are themselves tnodified by adverbs.
E.g., He is a nice mano He is a very nice mano He is a
most extraordinarily nice mano
Exceptions: He ofrered the retort courteous. He was
tried by court-martial. The adverb is the knight errant
of the English. sentence. That is a fraud pure and
simple. The nation inakes up the body politic. Only
heirs male can inherit a title. Attentions so unusual
disconcert me.
151. The word "general" often follows its noun in
official titles.
E.g., The States General govemed
Holland. He has been nominated Governor General
of Nigeria. Brigadier General, Major General, and
Lieutenant General, are English military titIes. The
Attorney General and the Solicitor General are the first
and second Iaw officers of the Crown, respectively.
152. A rather literary form is: Peter is interested in
things Polish, i.e., He is interested in everything which
concerns Poland. He is interested in problems intellectual and moral.
153. Cardinals used ,,'nstead of ordinal$ are placed after



their nouns (par .. 191). E.g., Chapter lorty, i.e., The

fortieth chapter.
154. When a proper noun is determined by a common
noun or an adjective precede~ by the definite article (par.
102 (e, the latter group is placed, usual1y, alter the
proper noun so determined. E.g., Charles the Balt/,.
Wells t~e miter. Warwick the King-maker . .Edward the
Seventh. Joanna the Mad. Peter the Hermit. Jones the
nerve specialist. J anuary the seventeenth.
155. The compounds of "some," "any," "every,"
ando " no" are lollowed by their adjectives (par. 134).
E.g., 1. saw everybody black with soot. 1 want something
red for my room~ Anybdy drunk will be thrown out.
1 see nothing immoral in tht. 1 saw nobody badly
dressed -in theroom.
NOTE, HOWEVER.-There is an indefinable sQmething
about you that renders you' singularly attractive, i.e.,
There is a quality about you which defies definition. .
156. Adjectives indicating a restllt lollow their nouns.
E.g., He dyed hissuit brdJ,on. The medicine made John
siek. 1 like walls built straight. She' swept the room
elean. The doctor made J ohn well.
157. Adjectives indicating exact measurement lollow
their nouns. E.g., The room is five leet wide., He is ~ix
leet tallo The swimming bath is three hundred leet long.
This roomissixty leet square.
NOTE.- Sixty leet square" means sixty feet long by
sixty feet wide; whereas" sixty square leet" means five
feet wide and twelve feet long, or thirty feet by two,
or four by fifteen, etc.
158. While adjectives and the adverbs which modify
them, as well as groups of adjectives joined by conjunctions, usually precede their nouns (par. IS0), other
adjectival groups usual1y follow the nouns they determine,
if such adjectival groups are the creation 01 the momento
1f, however, such adjectival groups are stereotyped



expressions, they are often placed before their nouns.

Thus, l.lsing " work " as a noun, we do not say, "Policeman-on-tTaffic-duty work is very arduous," but: "The
work 01 a policeman on traffic duty is very arduous."
But we can and do say: "He Writes from the-man-inthe-street point of view," because the group "man-ir-thestreet" is a st~eotyped expresn'on.
Other examples of such stereotyped expressions are:
He has a mother-in-law complexo He received the news
in a very matter-ol-Iact way. 1 met her on a never-to-bejorgotten Atigust day. On that ever-to-be-remembered
occasion the fate of civilization was decided. Old-time
customs are rapidly changing. He is an advocate of the
eat-drink-and-be-merry philosophy. He is one of those
true-as-steel characters who will never let a friend down.
England is adopting a wait-and-see policy. They are
leading a ,cat-and-dog life. He is one~,of those never-saydie people who do not understand when they are beaten.
The dog-in-the-manger policy of the landlords i$ a hindrance to agricultural reformo The Smiths are a well-todo couple. Peter always wears a rather hang-dog look. 1
don't like his hole-in-the-corner tactics: 1 much prefer an
abofJe-board policy. Golders Green is inhabited mainly
by well-off families. The hard-up people live in the East
159- In the sentence: "There is a five hundred
loot high tower in Cologne," "Ioot" is a noun used as an
adjective (pars. 172-176), and does not take the plural
form. But if the adjectival group is placed alter its
noun, c, loot" becomes a noun again and has the plural
inflexion; and the sentence reads: "In Cologne there
is a tower five hundredleet high."
160_ Participle adjectives which have not completely
lost their verbal nature, often appear after their nouns.
E.g., On the day lollowing he sent the cheque. He was
turned down because he did not have the qualifications
NOTE.-The following participle adjectives must follow



their nouns: F or the time being, 1 shall remain here.

The money won was paid out in francs. The presents
received were put away. '

161. Adjectives can stand alone after link v,erbs,

i.e., after verbs which have no meaning unless followed by
a JlOun or an adjective. Such verbs are :to be 1
to get

to look

to grow
to seem

to become
to go

E.g., Peter is old. ]ohngets angry when he sees her.

1 am afraid that the weather will become cold. l\1ary is
growing bad tempered. You look tired. The situation
seems better. 'Everything went black. Apples tum red.
162. An adjective can also stand alone after a verb,
if it qualifies a noun already qualified by an adjective.
E.g., Will you have a yellow apple or a red? 1 prefer a
red. He offered me the choice of French books or German,
and 1 tQok German.
NOTE.-The form "translated from. the French" is
sometimes met "ith, in !he meaning " translated from the
French language."
163. Certain adjectives having the prefix "a," either
stand alone after a link verb, whether the noun they
refer to is already qualified by another adjective or not
(par. 162); or they follow their nouns immediately.
E.g., This child and that are alike. 1 saw the house aflame.
The match is alight.
164. In all other cases, adjectives which stand alone
have become real nouns, generally taking the plural form
where necessary, though the feeling for their adjectival
origin is sometimes strong enough to make speakers omit
the " s " of the plural. E.g., Aren't those children dears !
Don't do that, my sweet! The colour bar imposes a
strict socialline of demarcation between blacks and whites
(between black and white) in \frica.
165. Otherwise, the prop-word "one" is placed after
adjectives which do not immediately precede or follow


verb "be" meaning "exist" is not a lin.'k verbo E.g., To be
or not to be: that's the question.



the nouns they qualify (par. 128). E.g., As to lions, 1

believe that there are no such things as tame ones.
166. "Mueh" and " little ,,1 determine abstraet nouns
or nouns :which represent things whtch eannot be eOlmted,
but can be physically measured or weighed. E.g., Have
you mueh coal? No, but 1 have a. little wood. There
is not mueh freedom of movement on a ship.
NOTE.-We still use "mueh" and'" little" with
reference to money, because its vaIue was formerly determined by weighing it. E.g., Have you mueh money? No,
1 have onIy a little.
167. " Many" and "fe'liJ,,1 determine nouns which
represent things which ean be eounted. E.g., Has he
many friends? No, he has not many. 1 have seen him
many a time in the Strand, i.e., on many occasions.
168. "Much" and " many" are used in intermgative
and in negative sentenees, and in clauses introt;lueed by
" if" and " whether."With the exception of " many a,"
they are not used in positive affirmations, unless they
determine or stand for the subjeet of the sentence; or
unless they themselves are modified by an adverb, like
"very." Where" mueh" or "many" cannot be used,
one of the following groups is used instead :MuCh.
A large quantity of
A good deal of

. il1any.
A large number of
A good number of

l'1uch or 111any.
A 10t of

Heaps of
A great deal of
Plenty of
Examples.- Is there mueh money in the till? There is
not mucho There is a great deal. 1 am not sure if there
is mueh money left. 1 wonder whether many people
heard his speech on the wireless. 1Wueh still remains to
be done. Many think that the economic situation will
improve. Many people think that there is room for
improvement. He drinks too much heer. PIease tell me
how mueh coal 1 will need. He has so mueh money that
he does not know what to do with it. Nlanya mn has
died of fever on the Gold Coast. M y father gave me

Also the comparative and superlative less and least respectiveiy.

also fewer and fewest.

2 S~



many a good piece of advice. He drank a large quantity 01

champagne.. They saw a large number 01 people pass.
He has a lot Di money. 1 saw a good deal Di John when
we were at school together. They gave away a goad number
Di presents at Christmas. Peter has heaps Di money. 1
have a great deal Di confidence in him. Peter has plenty
to do. lt will take a lot Di forgetting. 1



What were the four of them exchanging? What was

always in the air on these occasions? Why? When can
one get through a good deal of alcohol? What did White
do? What is his Spanish lady friend interested in?
What hasn't she had? What did she once decide? What
did her sister do? What were both very interested to
notice? What did the lady remark to her sister'about the
police? But what did she not yet know? What did
she and her sister want to do? Why did they hesitate ?
What did the policeIllfln on point duty do, in a few
seconds? What did hebawl, in cheery Spanish? When
they still hesitated, what did he call out loudly? How
did he direct himself particularly to White's friend?
Why could White's friend not help smiling? How did
the policeman describe the happy hour? How did he
set aside the claims of fair, dark, and fluffy women?
How did White's lady friend express her error to her
sister? Who was the Bobby? Even though a leopard
might change its spots, what could a Spaniard never lose ?
What incident did this remind Brown of? At what period
of Brown's life did the incident occur? What were he
and his friends on their way to do? Where had they
stopped? Why? What sort of place was thete there ?
How big was it? How many crowded in? Who was
trying to make the place tidy? What made her shyer
still? Who is nothing if not a humorist? How big
was ReilIy? What did he afterwa:rds become? What
chance did he see? When did he stand up? What did
he intone? Hmv did the others react? What did they
1 The subject cea lot" (many) takes a plural verbo E.g., A lot of
people dance. By analogy, educated people often do the same with
"a number (of)," E.g., A number of people were at the dance. A
number of things were said. .



sing? Was it soft singing? What did fifty pairs of brawny

arms do? What did the poor girl do ? .What is there
about numbers ?How. was Brown's story received?
What did Blue remark about the bravery of the students ?
What do women generally manage to be? When is
Blue's wife one too many for him? What did he happen
to glance at, the other night? What picture did he notice ?
What did he say to his wife, with a grin? What renders
her singularly attractive? U nder what condition could
she twist him round her Httle finger? Why does Blue's
wife never take such chaff seriously? What was she
constrained to .do? What did she say about his
enthusiasm? What had the woman in her favour? What
kind of woman was she? What type was. Mrs. Blue not ?
How did she surrender Blue to the woman in the picture ?
On what condition.? In what way did Mrs. Blue draw
her husband's attention to what was printed at the
bottom of the picture? Describe Mrs. Blue's smile.
What was printed at the bottom of the picture? What
was ,he name of the play? What did Blue say, as he
looked at his wue sadly? What was there at Blue's
expense? What did Grey ask? How did he describe
St. Albans? Who took Grey round? What did a
Dauphin of France do in one street? Is the Cathedral
short ? Are there many Roman roins? What wall still
stands? How long are the fragments? When was St.
Albans the capital of England? Who had his headquarters there? What happened at the roins? What is
Grey very much interested in? What was he watching ?
How much work had they done? How did Grey know
this? How big was the Roman villa? Whom must it
have belonged to? Who was explaining the discoveries ?
What was he called at school? Why? How tall is Jones?
What does he look like? What happened while J ones
was speaking? What happened to the terrier with each
brk? What did Grey think her excitement might be
caused by? Was there anything provocative in sight?
What was the dog barking at? Was this usual? Did



Grey know his dog as well as he had thought? Did he

e:xamine the wall? What were the words " cave canem "
c~rved on? What do they mean?' . How dd Grey pause?
How did his frends look at him? What dd Brown do
then? What dd he say? How did he describe Grey' s
merits as a liar? What activities did he think Grey should
turn himself to? What did he say about the value of
Grey's talent? What did he think was lucky? What
did Grey deserve, after his story? Did the others agree ?
How dd Grey take it? What philosophical remark did
p'e make? What did he suggest before he settled up ?
What did Brown say he would have? And White? And
Blue? Why was Grey good humoured? What did
Grey say to the barman ?

THE ADJECTIVE-contz'nued,
This lesson will be of help to those students who have
.been disconcerted at coming across what seems to be a
number of nouns strung together in an expression 'like,
a London shoe-shop plate-glass windfYW-pane. Until the
construction comes naturally to him, it is a good idea to
attack it in reverse order. E.g., The pane of a windfYW made
of plate-glass belonging to a shop in London where shoes
are soldo
Such long combinations are, however, less usual. It
is more frequent to find them in twos and threes, e.g., a
brick wall, a glass door-handle.
In pars. 172-178, the position is taken that, in an
expression like a brick wall, the word brick is a noun
used as an adjective. There has been keen controversy
over this point. Professor Sweet maintained that brick
in this case is not an adjective, because adjectives ha~e
comparative and superlative forms, and one cannot say
bricker, brickest. But there seems to be no doubt, from



the practical point o view, that the word brick does

function as an adjective, since it takes the place of an
adjectival phrase in the only possible altemative construction, i.e., a wall of brick. Moreover, in a brick wall,
the word brick is sufficient1y adjectival not to take the
plural form in brick. walls.


(See par. 367.)

l. Having signed the contract and gone through all the
other necessary preliminaries, we oundourselves in our
new flato The furniture-remover had wilfully left everything dumped in the most. unexpected places. The
book-case was in the kitchen, ancl so was the dressingtabIe. He had left the di1ling-:-room furniture-'tabIe,
chairs, si deboard , etc.-in the bedroom. as well as the
blackboard for rny class room. The writing-tabIe was in
the larder,' as well as a pi le o mattresses, blankets, sheets,
piUows, pillow cases, and quilts. He had, for sorne reason
best known to himself, deposited the stationery in the
bathroom. He had not forgotten to put the gas-stove
there too. Sorne of the ink from the ink-pots had spilt
over the writing-paper; and the pencils and pens were
scattered in picturesque confusion over the bathroom
floor. 1 looked round for that furniture--remover at once.
1 had abone to pick with him. Several bones, in fact.
It, goes without saying that he had deposited the beds
and the bed-fittings, as well as the wrdrobe and other
bedroom-furniture, in the dinlng-room. The chest o
drawers was an exception.: He had pl~ced it in the hall.
1 should have been there to keep an eye on him. Need 1



;dd that he had 'damaged th wall-plaster; and that he

had broken the leaded panes of two glass doors? lt was
the least that could have been expected from any selfrespecting tradesman. Really, though, 1 think he should
have drawn the line somewhere. But 1 suppose 1 .should
have been there to see to things myself, so that in a way
it was my own fault. But a friend had recommended this
man to me as cheap. He swore by the fellow. After
haVing submitted my fumiture to his tender mercies, 1
was more inclined to swear at him. He was quite taken
aback at what language 1 did use; or, at least, pretended
to be. 1 think it is cheaper in the end to employ a good
firm and pay a little more. Anyway, we began to put
~hings in order, and soon got everytbing shzp-shape. We
had already noticed that sorne of the crockery was broken
- a teapot, sorne breakfast-cups, and sorne saucers,
plates, and dishes. Our 'Worthy friends had also dented
sorne pots; and an iron fryt"ng - pan no longer had a
handle. The kettle is still like Punch: it
, is not what it
used to be. (Forgive the chestnut.) The only thing to
do was to put a cheerful face on rnatters. 1t is never any
use crying over spilt milk. At least we had the cutlery
intact\ Of the carving-knives, bread-knives, table-knives,
butr-knives, and fish-knives, not one was missing. The
table-spoons, dessert-spoons, tea-spoons, and egg-spoons
were a11 there. So also with the jish-forks. One does not
like to lose one's silver table-service. AIso, the furnitureremover and his minions had not damaged the heavier
furniture, except that the p~1ish was a good deal scratched.
A small card-table had gone where the good card-tables go,
and that was a11. So We thanked our lucky stars that we
had got off so lightly.



Perhaps the greatest compliment that can be paid

to a writer is to incorporate his name or the name of one
of the characters id his books into the IIst of the adjectives
of a language. Indeed, this is an almost infallible criterion
to go by, in judging the greatness of an author. It is
difficult to know, at the moment, whether Shavian
humour will always amuse the English. Mr. Shaw himself
seems to think it will. If it does, then his opinion of
himself will have been vindicated, and the adjective derived
from his name will take its place permanently in the
language. And all the world wiIl acclaim Mr. Shaw's
childlike humility. F or he wiIl have been proved to be
right; and humility, says the sage, is truth.
Such adjectives, ~y their bare mention, call up to the
mind's eye<a whole scene, a special type o'. character, a
complete situation. 1t is quite enough to say that aman
has gained a Pyrrhic victory, to put the whole position in
a nut-shell. Goya's pictures of the Inquisition were
Dantesque in their horror, said the critic; and, in so
saying, he said enough. To speak rapturously of a
Virgilian scene is to conjure up at once a picture o
sunlit trees and flowers; of the pleasant smelling earth;
of bees and birds and bucolic peace. If we want to say
delicately that a man's jokes, though amusing, are not
quite respectable, we call them Rabelaisian.
The Pickwickian type is deeply beloved of alI Englishmen-simple, good hearted, unworldly, and deliciously
vain. If we describe a struggle as Homeric, it becomes
epic at once.
All the tragedy of frustrated ideals is assocated with
the name of Don Quixote. So are the ridiculousness and
inadequacy and inanity of pseudo-reformers who are out
to save the world. So take jt as a dubious compliment



if anybody calls you quixotic; for it may be in contempt,

or it may be in praise. He may mean that you enthusiastically jump to defend the weak and the oppressed;
or he may disdainfully imply that your ideas are impracticable and ill conceived.
If you look calmly on the tragedies of life with a
Shakespearean aloofness, it is because your gigantic spirit
disdains t,aking sides in the plgmy struggles of this pigmy
Not all the names of the characters of great books attain
to the ranks of adjectives. But they are always descriptive,
and they can call up splendid thoughts. Albert the First
of Belgium was a Bayard, sans peur et sans reproche.
And when the Duke of Windsor was about to be married,
a LOMan evening-paper ingeniously summed up the situation in a cartoon which purported to represent the procession of the Duke's 'lOedding guests. They were all
ghosts . . . the ghosts of Romeo and J uliet, of Dante
and Beatrice, of Tristan and Iseult, of Helen and Paris,
of Ablard and Hlolse; all appropriately led by the
ghost of Don Juan.. Pages of writing could not have
said more.
The composer who entitled his song "Under the
Venetian Moon" knew what hewas about. People had
only to read it to think of romantic gondolas gliding
soft1y through the shadows pastmysterious palaces of marble,
to the soft strains of gentle music and the murmur of
words of love.
Before the war, the mention of Viennese nights called
up visions just as romantic ... gay ball-room~ filled with
laughter, and lights,. and fiowers ... gallant men and
beautiful women ... romance, and splendour, and gay



169. Adjectives derived from the names 01 materials
are often used only in. a figurative sense. The following
are a 'ew:ashen.
Examples.-During the air raid the people, in 1eir
terrible fear, turned their ashen faces to the leaden skies.
We say of an impudeIl:t or shameless girl that she is
brazen; and happy husbands, in moments of humour
or of extreme sentimentality,. may be heard referring to
silken bonds of matn.mony. Everybody has heard of the
goMen age, and of the Girl with the Golden Volee. It
is she who gives you \ the time on the telephone, if yOl!
want ita Waxen features and a glq.ssy .stafe are the
charactetistics of a dead person

following may be used literally, though they

are almost all susceptible of figurative use :watery
Examples.-These potatoes are watery. He was almost
blinded bythe watery glare. She wore a woollen jumper.
He answered with a wooden- stare. Archibald has sandy
hair. Chickens thrive on sandy soil. The cible is
extremely dusty. She answered in a sugary tone. This
tea is too sugary. Maud has an airy Peter gave
an airy answer. This room is nice and airy. Bucket..
shop dealers are said to have stony hearts. The road
is too stony to take a car over. He keeps his clothes in
a wooden boi
170. The

Wheaten " is generally 'used to describe brown

bread as distinguished from white, e.g., a 'loheaten loaf.
" Earthen" is generally 1imited to crude unglazed
pottery, and to dwellings made at least in part of earth.
E.g.,'.An earthen hut, Roor. An eartlien jaro But: You
171. "



have no earthly chance of doing that. It is no earthly use.

He is of the e~rth, earthy.
17z.But if nouns representing materials have no
adjectival form which can be used literally, the nouns
themselves are used as adjectives to describe the materials
of which things are made. N ouns used as adjectives
have tbis in common with ordinary adjectives, that they
do not take the plural infiexion when so used. But they
are not !Susceptible of comparison (Lesson 21). ~.g., A
brass lampo Brass lamps. An iron roof. A straw hato
A tin box. Tin boxes. Silver coins. A gold watch. A
brick wall.
173- Nouns can be used as adjectives to indicate the
kind of person or thing. Common nouns susceptible of
taking the genitive inftexion (Lesson 29) are not gen~r
ally used in this way, except in stereotyped combinations,
a few examples of which are given here. E.g., The Home
Secretary. An Admiralty official. A tree-fern. An
apple-tree. A cherry-blossom. A rose.. bush. A shoeshop. A pin-hole. A day-nurse. A night-light. A
minute-gun. A hand-saw. A man-hole. A man-eater.
A woman-hater. A boat-liook. A razor-blade. A shilling
hopo A sun-bath. A moon-stone. A wind-storm. An
ocean linero A country bumpkin. A Zaw-suit. A warmonger. A duty-call .. Finger-tips. A ship-builder.
Heart-ache. A heart-attack (see par. 350).
174- The following are exceptional,. in that the noun
indicating the kind of person takes the plural form :man-servant
. woman-servant
17S. N ouns are used as adjectives to show the use to
which things are puto E.g., A wood-box, i.e., A bx for
storing wood. A tea-spoon, i.e., A spoonfor putting sugar
in tea and stirring it. Tea-spoons. A colfee-pot, i.e., A
pot for making colfee in. Colfee-pots. A breakfast-cup,
i.e., A cup for drinking out of at breakfast. Breakfastcups.



176. Nouns are used as adjectives to indicate the place

that a thing belongs too E.g., The kitchen broom. Kitchtn
brooms. The dining-room table. A M'O.drid shop. 'fhe
hall door. A lavatory-basin.
177.- Participles are often used as adjectives. E.g., A
washing-machine is a machine for washing c1othes. We
wear a bathing-suit when we 'go for a dip. We dine in
the dining-room, and smoke il the smoking-room. Frans
Hals painted the Laughing Cavalier. In poetic vein, we
hail the smiling morn. Mr. Chamberlain brought home
a much-desired promise of peace. Aman sorrows over
the 108s of a well-Ioved son.
NOTE.-Past participles used as adjectives 1 are more
frequentIy modified by an adverb. E.g., He is a wellliked figure in the Service.
178. The proper names of persons are used as adjectives to show that the thing so qualified ls universally
accepted as being associated with a certain person, or that
it bears the marks ,of his style. E.g., The Roosevelt New
DeaL The Balfour Amendment. 'Tftis picture has the
Velazquez touch. ,
But we cannot speak of the John pen, as there is no
pen umversally associated with John. It is John's peno
179. Sorne names of persons, usuallythose ollamous
writers or of characters in their books, have special adjectival
forms. Thus we speak of the Shakespearean drama;
Shavian (Bernard Shaw's) humour; Chestertonian wit;
quixot: ideas; a Dantesque scene; Homeric laughter;
a Rabelaisian story; the Augustan age; Christian virtue ;
Buddhist' philosophy; Platonic friendship; Aristotelian
logic; Machiavellian tactics; Lilliputian dimensions, etc.,

180. Sorne names 01 towns have special adjectivallorms,

which usually imply a more intimate association than
would the noun itself used as an adjective. Thu, a
Parisian dressmaker would probably be a native al Pam,
1 Nouns, generally those standing for parts of the body or clothing,
can become adjectives with the suffix -ed. E.g., Booted and spurred,
the fair-haired eagle-eyed soldier entered the room.



whereas "a Pans dressmaker" implies the town in whlch

she works, rather than that she is a native of the city.
Other examples: Viennese customs. 'The Florentine
school of painting. Venetian gondolas. Roman calmo
A Cockneyaccent.
The following are always used as' adjectives,
unless they stand for a language (see par. 108) :English
' Scotch
Examples.-Swedish drill, Turkish delight, Polish
Jews, Danish butter, Dutch cheese, and Spanish onions,
are a11 well known in England. Englishmen think of
Welshmen in terms of leeks. Temperamentally, the
English have very little in common with the French or
lrish. (Par. 108 (a), page 236.)


l. When did we find ourselves in our new flat? Who

removes furniture? Where had he Ieft everything

dumped? What do you keep books in? What do
ladies dress in front of? What room do you dine in ?
What furniture has a dining .. room? Where does one
sleep? What does a teacher write on? What do we use
on a bed? What is the name for wrlting-materials?
What do you use for .gas-cooking? Where do you keep
ink? What kind of paper is used for writing? What
did 1 want to do with the furniture-remover? What goes
without saying? Where had he placed the chest of
drawers? Why should 1 have been there? What had
he damaged on the wall? What had he done to two
doors? What kind of doors were, they? Why was this
not surprising? Where should he have drawn the line ?
Why was it my own fault, in a way? Why had a friend
recommended him to me? Did he-my friend-express
himself strongly? What was 1 more inclined to do?
Whn? What effect did my Ianguage have on the



furniture-remover? What is cheaper in the end? \Vhat

did we begin to do? Withwhat result? What word
describes china and delf? Name sorne pieces of crocker! ?
What had our worthy friends dented? What had no
longer a handle? What is the kettle still like? "'~hy?
What kind of joke is this? What was the only thing to
do? What is it never any use doing? What had we
intact? Give the names of sorne articles of cutlery ?
What had the furniture - remover and his minions not
damaged? What had happened to a small card-table?
Why did we thank our lucky stars ?
2. What is the greatest compliment that ,can' be paid
to a writer? What kind of criterion is this? What type
of humour are we not sure will always amuse the English ?
Who thinks it will? What will vindicate l\1r. Shaw's
opinion of himself? What will happen to the adjective
derived from his name? What will a11 the world acclaim ?
What is lwmility? What do such adjectives, by their
bare mention, call up to the mind's eye? Describe
Goya's pictures of the Inquisition? What is a Virgilian
scene? What is a Pyrrhic victory? What literary type is
deeply beloved of a11 Englishmen? Why? With whom
d() you associate the tragedy of frustrated ideals? What
adjective describes the ridiculousness and inadequacy
and inanity of pseudo-reformers? What are they out to
do? Why can lt be a dubious compliment if somebody
calls you quixotic? What adjective is associated with
Shakespeare? What is Shakespearean aloofness? Do
a11 the names of the characters of great books attain to
the rank of adjectives? Have they descriptive force ?
Describe Albert I. of Belgium? What ghosts appeared
in the artoon of the Duke of Windsor's wedding? \Vhat
is the adjectiv~l form ~erived from the word " Venice."
Why did the author of " U nder the Venetian Moon"
know what he was about? What adjective is derived from
" Vienna "? What visions did the mention of Viennese
nights caIl up before the 1914-1918 War?






The exuberance manifested by the natives of certain
countries in the use of superlatives, is to be discouraged
in English. The banality of a good many North American
writers and speakers is in part due to their failure to
understand that the genius of the English language does
not lend itself to the generous use of superlative adjectiv~s.
The English prefer adverbs. Thus, where an enthusiastic
native of some other country will, exclaim, " That was the
most marvellous play 1 hav~ ever seen," his English friend
will answer, "Yes, it was pretty.good, wasn't it ? " That
is, while certain nations sin by exaggeration, the English,
in their fear of making sweeping s'tatements, tend to sin
by understatement.
It is for this reason that the Englishman, when he has
to use a superlative, likes using the absolute superlative
(par. 187), which does not involve a comparison at al!.
In any case, so the English saying runs, comparisons are
odious. Thus, his answer to his foreign friend's comment
oh the play might lso be, "yes, it was most amuu'ng,
wasn't it ? "
A11 this, of course, .does not mean that the restrained
use of the ordinary superlative is to be condemned. It
will, however, be all the more effective for being used only
when necessary.



(See pars. 364-366,)

It is good to make good resolutions, but it is even
hetter to live up to them, This is what 1 used to say to
rny maid, when she turned up late in the morning. She



was Spanish, and laboured under the delusion that oatmeal porridge was 'a kind 'Of soup. So she want~d to
flavourit with garlic and olive oil, because, so she said,
this would make it tastier and more wholesome. When we
answered that it was nicer with sugar and milk, she was
more sorrowful than angry at our ignorance. The more
we insisted, the more sorrowful she became. It was even
more difficult for her to understand that tea was not a
medicine. She was most sorry for us at the amount of it
that we had to drink, and expected to see us growing
feebler and feebler every day. If she was told to make it,
the order calIed forth anxious inquiries about our digestion,
for our health was oremost in her mind. 'She had the
idea that tea was a purgative. 1 believe the chemists sold
it as such. 1 really have the impression t~t she thought
the amount of it that we had to drink was a reflection on
her skill as a cook. She could not get it into her head
that we drank it for plea~;mre.
She liked to keep open house for her elder and younger
sisters, and for her friends; but she was more than considerate in the matter. She would invite them only when
she was absolutely sure that we would be out. Sometimes
we would turn up unexpectedly, to her great embarrassment;' and then the party would JlUrriedly break up.
We forgave her a lot, because she was the best of workers.
Her name was Maria Dolores, but she was a good deal
cheerfuller than the name might suggest. In her more
expansive moments, she would even burst forth into song.
It was her way, 1 suppose, of using up her superfluous
energies. The worst of it was that she was always flato
But she meant well, poor thing. When she 'Vas in this
mood, the only thing to do was to beat a hasty retreat
into the street.



But we bore with her, because she was cleaner and

quicker at her ~ork than any other girl that we knew of,
and had the utmost good will. The amount of work that
she could tit into a day was extraordinary. How she got
tqrough it all was one of our major puzzles. And as, along
with these qualities, she had the happiest of dispositions,
we liked her. Because of this,.and becaus she was more
sensitive than one might. have suspected, we could not tell
her what- we thought of her voice, and so hurt her feelings. Besides, she would have thought it mast unreasonable
if we had told her that we had rather she would be more
silent as she went about her work. It was the custom
for servants to sing at their' work, in those hsppier days in
Madrid. They thought it was pleasanter than moping.
Everybody lived in Hats, and each Hat had a servant.
And from their topmost story to their nethermost depths,
the "patios" would ring with the servants' voices, as
they carolled the Istest song-hits in their tenderest notes"
from the inmost depths of their young hearts. As music,
it might have been 'lorse. "
Maria Dolores was seventeen, though she looked
older. She was taH-taller than the average Spanish
wench-and she was prettier than, and as strong as, the
average English servant -girl. She had the advantage
over them in that she was less independent and less full
o. herself, and far simpler. This did not make her ,,;;;;;
servile or less frank. She sometimes answered back,
though never when she knew herself to be in the wrong.
She very often was, for her sou! was inclined to rise aboye
the minuter details of housework. But she was ready to
tlccept a severer interpretation of her obligations, even
though she might think it the narrower one. The members
of the Spanish working -class had a stronger sense of



personal dignity than any others 1 have ever met, and

their relations with their employers were most democratice
. 'There was even fue grandee of Spain, who would call
his maids to the 'phone-the private 'phone in his studywhen their sweethearts rang them ue to ~ake an appointmente
Dolores was happy in Madrid, because it was less
unpleasantly hot there than in Seville, where she carne from.
As she got to know us more and better, she began to take
more and more interest in the house. 1 think she took a
fancy to us, because we were more understanding and
more tolerant-and perhaps mOTe just-than the average
foreigner; and never told her off more than was strictly
necessary. She took her work as a matter of course. And
if one praised her industry, she answered that she might as
well work hard, since there was nothing better to do.
As a matter of fact, her motive was a nobler one than
that. Her duty carne uppermost in her mind, and she
had the utmost contempt for laziness.
Poor Dolores. She must have gone through all the
sorrows that her name symbolizes, for she was caught
in Madrid by the civil war. War is always crueller to
the sensitive and the kindhearted; and she was both.
The more we think of her, the more we worry, and wonder
what has become of her. Perhaps it is better that we
should not know.

B. How


The comparison of equality requires "as" both

before and' after the adjective; though, in negative
sentences, "so" can replace the first "as." E.g., John
is as clever as Mary. Madrid is almost as big as Barcelona.
1t is not so hot in London as in Durban.



183- The comparison of superiority. (a) If the adjective

is monosyllabic, we add the suffix "er" to the adjective,
which is followed by "than." E.g., My table is larger
than yours. John is bigger than James. .Peter is not
taller than May. Exception: He is more just to his
enemies than to his friends.
(b) Adjectives of more than one syllable which terminate
in." y" .change the "y" into "ier." E~g., 1 am
than you. J ane is prettier than Ethel. .
This suffix is sometimes replaced by "more" before
the .adjective. E.g., 1 am more happy than you.
(c) The following dissyllabic adjectives often take the
suffix "er " :noble


narrow ,bitter
cheerful feeble


Examples.-The Zulujs a nobler type than the Hottentot. It would have been politerro keep silente This
will probably be a severer winter than the lasto He has a
completer understanding :of the problem, than 1 have.
She swept the minuter particles of dust into the dust pan~
Peter is far abler than John. Thls meat is tenderer than
what we had yesterday. The Straits of Gibraltar are
narrower than the Straits of Dover. Some beer is bitterer
than other kinds. It would be simpler to take the underground, if you want to go there quickly. Some people
are crueller to children than to dogs. 1 find it pleasanter
to stay at home with a pipe and a book, than to go to
the cinema .. Charles seems cheerfuller, now that he has
got over his money troubles. His grandmother grows
feebler every day.
(d) AH other adjectives of more than on syllable are
preceded by "more" and followed by ~'than." E.g.,
Brighton is interesting, but Eastbourne is a more delightful
plac. My book is more interesting than yours~
(e) Notice the constructiQn " more than" followed by
an adjective. lt is equivalent to " extremely " or " very.''.



E.g., She was more than pleased with the resulto He W;.b
more than considerate. 1 am more than obliged to you.
1&t. The comparison of inferlority takes " less " befo re
the adjective, and " than " after it. E.g., It is less rain)'
in England than in Ireland. It is less hot in London
tban in Tetuan. (In eonversation it is more usual to tum
the eomparison of inequality into a negative comparisoll
of equality. E.g., It is not so rainy in England as in Ireland.
It is not so hot in London as in Tetuan.)
185. The superlative of superiority is used in the comparison of more than two.
(a) Monosyllabic adjectives, except "just," take the
suffix "est." E.g., 1 am the shortest man in the room,
and James is the tallest.
(b) Adjectives of more than one syIlable which eud
in "y" ehatlge this "y" ;into "iest." E.g., This is the
happiest day of my life. You are the loveliest woman 1
have ever n:tet.
(e) The dissyllabie adjectives listed in par. 183 (e) ften
add "est." E.g., He was the noblest Roman of them aH.
Chesterton was Shaw's severest critie, but they were
great personal friends. The minutest grain is larger
than an atom. Cresar was the ablest general of his time.
I have nothlng but the tenderest feelings towards you.
He is the narrowest-minded person I have ever meto
This is the bitterest medicine 1 have ever tasted. The
simplest thlng to do would be to stay here. The cruel/est
judge in English history was Jeffreys. That is about the
feeblest excuse 1 had ever heard.
(d) AH other adjectives of more than one syllable are
preceded by " most," save those to be noted among the
following exceptional forms :aftermost
hindmost uppermost
nethermost foremost
Examples.-This was the foremost man of all the
world. Every man for himself, and the devil take the



hindmost. The sailor sat OA the topmost point of the mast..

He lives on the furthermost bounds of the Empire. He
was buried in the nethermost regions of hell. He had
sorne difficulty in keeping himself uppermost .during thtl.
struggle. 1 had the utmost difficulty in persuading him
to come. She is the most beautiful person in the room,
and the most. charming.
186.' The superlative of inferiority places the adverb
" least" before the adjective. E.g., This is the least
interesting book of the three. (Or, the negative superlative of superiarity: This is the most ,uninteresting book
of the three.)
187. The absolute superlative, which does not imply
a comparison, places " most " before all adjectives. E.g.,
y ou a:re most kind. Fred is most generous. 1 am most
happy. He is mast amusing.
187a. Educated English people often use. the superlative instead of the form for comparison between two,
in speech, though less often in writing. E.g., She is the
prettiest of the two. Of the'husband and the wife, 1 do'
not know who is the worst.
In writing also: Peter and 1 had a race, and 1 carne
188. The comparative forms "utter," and "more
. than" followed by an adjective, are always used as
absolute superlatives. E.g., 1 treated him with utter
contempt. He was more than generous. (Uttermost is
even stronger. 1 treated him with the uttermost contempt.)
189. Adverbial clauses of proportion are introdaced by
comparative forms. E.g., The harder you work, the happ,:er
you will be. The less you say about t, the better. The
hotter it is, the more bad tempered he gets, i.e., Bis temper
rises in proportion to the rise in the temperature. The
more we are together, the happier we shall be. (Superlative forms are sometimes used sententiously in the same
way, without the definite article. E.g., Least said, soonest



190- Irregular comparatives and superlatives.

best ROOCl, well
nadIy (adverb)
older (elder)
oldest (eldest)
Note the construction: Do it as best yau can.
Elder and eldest are most usually used. of brothers
and sisters, or cousins. They cannot be followed by
than. E.g., He is the elder of the two brothers. Peter
. is the eldest son. But never: Tom is elder than John.
The sentence should read: Tom is John's elder brother.
Or: Tom is the elder 01 the two. Notice illso the follolVing uses: Lloyd George is. one of our elder statesmen.
The elders (chief men) of the village met in council .
ill (adverb)

. C.


What is even better than the mere making of good

resolutions? When did 1 say this to my maid? What
was she? What delusion did she labour under, with
regard to oatmeal porridge'? What did she want to
,flavour it with ? . Why? When was she more sorrowful
than angry at our ignorance? What happened, the
more we insisted? What was even more difficult for her
to understand? How did she feel about the quantity
we drank? What did she expect as a result? What
did the order to make it call forth? Why? ~Vhat idea
had she about tea? What did our drinking it refiect on ?
What cold she not get into her head? Whom did she
like to keep open house for? Was she considerate in
the matter? When would she invite them? When would



the party hurriedly break. up? Why did we forgive her

a lot? Why was Maria Dolores an unsuitable name for
her? When would she bllrst forth into song? Why?
What was the disadvantage of this? Were her intentions
good? What was the only thin.g to do, when she was in
this mood? Why did we bear with her? What was
extraordinary? What kind of puzzle was her capacity
for work? . Why did we like her? Why could we not
tell her what we thought of her voice? What would
she have thought most unreasonable? When was it
the custom for servants to sing at their work? Why did
they sing? What parts of the "patios" would ring
with the servants' voices? How dd they carol the
latest song-hits? Was it good music? Dd Dolores
look seventeen? Was she tall? How did she compare
with the average English servant-girl? What advantage
did she have over the average English servant? What
did this not mak.e her? Did she sometimes answer back ?
Why was she very often in the wfong? What interpretation of her. obligations was' she ready to accept? What
kind of sense of pe~onal dignity had the members of th~
Spanish working-class? What were their relations with
their employers? What would the grandee of Spain do ?
Why was Dolores happy in Madrid? What happened
as she got to kn(>w us better? Why do 1 think she took
a fancy to us? If one praised her industry, what did she
answer? Was that really her motive? What was her
attitude towards her duty, and towards laziness? What
must Dolores have gone through? Why? How does war
treat the sensitive and the kindhearted? What do we do
as we think of her? Is it good that we should not know ?
Except for specialists who use them in their daily
work, the study of numbers and their uses in conversation



tends to become rther a drudgery. For this reason,

probably, foreigners seldom master /the correct use in
English of expressions that involve the use of numbers.
Special attention is drawn to the following points :(a) The use of the comma in numbers of more than
three figures; and the use of the full stop, to
indicate decimals (par. 194 (j
This is the
reverse of the usage on the Continente
(b) The use of and in numbers (par. 195)'
(e) The ways of expressing the age of a person
(par. 2II).
(d) The date (pars. 209-210) .
. (e) Money (par. 212).
(f) Temperature (par. 197)



A. PROSE PASSAGE. (See par. 364.)

The Christian era begins with the reputed year of the
birth of Christ, which is traditionally supposed to have
taken place on the twenty-filth of December in the year
.D.l. But though this is the date which has been handed
down, its accuracy is disputed.
The longest division of time, for normal practical
purposes, is the century; which consists of a hundred
years. We use the word "age" to indicate a very long
and indefinite period; and" eeon" to indicate a longer
and more indefinite period still. "Age" can, of course,
be made shorter and more definite by means of a qualificative. E.g., The golden age of Englfsh literature. And a
charming litde lady will sigh pathetically that it is ages
since she has seen Tom; when, as a matter of fact, they
have only been separated for a few days. Astronomrs



will speak of "light-years," but it is not nece~ary to

enlarge on technicalities of the kind here. A decade is .a
period of ten years.
We are now living in the twentleth century. When we
speak of the eighties, we refer to the years from e/ghteen
elghty to elghteen e/ghty-nine, inclusively. The same
holds good for the fifties, the sixties, and the seventies.
N ow that our century is getting into its stride, we are
beginning to hear references to twenty-two,/ouTteen, etc.,
where people mean mneteen twenty-two and nineteen
louTteen respectively. When a speaker is referring to an
event in his own Iife, there is hardly any possibility of
mistaking his meaning.
The year begins on the Ilrst 01 Jsnusry (New-Year's
Da)'), and ends on the thirty.flrst 01 December. It is
divided int~ twelve months or fifty-two weeks, or three
hundTed and sixty-five days. In a Jeapyesr, however,
there are. three hundred and siXty-six days. Durlng a
leap-year, so it is said, Englsh spinsters have the right
to propose marriage. to the fortunate man on whom their
choice may fall. This is supposed to be a joke, b~
can be a rather uncomfortable one.
The months of the year are January, February, MaTch,

April, May, ]une, ]uly, August, September, October,

lVovember, and December. The first 01 April is April
Foo/s' Day. On th~ strength of this, you may play
practical jokes on your friends, but only up to mlddsy.
If you do so after that. the joke is against you, and it is
you who are the Aprillool.
In England, the week begins on Sundsy, and the other
days of the week, in their order, are: Monday, Tuesday,
Wednesday, ThuTSday, FTiday, and Saturday. A day is
reckoned Irom mldnlght to mldnlght. As we have not



yet adopted the twenty-four hour clock, we start counting

the hours again from half-past twelve on. An hour is the
twenty10urth part of a day; a minute is the sixtieth. part
of an hour; and a second is the sixtieth part of a minute.
In England, people do not usually work on Sundays,
except in special trades; and most businesses have a
weekly half-holiday as well, if not on Saturdays, at least
on some other working day. There are, besides, the
official or "bank" holidays, which fall on Easter Monday,
Whit Monday, the first Monday in August, Christmas
Day (the twenty-fifth of December), and Boxing-Day
(the twenty-sixth of Decemher). The banks also close
on Oood Friday, and the great majority of businesses
with them. In London, office workers usually begin
their labours between nine and ten in the morning, and
finish between l/ve and six. Of the Civil Servants it is
said that, 'like the fountains in Trafalgar Square, they
play from ten to lour. Lunch is usually from twelve to
one, from one to two, or from tzvelve thirty to one thirty.
As they do not usually live near their work, but in
dormitory suburbs, millions of London workers are
transported to and, from town every day by tube, bus,
or private car.
As to statistics, the figures that follow are mainly
approximate. The population of the British Isles is about
forty-seven millions, or about one tenth-a little lessof the total population of the British Empire. The latter
has about four hundred and ninety-four millions of
inhabitants, or about one quarter of the population of
the globe. The British Empire also occupies about one
quarter of the earth's land surface; or, thirteen million,
nine hundred and nine thousand, seven hundred and
eighty-two square miles. Europe occupies about one



fourteenth of the earth's land surface; Asia about one

third; Africa about .Ihree fourteenths; North America
about one seventh; South America about se'Ven fiftysixths; and Australia, two million, nine hundred and
seventy-four thousand, five hundred and fifty-seven
square ,miles.
Canada, in nlneteen thlrty-one, had a population of
tenmillion three hundred and seventy-six thousand,'
seven hundred and eighty-six, or about one forty-ninth
of that of the Empire; Australia,. six million, six hundred
and seventy-three thousand, one hundred and fifty-seven,
or about one seventy-sixth; and the U nion of South
. \frica,
nine million five hundred and thirty thousand, six
l;1undred and forty-nine, or about one fijtieth.
According to statisticians, the population of Great
Britain itself has about reached its peak. Some go so far
as to say that unless there are more babies, the population
in one hundred years from now wI have dwindled to not
more than five millions. If every English mothet: had
twins, it might be of sorne- help. Perhaps Nature will
,take a hand, so that startled English husbands will find
their wives proudly pr~senting them with sets of triplets
or'quadruplets or quz'ntuplets. Sorne of the less moderate
might even go to the length of sextuplets !
In this country, parents are bound by Iaw to see to it
that their children begin their school education at not
l ater than l/ve years 01 age, and continue until they are
fourteen. Last year there were five million eight hundred
arM forty thousand, seven hundred and forty children
between five and fourteen in English Primary Schools.
Of these, ninety-four per cent. attended C01J.nil or provided
schools. The education of each of these children cost
the country jourteen pounds fourteen and eight for the year.



The Secondary Schools are also well attended. But those

who can afford it usually send their sons and daughters
to Public Schools, which are, paradoxieally enough,
really expensive 'and exclusive private schooIs. The fees
in these institutions range from sixty-five to t\yo hundred
an.d forty~five pounds ayear.
There are eleven universities, with five thousand six
hundred professors, lecturers, and readers. The number
of undergraduates is fifty-four th9usand odd.
The United States of America have double the population that Germany had before the annexatlon of Austria
and parts' of Czechoslovakia; and about one third more
than the population of the Greater Germany of to-day.
The population of the U .S.A. is also treble that of Brazil,
and about a quarter of that of the British Empire. ,England
. has about ten times as many inhabitants as Ireland-or
Eire;' as it is now called-and about jour times as many as
Belgium. England's population has increased jourjold
within the last lour, centurles; and that of Spain ,has
more than doubled. The population of Eire, is about
tUJa fijths of what it was a hundred and fifty years ago.
It is said that there are sorne twenty odd millions of
people with Irish blood in their veins in the United




The cardinal numbers:-

o Nought, zero.
I One.
2 Two, twain, a couple, a
pair, a braceo
3 Three.
4 Four.
5 Five.
6 Six.

7 Seven.
8 Eight.
9 Nine.
lO Ten.
I I Eleven.
12 Twelve, a (one) dozen.
13 Thirteen.
I~ Fourteen.



, 1,000 A (one) thousand.

1,001. A (one) thousand and
1,034 A (one) ~ousand and
20 Twenty, a seo~.
1,956 A (one) thousand nine
21 Twenty-one, one and .
hundred and fifty-six.
: 10,000 Ten thousand.
25 Twenty-five, five and 10,837 Ten thousand eight
hundred and thirty30 Thirty.
36 Thirty-six.
500,000 Five hundred thou40 Forty, two seore.
50 FiftYt two seo re and ten.
Nin~ hundred and
60 Sixty, three score.
70 Seventy, three score and
one hundred and twentyten.
three .
. 80' Eighty, four score.
1,000,000 A (one) million.
90 Ninety, four seore and
.5,090,000 Five inillion(s).
, 16;374,917 Sixteen
100 A (one)hundred.
101 A (one) hundred and one.
144 A (one) hundred and
nine hundred and seven, forty-four, a (one) gross.
200 Two hundred, a eouple
1,000,000,000 A thousand
of hundred.
million. 1
3,00 Three hundred.
192- Eaeh numerical symbol is called a "figure."
" Figure" can also mean" the exact mm," e.g., 1 do not
know the exact figure of .his income. In the plural
" figures" usually means a number arrived at by investigation, e.g., in statistics. E.g., The population of London
is about eight and a quarter million, but 1 do not know
the exact figures.
193- Any number less than ten is a unt.
194- With regard to the aboye table of cardinal
numbers: (a) Twain is an old form, now used only
poetically or humorously. E.g., The" , enfant ' terrible"
might say of his elder sister and her fianc: "1 saw
the twain with their arms entwined."


1 In the U.S.A. the number 1,000,000,000 is called a billion. But

in England a billion tneans a million millions.



(b) A eouple and a pair. "A couple H is used of two

persons or things which are alike but not. united. E.g., A
couple of eggs. A eoupl of people. A eouple of horses.
A eouple of drinks. A eouple of bottles.
" A pizir " is used of two persons or things or animals
which may be different, but are united or complete each
other. E.g., A pair of shoes. A pair of scissors. A
carriage and pair (of horses).. A happy pair (of married
people). For the reasons already given, one can also
say: A happy eouple, i.e., A husband and \Vife.
(e) Brace is used of game birds ald small wild animals.
E.g., He shot abrace of rabbits and four braee of partridges.
(Braee. has no plural form.)
(d) Notice the forms: A coach and four (horses).
To go on allfours. That statement is not on allfours with
what you said yesterday .
. (e) The form "five and twenty" as "seore"
and its multiples, are usually found in liter~ture and dia1eets.
(But the use of seOTe explained in section (h) is general.)
(f) " Dozen " is in general use. "Gross" is limited
largely to eommeree, A dozen eggs. Al gross of cardboard
boxes. Twelve gross. (No plural form.)
(g) "Million":(i) Cannot take the plural when followed by a
fraetion of itself.E.g., Five million and
(ii) Must take the plural form if followed immediately by a determining prepositionalphrase. E.g., Five millions of horses.
(iii) Otherwise can take the plural or the singular.
E.g., Five million. Five millions.

(No other definite number can take the plural, except

in expressions like: "They arrived in twos and threes,"
i.e., In groups of two and three. 1 shall count them in
tenso (In groups of ten.)
(h) "Millions," "hundreds of thousands," "tens of
, "thousands"
, '1 hundreds"
, "seores"
, and



"dozens," can be used in rhetorical exaggeration, or to

indicate a wide. approximation. So also the construction :
By the million; by the hundred thousand; by the thousand ;
by the hundred; by the score; by the dozen. E.g., During
former wars, people died by the hundred. N ow they die
by the million. He received letters by the hundred thousand.
People came by the score to hear the singer. She has
suitors by the dozen. (The smaller numbers c;an be used
definitely.l E.g., 1 buy eggs by the dozen.) Hundreds oi
thousands of people fled. Saul has slain his thousands,
but David has slain his tens of thousands. l have known
scores of people who have had. the same experience. He
says he has been in Paris dozens of times. OtherWise,

none of these numbers except " million tJ take the plural,

when used as pronouns.
(i) " A hundred and one" and " a thousand and one "
are also used indefinitely. l have told you a hundred-andone times not to do that. l. cannot come, as l have
a thollsand-and-one things'to do.
(j) Thousands are marked off from hundreds, and
millions from thousands, by means of a comma; and not
by means of afull stop, as is done on the Continent. Thus
123,456,789 means one hundred and twenty-three million,
four hundred and fifty-six thousand, seven hundred and
eighty-nine. But 123'456 means one hundred and twentythree and four hundred and fifty-six thousandths, i.e.,
one hundred and twenty-three point four five six, i.e.,.
123 45~.


195. Units andjor tens, when they represent units

andjor tens of hundreds or thousands or millions, are
preceded by "and." One hundred and seventy-six
million, eight hundred and twenty-six thousand, two
hundred and four. Qne thousand and six. Two hundred
and four. Qne millio!l and eight. Two thousand and
ten. But: Qne million two hundred thousand. Ten
thousand five hundred.
1 Note also, "They marched Qne by one (two by two, four by four,
in twos, in fours, etc.)



196. Numbers divisible by two are "even," and those

which are not are" odd." E.g., He is the kind of person
who would start an argument about whether the number
of the stars is odd or even.
Notice the use of " odd" and " round" in the following: The takings for the day amounted to six hundred
and one pounds and some odd pennies; or, in roundfigures,
six hundred pounds. "Odd" means that the pennies
are hardly worth taking into consideration .
. 197. "Zero" is' used most frequent1y with reference
to temperature as marked on the thermometer. 1t should
be noted that " zero " on a F~renheit thermometer is not
freezing point, but thirty-two degrees below it.
By analogy: His spirits fell to zero. Hence also " zero
. hour," i.e., The moment appointed for a trench attack.
I~. The ordinals. (See par. 153, page 286.)
seventeenth ninetieth
hundred 'and eighth
thousand and ninth
millioh and tenth
199. The last two letters of the ordinal are used when
writi71g in figures. E.g., 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 21st, etc ..
200. Only the last word of an ordinal takes the ordinal
form,. B.g., One thousand two hundred and twentysecond, i.e., 1222nd.
201. Ordinals which follow the noun they determine
are preceded by the definite article. E.g., Edward the
Seventh. June the third.
202. To indicate the logical divisions of a discourse,
the ordinal sometimes takes the adverbial formo E.g.,
1 wish to say, firstly, that 1 cannot come; and secondly,



that 1 would not if 1 could. By the time the preacher had

reached his " seventhly," everybody was asleep.
203- Repetition.
ten times
twelve times
three times
forty times
fifty times
four times

a hundred and one times

a thousand and twenty times
a million and one times
twenty million times

" Thrice," Le., three times, is used in poetry; and,

in conversation, facetiously.
twice as much
treble, triple
three times as much
four times as much
five times as much
six times as much
sevenfold seven times as much
eight times as much
The duplicatives from "quintuple" to "octuple"
are rarely used; and the compounds of " fold" are used
almost exclusively in literature. E.g., He has treble the
fortune he had ten years ago. He has increased his fortune
fourfold. He has four times as much money as he had

N otice the forms for more than one baby born al

the same time of the same mother.
twins (2).
triplets (3)
quadruplets (4)
quintuplets (5)
sextuplets (6)
The popular press sometimes uses the abbreviations
" quads " and "quins." E.g., The Dionne quintuplets are
remarkably healthy. It was reported from India a few
years ago that a native woman had given birth to sextuplets.
205 _

206. Vulgar fractions. The numerator of a fraction

is a cardinal number, and the denominator is an ordinal.
If the numerator is " one," it can be replaced byan article.



If the numerator is more than one the ordinal representing

the denominator takes the plural" S." ." One half " l cannot,
however, be called "one second.'~ E.g., One fourth (one
quarter). Three quarters (three fourths).
One tenth.
Five hundredths. Seventy thousandths.
27- Time. The hour, without the addition or subtraction of minutes, is often, though not necessarily,
followed by "o'clock." E.g., Two o'clock. I saw him
at ten o' clock. Let' s meet at eleven.
Notice: Twelve noon. Midday. Midnight. Twelve
midnight. Noon.
208. If the minutes after th~ hour. are thirty OT less,
we add them to the hour. E.g., I saw the child at twenty
past three. I shall meet hiin at ten past four. Lunch
is at a:qriarter past one. The class begins at hall past
nine, -.e., Half an hour after nine o'clock. But if the
minutes after the hour are more titan thirty, we state the
number of minutes to go before the following hour strikes."
E.g., 1 met him at ten to four. He finishes work at a quarter
to seven, i.e., a quarter of an hour before seven o'clock.
Railway custom is sometimes followed, by merely
adding the minutes of the previous hour. E.g., 1 shall
be there at ninefoTty. The show begins at eightforty-five.
209. The date.
The" number representing ayear
is split into two groups, in conversation.E.g., 1939 becomes
mneteen thirty-nine. The Battle of Hastings was fought
in ten sixty-six. Columbus discovered America infourteen
hundred and ninety-two. (Fourteen ninety-two.) But
in writing, the numeral s are used.
"A.D." means "anno Domini," and is used of the
years of the Christian era. E.g., America gained her
independence in A.D. 1776.
" B.G." placed after ayear means "before Ghrist,"
and indicates ayear previous to the Christian era. Thus
55. B.G. would mean fifty-five years before the reputed
year of the birth of Christ.
" a.m. " me~ns "ante meridiem," i.e., before midday.
" p.m." means "post meridiem," t.e., after midday.
1 The article comes between half and its noun. E.g., Half a loaf
is better than no bread. Half the people fainted.



E.g., The train was late: it am.ved at two a.m. instead

of at 10 p.m.
210. The days 01 the month are ordinals, and take the
definite aTticle whether they are placed before. or after the
name of the month. E.g., The twenty-fiTst of December.
December Me twenty-fiTst. 1

The age of a person may be expressed in one of

the following ways: He is twenty. He is twenty years oM.
He is twenty yeaTs 01 age.
Notice: She is still in heT teens., i.e., She is between
the ages of thirteen and nineteen. He is in his eaTly
fonies. He i~ in the late twenties.
212. Money. The following forms are usual in
conversation :(a) Pounds only. Six pounds. [,6. Five pounds.
A fiVeT (ls).
(b) Pounds and shillings. Six pounds five, i.e., Six
pounds and five shilli!lgs, i.e., [,6. Ss. od.
(e) Pounds and pence. One pound and 10uT pence, i.e.,
[,1. os. 4d.
(d) Pounds, shillings, and pence. Eight pounds ten and
10UT, i.e., Eight pounds ten shillings and four pence, i.e.,
[,8. lOS. 4d.
(e) Pounds, shillings, penee, and fraetions 01 a penny.
Nine pounds eleven and eight pencelaTthing, i.e., [,9. lS. 8id.
(f) Shillings and pence. ThTee and six, i.e., Three
shillings and sixpence, i.e., 3s. 6d.
(g) Peitce andfraetions 01 a penny. ThruppeneelaTthing,
i.e., three pence and a farthing, i.e., 31d. A penny ha'penny,
i.e., thTee ha'penee, i.e., a pennyand a halfpenny, i.e., lid.
A laTthing, i.e., id. A ha'penny, i.e., id. ThTee laTthings,
i.e., id.
213- Measures of length, unless followed by adjectives
like "wide," "long," "tall," "bToad," omit the word
" feet" or "inches" after the last number. E.g., The
room is five feet by six. The room is five feet seven by
six feet two, i.e., five feet seven inehes wide by six feet

1 The omission of the article is American . E.g., December twentyfirst. But we may write .. December 21st!'



two inches long, i.e., 5 ft. 7 in. X 6 ft. 2 in. The length
of the room is ten feet nine. lt is ten feet nine inches long,
i.e., 10 ft. 9 in.


When does the Christian era begfu.? On what date

is the birth of Christ traditional1y supposed to have taken
plaee ? ls this date aecurate? What is the longest
division of time? What is a eentury? What do we use
the word age for? How .ean age be given a shorter and
more definite meaning? Give a eonversational use of
age. Who speak of light- years? What is a decade?
What eentury are we now living in? Who do we mean
by the eighties? The seventies ? The sixties? The fifties ?
What does' the dietionary say is the meaning of the
'l'oaring fO'l'ties? Why are we beginning to hear referenees
to twenty-two, fourteen, ete.,with regard to this eentury ?
When is there hardly any possibility of mistaking the
speaker's meaning? On what day does the year begin ?
And end? How many months is the year divided into ?
How many days ? . How many weeks? What is a leapyear? What right have English spinsters during a leapyear? ls this a joke? N ame the months of the year ?
Whieh is April-Fools' Day? What may you do on that
day? When is the joke against you? On what day does
the week begin in England? What are the other days of
the week? How is a day reckoned? How do we eount
the hours in England? What fraetion of a day is an hour ?
What fraeton of an hour is a minute? What fraetion of
a minute s a seeond? Do people work on Sundays in
England? ls there a weekly half-holiday as well? On
what days do the bank holidays fall ? On what other
day do the banks close? Atl what time do London
offiee workers begin work? What time do they finish ?
What do people say of the Civil Servants? What is the
usual luneh hour? Do London workers live near their
work? How do they go to and from work? What is
the population of the British Isles? What is the proportion of the population of the British Isles to that of the



whole British Empire? What is, approximately, the

population of the British Empire? What fraetion is this
of the total population of the globe? What fniction of
the earth's surface does the British Empire occupy?
Say the following figure in words: 13,909,782' square
miles? What does this area represent? How much of
the earth' s surface does Europe occupy? And Asia?
. And Africa? N orth America? South America? .MThat
is the following number: 2,974,557? Is this the area of
Australia? What is the following number: 10,376,786?
What population does it represent? Wht fraction is
this of the population of theEmpire? S~y this figure
in words: 6,673,157. What population does this represent? What fraction is this of the Empire's population ?
Say this figure in words: 9,536,649. What country has
this population ~. What fraction is this of the total Empire
population? What has the population of Great Britain
now about reached? According towhom? What do
some say about the population of a hundred years from
now? If Nature takes a 'hand in the problem, what will
startled 'English husbands find? To what length might
some of the wives go? What obligation are English
parents under, with regard to the education of their
children? Were there 5,84,74 children in English
Primary Schools last year? Say this figure in words.
What percentage of these chifdren attended Council
Schools? What was the cost per child of this education ?
Are the Secondary Schools well attended? What are
Public Schools? What are the fees for Public Schools ?
What is ~he number of English U niv~rsities ? What
is the number of professors, lecturers, and readers? What
is the number of undergraduates? What was the proportion of the population of the U nited States of America
to that of Greater Geimany, at the. beginning of 1939 ?
What is the proportion to-day? How many times more
people has the United States than Brazil? ,What is the
p~oportion of the population of the U .S.A. to that of the
British Empire? How many inhabitants has England
in comp~rison with Eire? In comparison with Belgium ?



How much has England's population in~reased in the last

four hundred years? And Spain? How many people
are there in Eire now, in comparison with a hundred and
fifty years ago? How many people of lrish descent are
there in the U.S.A. ?




The meaning and functions of a clause are explained
in the Introduction to the Twelfth Lesson.
A good deal of trouble is cal.t$ed to students by the
peculiar'English habit of placing prepositions at the end of
clauses and phrases, when one has ev'ery right to expect
to find them at the beginning (pars. 78, 218, 223)' Special
study of this point is necessary if the student is to avoid
an extremely stilted style.
A frequent error is that of introducing an adjectival
clause with what. Slavs show a special weakness in this
regard (par. 222).
Latins have difficulties in connection with the use of
what introducing a noun clause, and which introducing a
parenthetica1 sentence (pars. 223, 233)' Both are neuter
.uses, and most Latin languages have the same expression
for both pUIBoses. Hence the confusion .
. The idiomatic uses of ever are not usually given the
attention they deserve (pars. 227, 231, 234-235). If not
overused, they give great flexibility of expression to
Tttere is a tendency to drop the final " m" of whom,
when the latter is not preceded by a preposition (pars. 218,
223), probably because the tendency of modern English
is to eliminate inflexions. This should not be done,
however, in writing or in formal speech.







A. PROSE PASSAGE. (See pars. 262-263.)

Mary, a tll, pretty English girl, whose hair had
a natural wave, was contemplating Pepita and herself in a
long mirror. l\lary's friends called her " svelte," whatever that means. It must be something nice, for she fairly
purred whenever she heard it. Pepita, who~e English
appearance completely belied her Spanish name, was a
wire-haired terrier. "If we go to England for good/'
remarked Mary, " 1 don't know what we shall do about
Pepita f" And Pepita, whose eyes were only just closed,
as she lay sprawled on the rug, opened one of them as
who should say, " Who is taking my name in vain ? "
But John was getting tired of the subject, for he well
knew what his wife was hinting ato So he answered
shortly, " SeU her, or make away with her ! "
" Whatever are you thinking of?" retorted Mary,
indignantly; for she felt deeply on the matter. "1 don't
know of anybody who would buy her, and 1 certainly
know of nobody whom 1 could absolutely trust to look
after her properly. As for having her put to sleep, how;;;:; could you have the heart even to suggest such a
cruel thing t In any case, whatever do you want me to
part with her for? 1t seems a shame to get rid of a d~
that is so pn~tty and lovable."
" 1 quite realize how stro'ngly you feel on the matter,"
answered John impatiently. "But even you must ful/y
understand what serious difficulties there are in the way
of our taking her with us."



" Well, even if the difficulties which you speak about

are as serious as what you try to 'make out, which 1 do not
really believe," answered Mary, " we must find sorne means
by 'lOhich to overcome them."
"There is no way out of it except to seU her, or
do away with her, or comply withthe regulations on the
observance 01 which the English Goverrunent is so strict.
You know quite well 'lOhat those regulations are. Six
months of quarantine, the cost 01 which is about one and
six a day. 1 have not quite worked out yet 'lOhat the total
cost would be for the whole period, but it can hardly
be much less than fifteen poundso Even if Pepita were
worth that, which she is not, we could scarcery afford the
expense." All tms from John. "1 know wbat we can
do, then," cried Mary. "We can smuggle her in. There
are people 'lObo do that kind of thing every day with
" y es," answered John sourly, " and there are people
who get gaoled for it every day as well. And if you ask
me which 1 prefer, to risk going to gaol or to Ieave Pepita
behind, there is onIy one answer 1 can give. Pepita must
go by the board, however bad Iy you may take it, and
however much you may miss her. 1 should strongry
object to going' to gaol for a human being, much less for
a dogo"
" Who asks you to go to gaol ? " retorted Mary o ce 1
could smuggle her in as a baby in arms. Who would
know the difference, if 1 dressed her up completely, and
hid her face ? "
" The man who examines our passportso a'here is no
baby that 1 know o/on ours. And even if you completery
took the Customs people in, 'lOhich is rsther imlikely, 'lObat
would you do if the baby barked? A baby tbat barked
might well excite remark, even among the customs-



officials o/ whose intelligence you seem to think so

"Ah," retorted Mary cuttingly, "they would only
say that it took after its father. 1 don't know whether
it is Pepita who has taught you to bark, or you who have
ta~ght her. 1 do know only too well which of you it is
who barks the mosto But, as an alternative, 1 can chloroform her, and pretend that she is a furo Which do you
think is the better idea ? "
" Both are the worst that 1 have ever heardJ" 'quoth
J,ohn. "Whoever would dream of a fox terrier
as a fur! You will have to think of som,ething better than
that, if you want to pull the wool over the eyes of the representatives of His Majesty's Customs. No, whatever way you
go about it, the customs-offlcials are not people whom one
can easily outwit. They would be' au courant' at once."
" 1t may be that they would be 'au courant,' whatever that means," replied Mary, who was not very strong in
.French. "But surely we could easily find a sailor whom
we could bribe to take Pepita ashore for uso What are
the sailors 'on our boat, anyway? Spanish? If they
are, it will be. plain sailing. Whenever 1 have dropped
across them, 1 have always got along very well with
Spaniards. And 1 thorough Iy understand their language.
They say," she added complacently, "that I've got a
way with me.''
" 1 don't know what our. sailors are," grunted J ohn,
"fJJho was' somewhat sensitive about his wife's successes
in the land of Don Juan. "But 1 do know what they are
noto They are not fools. They know perfectly well that
whoever goes ashore must undergo a search whoever and
whatever he is."
"Well," rejoined Mary, not a whit abashed, "1
know what you can do. You can break the journey in


France, and hire a Httle motor-boat that you can bring
the puppy acr~ in. I particularl~ remember hearing


that coast-guards do not take a[,y notice of the little

pleasure-Iaunches that are always coming and going."
"The question then arises," said J ohn, "'lOhich is
cheaper; to hire a boat or pay the quarantine fees. And
even if 'lOhat you suggest really were cheaper, 'lOhich it is
not, I mayas well tell you at once that every boat, whatever its size, and wherever it puts in, is always' searched
on entering a harbour.",
"You're most discouraging," sobbed Mary, bursting
into tears. "Whatever I suggest, you turn down. And
1 don't care 'lOhat you say, 1 do know lots of people 'lOho
have motor-boats; and 1 do know that they never have
their boats searched when they come back from a tiip."
But the tears had no effect on John. "However much
you take on about it, 1 can't help it," he said. "Those
people 'lOhom you are taIking about are lucky, 'lOhoever
they are. 1 never have been, and 1 am not going to be
talked into taking a leaf out of their notebooks. Whatever
they are able to do, 1 am going to obey the law. And
that is a11 there is about it."




Adjectival clauses determine the noun they follow.

They can be introduced by the following relatives :215.





Adverbs: where, when, why, as.
Examples .-He is the man 'lOho speaks English. That
is the dogo 'lOhich bit me. He is the man that speaks



English so well. 'fhat is the dog that bit me.. This is

the grave of the man whom the revolutionaries killed.
Here is the dog which Peter sold me. The man that the
. crowd tore to pieces was buried yesterday. This is the
horse that 1 bought two days ago. The table whose
leg is broken is of no use to me.. The people whose
house this is are on the Continente The place where
Peter lives is in a very out of the way district. 1 was not in
on fue day when he caUed. The reason iohy 1 did it should
be c1ear to everybody. This lesson is the same as the
one he gave us a week ago. The house 01 which you speak
is old.
Nono-As cannot introduce a relative clause to determine
a norma "He is the man as came should be " He is the man who came. In the book-title " Jones as I knew him," as 1
/mero mm is adv~rbial, .to, Jones described as I kne.w him.
(See par. 223, page1 335.)
216. "That" can replac,e "who," "whom," "where,"
"why," and "when." E.g., The sister that 1 love very
much is ilI. The dog that you bought is a mongreI. The
man that told you, that did not know what he was taIking
about. The country that he comes from is thousands of
miles from here. The reason that he did it is obscure.
The time that he arrived is not known.
NOTEo-" That" cannot be used in this way to introduce
elauses which are parenthetical, and not determinative (paro
233). E.g., My sister, whom I love very much, is ill. Not:
" that I love."
217. The relatives "whom," "which," and ~, whose "
are also used after prepositions. E.g., The man to who'in
1 spoke was a Swede. The play to wh:h you took me
was splendid. The friend to whose house 1 am going is a
writer. The architect by whom this house was built was a
real artista The lady Irom whom this carne is in London.
218. l'repositions are often placed lilt the end of an
adjectival clause, especially in conversation. This must
be done in the case of a preposition governing " that."
The man whom 1 spoke to is a Swede. The play which

1 A frequent error among uneducated people is the use of that as

an adverb to modify an adjective. Eog., 1 aro that tiredo It should
be, " I am 10 tired."



you took me to was splendid. The friend whose house

1 am going to is a writer. The architect whom this house
was built by is an artist. The lady whom this carne Irom
is here. Tbe place that 1 am going to is far away. The
house that you speak 01 has been burnt down. The man
that he barked at rano
219. When, however, " 01 wmch " is used as a possessive',
" 0/" must precede" which." E.g.; 1 cannot live in a house,
the walls 01 which 1 are cracked. But: The dog which
you are speaking 01 is a spaniel.
220. But "whose" should replace "01 which" even
when the possessive does not refer to a persono E.g.,
The dog whose tail you cut looks extremely funny. The
house whose roof you see is old.
221. When a relative is neither " as," nor apossessive,
nor the subject 01 an adjectival clause, it may be omitted
altogether. But the preposition, if ther~ is one, is always
retained, and is placed at the end of the adjectival c1ause.
E.g., Here is the man they killed, i.e., Here is the man
. whom they killed. 1 was not there the day they called.
The reason 1 did it should be perfectIy plain to everybody.
The sister 1 looe 'Very much, is iIl. The horse you were
telling me ahout is lame. The dog you are speaking 01 is
a spanieI. The place he comes Irom is unknown to me.
The reason he did it is obscure. The time he arrived is
not recorded.
222. "What" cannot int roduce an adjectival clause.
This mistake is frequentIy m~de by foreigners and uneducated English speakers. E.g., He saw the inaIl who
(that) had done the deed. And not: He saw the man
what had done it.
223. The folIowmg is a Iist of pronouns, adJectives,
and adverbs which are used as conjunctives to introduce
noun clauses.
that (adverb)
. (fhis use f il is widespread among educated peop]e.
E.g., 1 .don't know il he is here.)

This is, however, stilted. See par.




Examples.-He knows whom 1 mean. 1 can teH you

whose elephant it is. 1 don't know what he is referring to.
Peter told me where to go to. Do you know when he will
arrive? N obody can understand, 'Why he should have
done such a thing. Would you mind telling me how 1
can get to Trafalgar Square? I heard that he writes. I
don't know whether he saw me.
224. "Which," introducing a noun clause, refers to
one of a limited group within a category, and is used of
all genders. Thus, if someone says, " 1 saw Mr. Brown

to-day," the answer may be, "1 don't know whic~ Mr.
Brown you mean." This when the hearer refers to one
of a limited group of Browns known to h~'mself and the
maker o/ the statement. In the same way, " I don't know
which to think " indicates the existence of a limited group
o/ possible opinions to choose from. Again: 1 couId not
tell which was which, i.e., There was a limited group of
things so alike that it was difficult to distinguish the one
/rom the other.
225. " What," when 'introducing a noun clause, is
not limited to a group rothin a category. I t is limited onIy
by the category itself. E.g., Tell me what the news is,
i.e., The news may be anything. I don't know what to
think, i.e., No Jimited group o/ possible opinions has as yet

presented itself to my mind.

226. " Wht," when referring to persons, cannot be
used as a pronoun, except in the sense of" what nationality,"
" what pro/ession/, "what social position." E.g., Try to
find out what the visitor is. She married aman of good
position, but 1 do not know exactIy what he is. I do not
know what he is, whether a Russian or a Hungarian.
But: Can you tell me what Mr. Brown it was who
wrote the Ietter?
227. "Ever" can be added to conjunctives introducing
noun clauses, with the exception of " whose " and " whom "
(q.v.), in an emphatic sense. Such cIauses are usually
negative, if the conjunctive is " why," " where," or " how."
E.g., Take whichever you pIease. Do whatever you like.


1 can't understand why ever he does such tngs. 1
cannot understand howe'lJer you managed to do it. 1
don't know whre'lJer he Iives.
NOTE.-The form "whomever" is never heard. The
" m" is suppressed. E.g:, 1 cannot imagine whoever
he could have seen.

228. "Soever" can be used emphatically with the

conjunctive pronouns and adjectives, hut not the
conjunctive adverbs/ Take whichsoe'lJer you want. Do
whatsoe'lJer you like. Tell whomsoever you pIease.

229. It should be noted that subordinate noun-clauses

take the word order oj an or'dinary sentence, and not of an
interrogative sentence. It is frequent to hear foreigners
say, " 1 do not know what can 1 do," placing the subject
of the subordinate clause after the anomalous finite. The
subject should go bejore the verbo E:g., 1 do not know
what 1 can do .
. 230. Interrogative sentences can be introauced by the
same wo'rds as those used for introducing no un clauses
(par. 223)' The preposition governing the interrogative
word may go at the end of the sentence. E.g.,To whom
are you speaking. Whom are you speaking to P What are
you ? Who are you? Which of the two men is your
brother? What l\1r. Smith called to-day? What do
you want? "Whose book are you taIking about? Whose
is the horse? Whose house is that? Where are they
going to? Why did you do that? How do you know
that what you say is true? When did you last see your

Ever" can be compounded with interrogative

words to express strong jeelings, such as surprise, anger,
fear, etc. E.g., Why e'lJer did yon do that? However
did you get in? Whene'lJer did you arrive? Whate'lJer
did you do that jor? Whate'lJer is that noise? Whoever
i~ that waving to you? However did you manage to raise
the money? Whichever is the house we are Iooking for ?
231. "

Wheresoever is now rareo


232. When the subject 01 an interrogative sentmee is an
interrogative pronoun, or is a noun with an inte"ogative
adjective, the anomalous finites "do, does, did" are not
used in formulating the question, unless it is desired to
make the question emphatic (par. I5 (e. E.g., Who
spoke at the meeting? Whose h-usband bought the book ?
Which dog has hydrophobia? What caused the fire ?
Emphatically: Who did speak at the meeting?
233. Parenthetical sentences differ from adjectival
clauses, in that they do not determine any noun. They
make a comment on the principal statement, the whole
often forming a paradox, slight or' strong. E.g., Smith,
who is a grammarian, spells badly. (Compare with,
"The Smith who is a grammarian speJls badly.")
Parenthetical sentences can be introduced by the
following : who whose whom what which where how as why
. Examples.-Peter, who had done his best, had to admit
at last that he had failed. Mary, 'Whom had always
considered a prud~nt sort 01 girl, made a mess of her
marriage. Cresar, than whom no greater general ever lived,
was aRoman. Mary, as was natural, could not acc~pt
the invitation without compromising herself. James,
whose escapades had made him notorious at the University,
was sent down last year. If he is aman, which 1 think he

is, he will not stand such treatment. If what you say is

true, 'Which do not believe, then it ls a11 up with uso Mary,.
as has been already said, likes sweets. Patrick, 'Why, do
not know, thinks he is a musical genius. The child, hOfJJ,
it is impossible to say, fell into the river. He Iearned, where,
do not know, that his father was dead. The decisionwlzat its terms are, cannot say-was reached last night.
234- Parenthetical sentences expressing ignoran ce with
regard to the person or thing represented by the prirtcipal
subject can be introduced by the same conjunctives as
those used for introducing noun c1auses (par. 223), with
the exception of "whose." Such connectives are compounded with "ever"; or, in a more emphatic sense,

Latins confuse this "which" with the conjunctive "what."



with "soever." E.g., The writer of this book, whoever
he may he, is a genius. The noise in the next roOIl),
whatever it U, is most uncanny. The dog which bit me,
wh'tchever it is, must be one of these three. 'Fhe roan
who called, 'lOhatever he 'lOas, was certainly not a German:
Every man, 'lOhosoever he may he, must die. AH the
citizens, 'lOhatsoever their prolessions,were called to the

. 235. Parenthetical sentences expressing irony, or
indifference, or contempt, are usually placed at the end 01 the
principal sentence. They are introduced by :whoever
Examples.-He says that he is a Positivist, whatever
that. means. I am not interested in your story, whatever
it is. Me says that he is going to Equdeni, wherever that is.
John says that after dinner you weigh less than before,
however that can he. Peter says that he will pay his debts
sorne day, 'lOhenever that will he.




In the foIlowing exercise, insert the necessary words

in the spaces left vacant, using what altemative constructions are possible, and taking particular note of the.
cases where the preposition may be placed at the end of
the cIause or sentence:There is hardly any part of Africa of ... it cannot be
said that it is, directly or indirectly, under European
control. Egypt proper and Liberia are the only countries
... the natives govem themselves, and ... they are more or
less independent of European "tutelage "...,........ ever the
latter means! This fact creates serious problems of
policy for those Europeans-.whoever and ... ever they
may be, ... have taken upon themselves the responsibility
of goveming the parts of, Mrica .. . they have seized.
ii makes it necessary for them to formulate certain
principIes, by ... they wiIl be guided in their treatment of



the blacks over . . . Iives they exercise control. And,

... ever the principIes ~ by ... they are guided may be,
these principIes must necessarily pave sorne ethical
justification. For Western civilization, ... ever other
characteristics it has, has one ... distinguishes it from
most others. It is dominated by ethics. " ... ever is
ethics ? " sorne reader will exclaim. WeIl, ethics is that
branch of knowledge ... deals with the rules-... ever
they may be-of right conducto
Indeed, in sorne European countries, ... ever religion
there lS has been whittIed down to ... is practicaIly nothing
more than an ethicaI codeo 1t is not necessary to say here
... countries these are, or ... they are situated. But it is
easy to think of countries the Governments of ... , no
matter '" unscrupuIous their policy may be, will always
try to find a moral principIe to advance as the reason ...
they act as they do. And they will always try. to prove
that the actions of the people-... ever they may be-...
oppose them, are moraIly wrong. This priggishness is a
source 'of constant irritation to people ... minds are not
so obsessed by moral considerations, and ... upbringing,
. . . is quite good, makes them regard with abhorrence
... soever tries to appear moraIly more perfect than
people ... act or think differentIy froin themselves.
It is hardly surprising, therefore, that the treatment of
the blacks in Africa- ... often leaves much to be desiredis almost invariably justified on moral grounds, and given
high-sounding names. Such conduct has been calIed
"bearing the white man's burden "-... ever that may
mean. Qr they are carrying out a sacred trusteeship... ever they got the authority to do this from-vver
backward peoples. You may choose ... ever of the terms
you prefer. In practice, the one means much the same
the other. . .. is stranger stilI is the fact that those



parts of Mrica ... Europeans have made the most ostentation of moral motives, are the very parts ... the blacks have
been, and still are, the most shamefully oppressed.
" ... ever can this be ? "the reader will exclaim in wondermento ". " is the reason for such a contradiction, and
... fault is it, the code itself, or neglec..t in applying it ? "
For the statement sounds strange to those ... feel that
ethical codes can, as such, be productive of nothing but
... is good. But this need not necessarily be so. . .. is it
that gives value to an ethical code? It is the fundamental
idea-religious, philosophical, or ... ever it may be-on
. .. it is based. And the ethical code of ... we will speak
first had a religious foundation. For it happened that
the first Europeans with ... the Bantu tribes first came
into contact-i~ is unnecessary to say .~. Or ... ~
Europeans . were-believed in predestination. . . . is
predestination, and ... idea was it? It is a religious
dogma ... was once very widely held, and according to
. . . a11 men, ... ever and ... ever they are, are divided,
before they are born, into two classes, of ... one consists
of the elect, ... are predestined to go to heaven when they
die, and the other of the damned, ... are irrevocably condemned to hell. This doctrine, with ... justification is
immaterial, was attributed to St. Augustine.
The only question for the whites ... first came into
permanent contact with the Bantu was, ... had God predestined to heaven, and ... had He condemned eternally
to hell? The question was soon answered. I t was the
easiest thing in the world for the whites, ... , after a11,
were naturally prejudiced in their own favour, to find
convincing reasons ... they themselves should constitute
the band of the elect, and ... it was the blacks to ... the
doubtful privilege had been given of belonging to the
legion of the damned. But, the reader will ask, ... dId



this question, ... , after aH, concemed the next world only,
afi'ect the position of the blacks in this. It was very simple.
The whites, ... logic left nothing tobe desired, went
further. Since, so they reasoned, God has condemned
to hell all those to ... He has assigned a black skin, it
must nlean that He does not love them. How could He
love people ... He has condemned to so terrible a tate ?
And if God does not love the blacks, ... ever should we ?
To the people of ... 1 am speaking-I repeat that it is
not necessary to say ... they were-there seemed to be no
reason ... ever ... they should. And from... has just
been said, it will be understood why the blacks were
considered as little more than wild animals, . .. it was
licit to rob and enslave. Though given the category of
human beings, they were regarded as wretches ... had
been outlawed by, the wrath of God, and were denied ...
the Middle Ages had conceded even to the serfs. They
were denied elementary justice. People well might
exclaim, " ... ever could anybody put so great and beautiful
a thing ... religion to so horrible a use?" ... ever were
these whites, anyway? But it is a truism that the more
beautiful a thing is, the more it can be degraded. It i~
also a truism that people ... give a disproportionate value
to any article of a philosophy or creed, are always guilty of
excesses on that point. The Greeks, ... reduced the love
of nature to a cuIt, committed the most unnatural crimes.
And those ... make ethics 3D end in itself always violate
the canons of moraIity die most shamelessly.
To-day, there are few ... accept the dogma of predestination in its original form, even in Africa. Bu t the
conduct of the whites to ... reference is being made has
not changed radically. . . . has changed has been the
basis of the ethical motive ... such people ofi'er as the
reason ... they do not restore the rights of ... the blacks



have for centuries been, deprived. For, though the

whites concemed feel that they can no longer fall back on
predestination, they know ... to find just as convincing
and convenient a justification for their conduct.At least,
they find ... satisfies them, though their victims know
only too well ... the sufferers are. And the reader,
saturated with modm enlightenment-... ever that may
be-will cry out in dismay, " ... ever could be a justifiable
basis of such conduct ? "
Predestination, at least, conceded that the blacks,
though damned, were human. When this dogma became
no longer fashionable-... happened towards the beginning
of this century-the damnation was removed, but the
blacks remained human. It is easy to see ... this would
have led to, if the whites had not known .. to look for a
substitute for their old doctrine. The blacks would have
begun to claim ... all human beings have the right to
exact-libertyand justice. And to deny these rights. .. is just ... the whites were determined to do-would
have been morally reprehensible by evry Westem
standard. Now nobody, least of all the whites about ...
I am talkmg, wants his conduct to be considered morally
reprehensible. . .. does? . conscience could be tranquil
under such a reproach? One's cond'uct, ... ever it may be,
must be justified morally at all costs. Those. .. make
ethics an obsession always find out to do this in the ende
They become quite expert at it. But the problem ...
faced our ethically minded whites seemed insoluble,
even to them. But at last they found the solution, ... all
good things are to be found. . . ever is that? In modem
science, ... ever that is. Modem science knows o.. it is
to classtalking about. . .. ever it says, goes. It knows
as superior, and ... to class as inferior, and it manages
this by means of the glandular theory, ... ever the latter


o. o



is. At least, so the white men about ... we are talking say.
If you ask them ... ever anlong the great scientists has
advanced such a hypothesis, the consequences of ... are
so far-reaching, or ... it can be proved, they are inclined
to be vague. Or they quote sorne local savant of ... the
rest of the world has never heard. But sarcasm apart ...
is the glandular theory? According to its author, ... ever
he may be, the glands of an African black are different
from those of a white mano ... is more important still,
this difference, ... ever it may be, makes the black definitely
inferior to the white in ,social, political, and economic
capacity. . .. is the consequence for the black man? It
means that the black must never mix in white society;
he can never leam ... to govern himself, and therefore is
unfit for any poltical rights; he is suited only for ... ever
rough or meniai work the whites disdain to do. This
really means that all black men, ... soever they may be,
and ... soever their talents, are really sub-human. In
good ethics, it is only true humn beings of ... it can ;
said that they have any social or political rights at all.
The blacks, being sub-human, hav~ none, ....ever their
intelligence or industry in individual cases. The results
can best be left to the imagination. If a black man were
asked . . . he prefers, predestination or. the glandular
theory, he would assuredly have no hesitation ... ever. He
would answer ... anyone would answer in his placepredestination..... ever cruel and ruthless the doctrine
of predestination was, and ... ever its consequences, it at
least left the black man aman. And even if there were
any proof ... ever for the glandular theory, ... there is not,
its cruel applications in Mrica would still be a disgrace
to the human race, ... ever its scientific justification. In
the parts of Mrica .. : the glandular theory is accepted,
there are legally recognized societies for the prevention of



cruelty to animals, ... interests are therefore well looked

aftero But there are no societies ... ever for the prevention
of cruelty to the blacks. The Government have known
oo. to stop anytJiing like that. Whether a,black is treated
cruelly or not, depends entirely on ... serf he happens to
be, and ... type of master he happens to have. As a sop to
humanitarian opinion in Europe-... is not sufficiently
advanced to understand the glandular theory-the blacks
are given a certain amount of legal protection. But even
if this protection were adequate, '" it is not, in nine cases
out of ten the blacks ... dare to avail themselves of it are
dismissed by their employers, and turned out on to the
roads to starve. N o white farmer will give work to a black
. o, has successfully prosecuted another ;white mano So
the black must decide ... is the lesser ofthe two evilsappeal to the courts of justice, or submit to o.oever treatment is meted out to him. He generally ends by accepting
work from oo.soever offers it, and submits patiently ..
.. .ever way you look at it, his situation is tragic.
It has be~n said aboye cf certain Europeans that,
... ever their conduct may be, they feel under the imperious
necessity of finding sorne moral justification for it. While
the dogma of predestination held sway, such seff-justification, .o.ever it was worth, was often quite sincere, because
it was based on a belief which, .. oever its merits, was
genuineo It is difficult to concede the same sincerity
to those .. o conduct towards the blacks is based, or so
they say, on the glandular theoryo One is not convinced
by the " . o.ever for?" and the " o.. ever should we ? "
with ... they receive one's suggestion that the blacks
should be given human rightso For when one points out
to them the glandular theory's utter lackof scientific
foundation, and reminds them of the hundreds of fullblooded negro es ... , ... ever sub-human they may be,



have distin~ished themselves in every branch of learning

and industry in those countries ... , for sheer lack of proof,
the glandular theory has not been accepted, they answer
angrily, and revealingly, that ... soever supports the giving'
of human rights to the blacks is an enemy to white civilization and to white interests. This latter argument, ; .. ever
its merits, has at least the saving grace of' sincerity.
Fearis a powerful incentive, and the whites know ... to
fear. .In the parts of Mrica in
these whites-... ever
they are-live, there exists a poltical system ... can well,
b~ compared to the Greek slave stat. There are the
white overlords ... , no matter ... they are-rich or poor,
intelligent or idiotic-constitute a separate self-goveming
caste; and ther~ is a substratum ofblack serfs, ,.. supply
the cheap labour, and do everything '" involves drudgery
or heavy work. The whole social and ecot'lomic system
of these parts of Mrica is thus built up on a system, the
end of ... no man can foresee. And, natumlly, the whites
... uphold this system have every, reason to fear the consequences if it were destroyed. Meanwhile, it is they ...
are in the saddle, and there they intend to remain. There
.can be ,no reform, unless it be such a reform ... was
wrought by Wilberforce, .. touched the heart of England,
or by St. Francis of Assisi, ... changed the heart of the
West. But we have no idea ... and ... such men may
arise; and meanwhile, the blacks do not know to ... too
tum for help. No wonder that one rebellioU's chieftain
cried out to his tribesmen, " ... shall we choose: to live
like dogs. or to die like men ? " And they answered
any real man would answer-" To die like men! "
they forthwith did.



Describe Mary's appearance. Whom was she contemplating? What did Mary's friends call her? Why



must svelt mean something nice? Who was Pepita?

What did Mary remark about Pepita and going to
England? Describe Pepita' s posture, and her reaction
to this remark. Why was J ohn getting tired of the
subject? What did he answer? What was Mary's
indignant retort? What did she say with regard to the
idea of selling Pepita? What did she say about putting
thedog to sleep? What seemed a shame? What did J ohn
answer about Mary's feelings and the difficulty of taking
the dog? How did Mary express her determination to
overcome John's exaggerated fears about the difficulties ?
What regulations would they have to conform to? What
did these regulations lay down ? ' What was the total sum
involved? Could they afford the expense, .even if Pepita
were worth [,15? Why djd Mary think that smuggling
was a good idea? What general remark did J ohn make
about the fate of smugglers?' What was his decision
with regard to the altematives of risking gaol or leaving
Pepita behind? What would he strongly have objected
to doing? How did Mary suggest smuggling the dog
in? Why? Whom did J ohn think might know the
difference between Pepita and a baby? Why? What
question did he ask about the dog's probable behaviour?
Wha~ reaction did he think a barking baby might have
on Customs officials? What did Mary think th~y would
say? What did Mary not know about Pepita's capacity
for barking? What did she know only too well? What
alternative idea did Mary suggest? What was John's
impression of Mary's two ideas? What did he think of
the idea of wearing a chloroformed fox terrier as a fur ?
Why is it not easy to pull the wool over Customs officials'
eyes? What would they be, at once? How did Mary
show she was not very strong in French? W'bom did
she think they could easily find? What did she ask about
the sailors on their boat? When had she always got'
along we~l with Spaniards? What did she understand
thoroughly? What did they say about her? What did
John say about his knowledge of the sailors? Why did
he grunt? What did the sailors know perfect1y well ?



Was Mary abashed? What was her next suggestion,

with regard to motor boats? What did she particularly
remember hearing about coast guards? What question
then arose in John's mind? . But what did he think that
he might 'as well tell her at once? What did Mary sob ?
What did she say about J ohn; s reception of her suggestions? What did she not care? What were the two
things that she did know? What effect had the tears ?
How did he qualify his expression o helplessness?
What did he say about the people she was talking about ?
Was he lucky? Was he going to be talked into imitating
thero? H was going to obey the law, in spite o what ?

The use of the feminine pronoun as explained in par.

(a), (b) will be new to most pupils. But the English
like to make things feminine, when they feel sorne sort of
affection for them. We speak of our motherland, not of
our fatherland; and English is our mother-tongue, though
thelatter word, strangely enough, is not referred to by
means of a feminine. pronoun.
Rather more surprising is the use of the neuter pronoun with reerence to babies. Mothers usually rather
~esent it, forgetting that, in Old English, nouns representing f!'omen and babies ,were neuter.


A. PRosE PASSAGE. (See par. 358.)
To-day England is anxiously facing a serious problem.
She is short of babies. She is in serious danger of losing
her Empire, because the English battleship will be of



little use when there are no crews left to man her. Even
to-day, if you travel on an English tramp, especially in the
East, the chances are that you will find her crew to consist
of Lascars or Chinese.
The fact is that to have a baby in England is to let
yourself in for a lot f expense. 'we do a baby very-;di
in this country. We generously feed it on the fat of the
land. We clothe it warmly and educate it expensively.
lt is, in fact, a standing puzzle how most parents come by
aH the money necessary to do all this. If, as they say,
England won her battles on the playing-fields of Eton,
it only goes to show the price at which victories must be
bought. Children, like wars and wives, run into a lot
of money. Later, if you' are rich, ~hey ron through it.
Some go so far as to say that you get more out of pets ;
and, of course, they do not cost nearly so mucho lt was
Mark Twain who eyn ieally remarked that a dog has this
advantage over a man-and, l suppose, over a babythat the dog is sometimes grateful if you do some Httle
thing for it. Even my car is more satisfactory. At least
she runs weH, and takes me where l want to go, insteaq of
my having to take her. And if l sleepily wake to an
unholy howl in the middle of the night, it is the baby,
not the caro But it is the baby who is monarch of aH it
surveys, in the house. We shamelessly pet it and systematically spoil it. We ineontinently fuss over it and humbly
wait on it, just as though it could never disappint or pain
us, or ungratefully desert us, after we have lovingly reared it.
Why do the modem English not have babies? There
is a real shortage, though t used not to be so. Victorian
mothers would have them by the dozen. One strong
reason why modern wives draw back from having them,
is that they do not feel up to facing the p~in. The modem
English woman will say, in self-justification, that the



Victorian mother went through it aH, because 'ske had too

Her husband woulq browbeat her into it. Ske dare not
openly complain, or try to get out of it. And if there is
one thing that modem women do know how to do, it is
to get out of things by complaining. They very ingenl",
ously caIl it having the courage of their convictions;
and say that the modern woman very rightly refuses
to be kept down.
Another reason is that a modern wife feels strongly
that not only does she not urgently need a baby, but that
it would be a positive nuisance if she did have one
to bring up. If England seriously wants her to have
babies, she must provide servants, so that the mother
wiIl not have to drop her club and her bridge, her tennis
and her golf. She Indignantly refuses to stay at home
and mope alone witha squalling brat. If her husband
mildly utters a gentle protest, she sweetly answers: "It's
me, dear! I can't change." So she peorce takes to cats
and dogs, and frequently becomes one of the former
A third difficulty is the bogey of education. Parents
will carefullyskimp and scrape for years, and cut out all
their little pleasures, in order to get together sufficient
money to send their sons to an institution called a Public
School. This is not a public school, as one would expect
from the name, but an exclusive private one. By the
fact that a man has attended a Public School, he is
"goveming class." This implies a circle of influential
friends, and access to the orchards where the best plums
are to be picked.
If England honestly wants to saveher population from
dying out, the first thing she must do is to make attendance
at a Council School the essential requisite for entry into
the Civil and Municipal Services, the Army, the Navy,
and the liberal professions. For the Council Schools



are cheap, and have this merit, that they really do educate.
If parents had no altemative but to send their children
to them, they would not be faced with the unhappy
choice of having either to cut down their personal expenses
to a cruel degree, or cut out babies. As things are, you
let yourself down in the eyes of your friends, if you send
your children to a Council School. Nobody seems to
have the courage to stand out a~inst this convention or
throw off its shackles.
Finally, there is the fact that, in England, most people
marry for love, or try too Such people\ are often almost
piteol!sly afraid of having children. For there is a widespread belief that as children, under existing economic
conditions, almost Invariably bring poverty and drudgery
in their train, they innocently kilI the romance that
sentimental, English couples so ardently long foro "When
poverty," says the proverb, "comes in at the door, love
:fties out at the window." At best, so such people believe,
children are at least liable to come between husband and
wife, because they tend to\tum the affection of the father
and mother fr each other into other channels. This is
a very common opmlOn. It seems to derive from the
fact that in England, people w~lI no longer accept the
propagation of the human race as one of the primary
reasons for the existence of the institution of marriage.
They consciously place the emphasis Ol} what used to be
the secondary considerations of mutual lov~ and companionship; and natu rally look with suspicion on anything and anybody-children included-that may possibly
come between them and the realization of this ideal.



236. In English, the basis 01 gender is sexo What is

male, is masculine; what is female, is feminine; and

See a180 pars. I2.8-133, pages 2.55-2.56.



everything else is neuter. The comparatively few ~xceptions

are given below.
237. First per$on, masculine and feminine :Singular: 1.
Plural: we.
The plural " 'lOe" can be used in a singular meaning
by hings and bishops, when speaking offi~ially; by the
editors of newspapers, with reference to the policy of the
joumals they edit; and by business mm, when speaking
of the activities of their firms. E.g., We hereby decree
that every working man shall receive a mnimum wage of
six pounds per week. We believe that the state of the
country is going from bad to worse. We have no cameras
in stock at the momento
238. Second person, masculine and feminine; singular
and plural: you. (The forms '.' thou" and "ye" are
" You" is also used instead of " one " or " anyone "
in a general statement, often to avoid using the passive.1
E.g., If you mx lye with fat, you get soap, i.e., If one
mixes lye with fat, one gets soap, i.e., If lye is mixed with
fat, soap is obtained.
239. Third person masculine :Singular: he.
Plural: they.
" They " is often used with " say " to indicate a widespread opinion. E.g., They say that the Indians do not
want anything less than complete independence, i.e.,
A large number of people say, etc.
240. Third person feminine :Singular: she.
Plural: they.
The third person feminine refers to females, but al so
to :(a) Ships. E.g., 1 like travelling in the "Queen
Mary," because she is comfortaDle and fasto
(b) Large machines, if we have a special interest in
them; and, more especial1y, if we are the owners. E.g.,
That car of yours does not lcok' mucho Ah, but she
runs welll

Par. 245, page 358.



(e) The names of cou.ntries, when usedto represent

the nations which inhabit them. E.g., Japan is in a position
to make war, because she is strong. ltaly is at a disadvantage, because she has no mines.
241;, Third person neuter :Singular: it.
Plural: they.
We use the pronoun "it" :(a) Of things without sex, with the exception of the
cases aboye mentioned. E.g., That table is useless,
because it is too small.
(b) Of animals, except in the case of individual ones
towards which we feeZ friendly or affectionate. In the latter
case, the masculine or feminine pronoun is used, according
to the sexo E.g., 1 saw a dog in the street, and it followed
me home. That bitch looks as though it might be sick.
I must give my dog sorne medicine, becausehe looks
off colour. Fido is not allowed in the lounge, because
she scatters hair all over the carpet.
(e) Of persons, for purposes of identification (par. 250).
E.g., Who is it at the door? It is John. It certainly
can't be Ted.
(d) Quite frequently, of young children, especially
babies in arms. E.g., It is a very pretty child; but I
don't like it, because it cries in the night.
(e) TQ fill the vacant space left before a verb by a sentence
acting as subject, or by a verbal subject, when such subject
is placed after its verb (par. 7). E.g., What they say about
him is true, i.e., It is true, what they say about him.
To eat too much is unhealthy, Le., It is unhealthy to
eat too mucho Staying up late at night means insufficient
sleep, i.e., It means insufficient sleep, staying up late at



What problem is England anxiously facing? When

will the English battleship be of little use? What will
you find, if you travel in the East, on an English tramp ?
What does having a baby let you in for? How do we do



a baby in England? How. do we feed it? Clothe and

educate it? What is a standing puzzle? What goes to
show the price at which victories must be bought?
What ron into a lot of money? What do sorne go so far
as to say? What remark dld Mark Twain make about
dogs and men? Why is my car more 'satisfactory?
What causes an unholy howl in the middle of the night ?
What is the baby's position in the house? What do we
do shamelessly and systematically? What do we do
incontinently and humbly? In spite of what.? Was
there always a shortage of babies? How did Victorian
mothers have them? Is thi~ literally true? Give one
strong reason why modero mothers draw back from
having babies. What will the modero English woman
say in self-justification? What would the Victorian
husband do? What dare not. the Victorian wife do?
What is the 'one thing modern women do know how to do ?
What do they call it? What treatment does the' modem
woman refuse to accept? What does the modern wife
feel strongly about the' urgent need for babies? If
England wants her to have babies: what must England
do? Why? What does the English mother indignantly
refuse to do? What is her answer to her busband's mild
protest? What does she perfor~e take to? With what
result? What bogey constitutes the third difficulty?
What will parents do to send their childrento a Public
School? To what class does a Public-School boy belong ?
What do es -this imply? What is the first thing England
must do if she wants to save her population from dying
out? Are the Council Schools expensive? What added
merit have they? If parents sent their children to Council
Schools, what choice would they not be faced with?
If you send your children to a Council School to-day,
what happens? What does nobody seem to have had the
courage to do? Why do people marry, in England?
What are such people afraid of? What is the widespread
belief about the results of having children? What does
the proverb say about poverty and love? How do children,
according to such people, affect the relations between



husbanq and wife? What fact is this opinion derived

from? On what aspect of marriage do many people tend
to place the emphasis? What do they look on with


English instinct seems to revolt against the distinction
between the nominativeand accusative forms of the
personal pronouns. Children begin their linguistic life
by saying, " Me's got a tummy ache," when they mean,
" 1 have a stomach ache." Then they go to school;
and, by dint of much drilling imperfectly understood,
react to the other extreme by saying, "The money was
divided between Mary, James, and 1," when they mean,
" between !\1ary, James, and me" (par. 247).
AH this makes the purists shudder, and rightly so.
But one can carry meticulousness too far, as sorne do
when they correct a person for saying, "It's me" (par.
25 0 ). For this construction is usual among educated
people, in their natural and spontaneous speech; and
educated usage is the only criterion we have for judging
whether a certain constructionis correct or noto We have
no Academy of the Language to decide on such matters.
If the rules laid down in grammaticaI textbooks differ
from educated usage, then the grammars must change;
for the grammar was made for the language, and not the
language for the grammar.
Other examples of this type have been noted in regard
to " Aren't I? " (par. 27); the use of the superlative in
comparing two persons (par. 187); and the dropping
of the final " m " from whom (see Introduction to Lesson
Th pleonastic genitive is not really well named, for
pleonastic means redundant in words; and there is a
subtle but very real difference in meaning between the



sentences, "He is one 01 my lriends," and,. "He is a

friend 01 mine." '" He is one 01 my friends" places the
friend in a more intimate and exclusive category than
does " He is a friend 01 mine" (par. 253).



(See par. 358.)

Mary and Muriel were twin sisters who had never
kept anything from each other. One day, Mary gleefully
burst in on Muriel and said to her: "I'm engaged to
the sweetest boy ! "
"Why, 1 was just bursting to tell you the same thing
myself! " cried Muriel, not waiting to hear her sister out.
" But 1 didn't want to let, it out until he had spoken to
Dad. Mine's James. Who's yours?"
Mary began to giggle delightedly .. " How funny! "
she exclaimed. "Mine' s William. We're twins, and
we've go\ ourselves engaged to twin brothers! Their
parents will be as surprised as ours. And what will
Angela say?" (Angela was a friend 01 theirs.) "I'm
sure everybody wiIl laugh at us, but 1 don't careo It
has nothing t> do with anybody but ourselves."
" 1 think we had better go and teIl Mother, before
anybody else does," said Muriel. "1 don't think that
she herselj will make any difficulties, though Father may
be cut up abou~ it. l. remember him saying, years ago,
that he would never willingly allow a daughter 01 his to
marry a bookmaker. But if he says so now, 1 am going
to answer that 1 have no intention of allowing any relation
01 mine to stop me, even if 1 am driven to a runaway
1 don't think, myselj, that we shall have any difficulty



in bringing him round to the idea; or that he will faH

out with us about ~t," smiled Mary. "He got over those
ideas long ago. Mter all, we are almost on the shelf,
now; and he. will be glad to get us off his hands. Even
if he does makea fuss, it'lI soon blow over, and he'll
come round. In any case, I believe we can both build on
the fact that we are doing very well for ourse[ves. Both
boys will soon come in for a lot of money. Also, we are
very fond of them. That holds good for me at least."
" And for me too! " said Muriel emphatically. "And
1 think that in the end Dad will hit it off very well with
both of them. They are both boys that improve on
acquaintance. They W;OW on one."
So the girls went off to break the news to their. parents,
hoping devoutly that the latter wu1d not bre3.k with
them as a resulto Leaving out the fact that they loved
;; parents dearly, and did not want to hurt them, .and
that their fiancs were quite well off, they. did not want
to be cut off with a shilling. Money is always usefuI, no
matter how well to do you are. So they led up to the
subject of their engagement very diplomatically. But,
as it turnedout, they need not have worried. Both
parents had nothing but congratulations for bth of
them. Mary was happily joined to her fianc in holy
wedlock, and Muriel to hers, at a double wedding on the
same day and in the same church. The affair carne off
~ery weIl, and was mentioned in the papers. This unexpected limelight, S9 the brides said, put them out very
much.. But it is on record that they kept all the cuttings.
l\1ary had her first confinement at about the same time
as Muriel had hers; and they went to the ~ame maternity
home, so that they could be near each other. . Both safely
gave birth to girl twins; and Mary had hers a few minutes



before Muriel. AlI the twins bore a striking resemblance

to one another, artd took ater their respective fathers as
;ell. As both fathers looked so like each other that their
own wives sometimes had difficulty in telling which was
which, the stage was obviously set for trouble.
There was a good deaI of arglJ,ment, at first, over names.
Said Muriel: "1 should like to call the twins Helen and
Catherine.'; But Jim was against this. "Good Lord! "
he grunted. "1 think that' s a rotten choice, myself.
Fancy sending them out into the world with labels like
that! Helen of Troy and Catherine of Aragon! They'Il
be handicapped from the,very start."
But Muriel ~ flrmly to her guns. "1 was thinking
of the wife of Constantine the Great, and of St. Catherine
of Siena, myself," she answered coldly. "I'm glad I
haven't a mind like yours. Fancy even thinking of that
woman Helen of Troy in connection, with a child %urs.
I'm heartily ashamed o/ you ! "
"Oh, all right, all right," answered Jim. "It was
only an idea 01 mine. Have it your own wa ! "
After similar skirmishes in the next room, Bill's twins
were called Margaret ando Dorothy, respectively; because,
as 1\Iary sweetly remarked, "Margaret sounds better
than Daisy, and Dorothy means 'gift of God.'"
the end, after remarking sourly that he had ideas
o/ his own as to whether a twin could aptly be called a
"gift" of God, Bill gave in too. Both men were finding,
to their intense dismay, that tbese wives o/ theirs had
wills o/ their own.
Trouble unhappily arose over questions of identity,
even before the new-bom cousins had seen one another.
Nell and Kate looked so like each other, that Jim and
Muriel were constantly having arguments over which
was which. Muriel was obstnate in her opinion, and




Jim was equally determined in his. Nobody will ever

know which was right. They finally compromised by
tossing up. Jim carefully put a baby on one side, and
took a shilling out of his pocket and spun it in the airo
"Heads it's Kate, tails it's Nell," he cried. It tumed
out tails, so Muriel quickly tied a green ribbon round
fue baby' s neck, to identify her for good and all as N ell.
Kate got a red ribbon.
Now it happened that Mary and Bill were vigorously
wrangling over the same thing in the next room. Strangely
enough, they hit on exactly the same solution as Muriel
and Jim, using the same shade and texture of ribbon
that both husbands, without meeting each other, had
bought- in the same shop near the matemity home.
Mter ten days or so, as both mothers were up and
about, and the twins were all doing well, Mary and Bill
tOQk theirs home, and Jim and Muriel took thei:rs too.
As the twins looked like becoming a handful, nursemaids
were engaged, so that the mothers would not be too
tied down when they wanted to get about.
Now it happened that the two nursemaids, Rose and
J ane, had as sweethearts two strapping young guardsmen
named Alfred and Henry. "1 dearly love you !" Alfred
had tenderly exc1aimed to Rose. "And 1 love you too,"
Rose had shyly answered. And thus they had eternally
plishted their troth. So also, had He~ and J ane
joyously plighted theirs.
The four met one fine' day in the Park; and Alfred
and Henry, wishing, very naturally, to impress the girls
with their domestic proclivities, each insisted on taking
each one of the babies out of its pram, and gingerly
fondling it. But Jane was so busy looking rapturously
up intoHenry's frank blue eyes, and thinking what good
luck was hers, andRose was so completely taken up with



Alfred's captivating smile, and thinking happily how

well she was doing for herself, that neither girI noticed
that her charges were getting a b~t mixed up in the process
of being taken up and put down again. So, when the two
girls suddenIy carne back to earth, they found to their
dismay that two babies decked gai,Iy in green ribbons were
blissfully smiling up at them from one pram, while two
other mites arrayed in red contented Iy sucked their thumbs
at them from the other.
" Let's quietly change the ribbons and say no more
about it," said Rose ingeniously. "Their parents won't
know any better, anyway 1"
" Oh, they won't, won't they ? " cut in two indignant
voices from behind. The girls looked at each otber.
The fat was in the fire. F or the voices were the voices of
Muriel and Mary.
" Fancy trying to playa trick' like that on us I " said
Mary, angri1y, as the two Iadies indignantly walked up
to the two prams. "We shall very quickIy settte the
matter for ourselves."
But did they? It is left to the reader to answer the
question, and settle the matter for himself. It'll be good
exercise for that brain of his!



242- The personal pronouns used as subjects are treated

in the previous lesson. They are :Singular: 1, you, he, she, it.
Plural: we, you, they.
243- Emphatic personal-pronouns : 1 did it myself.
We did it ourselves.
y ou did it yourself.
You did it yourselves.
He did it himself.
They did it themselves.
She did it herself.
They did it themselves.
It did it itself.
Thev did it themselves.
One did it oneself. (No plural.)



244. Stronger emphatic form: 1 myself did it. You

yourself did it. She herself did it. We ourselves did it.
You yourselves did it. They themselves did it.

245. When' a personal pronoun is the last of

more subjects of the same verb, one of the aboye compounds of " self" is often used. E.g., John, Mary, and
myself were at the dance last night. Peter and yourself
are very much alike.
NOTE.-I am not myself to-day, z'.e., 1 am not in my
usual health. Be yourself, z'.e., Be normal, be natural.

246. Pronoun dz'rect-object :Singular Object. Plural Object.

He hit us
First person .
He hit me
He hityou
Seclmd persoIl
He hityou
He hit them
He hit him
Third person masculine
He hit her
He hit them
Third person feminine
He hit them
He hit it
Third person neuter

247. Pronouns governed by a prepost'tion have the same

form as pronoun dz'rect-objects. E.g., 1 bought a book
jor hz'm. He gave a ring to her. Here is a' present froln
me. Let me throw an orange to you. 1 entered the room
after them.
248. If a pronoun refers back to the subject 01 tie
sentence, a suitable compound of "self" is usually
employed. 1 This is always the case when stich pronouns
are used reflexz'~lely as objects of a transitive verbo E.g.,
He hur Izz'mself yesterday. She can see herself in the glass.
1 bought a new watch for myself yesterday. He had
better be careful of hz'mself. She often talks to herself. They
are very pleased wz'th themselves. You ought t be ashamed
of yourselves.
Exception: 1 cannot, for the life of me, understand
249 . A compound of "self" govemed by "by"
givcs the sense of " alone" or " wz'thout help." E.g., 1
built the hous~ by myself. It is dangerous for girls to
cross the Heath at night by themselves.
1 We only use these pronouns when clarity demands it.We do
not normally 8ay. "1 wash myself, 1 dress myself, 1 shave myself,'~
but "1 wash, 1 dress, 1 shave."



250. When a pronoun is used as a predica te lor purposes 01 identification, the direct-object lorm is often used
imtead 01 the nominative, even by educated people. E.g.,
Who is it? It's me~ (It is l.) lt's him. It's you. lt's
her. It's uS. It's them.
25J:. Possessive pronouns take their number and
gender from the possessor.
More than
One Possessor.
First person .
.It is mine
lt is ours
Second person
lt is yours
lt is yours
Third person (' masculine ).
1t is his
lt is theirs
1t is thezors
Third person (feminine) .
lt is hers
252. Emphatic possessive : lt is my own.
lt is our own.
lt is your own.
lt is your .own.
lt is his own.
lt is the'ir own.
lt is her own.
lt' is their OWll.
lt is its own.
lt is thez'r own.
This form is made more, emphatic by placing " very "
before "own." E.g., lt is my very own. lt is your very
own. It is his very own, etc.

253. The pleonastic possessive, used in the sense of

"one 01 those which belongs to me." (Often used in a
rather offhand way.)
1 gave him a book 01 mine.
1 gave him a book 01 ours.
1 gave him a book 01 yours. 1
1 gave him a book o/ yours.
1 gave him a book o/ his.
1 gave him a book o/ thezors.
1 gave him a book o/ hers.
1 gave him a book o/ theirs.
254. Emphatic: 1 gave him a book 01 my own, your
own, his own, her own, etc. 1 gave him a book 01 my very
own, our very own, etc.
255. "Afine" can al so take the genitive infiexion
(par. 344) in constructions like: 1 borrowed a friend
01 mine' s walking stick.
256. Reciprocity between two. We love each other.
(You and 1. She and l.) You love each other. (You
two.) They love each otller. (The two.)
1 Note the familiar use in. "1 like that nose
personal remarkso

01 '\.'ours"

and similar'



257. 'Reciprocity among three or more. We love one

another. (We three.) You love one another. (You ten.)
They love one another. (All forty.)
258. The demonstrative pronouns vary in number but
not in gender.
This (nearer me in time or space)
Those 1
That 1 (further off in time or space)
Examples.-This book on the table here is by Kant;
and that on the shelf over' there is by Spinosa. When I
was young, it was easy to make money, but those days
are gone for good. In these days, it is difficult to keep the
wolf from the door.
NOTE.-':"" This" is often used with reference to what
the speaker has just said, and "that" Qf what his interlocutor has just said. If the statement of the speaker
was made some time before, then "that" is used~ E.g., 1
have just said that the earth is flato This is true. You
a1lSWer that there is no adequate proof for the theory.
That is not true. I said yesterday that the world is in
serious danger. That was at Ieast partly true.
259. To refer back to two statements in their logical
OTder, "the fOTmer" is used of the first statement~ and
" the [atter" of the one which has just been made. The
same can be done with nouns. But while ," the former "
can be used only of the first of two nouns just referred to,
or two statements just made, " the [atter " can be the last
of any number of nouns or statements. Both" the latter "
and " the former " are purely literary forins. E.g., He has
lived in Asia and, in Europe. The [atter is smaller than
the former. He says that hatf of us are liars, and most of
us are thieves. The fOTmer may be true, but I don't
think the latter is. I bought a hat, a coat, and sorne shirts.
The [atter were remarkably cheap.



Who were Mary and Muriel? Were their relations

open? How did Mary burst in on Muriel? What did
1 That and those translate the definite-article-pronoun used in
some Romance languages. E.g., 1 saw some lions, but those which
1 saw were tame.


. 361

she say? What did Muriel cry to this? What did she
not wait to do? How did she explain her previous silence ?
How did she announce her fianc's name? What did
Mary begin to do? What did she exclaim? Who would
be surprised? Who was Angela? What did Mary
think everybody would do? Did she care? Why not ?
What did Muriel think they ought to do? What- did she
consider her mother's probable attitude? . And her
father's? What did she remember .him saying years
before? If he repeated this, what was she going to answer ?
What did Mary herself think about the difficulty Muriel
foresaw? Did she think her father stiU had such ideas ?
Why would he b~ glad to get them off his hands? If
he did make a fuss, what would happen? What, in any
case, did Mary believe? How did she convey that both
boys had prospects? What statements did she end' up
with? How did Muriel agree? What did she think of
her father's ultimate attitude to the boys ? Why? So
what did the girls go off to'do? What did they hope ?
Did they want to be cut off with a shilling? What other
considerations influenced them? Is money always usefui? What did they do very diplomatically? N eed they
have worried? What happened to Mary aQd Muriel
in the same church and on the same day? Was the affair
successful? Where was it mentioned? What did the
brides say about this? What is. on record? When did
Muriel have her first confinement? Where? Why?
'Vhat did both safely give birth to? When? Whom
did the' twins look like? How much alike were the
fathers ?Wha.t happened over the question of names ?
What did Muriel say? In what words did Jim express
his opposition? What did Muriel stick firmly to? What
did she answer coldly? Why was she glad? Why was
she ashamed of Jim? How did Jim excuse himself?
What went on in the next room? Why were Bill 's twins
called Margaret and Dorothy? What did Bill sourly
remark, before he gave ip.? What were both men finding ?
What did trouble unhappily aris!! over? When? Why
were Jim and Muriel constantly having arguments? Did



either of them want to give in? Which was right? How

did they compromise? What did Bill do with a baby and
a shilling? What did he cry? What did it turn out?
So what did Muriel do? What did Kate get? What, by
chance, were Mary and Bill doing in the next room?
What solution did they hit on? Using what? What did
the two married couples do, after ten days or so, and why ?
Why were nursemaids engaged? Who were the nursemaids? Who were their sweethearts? What hadAlfred
tenderly exclaimed to "Rose? What had Rose shyly
answered? What had they thus etemally plighted?
What had Henry and Jane done? Where and when did
the four meet? What did Alfred and Henry do? Why?
What was J ane busy doing and thi.king? How was Rose
occupied? What did neither girl notice? What happened
when the two "girls suddenly carne back to earth? What
did Rose ingeniously suggest? Why"? What answer did
she get? Who did the two girls look at? "Why? Whose
were the voices? What did Mary say angrily? \Vhen?
What did Mary say that she and Muriel would very"
quickly do? What is left to the reader?
If, after studying this lesson, the pupil can be prevailed upon not to refer to Sir Eden, giving to Mr. Eden a
title that he does not possess, and using that title wrongly,
the time will not have been wasted ..
Indeed, the proper use of many of the words in this
lesson involves so many little points of etiquette, and the
application of many others is so highly specialized, that
the teacher wiIl do" well to dweIl a. little longer on the
various points which present themselves than he might
be odierwise inclined to do.





(See par. 364.)

On December the thirty-flrst, nineteen thirty-five,
the Daily Telegr,aph published "The Story of 1935,"
in the form of an illustrated supplement. Here are sorne
of the details. They wiIl be interesting, if only to show
how quickly many of the events, which seemed to be
irnportant enough at the time, have been forgotten.
First, there is the portrait of the then King-Emperor
George the Fifth, receiving the loyal addresses of the
Lords and Comrnons, on the occaslon of hls SlIver Jubilee.
The wives of the M.P.'s are in the background-a not very
usual position for thern-and $0 are the peeresses. The
Queen-Empress is, naturally, enthroned at her husband's
From the pictures, we gather that at the service at
St. Paul's the whole Royal Farnily were gathered round
their august head. We see the Prince of Wales, the
King's eldest slm, and, at that time, a bachelor. Princess
Victoria, the King' s spinster sister, is also there. We also
see the Duke and Duchess of York; with the Duke's sister
the Princess Royal, and her husband, V iscount Lascelles.
With their grandfather, grandmother, parents, uncles,
aunts, and cousins, are the two Httle sons of the Princess
Royal; and the two little daughters of the Duke and
Duchess of York. The little boys are not much in the
public eye, gene rally. But the two little girls attract a
good deal of attention, as being the heiresses in direct line
to the Throne. There are, as yet, no male heirs in direct
line, with the exception of the bachelor Prince of Wales.



Another picture shows the " Queen Mary " preparing

for her maiden voyage.
A son was born to the Duke ana Duchess of Kentyounger Mother to the Prince of Wales-on the nlnth of
October; and the King and Queen were its- god-parents
at the christening.There is a picture of the Duchess
wheeling it in the park 'accompanied by Mrs. James
Campbell, formerly the Princess Galetzine.
Another picture shows the interior of Sto Peter's in
Rome on the occasion of the canonlzatlon of the two
Engllsh martyrs, Sir Thomas More and Bishop Fisher.
The ceremony took place in the presence of a crowd of
twenty thousand; maoe up of cardinals, bishops, abbots,
priors, priests, monks, friars, abbesses, prioresses, nuns, and
layfolk. Lady More was not canonized; ~ and Bishop
Fisher was of course a bachelor. It is .only since histlme
that English bishops have begun to take to themselves wives.
The wedding of the Duke of Gloucester to Lady Alice
Scott occupies a whole page. As the brlde and brldegroom
left on their honeyrnoon, members of the Royal Family
threw silver slippers and rose petals after them. In the
group are Lord and Lady Carnegie; and Princess Alice,
Countess of Athlone, with her husband, the Earl of Athlone.
Abyssinia comes in for a good deal of mention; and
so does the accident which left the infant children of the
young King of Belgium motherless, tobe brought- up by
tutors and governesses.
The funeral of Earl J ellicoe is shown; and so is a
picture of Miss J ean Batten, the first airwoman to fiy
alone across the Atlantic. There is a picture also of the
ill-fated airman, Sir Charles Kingsford Smith, on his Iast
flight over the Bay of Bengal.
More than two thousand people greeted the King and
Queen at the J ubilee Reception and Ball at the Guildhall,



on May the twenty-second. Their Majesties were received

by the Lord Mayor and the Lady Mayoress.
At the end of the supplement, there is a diary of the
year. From it we leam that Cardinal Boume died on New
Year's Day; and that Abyssinia complained to the League
In the same month. AIso, that Donna Beatnce, ex.-Infanta
of Spain, got married in Rome on the fourteenth. 1
do not remember who her fianc was. On the twentythird, H.M.S. " Hood" collided with H.M.S. " Renown "
off the coast of Spain.
In February, on the fourteenth, Hauptmann was
condemned to death in New Jersey for the murder of
Colonel Lindbergh'~ little baby boy ; while two American
ladies committed suicide because two R.A.F. friends had
been killed in a c,rash at Messina.
On March .the fourteenth, Don Jaime of Bourbon got
married, like his sister, in Rome; and on the seventeenth,
Sir ]\tlalcolm Campbell broke the land speed record at
Daytona, with _a speed of two hundred and sixty-eight
point one six (26816) miles~per hour. Later achievements
have, of course, putthis record completely in the shade.
On April the sixteenth, the Duke and Duchess of Kent
closed their honeymoon at Croydon, ceasing thereby to
be bridegroom and bride, and becoming a mere mamed
couple. At the time of thelr marriage the bride had created
an extraordinary sensation, owing to her great beauty
and charming personality; and the bridegroom had been
reckoned a lucky mano
On . May the nIneteenth, Lawrence of Arabia, one of
the most spectacular figures in modem times, was killed.
On June the first, M. Bouisson formed a new Cabinet;
and Mr. Justice Avory died on the thirtee?th. Frau
Schuschnigg, wife of Herr Schuschnigg, the Austrian
Chancellor, was killed during thls mo~th.



On August the slxth, the Marquis of Linlithgow was

appointed Viceroy of India; on the elghth. Baron Franchetti was killed in an air crash; and on the twentynlnth; Lady Alice Scott became engaged to the Duke of
Gloucester. Dame Madge Kendal died on the fourteenth.
In her heyday, she had been a great actress.
And so on and so forth, until the end of the 'year.

N aturally, in such a narrative, one hears very much about

the master, and little or nothing about the man; everything
about the mistress, and nothing at aIl about the maid.
U nless, of course, the latter happens to murder the former.
The impressions of a valet or a footman might be illuminating, especially as no man is a heto to his valet. And it
might be very interesting-though it might be unprintable-to know what their fathers-in-law and mothers-inlaw think of certain young men, when th~ latter join the
ranks of the Benedicks; and, of course, vice versa. Sonsin-law and daughters-in-law are proverbially prone to
disagree with their new relations. Very few people get
on with their " in-laws."












1, fianc~,



girl (1)
\ lals

adult, grown
young person


adults, ... grown I
young people


young folk
sweetheart (2) I engaged C9uple,
l. lovers

(1) 'r'his use of" maid" is now limited to dialect and to literature.
(2) Used mainly in tenderly intimate language, as between husband
and wife, or two lovers.



(Singular) .






swain (3)
Benedick (4)
boy (6)
kinsman (7)



married couple



grand parents






.. .

.. .
papa, dad,'
father-in-Iaw mother-in-law
natural son
natural child,
I govemess
1 unmarried
I old maid,
I person
woman (10)
Lord Mayor Lady Mayoress I

kindred, relatives
kith and km,
lssue, progeny,
I children







natural children,






(3) "Swain" is now used humorously or in slight contempt.

E.g., 1 saw Mary with her swain this aftemoon. "Wench " is used
much in the same way.
(4) "Benedick" is used humorously in such expressions as: "He
has joined the ranks of the Benedicks at last."
(5) So also with aU compounds o "grand," "step," "god."
E.g., granddaughter, grandson, godather, godson, step-mother, stepsister, step-ather, etc.
(6) Used amiliarly in a very elastic sense of young men, and
sometimes even of old ones. The same is true of young unmarried,
and occasionaUy o married, women. E.g., The poor girl is very
much upset about her divorce. He has been out with the boys.
(7) The compounds o " kin " are usually literary, though " kith
and kin " is sometimes heard in conversation.
(8) So also with a11 compounds of" in-law," i.e., relation by mamage.
E.g., son-in-Iaw, sister-in-Iaw, daughter-in-Iaw, brother-in-Iaw, etc.
(9) "Illegitimate son," etc., can also be used. "Bastard" is a
term of abuse.
(10) "Spinster" is a rather legal termo Used in conversation,
both " spinster ,. and " old maid " are considered uncomplimentary.



---._. -





Sir John
Smith (XI)
Mr. Brown
valet, man
man servant

Dame EUen
Terry (12)
Mrs. Brown

chef, cook
sloven (17)

Miss Brown
woman servant





mee people_






I servants













artiste (x 8)
friar, monk
... . _-------...
(n) ce Sir" used before a Christian name is the title of knights
and baronets. The Christian name must never be omitted. Sir John
Smith's wife is Lady Smith, or Lady Mary Smith.
(X2) "Dame" is-a title for women, and is more or less equivalent
to that of knight. The Christian name is usually used with it.
(X3) " Mr." is never used without themrname. So aIso with" Mrs."
(14) Used in addressing letters to youths still at school.
(15) Used also in addreSsing letters to the eldest unmarried sister
in a fami1y. Younger sisters are addressed by their Christian name
also. In conversation, " Miss Brown " may be used for aH.
(x6) This tenn js used aIso of men in charge of blocks of office
buildings or Bats.
(x7) Both " s/oven " and " s/ut " are tenns of contempt. "Slut"
is particularly strong.
(18) Used in the feminine with reference to women 'perfonners
in variety entertainments, circuses, etc., and often of men in the same






261. The following form the feminine by adding

" ess" to the masculine : prophet shepherd viscount tailor deacon baron
pnor author
262. The following form the feminine by suppressing
the last vowel of the nasculine, and adding " ess " : - I
actress negress directress enchantress proprietress
263. Masculine and feminine forms of foreign
ongtn :.
Signor .
264. When referring to foreigners, it is usual, especially in the press, to give Latins and Germans the titles used
in their own countries. Thus we speak of Herr Hitler,
Seor Azaa, Signor Mussolini, M. Daladier, etc.
Other Europeans are usually accorded" the French
mode of address. E.g., M. Litvinoff, M. Titulescu,
M. Stalin. (One often hears Mr. since the 1939-45 war.)
Asiatics are usually referred to and addressed as
"Mr." E.g., Mr. Gandhi.
If, however, foreigners have titles, either nobl,
ecclesiastical, military, or academic, these are used instead.
E.g., Dr. Benes, Colonel Beck, Count Ciano, Cardinal
What did the Daily Telegraph publish on December
the thirty-first 1935? Why will the details be interesting ?
What was George V. at the time? Whom did he receive
loyal addresses from? Who were in the background?
Was this usual? Who was enthroned at her husband's
side? Who were gathered round whom, at the service
in St. Paul's? Who was the King's eldest son? What
1 A capital "G" is used ti> refer to the Christian Deity, i.e., God.
a AIso wi~, ~urderer, adventurer.




was he at the time? Which of the King' s sisters was

also there? Was she married? Who was with the
Duke of York? Who is she now? What is the titIe of
the Duke's sister? Who is herhusband? What relations
of the Princess ~oyal's sons vyere there? Whose littIe
daughters were there? Why did the two littIe girls
attract a good deal of attention? Why was this position
occupied by two girls? What did another picture show
the " Queen Mary " doing? Who was boro to the Duke
and Duchess of Kent? Who was the Duke of Kent?
tn what capacity were the King and Queen at the Christening? Who was shown wheeling the baby in the park ?
Who had Mrs. James CampbeIl been? Who were the
two English martyrs canollZed in Sto Peter's? Who
were present at the ceremony, besides caidinals, bishops,
abbots, priors, priests, monks, and friars? Were there
any priestesses? Who Was Sir Thomas More's wife?
Was Bishop Fisher married? 'Vhy nt? What event
in the Duke of G loucester's life occupies a whole page ?
Whom did members of the Royal Fa~ily throw silver
slippers and rose petals after, and when? Who were in
the group, besides Lord Camegie and the Earl of Athlone ?
What country carne in for a good deal of mention? Who
were left in charge of the upbringing of the motherless
children of the King of Belgium? Whose funeral was
shown? Who was Miss Jean Batten? Who was Sir
Charles Kingsford Smith? Whom did two thousand
people greet at the Guildhall? Who received Their
Majesties? What Cardinal died on January the first?
Whom did Abyssinia complain to? Who was the exInfanta of Spain who got married in Rome on the fourteenth? To whom? What did the battIeships " Hood "
and "Renown" do on the twenty-third? Why was
Hauptmann condemned to death on the fourteenth of
February? What did two American ladies do on the same
day, and why? Which Bourbon Prince got married in
Rome on March the fourteenth? What did Sir Malcolm
Carnpbell do on the seventeenth? What have later
achievements done? Who closed their honeymoon at




Croydon on the the sixteenth of April? What did they

thereby cease to be? What did they become? Who,
created an extraordinary sensation at the time of their
marriage? Why? Who was reckoned a lucky man?
Who was killed on May the nineteenth? Who formed
a new Cabinet in France on June the first? What judge
died on the thirteenth? What lady was killed in Austria
during the month? Who was appointed Viceroy of
India on August the sixth? Who was his wife? What
is a baron's wife called? What was Madge Kendal's
title ? In such a narrative, whom does one hear very
much about, and whom does one h~ very little of?
Whom does one hear everything about, and whom does
one mar nothing at all of? What might be interesting
to know, though perhaps unprintable? Who are prone
to disagree with their new relations? Whom do very
few people get on with ?

(Also other words connected with animals)

The English are, on the whole, a nation of town;'
dwellers, so that comparatively few words referring to
animals need to be used literally in .everyday conversation. Arid lists of such words, therefore, tend to be of
little practical value unless it is shown, as an attempt has
been made to show in this lesson, how much our speech
is enriched by the figurative uses to whic4 these ~ords
can be put, to express everyday ideas. The pupil should
be prepared to spend sorne time in mastering these uses
thoroughly ; and" the" exercises should be done scrupulously, both in writing, and, .afterwards, orally. This is
especially necessary, because it is not always possible



to explain the exact shade of rneaning of each of the idiorns

in a few words; and the teacher wiIl be able to judge,
frorn the sentences written, whether the pupil really
understands the rneanings of tite idiorns in question.


A pig grunts when it eats; squeals when it is in pain ;

and lives in a dirty place called a sty, wallowing in the
filth of it, quite contentedly. We say also of a man that
he grunts, when he rnakes an analogous sound. He
squeals with pain like a stuck pig if h(}'is a coward. And
if his horne is dirty, we say that he lives in a regular pigsty.
If he seerris contented with these conditions, we say that
he wallo'lOs in the filth of it. We also say of sorne people
that they wallow In scandal, or in sentimental novels. The
word s'lOine may be heard used with a singular verb~ aS
a term' of abuse, but should be avoided. Unreasonably
obstnate people are termed "pigheaded." The verb
" to pig it " rneans to live in untidy, disorderly conditions.
And when a person is living in a very srnall room, we say
that she is like a pig in a poke (par. 265). Srnelted iron
that has been run it:lto rnoulds is called "pig-irDn."
A man is said to be as strong as an ox if he is un'usually
so. He bellows or roars with rage, like an angry bullo
And, if he is an insignificant person, he belongs to
the common herd. Sorne, rnen who were athletic when
they were young becorne bull-necked in middle age ; and
an impulsive rnan rushes at things like a bull at a gateo
Bulls toss things in the air with their horos. So when
prices are rising on the Stock Exchange, the market is

See footnote t page




said to be "bullish"; and the people who cause such

rises are caIled "bulls." Some people are inclined to
get angry on meeting a certain person, or on hearing
a certain topi broached. When that topic comes up,
or when they meet that person, it is lihe showing a red rag
to a bullo The Wheat Exchange in Chicago is called the
Bull Ring. A certain poet teIls us, " Be not like dumb,
driven cattle; be a hero in the strife." That is why we
think of strong, stupid, spiritless people as oxen, and say
of them that they have bovine faces or natures. A clumsy
person who rushes about a room and breaks everything
is like a bull in a china shop. A bull's-eye is a kind of
sweet, or the central disc of a target. When aman
attacks a difficult situation by direct and resolute action,
he takes the bull by the horns. And one is often on the
horns 01 a dilemma (par. 268).
y ou will sometlnes hear a rather over-plump girl
geniaIly but disrespectfuIly referred to as aheiler, behind
her back. And most boys, at the iminature age of sixteen
or so, go through the romantic experience known as
calf-love (par. 270).
An energetic early riser is always up at cock-crow.
A vain man struts when he waIks. Some victors crow over
their vanquished opponents. And when a man's position
of priority remains undisputed, he is cock 01 the walk ;
or he rules the roost. His mental attitude is familiarly
descr:ibed as cocky. If he is irritatingly self-confident,
he is cocksure. If we are in an irritated or irreverent
mood, we call a fussy old lady an old hen; and, if she
talks shrilly and loudly, she cackles, as a hen does when
it has just laid an egg.. A man who has to live with
a nagging, domineering wife, is a hen-pecked husband.
When aman gives a glaringly untrue account of his
movements, we call it a cock-and-bull story. The Americans




gave us cocktails. Dan't count your chickens before they are

hatched (par. 271).
When a man's expression is faithful and humble and
he is said to look at his lady with a dog-like
devotion. He is too tame a type to pursue his ends with
the tenacity of a bulldog. A dog growls or barks or snaps
or snarls at people when it is angry or ill-humoured;
and we use the same words to indicate the analogous
sounds that a man mak'es when he is in a similar frame of
mind. When a dog is punished, it whimpers or whines
or howls, and slinks away to its knnel with its tail between>
its legs. We say exactly the same of a man or boy who
has been severely trounced; even adding the bit about
the kennel and the tail to make the remark more bititzgly
contemptuous. A dog howls or bays to the moon; and
we can use either'verb to describe bad singing. Shakespeare makes one of his characters say: "1 had rather be
a dog and bay the moon, than such aRoman." And, in
the same play, it was not long before the Roman crowd,
like a pack of angry wolves, were in fuU cry after the
murderers of Cresar. Some English women substitute
"lady dog" for "bitch," because the latter word has
immoral associations attached to it. The result is often
to remind people of a meaning they might otherwise have
forgott~n, and the practice should be avoided. A dog in
the, manger is a person who has something which he
cannot himself use, but will not permit anybody else to
have it. The dog days are hot and humid. You dog a
persan's footsteps when you follow him closely and tenaciously. You can also pursue your ends with dogged
determinatian (par. 273).
If you do something that pleases a lady, you are a duck.
At least, that is what she is liable to call you, regardless
of your seXo Do not put on too much weight, or you wiIl



tend to waddle. Some people have voices reminiscent

of the noises that ducks make; so, of course, they quack.
y ou duck a person if you immerse his head in water;
and you get ducked in a rainstorm if you leave your waterproof at home. To an insensitive child, a reproach is
like water on a duck' s back. Abad physician is a quack ;
and patent medicines are often quack remedies. When
people, on undertaking a task, upset everything and
tum everything into confusion, they are said to make
ducks and drakes 01 everything. A person who is in a
ludicrous state of eollapse looks like a dying. duck in a.
thunderstoTm. A person who easily adapts himself to a
certain type of work or to certain surroundings, is said
lo take to that work or to those surroundings like a duck
takes to water (par. 274).
A woman will call someone who has made a ludicrous
mistake a goose . . The skin of people who are cold turns
to goose-flesh; that is, it looks like the skin of a plucked
goose. If you go to look for treasure that isn't there,
or if you go on any other useless quest, you go on a wildgoose chase. When a woman, tired of sitting up late for
her husband, starts to go out in the evenings herself,
and he protests, she reminds him that what is sauce lor
the goose is sauce lor the gander (par. 275). ,
Mules are proverbially pigheaded, and that is why
we say of some people that theyare as obstinate as mules.
When an elephant makes a noise with his trumpet, he
trumpets. Some people do the same thing when they
blow their noses. A white elephant is something very
big, very useless, and very expensive;. such, fol' instance, as a house we can neither use nor seU (pat. 276).
Chesterton used to joke about his own elephantine
A lazy person is a drone; and a monotonous preacher



drones through his sermono When something" unusual

happens, the town buzzes with excitement. An industrious
housewife is as busy as a bee all day long. People swarm

into the streets at five or so in the afternoon, when their

work is done. Cities like Manchester are hives of industry.
A spelling bee is a spelling competition. A person with
a bee in his bonnet is morbidly dominated by one idea.
We use the expression as a form of ridicule (par. 277).
If a man has a loud nasallaugh, he neighs. An elderly
spinster may whinny-not literally, of course-"fhen she is
paid a compliment. Men mort, to show their disapproval.
They sometimes talk of harse- sense, when they mean
common sense. A horsy man wears a large jewelled tie-pin
and tweed riding breeches or other clothes with a loud
check. There is often about him general air of the
stables. One thinks of him as having a coarse face and
large teeth. He is ::t vulgar type.. Undisciplined children
eventually kick over the traces, when they are old enough
to assert their independence, and refuse to submit to
parental authority. You can lead a horse to water, but
you can' t make him drink. This proverb is used of a
situation in which a person is given facilities which he
refuses to use. H orse-power, has, of course, nothing to
do with harses. You should never look a gift-harse in tke
mouth. That is, you should never be over-critical of a
presento Also, you should not change horses while CTossing
a stream. People often do it, though, as in the case of the
General Election held during the war. And you should
not put the cart before the horse, as the man did who made
all the arrangements for rus marriage before he had
proposed to the lady concemed (par. 278). A domineering person in control of the situttion rides the high horse.
An 1rish bull, by the way, means the kind of paradox
at which the Irish are peculiarly adepto There was the



Irish nurse who, when speaking of a sick friend, remarked :

" She was complaining for a long time, but said nothing."
And there was the lrish horseman whose restive mount
kicked so much that its hoof got entangled in a stirrup.
The rider was indignant: "1f you're going to get up,"
he remarked to the animal, "I'm' going to get down! "
(par. 268).
A person with a high nasal voice bleats; and peopIe
who do not think for themseIves and follow their leaders
over submissively, do so like a flock of sheep. Defeated
armies, when the defeat turos into a rout, run like sheep.
Let innocent young maidens heware of the charming and
gallant stranger. He may tum out to be a wolf in sheep's
clothing. PeopIe flock to hear a good singer or see a good
play. A clergyman tries to keep his jlock in the one true
10M, and regrets those who have strayed from it. "All we,
like sheep, have gone astray ." When a person is woolgathering, it means that his attention is not concentrated
on the matter in bando lf you are trying to impress a
lady with your , riding, and you fall from your horse, you
look and feel sheepish. And if an intelligent lady entraps
you, you are led to the altar like a sheep to the slaughter.
There is a bZack sheep in every family. Cassius says of
Cresar: "Poor man, 1 know he would not he a wolf,
but that he sees the Romans are hut sheep. He were no
[ion, were not the Romans hinds." The little boy who has
eaten half of a cake without permission and is going to be
punished forit, finishes the cake on the principIe that
one may as well be hanged for a sheep as for a Zambo Birds
of a feather flock together (par. 280).
Uncle Sam wears agoatee. In Christian literature, the
good and the bad are, respectiveIy, the sheep and the goats.
The ancient Jews had scapegoats, and we still have human
ones, especially in the world of politics. Americans



get a person's goat, when they provoke him to anger.

People wiIl not take you seriously, if you play the giddy
goat too often (par. 283).
A girl with a silly nervous way of talking, twltters.
In the literature of the last century, she was all 01 a twitter,
when she was excited or deliciously afraid (par. 284).
Why a man should be called a rahbit because he is a
bad tennis player is not c1ear. It is more understandable
that we should call him rabbit-hearted because he is timid
in the face of danger; or because he scuttles or scumes
away to safety when confronted with ita We call overcrowded slums filthy warrens. Tunnels burrow through
the earth. People who have very large families are said
to breed like rahbits. They do not, however, consider the
expression complimentary.
To call a person an ass or a donkey indicates that you
do not think much of his intelligence. You express yourself more strongly still when you call him a jack-ass. 1f,
in addition, you do not like his loud, nasal, rather stupid
laugh, you remark that he brays. If his continuous and
inane laughter irritates you, he is a laughing jack-ass
(par. 285).
Sorne people mew when they talk. Kipling makes
Iepers do so. Both men and women are liable to purr
with satisfaction when they are praised or flattered. A
kittenish lady behaves as though she were younger than
she realIy ls; and is sometimes even coy. A' spiteful
woman 'or girl is catty, and is therefore called a cat.
Hence the joke about the man whose wife was a kitten
when he married her; but, unfortunately, she later
grew up. A playful child is as lively as a kitten. A catburglar plies bis trade by climbing up the walls of the
houses he is about to burgle. You let the cat out 01 the
bag, when you 'reveaI a secret without intending too In



a small' room, there isn't rlJQm to swing a cato A cat can

laugh at a king, which means that no dignity can render
you immune from private' ridicule. A man who allows
himself to be used as the instrument of another person's
villainy is a catspaw. And during a heavy rainstorm
people will remark that it is raining cats and dogs (par.
286). The English Government have unsuccessfully
tried to abolish the use of the cat in the punishment of
crimes of violence. The full name for this cat is the cato'-nine-tails. lt is a whip with nine thongs. The verb
which describes the noise made by cats on the roof at night
is also used of certain people's singing. They are said to
cateTVJaul. Another verb with the same meaning, "to
squall," is also used to describe the howling of a baby
(par. 286).
Sorne people are as vain or as proud as peacocks; and,
for this reason, they strut. . They preen themselves when
they are complimented; or they preen themselves on their
good looks, abilities, and other real or fancied qualities
(par. 287).
1 think that a man can be as brave as a lion in any
.language. When we make a fuss of a distinguished visitor,
we lionize him. The leader of a certain South Mrican
political party was heralded by his party press as the Lian
01 the North. The opposition forthwith dubbed his party
the Pact Menagerie. A brave man faces his enemies like
a !ion at bay. The room where the head of the family
is allowed to smoke, put his feet on the table, and be as
untidy as he pleases, is his den. Christ also spoke of a den
of thieves (par. 288).
Bears climbup trees to pull down any unfortunate
travellers who may have taken refuge there. So, when
prices on the Stock Exchange begin to fall, the market
is said to be bearish; and the people who cause such a



state o affairs re said to be bears. A loving husband

will give his wife a bear-like hug on his retum from a long
absence; and she may greet him with the nickname of
" Teddy Bear," because his walk is so amusingly clumsy,
and his figure so comically ungainly. But the next
morning will come the reaction; and he will awaken so
bad -tempered an,d morose, that she will tell him not to be a
bear; or remark that he is like a bear with a sore head
(par. 289).
Romantic bandits would not be complete without a
mountain lair. A suspicious oharacter prowls about the
streets in search o vctims, like a tiger or a wolf or any
other beast 01 prey. A cruel and remorseless person is a
tiger; or, i she is a ~oman, a tigress. The la~er is the
more terriying, .since the female of the species is more
deadly than the maleo A brave man fights like a tiger or a
lion. We say that a burglar creeps into the house, because
there is in his movements something o the stealthiness
o th'e tiger or of the cato A husband, so it is said, will
snarl at his wife .if the dinner is not properIy cooked.
He-men, o course, 'growl instead o speaking (par. 290).
A cunning man is as sly as a fox; and, if he is true to
type, has a foxy face. Some women are so bad-tempered
and quarrelsome th~t we call them vixens (par. 291).
Like the wolj, which runs with a long slow stride,
Red ltidians are said to lope. Hungry people who forget
their manners in their hunger wolj their ood. The poor
have great difficulty in keeping the wolf Irom the door,
that is, in avoiding starvation (par. 292). Hence the
rather pathetic joke o the poor man who was trying to
keep the wolj Irom the door, when the stork fiew in at the
window (par. 315).
When you see a child up to mischie, you call him a
liule monkey. Empty people do nothing hut chatter (which



is something quite different rorn/chatting); while ghosts

gibber. Poor things, they have no teeth. People without
much originality ape those who have; and others are said
to ape their betters. A monkey-wrench is a kind o spanner.
You monkey with something when you put it out o order
either because you d not understand its workings, or
because you maliciously want to upset its proper functioning. The people responsible or the Treaty o Versailles,
or instance, did sorne monkeying with the rnap o Europe
(par. 293).
Rats, o course, are not pleasant rodents, among other
reasons because they lea~}e a ship when it is sinking. So also
do human rats abandon their riends in the hour of need.
The deserted friends find sorne small cornfort in telling
thern so. The bdraggled appearance o a wet rat rnakes
us say o people who have been soaked in a shower that
they look like drowned rats. ";Rat" is one of the most
contemptuous terms that one can ~pply to a man (par.
Sorne people talk ve"ry much as a turkey gobbles, so
we use the latter verb to describe their speech. And
people gobble up news or food when they swallow the
one or the other hastily. A man gets as red as a turkey
when he blushes furiously, or when he is very hot (par.
Everybody, course, knows students who learn
everything by heart like a parrot, without understanding
what they leam (par. 296). Others try to make up for
their sloth by cribbing at the examinations (par. 321);
but the lynx-eyed (par.. 297) examiner catches them in the
act, and airly bristles (pars. 304-305) with indignation.
l\ri:"d when the hapless undergraduate has to explain to
his ather why he was sent down, he does not, of course,



put the case in all its naked crudeness, and his father
finds the explanation rather fishy (par. 3I1).
From the.. table, it will be guessed that it is dangerous
to call an Englishman a skunk or a jackal (pars. 298-299)'
He would take the law irito his own hands at once.
In the saloon-brawls of the Wild West, when bullets
have been flying about, many a man has saved his life
by playing possum (par. 300).
A man suddenly taken from darkness to strong light,
blinks like an owl. SolemnIy stupid people have owlisk
expressions; and others are as short-sighted as owls. lt
is one thing to be owlish; it is quite another to be as wise
as an O'W[ (par. 31).
Little girls are expected-or used to. be---to be as
quiet as mice. They seldom really at.e. Sometimes th~y
have mouse-coloured hair (par. 302).
Scott says regretful1y of the Ancient Minstrel :
" N o more, on prancing palfrey borne
He carolled, light as lark, at mom."
The Minstrel, of course, was no longer yo'V-ng; and
his digestion was probably defective in consequence. He
therefore no longer felt as cheerful as a lark when he got up
in the moming. Early risers get up with the lark; and
practical jokers get up to larks. When you do something
to get a laugh out of it, you do itfor a lark (par. '305).
Usurers and others who prey on their distressed victims
are vultures (par. 306).
The ideal detectiv~ has, of course, the eye of a hawk
(par. 308); and is as vigilant as one. There is something
of the eagle about him (par. 307), with his piercing eye,
and the way he unexpectedly S'Woops down on the unsuspecting criminal like a bolt from the bIue. Aman who sells
things in the street or from door to door~ is a hawker.
Many would-be prima donnas have the impression



that they warble like nightingales (par. 309), when as a

matter of fact the noise they make might be better
described as a screech, or a boat (par. 301), or a squawk
(par. 296). Still, their friends are kind enough not to
boot thern, whenthey lift their voices in songo
A person who is boro with a split upper lip has a harelip. Sprinters ron like ~'zares. Very reckless people have
hare-brained escapades; and foolish plans are ,'UlTe-brained
scb.emes. Lunatics are as mad as M~rch hares (par. 310).
Sorne people swim lihe foh. Others have an eye like a
codo Others have a hand as cold as a foh, when they give
it to you to shake. When a policeman sees a suspicious
characterprowling about, heconcludes that there is something fohy about him, and arrests .him (par. 311). When
he seizes the fellow, the latter 'Uiriggles lihe an eel in his
atternpt to escape froID the strong arm of the law. But
when he is brought Uf for trial, he defends himself so
well that he escapes conviction. He is a slippery character,
or customer.
When you want to distract people's attention from
the matter under discussion, you draw a red herring across
the trail. Like the American who, being comered in a
philosophical argument with an Englishman, exclaimed,
"Well, America wol the war." He was pretty certain
that he would get the Englishman away from the subject
of philosophy, with such a highly controversial statement.
When something is neither the one thing nor the other,
you say that it ':s nez"ther fish, nor flesh, nor good red herring.
That is how a Latin socialist would probably describe
an English one (par. 313).
A burglar caught in a girls' school in the middle of the
night causes a flutter ':n the dovecot. The' dove (par. 314.),
of course, carries the olive-branch of peace to whoever
needs it. And courting couples bill and coo. Children



who see more than they are intended to are as $harp as

weasels. They ferret'out everything (pars. 3ISa-316).
Snakes, serpents, and vipers permit an Englishman to
give free rein to his flair for analogy. A treacherous and
secret enemy is,a snake in the grass. And an Englishman
can nurse a viper in, his bosom. His women sometimes
have venomous tongues. He will hiss an unpopular actor or
speaker. Some people have snaky smiles. Others have a
glittering eye, that can hypnotize the innocent and the
weak-minded, as a snake is said to hypnotize birds.
When they are perfectly in his control, they are in his
toils. Some people tango with a snaky glide. Londoners
bathe in the Serpentine (par. 317).
A person who thinks that he has concealed himself
from discovery, when in reality he is eompletely exposed
to it, is like an ostrich hiding his head in the sand. To one
pair of eyes, a lady may have a swan-like neck; while to
another, the same neck may appear as scraggy as that of
an ostrich (par. 3 18).
There willalways be- people for bucket-shop dealers
to gull (par. 319). To those who suffer from insomnia
the hours of darkness drag on at a snail's pace. And
when a man tries to start a conversation in a railway
carriage, and receives a rebuff in' the form of a cold,
hostile stare, he draws in his horns, or retires into his shell
(par. 320). One can be as blind as a bat (par. 322).
Of a person who sees beauty where it does not exist,
we say that all his geese are swans. Certain animals are
English when they are alive but French when they are
dead (pars. 265-27, 280). You ~an have mutton-chop
whiskers and a beefy face. A beefeater does not necessarily eat beef. And so on and so forth, almost ad












Commo. ) Collective.




















Hen (4)

Herd or
drove of







I (pork) I



Herd of




Charge ; Bellow ;
rush ;
roar ;

Wild .. ; savage ;
dirty, fato


FIeet; timid;
gentle-eyed .





Calf (veal)




Poultry (S) Strut,




cluck, Ro<..

Thi ck n e e k-;
angry .; hates red
r ag s ; mute
patience ; ungraceful.

Strong; easily
driven; dumb.

Immature; plump.
Aggressive ;
domineering ;
motherly ;




(1) The words in bracItets show the names of the animals' meato (2) Diminutivs: sucking-pig, piglet. (3) Diminutive:
cockerel. (4) Dimioutive: pul1et. (.5) PoulIf"3I abo meaus edible domestie birds of any kind, and their meato Henee

.. poulterer.';



















COllectiVe./ Motion.







Duck (2)





BullCowelephant elephant






Herd of












Playful ; longlegged.
Faithfl ; contemptible ; immoral ; pathetic
eyes .; bates cats ;




Lovable"; back
impermeable to
Strong; big;





Wise, busy, provident, industrous.


















Drove of








Run .









" ~eat)









Herd of
"Flock: or
herd of



Flock of Hop,




Faithful, strong,
















Timid, stupid, helpless, victirn.

Wise, lined face.


Swift, keen scent,

brave at bay.


Undersized, pert.


Timid, bad tennis


(1) See footnote, page 385. (2) Diminutive: dwltll",. (3} Diminutive: gOlliflg. (4) Diminutive: lta1ltb. (5) Diminutive:
Idd. (6) Diminutives: puppy, cubo This latter word js also cQmpounded with lion, "fer, _". flJol/, lo~, to fono their diminutives.
E.f., tig,,.-cub.











Common. Collective.






. purr,



Cat (I)

Herd or
drove of
asses or





































Trai.. ,
Stupid; long ars;
foolish laugh.



Scratches, soft movement, plays with

victim, hats dogs.
Spiteful, irnmoral.

Proud, vain.


Brave, noble, kingly,

strong, fierce, brave
at baYA-

Clumsy, morose, has

a strong hug, climbs
Cruel, ruthless, sinuously stro~g.

















She- .





















Diminutive : 111#...













Sly, cunning, unscrupulous,

vindictive, snappy.




Treacherous, cruel,
rapid eater, moves
with a pack.

Scramble, . Chatter,











Mischievous, ugly,
upsets the works.


Coward, deserts ship

in danger, bedraggled when wet
or drowned.






Red fce and neck,

eats quickly.
Learns by heart or














Coward, evil smelling, dishonourable,




Possum .

3:1 IOwl







Wise, blind, myopic, silly.



Quiet, timid.










Hover, soar,



Hover, soar,




Hover, soar,








3n .




.. ,



Sings bautifully; cheerful.

Preys on carrion ;' lives on the misfortunes of others; watches for
victims in their death agony.



Pricldy; bristles with anger.




Noble; kingly; keen sight; aquiline

Cruel; keen sight;
. Beeutiful singer.

Pricldy; bristles with anger.


Carol, sing

Simulates death, to avoid danger.


Mouse .




Screech, hoot


Creep, scurry

finds victim

Swift; split lip; mad in March;

rash and irresponsible; timid.
Cold and clammy to the touch;
humid and expressionless eye.














3:15- Weasel .




Snake, viper,


Ostrich .











Slippery; hard to catch.


Strong smell.






Good investigatr.


Eats anything; has good digestion ;

hides its head in the sand to escape
from its enemies.













J2ZB Bat




Brings babies.

Treacherous ;
tempts; hypnotizes birds.


Stands on one foot.



Velvet voice; symbol of peace.





.. .


Easily deceived.
Moves slowly. Draws in its horns
and retires into its abell when
1. Lazy.

I Skims
gracefully over the surface of
the water.
I Blind.












Write SENTENCES which contain the following ideas :l. Aman making a gruff exclamation.
2. A dirty
home. 3. A cowardly man crying out in pain. 4. A
man fond of dirt, scandal, sentimental novels. 5. An
unreasonably obstinate mano 6. A p.erson in a small,
over-fumished room. 7. Balll of crude iron. 8. A strong
mano 9. The noise made by an angry' mano 10. An
insignificant mano 11. A thick-necked mano i~ An overimpulsive mano 13. Rising prices on the Stock Exchange.
14. People who cause such rises. 15. ':fhe effect of bringing
someone in contact with his" bete noir." 16. The Chicago
Wheat Exchange. 17. The face of a strong, stupid,
spiritless persono 18. A person whose clumsiness of
movement is destructive. 19. A person who attacks a
difficult situation directlY and resolutely. 20. A person
faced with two altematives, both bad. 21. A plump girl.
22. A young boy in love for the first time. 23. An early
riser. 24. The walk of a vain mano 25. A victor's selfsatisfied, triumphant remarks to his beaten opponent.
26. Aman who dominates in a certain place. 27. Aman
who shows an attitude of superiority. 28. An irritatingly
self-confident mano 29. A fussy old lady. 30. The
shrillloud voice of a fussy old lady. 31. The husband of a
nagging wife. 32. A glaringly untru~ story. 33. An
American drink. 34. A man whose expression is humble,
faithful, and pathetic. 35. A tenacious mano 36. The gruff
noise aman makes if you disturb him reading. 37. The
tone a man uses to tell his children to make less noise.
38. A bad-tempered woman's way of talking to her
husband. 39. The sound a bad-tempered man uses
when he refuses to lend you a fiver. 40. A coward under
punishment or rebuke. 41. Bad singing. 42. A fierce,
merciless mob. 43. The mob in pursuit of somebody.
44. A female dogo 45. A person who has something he
cannot use, but will not give it to someone' to whom it
would be useful. 46. Hot, humid days. 47. Following a



person closely and tenaciously ~ 48.Strong determination.

49. A person who pleases a lady. 50. A very stout person's
waIk. 5 I. A person with a duck-like voice. 52. Putting
a person's head under the water's surface. 53. Getting
thoroughly wet in a rainstonn. 54. A child oblivious of
rebukes. 55. ,A bad doctor. 56. Patent medicines.
56a. People whose ignorance or lack of system produces
confusion. 57. A person in a ludicrous state of cQllapse.
58. A person easily adapting himself to something. 59. A
person who makes silly mistakes. 60. The skin of a cold
person.< 61. A vain quest or errando 62. If you have the
right to do that, so have I! 63. A pig-headed mano 64. A
person blowing his nose too loudly. 65. Something very
big, useless, and expensive. 66. An enonnous person,
rather clumsy. 67. A lazy person.' 68. The effect of a
sensational event on a' town. 69. An industrious housewife's habits. 70. People crowding into the streets. 71. A
very busy city, school, institution. 72. A spelling competition. 73. A person morbidly ,dominated by some
fixed idea. 74. A man with a loud nasal laugh. 75. The
sound made by an elderly spinster when paid a complimento 76. The sound aman makes to show disapproval.
77. Common senSe. 78. A vulgar racing-man. 79. The
act of children in throwing off parental authority. 80. A
person is given facilities, but refuses to use them. 81. The
power of a motor caro 82. The dismissal ofa minister or
of a gove'rnment, in the middle of a national emergency.
83. The conduct of a dornineering person in control of
the situation. 84. An lrishrnan's expression of truth
by means of a contradiction. 85. A person with a high
nasal voice. 86. People who follow their leaders without
thinking. ,87. A conternptuous description of a rout.
88. A dangerous person bearing the appearance of a hannless one. 89. People going in large crowds to sorne p)a~e.
90. A clergyman in relation to the people to whom. he
ministers. 91. People wandering away from the group or
place to which they belong. 92. A person with his attention wandering from the matter in hand. 93. The expression of a person who is conscious of having just said



or done something to make himself ridiculous. 94' Masses

of people being led to their death. 95. A person who has
already merited the maximum punishment, and t!terefore
commits another crime. 96. Peopl~ of like tastes or
habits usually congregate together. 97. A man with a
pointed beard, but no moustache. 98. The good people
and the bad, in a community. 99. Satisfying the demand
for the 'punishment of a culprit, by punishing an innocent
persone 100. The speech of a sil1y nervous girl. 101. A
bad tennis playero 101a. A person running away from
danger like a rabbit. 10Z. An overcrowded slum. 103.
The making of a tunnel. 104. He is stupid. 105. He is
an absolute idiot. 106. His loud inane laughter is continuous and irritating. 107. A person showing complacency when praised or flattered. 108. A spiteful
.wornan or girl. 109. The child is playful. 110. A burglar
who climbs up the walls of houses. II l. To reveal a
secret without intending too IIZ. A small room. 113.
y ou can never prevent people from laughing at you.
114, Aman used by somebody else to carry out a crime.
lIS. Very heavyrain. II6. A whip with nine thongs.
II7. Horrible singing. II8. The sound' of a baby crying.
119. A vain or proud persono IZO. A person showing
pride in his attainments, looks, etc. IZI. A brave mano
IZZ. Making a fuss of a d~stinguished visitor.' IZ3. Likening a group of people to a colleetion of caged wild animals.
124. A brave man comered by his enemies. IZ5. The one
room where the husband can do as he likes. lz6. A falI
in prices on the Stock Exchange. 1 z7. The people who
cause such a fal!. Iz8. A strong embrace. 1z9. A badtempered, morose persone 130. A bandits' refuge. 131.
The movements, of a suspicious character in the streets.
13Z. A cruel and remorseless man, woman. 133. A brave
fighter. 134. The stealthy entry of a burglar. 135. A
bad-tempered husband's way of answering his wife. 13 6.
A cunning mano 137. A cunning man's face. 138. A bad- .
tempered, spiteful woman. 139. Red Indians running.
140. Eating food hurriedly, in big mouthfuls .. 14!' T()
fight poverty. 14z. You hav~ a new little baby sister.



143. A mischievous child. 144. The continuous taIking

of emptY-headed people. 145. The speech of a toothless
persono 146. To imitate slavishly. 147. A, kind of
spanner.' 148. To interfere with the workings of something you don't understand. 149. To interfere so as to
upset the works, deliberately. 150. To abandon a friend
when there is danger. 151. A person soaked in a shower
of rain. 152. A person talking as though his mouth were
full of food. 153. To eat rapidly without chewing properly.
154. Aman with a very red face. 155. A person leams by
heart without understanding. 155a. Laziness. 156. Eyes
that nothing escapes. 157. A person sh6wing great indignation. 158. An explanation which you suspect hides
la discreditable truth. 159. A man who does objectionable cowardly things. 160. To pretend yOlJ are dead
when you really are noto 16 I. The action of aman taken
suddenly from darkness to strong light (eyes). 162. The
expression of a solemnly stupid persono 163. A person
who cannot see very far. 164. Quiet children. 165.
Lustreless brown 'hair. 166. To sing like a lark. 167.
To be very cheerful. 168. To get up to jokes. 169. To
do something for fun. 170. To get up very early. 171.
To prey on the distress of others. 172. To have a keen
observing eye. 173. To be extremely vigilante 174. To
pounce on a victim like a bird of prey. 175. A street
vendor. 176. To sing beautifully (woman); to sing
very badly. 177. The sound by which a crowd can express
disapproval. 178. A person with a split upper tip. 179.
A very fast runner. 180. The escapades of ,reckless
people../ 181. F oolish plans. 182. A very mad persono
183. A good swimmer. 184. A cold, large, expressionless
eye. 185. A cold hand. 186. An occurrence or person
giving rise to suspicion. 187. A person wriggling under
a detaining grasp. 188. A clever criminal difficult to
catch or convicto 189. To introduce an irrelevant topic
to distr~ct attention from the real issue. 190. A type of
person who evades classification., 191. A sensation among
a number of unmarried women or girls. 192. The symbol
of peace. 193. A courting couple making love in honeyed



words. 194. Precociously observant children. 195. To

discover something secret or hidden. 196. A treacherous
and secret enemy. 197. A benefactor who is betrayed
by a person he befriends. 198. A sound of disapproval
from the audience (sibilant). 199. A person in the power
of abad mano 200. Excessively smooth and graceful
movement. 201. A person thinks he is hiding, when
everybody can see him. 202. A long graceful neck. 23.
A long, thin, rough-skinned neck. 204. A person is easily
deceived. 205. Very sIow movement. 206. A sensitive
person retiring into himself after a rebuff. 207. A person
who, however ugly they may be, thinks all his possessions
are beautiful.


Special attention should be paid to the fact that certain
nouns (par. 336) change their meaning when they become
plural. Most of the words in par. 337, moreover, have
the singular form in other languages.
The foreign-plural forms listed in par. 329 are largely
technical words. The list could be made much longer,
but only those in fairly frequent use have been selected.





As we sailed up the River Hudson towards the cities

of New York and Brooklyn, at the end of our wanderings
over the Atlantic, we experienced a sensation which is,
1 think, common to. all travellers who sail past the Statue



of Liberty. Many people have tried to a.nalyse this

emotion, and I have read many such' a:nalyses; but none
have ever really satisfied me.
The buildings stood out against the, skyline like
enormous boxes of matches stuck on ende The houses and
churches were completely dwarf~d by the business edifices.
A gas-wOTP"s, so it seems, is more important than a
cathedr~, in a modem city. As we went up the river,
we examined it all with our glasses; and the ladies forgot
their airs for a moment, to utter little squeals of excitement
and wonderment. It seemed as if each building brushed
the skies; and the skies were covered with blood-red
hangings, as the mist tumed crimson in the sunset.
There was a bit of a swell as we entered the river
mouth; but it did not seem to worry the bigger ships.
Even the tramps, those knight-errants f ocean commerce,
stood it well. They were bringing cargoes from the ends
of the earth-cargoes of. bully-beef and potatoes and
mangoes, of bronzes and other curios, of pianos and toys.
And they carried silks from China and teas from India
as well. They flew the colours of almost every seafaring
nation on the globe. Each funnel belched smoke; and
the stenches of 'burning coal and oil, and the mes of sea
birds of every species, filled the airo Little fishing-boats
lurched through the swell; while little govemment
cutters raced to and fro. Their comings and goings excited
a good deal of interest, as they picked their way delicately
among 'the shipping.
Armies o customs-officials, port-authorities, and others,
carne on board. The passengers were paraded before the
port doctor. He was a huge fat man who must have
weighed twenty stone. He did not look ungainly, though,
for he was at least six jeet four tallo The first class
passengers filed before him as solemn as oxen. To look



at them, orie would never have suspected their ca"yings

on of a week before inmid-ocean. Most o. the third
class passengers stood waiting their tum as quiet as mice,
though sorne were as noisy as a flock of geese. They
carried their savings in knotted handkerchiefs, and the
rest of their belongings in bundles. Many seemed to
have completely lost their bearings in their new and
strange su"oundings, and seemed as=bewildered as sheep;
while the children stared around like startled deer. The
passengers represented a good many strata of 'society ~
especially those of the third class, who "comprised a very
mixed bago There were ladies and gentlemen in wait'lng
who had fled from Russian court-martials. These latter,
from their accou1lts, seemed to be conducted on lines
rather diffe~ent from our Quarter Sessions. ' Then there
were peasants, and men-lServants and women-servants, and
married couples complete with children and fathers-in-law
and mothers-in-law. Most of these people seemed to have
in them the makings of good citizens, thogh sorne were
quite evidently the sweepings of Europe. I am ;tfraid that
Americahad to take sorne of the world's leavings, at least
on that occasion.
Among the first-class passengers were sorne mighty
Nimrods who had been hunting antelope, elephant, girafle,
and lions, in Mrica. The shooting, so it appeared, had
been good. I gathered that sorne wer now colltemplating
onslaughts on moose, bear, and wild-duck, in Canada;
while others wer,e going after trout and salmon in Vancouver.
Bull-ghting, however., so they told me, was against good
ethics. Another ethical principle which seemed to find
favour among them was that only cads wore braces with
There seemed to be varying mteria for the treatment
of passengers by the immigration - authorities, according



to the c1ass in which they travelled. Those of the third

were examined for z,:e and other vermin, regardless of
their feelings. And if a single louse was found, the luckless
individual was taken to Ellis Island, where there were
plenty of delousing apparatuses. Our American brethren
do nothing by halves, and do not care sixpence fQ1" anybody's opinions of their methods. To Ellis Island, also,
was sent a passenger who had been put ,in 'irons during the
voyage for disregarding the nightly black-out by striking
a match on deck. This was forbidden during war-time.
We landed with every manifestation of high spirits,
and the customs people examined our effects. Sorne
people's spirits were considerably lower, however, after
the examination had taken place. The hangers - on
stared at us as though we were curious phenomena, and
so did the passers"by. W e went through N ew York, on
our way to Washington, where the principal streets
converge on the Capitol, like the radii of a circle.
We had already heard of the capitulation of Bulgaria
-it was November I918-but we did not know the
bases onwhich peace had been signed, or any other data.
So we could only guess; and the hypotheses advanced
were many and varied. So, naturally, we were bursting
for news; and asked everybody we met for information.
We were ready to catch at any hope, however slight, of
universal peace. The Angel of Death had been gathering in his sheaves too long; and men had fought like wolves,
and had fallen thick as leaves, leaving their wives widows,
and their children fatherless. On the day that we landed,
the news got around that an armistice had been signed ;
and New York was beside itself with joyo The people
demonstrated, and the bands played patriotic airs. Nobody then guessed how many world mses would follow on



the so-called peace which Messrs. Wilson, LIoyd G~orge,

and CIemenceau' would forge for us; and what small
consolation there would be for the men who had perfoiied
their duties like heroes in " a war to end war." The peaceconference was more like a dog-fight than anything else,
with each dog growling for the pickings.
My friends the Miss Browns had come to meet me;
and they wanted to hear aH about my travels. We had
known one another in England; and they themselves
had been in America only a few months. So I told them
how we had had. a series of exciting adventures on the
voyage; and how sorne Chinese seamen had fought with
knives over the winnings of a game o/ cards. I told them
also how interesting the cruise along the West Indies
had been; and tried to describe' the large number of
strange species of birds and fishes that I had seen in those
warm latitudes. But my travels, so I said, had made me
very weary of vast wastes of grey sea. If the West Idies
had appeared as so many oases in the desert of the wild
Atlantic, N ew York was heaven itseIf. They listened to
my outpourings with exemplary patience.



323 _ The plural o/ nouns is generaHy formed by

adding "s" to the singular. E.g., door, doors; window,
windows; tabIe, tabIes; floor, floors.
324- If a noun ends with a sibilant, the plural is formed
by adding the extra syIlable "es." E.g., box, boxes; glass,
gIasses ; house, houses; church, churches; brush,
325- Nouns ending in "o" preceded by a consonant
often add "es," without forming an extra syIlable.
E.g., cargo, cargoes; hero, heroes; negro, negroes;
potato, potatoes.
But: curio, curios; dynamo, dynamos; quarto,



quartos; torso, torsos; grotto, grottos; piano, pianos;

memento, mementos.
326. If the noun ends in " y " preceded by a consonant,
the ce y" becomes "ies." E.g., army, armies; laqy, ladies;
By, flies; baby, babies. Exception: boy, boys.
32'1. N ouns ending in "f" or "fe" often change
the "f" or "fe" into "ves." E.g., life, lives; wife, wives;
knife, knives; selj, selves; calf, calves; half, halves.
But: chiefs, roofs, d warfs, guIfs, cliffs, strifes, safes,
cuffs, proofs, handkerchiefs, griefs, serfs.
328. Irregular plurals (native) : men
woman women
goose geese.
mouse nuce
penny pence
brother brethren
NOTE.-(a) "Pox" is used in the names of certain
infectious diseases. E.g., chicken-pox ; small-pox.
(b) ce Petnies" is used Qf a number taken as individual coins. "Pence" is usedof the sumo E.g., This book
costs eight pence. I need fO,r pennies for telephoning.
(e) In modern English, "brethren" is not used of
blood- relations; but of those bound by purely moral
tieso E.g., We are all brethren in the Lord.
329. Irregular plurals (foreignt:hypoth,.esis
agendum (rare) agenda
. efHuvia
criterion criteria
phenomenon phenomena
parenthesis . parentheses
memorandum memoranda
330. Compound nouns: (a) When a noun is compounded
with a following prepositional-group, the noun cm]y takes
1 As the use of diese words becomes popularized, there is a tetidency to form the plural with the suffix -s. E.g., ".emorandu1lU.





the plural. E.g., fathers-in-Iaw, hangers-on, ladies-inwaiting, gentlemen-at-arms.

(b) When a noun is eompounded with a following
adjeetive, it is more current, in modern usage, to add " s"
to the adjeetive only. E.g., knight-errants, court-martials,
Governor-Generals, Major-Generals.
The forms knights-errant, eourts-martial, GovernorsGeneral, and Majors-General, are correct, if a little
(e) Two titles eompounded usually have both words with
the plural formo E.g., Lords justiees, knights templars.
(d) In the case of " Miss," " the .o/.lisses Brown " and
" the Miss Browns " are both correct, though the former
should be used in addressing letters.
For " Mr. " and " Mrs. " the plurals are, respectively,
" Messrs." and "Mesdames." The latter is used only in
331. Colleetive nouns which refer to animals can be
used either in the singular or the plural, with the corresponding singular or plural verbs. E.g., Herds of buffalo
roamed over the prairies. The herd has stampeded. The
jloek was folded at sunset. The shepherds watched their
jloeks by night.
332. But eolleett"ve nouns whieh refer lo persons generalIy, in modern usage, take a plural verb t; though the
singular is still sometimes used. E.g., The publie have
not received the book well. The Government have issued
a new decree.
333. The following nouns have the same form both
in the singular and in the plural (see also par. 329) :sheep
Japanese Chinese Portuguese
Burmese gallows
cannon Qrace
gas-works gross
progeny craft (ships)
issue (child or children) links
. vermin
counseI (lawyer or lawyers)
NOTE.-The plural " eannons" is sometimes met with.
334- Nouns representing wild animals whieh are
usually eaten by human beings are often used in the

See page





singUlar forril, though with a plural meaning and verbo

The same is true of game-birds and fish, e.g." duck, moose,
bear, elephant, giraffe, pig, buffalo, buck, antelope,
partridge, guinea fowl, salmon, trout, pike, heping,
mackerel. E.g., The wild-duck are Bying in "V" formation. He spent the winter hunting bear. He caught three
t;';;.t. Salmon abound in the rivers of Vancouver.
"Fish" seldom takes the plural "fishes." E.g., Fish
is found off the coasts of Spain. .Ye gods and little
335. The narnes of sorne weights and measures can
have the singular lorm with a plural meaning. E.g., He
weighs ten stone. He stands six loot four in his socks.
But the plural is also correcto E.g., He stands six
leet four in his socks. He weighs ten stones.
336. The following nouns have no singular; or, if
they ~ave a singular form, it has a different meaning :attentions (acts of regard)
assets (entire property)
bearings (orientation)
spectacles (eye glasses)
colours (flag)
spirits (humour)
forces (arrny)
glasses (for seeing with)
bronzes (works of art)
Quarter Sessions travels
comings and goings

damages' (compensation)
troops (large\body of soldiers)
hangings (curtains)
respects (homage)
sands (beach)
effects (entire property)
airs (affectation)
irons (fetters)
leads (sheets of roofing)
reinforcements headquarters
surroundings doings
carryings on
goings on

Examples .-She put on coloured spectacles while on

the sands; and sat and listened to the airs which the band
played on the pier. He assiduously paid his respects to



his uncle; and the latter, in high spirits, promised to

leave him all his effects. The forces saluted the coZou"
which were fl.ying over Headquarters. John thought that
the salute was meant forhim, and began to put on airs.
There are sorne valuable bronzes in the 'British Museum.
The sailor was put in irons for refusing to obey orders.
The burglar was tried at Quarter Sessions. Mter many
wanderings, he decided to give up his travels. He settled
down, and decided to stand for Parliament. He invested
his savings in bribing the electors. His father had always
said that he had in him the makings of a first rate politician.
Having no finer feelings, he neither pitied the sufferings of
others, nor respected their belongings. His doings were
the logical consequence of his earlier su"~undings. The
summer takings of a theatre are not usually good. The
sweepings of a room are usual1y thrown into a dust-l,in.
He was rescued after having lost his bearings while crssing the deserto Lazarus got the leavings from the rich
man's tableo The comings and goings of the messengers
attracted a good deal of attention. The ca"yings-on of
the Duke provoked his wife to file her petition. She did
not like his goings-on. 1ron filings are attracted by a magneto
The master thief took the pickings, and left the leavings
to his accomplices. The walls are covered with velvet
hangings. He won the first game but lost his winnings
in the second.
NOTE.-(a) The singular of "dice," i.e., "dti!" is
found only in the expression " The die is cast."
(b) "Colour" in the sense of "flag" is. found in the
singular only in the expression " trooping the c%ur."
337. The following nouns are plural in form, but take
a singular verb : summons .
NOTE.-'(a) In the plural, "summons"


and "six-



pence" take the plural as in par. 324, i.e., sixpences

(b) N ouns ending in "ics" always take a singular
verb when referring to a science. as such.1 Sorne take
a plural verb when attributed to an individual. E.g.,
Ethics is a difficult study. His ethics leave much to be
desired. Politics is the science of government. 1 like
him personally", but 1 .think that his politics are too
advanced. The acoustics oj the room are bad.
(e) "Ethic" is sometimes found in the singular,
when referring to a special' school of moral principies.
E.g., The Christian ethic.
(d) "Almst" though able to take a verb in the singular,
usually takes a verb in the plural. E.g., Alms were dis'
tributed to the poor.
338. The following have no plural form, and take a
singular verb :-'
baggag~ .(luggage)
shooting (hunting)
shipping (ships) hunting
339- Abstraet nouns have no plural. Where they have
a plural form, it is because they have changed their meaning
and become cornmon nouns. E.g., 1 will not permit any
liberties (acts of excessive familiarity). They exchanged
confidences (i.e., they revealed intimate matters to each
340. Nouns representing things which can only be
measured do not take the plural, except sometimes in the
meaning "different kinds oj." E.g., Weget silks from
China, and teas from India.
Note the expression: "To carry coals to Newcastle."



Where did we saH? When? What did we experience? What have many people tried to do? What have
never really satisfied me? How did the buildings stand


"Heroic,U and "hysteric," are not sciences, so they take a plural



out against the skyline? What compIetely dwarfed what ?

What seems to be more important than a cathedral, in
a modem city? What did we, examine the city witl1?
What did the Iadi~s forget for a moment? Why? What
did each building seem to do? What were the skies
covered with? When? What did not seem to worry
the bigger ships? Define a tramp. What were the
tramps bringing from the ends of the earth? What
were some of the things they carried? What did they
bring from China and India? What flags <;lid they fly ?
What did the funnels belch? What filled the air? What
did little fishing - boats do? And little govemment
cutters? What excited a good deal of interest? When?
Who carne on board? What happened to the passengers ?
Describe the port doctor. Why did he not look ungainly?
How did the passengers file before him? What would
one never have suspecte,d, to look at them? How did
most of the third-class passengers stand? And others?
What did. they carry in knotted handkerchiefs? And in
bundles? What did many seem completely to have
lost? Where? How bewildered did they seem? How
did the children stare round? What did the passengers
represent? Why especially those of the third - class ?
What had some ladies and gendemen fled from? What
contrast is made between the Russian system of administering justice, and the English? Describe some other thirdclass types. What kind of material did these people seem,
from the viewpoint of citizenship? Why were sorne not
very promising material? What am 1 afraid of ? What
had the mighty Nimrods in the first- class been doing ?
What appeared to have been good? What did I gather
that sorne were now contemplating onslaughts on? What
were others going after? What did they think of bullfighting? What other ethical principIe seemed to find
favour among them? Did alI the passengers receive
equaI treatment? What were the third -class passengers
examined for? U nder what condition were Iuckless
individuals taken to Ellis Island? What were there in
pIenty? Do Americans believe in half-measures? What



do they think of other people's opinions? What punishment had been meted out to one of the passengers during
the voyage? vVhy? What did we manifest, as we
landed? What officials inspected what? What resulted
from the examination, in the case of sorne people? Who
stared at us? In what way? What is the lay-out of the
streets in Washington? What did we not know about
the capitulation of Bulgaria? What were many and
varied? What were we bursting for? What did we ask
everybody we met? What were we ready to catch at ?
What had the Angel of Death been doing? How had men
fought? How had they fallen? Whom did they leave
widows? And fatherless? What got around, and when ?
How did New York react? What did the people and the
bands do? What did nobody then guess? Who would
reap small consolation? Describe the Peace Conference.
Who had come to meet me? vVhat did they want to
hear? Were they recent arrivals in America? What did
1 tell them about our adventures? "Who had fought,
with what, and why? What did I tell them had been
interesting? What did I try to describe? What had
made me very weary ? Of ' what ? How had the West
Indies appeared to me? .'.And New York? What did
they listen to with exemplary patience ?




The use of the possessive form should present no
difficulties, so far as personal possessors are concerned.
There is really no need for the student to say, " The cat
of my father,", when he means " l\ly father's cat." The
rules are simple (pars. 347-348).
There is more difficulty with regard to the use of the
genitive inflexion for nouns standing for inanimate things



and plants . . Par. 350 shouId be studied in connection with

par. 173, in Lesson 20, and the differences in meaning
between the two sets of nouns carefulIy expIained.
The Introduction to the Twenty-fifth Lesson should
be re-read in connection with par. 352.



A. PROSE PASSAGE. (See par. 357.)
It is well over twenty years since last I was at Madeira,
so that my memory of the isIand must needs be rather
sketchy. We arrived there safely after a few days' voyage
from England, just as the sun' s rays were gilding the eastem
horizon. 1 can see it all in my mind' s eye still. The stars
had faded into pins'- heaus in the early moming sky ; and
the island's outline stood out against the dawn's early
light. Madeira is the Republic of Portugal's jewel and
crown, and looked it, against the background; of the
Atlantic's silver blue. Funchal, the capital, was spread out
before us on a rise; and the tity' s white houses, set in
the green of tropical foliage, gleamed invltlngly.
Little boats put out from the shore, and stopped
a cable' s length off. They were so small and overloaded,
it was a wonder they did not turn turtle, even in that
slight sea. The boats'-crews wete waiting forpermission
to come on board and spread out their wares on the
decks. Madeira wine has, of course, .a reputation alI its
own. But besides this, the women of the island sew
wonderfully; and their embroidery, and the island's
basket-work, are well known to ships' passengers on the



The people who seU these things hav~ the values of

the different European and American currencies at their
flngers' ends; and they are permitted to sit and haggle
on the decks to thelr hearfs content, and, incidentally,
to their no inconsiderable profit. The rival vendors try
to shout each other down. But they expend their lung
power needlessly, for all they succeed in doing is to
neutralize each other' s efforts; and produce a confused
babel of noise. But it is all very picturesque and colourful.
1 wanted to go ashore as soon as possible, so 1 asked
one of the ship' s officers when we should be sailing again.
" 1 suppose at about two o'clock," he said. ce But for
goodness' sake don't be late, or we shalI have to sail wiih=
out you." As it tumed outlater, he supposed wrongly.
But of that, mor anon.
Anyway, 1 borrowed a friend of mine' s walking stick,
and began to bargain with. a boatman about taking me
ashore. He had his own way of handling the K'ing' s
English. But we managed to get along quite well, for he
spoke it fluE:ntly, if not correctly. According to him, the
joumey across to the jetty involved at least ten shillings'worth of hard rowing. He could not do it for less for
conscie1'lce' sake, as he had to think ofhis wife's interests,
to say nothing of his five cmldren's needs.
1 answered sweetly that 1 had twenty children of my
own, and therefore four times bis responsibilities. As he
had only a quarter of that number, he should charge me
a quarter of the usual sut'n; and take me across for half a
He looked depressed; whether because he found my
logic too involved, or as a result of the terrifying vision
of a family of twenty children, or merely because he was
disappointed in me for. being such a liar, it is hard to sayo
But he soon threw off his depression, and smiled intlmately.



Out of pure sympathy, he said, for one who had 'been

broken on jortune' s wheel, he would make it five shillings.
He was sure I would not turn so reasonable an offer down.
But I began to move ~ and he guessed that" I knew
that the trip was only a shilling's-worth, and that 1 was
treating him generously in offering half a crown. So
he gave in, and we were soon gliding smoothly across the
Of the island, I retain' an impression of low white
houses snugly set in walled gardens; of shady streets ;
and of old baroque churches. Because I was very young
and very English, I looked a little fearfully into the dark
shadowy interiors of those chu'rches, with their sombre
yet vivid colouring, set against a background of old gold
and silver gilt. They made me think instinctively of some
proud and sinister old renaissance noble, darkly glittering
in magnificent but fading splendour, as he comes to his
journey's ende I suppose I should see things' differently
now . . .
In the streets, the soldiers' uniforms struck me as being
needlessly shabby, after the smart men's uniforms of our
army. And, by the way, does the uniform make the
soldier; or does Thomas a Kempis' s remark about monks'
habits hold good for soldiers' uniforms too? In other
words, must a soldier dress tidily and smartly to be a
good soldier; or may he just dress anyhow, and yet keep
his efficiency.
After a while, I saw a sled loaded with ship's passengers,
several of themfriends oj mine. Sleds do not seem to go
with the idea of Madeira, but these were special sleds.
They were dragged smoothly over polished cobbles by
patient oxen. The oxen's yokes, as well as the clumsy
sleds, were carved and brightly coloured.
What struck me most about the island was the people's




Every square inch of arable land seemed to be

cultivated, and pIanted, especially with vines. And such
grapes! Each bunch seemed to be four or five pounds'
1 stopped at a pub, owned, rather surprisingly, by a
Scot; and got a couple of bottles of Madeira from him.
As 1 had a sixteen-days' voyage ahead of me, and wouId
come across no more shops until 1 reached my journey's
end, 1 called at a chemist' s for sorne tooth paste; at a
tabacconist' s ;. and at a hatter' s. 1t was not necessary
to visit a stationer's, as the shipprovided the passengers
with \vriting-paper.'
By this time it was about one o'clock; so 1 strolled
down to the quay, to embark. 1 expected to find sorne of
my feIlow-paSsengers there; but the quay was deserted,
and 1 looked round uneasily. Imagine my surprise, when
somebody 'toId me that the ship was already weighing
anchor; and that all the other passengers had aIready
gone on board. 1 had blundered badly in not making
sure of the exact hour of the ship's departure. Thus,
instead of having another hour' s grace, as 1 had thought,
1 was in danger of Iosing the ship altogether. 1 was at
my wit's-end what to do. AlI the boatmen seemed to
have gone to lunch, and it looked as though 1 might have
a week'swait for the next boato
In the end, however, 1 was able to find a launch ; and
we made all speed to the ship. The accommodation
ladder was just being drawn up as we drew near. This
time 1 did not get off so lightly over the fare. The boatman overcharged me shamelessly; and 1 paid up submissively, there being no time to argue. Then 1 climbed
awkwardly up the ladder, hugging my two precious bottles
of Madeira, and trying to smile nonchalantlY; though
1 felt an awful fool under the amused gaze of the passengers

4 12


who lined the rails and looked curiously to see who the
late comer might be.
When 1 got on board, my friends, after chaffing me
to their hearts' content, finished up by helping me to
drink my wine. So the matter ended satisfactorlly for
all concemed. Meanwhile, the island's outline was
receding into the distance; ~md it was not long before
it had fallen below the horizon's edge, and we were well out
to sea again.



341. The genitive inftexion consists of an aposirophe

followed by "s," added to a noun in the singular. If
the noun is a plural ending in " s," the apostrophe only is
added. This inflexion is used chiefly with nuns standing
for persons, animals, birds, insectS, reptiles, and fish;
E.g., The boy's books. The boys' books. The girl's
room. The girls' room. The serpent's tooth. The
bird's wing. The bee's sting.
342- If the last syllable of a singular noun begins ami
ends with "s," an apostrophe only is added. Otherwise,
the ordinary genitive inflexion of an apostrophe with
"s" should be used. 1 E.g., Moses' Jaws. But: Charles's
book, Sto James' s Palace, King Charles' s Head.
343- If the plural is irregular, 'lOe treat it as a singular.
E.g., The children's toys were destroyed ~ the fire. The
oxen's necks were galled by their yokes. The mm's
uniforms were muddy and tomo Wamen' s fashions have
changed again.
344- If the noun indicatjng the possessor is determined
by a prepositional phrase, the apostrophe and "s are
added to the noun 01 the determining phrase. E.g., The
King 01 England's crown. The Lord Mayor 01 London's
chain of office.
345. In conversation, if the noun standing for the
possessor is determined by an adjectival clause, the genitive

1 The s after the apostrophe is voiced and is pronounced in a

separate syllable, i.e., iz.



infiexion is often added to the ltut fJJOTd 01 the adjectival

clause. E.g., The man you introduced me to's wife is
very pretty.
346. It is not necessary to repeat the noun representing
the thing possessed in sentences like the folIowing: He
respects his own property, but not other people's.
347. The use of " 01" to indicate possession, is avoided
as much as possible. Thus: The boy' s book. N ot: The
book 01 the boy.
348. But " 01" is sometimes used-: (a) For purposes
01 emphasis. E.g., He is quite evidently the son 01 his
lather. She is the daughter 01 an earl.
(b) For titles 01 books: The Plays olIbsen.
(e) To avoid over repetition or conlusion. E.g.," My
servant's child's frierui's mother's dog is sick," would be
replaced by: "The dog 01 the mother 01 my servant's
child's friend is sick." But it is better in such cases to
avoid run~ing a number of possessives together in this
way; and use a different construction. E.g., My servant's
child has a friend; and the friend' s mother has a sick dogo
(d) In conversation, to, avoid the ambiguity arising
from the fact that the singular inflected noun sounds
exactly the same as the plural. The home 01 the tramps.
349- The names of inanimate things and plants do not
so usually take the genitive infiexion. When not treated
as adjectives, they are preceded by "of." E.g., The foot
01 the tree. But: The brass lampo The comer 01 the
room (see Lesson 21).
350. But the-genitive infiexion is usual with the following nouns, except in the special uses given in par. 173 : (a) Measure 01 space or time. E.g., It is a day's trip
from the south of England to Scotland. lt was a Se'lJenmonths' baby. He took a month's leave. He 'is going on a
six-weeks' holiday. He retumed to England after a threeyears' absence. There was a moment' s pause. He did not
give the matter a minute's thought.
(b) Space, distance, size. E.g., 1 am a hand's-breadth



taller than you. He found a pearl no bigger than a pin' s

head. 1 live no more than a, stone' s- throw from the
station. The two ships were only a boat's-Iength apart
when they sighted each other in the fog. When the ship
was a cable's-length off, it hoveto. That knife is as keen as
a razor's edge. The tip'of a Toledo blade is as sharp as a
needle's point.
(e) Weight. E:g., l' don't know how many pounds'
weight the Star of Africa was.
(d) Value. E.g., 1 want a shilling's-worth of apples.
N o, 1 will not take a pound's-worth.
(e) Certain objeets of nature, and eommon geographical
nouns. E.g., The sun's rays died in the westem sky, and
the moon's silver light flooded the earth' s surface; while
Nature's children slept, heedless of the wind's sighing,
They flew to defend their
and of the ocean's roar.
eountry's honour.
(f) Certain stereotyped forms. E.g., Much injustice
has been done by the law's delays. When the country
was stirred by war's alarms, Peter answered duty's eall.
His friend John, however, who had no stomach for fighting,
was at his wit's-end wh~t to do, to keep out of harm's way.
However, he had the lists pf sailings at his finger-ends,
and smuggled himself abo~rd a transadantic liner as one
of the ship's passengers. Whep. he got to his journey' s
end, he was imprisoned as a stowaway. In my mind's eye,
1 can see him still, meditating to his heart's eontent in gaol
on the bliss of the man who is safe, and, by comparison,

3SI. To indicate the place where a man lives or works,

the name or profession of the person is often given the
genitive inflexion, without mentioning the name of the
place. Thus, when 1 am going to visit my uncle at his
house or office or shop, it' is enough to say: "1 am going
to my uncle's." Thus also: You can get it al any jeweller's.
1 met him at my lawyer's. She called at the grocer's on her
way home.

35a. The pleonastic genitive. E.g., This is a book 01
John's. He is a friend 01 Peter's (pars. 253-255).
353. Nouns ending in a sibilant and followed by " sake "
take the apostrophe only. E.g., For goodness' sake. For
eonscience' sake.
353a. Adjeetives made into elass nouns or abstraet nouns

by placing the definite article before them (par. 108)

eannot take the genitive inflexion. E.g., The liberty of
the French. Not: The French's liberty.


How long is it since 1 was in Madeira? What must

my memory of the island needs be? When did we arrive
there? What were gilding the eastem horizon? Where
can 1 see it all still? What had the stars faded into?
Where ? What stood out against what? What is
Madeira? Why did she look it? What gleamed invitingly? What did little boats do? Where did they stop ?
What was a wonder? Who -were waiting for permission ?
What for? What reputation Ims Madeira wine? What
do the women of the island do? What are well known,
and to whom? Haw do you know that the vendors
know something of foreign ~xchange? To what extent
are they permitted to sit and haggle on the decks? What
do the rival vendors try to do? To good purpose? Why
not? What do they produce? What is it all? What
did 1 want to do? Whom did 1 ask ~bout sailing time?
What exhortation did he make me? What tumed out
later? What did 1 borrow? What did 1 begin to do
with a boatman? How did he speak English? Why
did we manage to get along quite well? According to
him, what did the journ~y across to the jetty involve ?
Why could he not do it for less? What had he to think
of ? What .did 1 answer sweet1y? As he had only a
quarter of my number of children, what should he do ?
How did he look? What is it hard to say? What did he
soon throw off? How did he smile? Why would he
make it five shillings? What was he sure? What did



I begin to do? What did he guess? How was I treating

him? What followed his surrender? What impression
do I retain of the island? What happened because' I
was very young and very English? Describe the interiors
of the churches. What kind of noble did they make me
think of? What struck me as being needlessly shabby?
Mter what? What author made a remark about clothel;1,
and whose clothes did he refer to? What question do
1 ask about uniforms? Mter a while, what did 1 see
loaded? Loaded with what? Was 1 interested in them,
and why? What do not seem to go with Madeira? How
were the sIeds dragged, and over what? What were
carved and bright1y coloured? What struck me most
about the island? What was done to every square inch
of arable land? What weight did each bunch of grapes
seem to be? Where did 1 stop? Who owned the pub ?
What did 1 get from him? Where did 1 call for tooth
paste? Why was it necessary? Where did 1 get tobacco ?
And a hat? What shop did 1 not visit? Why not?
What time was it? What did 1 do? Whom did 1 expect
to find? Did I? What did somebody tell me? What
had all the other passengers already done? How had 1
blundered badly? 1 was in danger of losing the ship,
instead of what? Did 1 know what to do? Where were
the boatmen? What looked likely? What was 1 able to
do in the end? What was happening as 1 drew near?
What about the fare? What did the boatman do? Why
did 1 pay up, and how? How did 1 climb the ladder ?
What was 1 doing at the same time? What did 1 feel ?
Why? When did my friends help me to drink my wine ?
Meanwhile, what was receding into the distance? What
happened very soori? Where were we again ?




The importance of the adverb in giving flexibility to
the English sentence has already been noted in the
Introduction to the Twenty-first Lesson; and the
point cannot be overstressed.
If the Prose Passages of the preceding lessons have
been carefully studied, and especially if the answers to
the appended questions have been carefully learnt, the
student should by now have acquired an almost instinctive
facility in the use o the. adverbs. But this should not
prevent him from reviewing this lesson section by section,
and studying the Prose Passages which illustrate the use
of the adverbs concemed, over again. This will not merely
help to fix the use of the adverbs in rus mind once and
for all; but will also give him the opportunity to refresh
his memory with regard ~o the other grammatical points
treated of, and with regatd to the compound verbs and
idiomatic expressions scattered through the Prose Passages.
Special attention is drawn to pars. 354-357, and to
adverbs like fairly, still, anyhow, badly, etc. (see par. 359),
which appear, each one, in several categories, because of
their several different meanings.


(See also par. 10, pages 15~17)
354. N o adverb may be placed between a verb and
its noun or pronottn object,1 unless such adverb forms an
integral part of, and gives a special meaning to, a compound
verbo This rule is frequently violated by the press, and

See aIso par. 10, pages 15-17.

4 18
by B.B.C. announcers in giving news items; but rarely
in conversation 01' in literature.
Examples.-Incorrect position: 1 like very much plum
pudding. 1 saw yesterday J ohn. She made beautijully
the dress. He bought in the shop a book.
Correct position: I very much like plum pudding.
1 like plum pudding very mucho 1 saw John yesterday.
Yesterday 1 saw John. She made the dress beautijully.
He bought a book in the shop.
Compound verbs: The train ran down a lorry. He
did up the pareel with string. They fitted out an expedition
to the N orth Poleo
355. Though an adverb may be plaeed between its
verb and an obje~tive noun-clause,lor between its verb and
an objective infinitive" this should be avoided if there is
anypossibility of the adverb being taken to madi/y the
wrong verbo The adverb, in such cases, should be placed
as far away as possible from the verb it is not intend8d to
madijy. Thus in the sentence: "He prepared rapidly
to climb the hill," it is not made absolutely clear which
was rapid-the preparation or the cllmbing. The sentence
should be: He rapidly prepared to climb the hill. He
prepared to climb the hillrapidly.
Again: "He asked who had brought the news
quickly" is correct only if the news was brought rapidly,
But if the question was asked rapidly, the sentence should
read: "He quickly asked who had brought the news.
356. The split infinitive, i.e., the placing of an adverb
between " to" and the infinitive, is often heard in conversation and in debates, especially among excited
members of the House of Commons. It should never
be used in writing, .and should be avoided in speech.
E.g., To live well is to live happily.
357. The rules laid down below for the position in
the sentence of ordinary adverbs also hold good for
adverbial phrases and clauses. But see par. 354, page 4 1 7,
and par. 335 aboye.
1 E.g., "1 heard in church yesterday that Mary was to be married
and .. 1 heard that Mary was to be married in church yesterday" are
both correct but mean different things.



358. Most adverbs oj manner can be placed immediately

after the anomalous finite. if there is one; or between
the subject and the verb, if there is not; or after the
direct and indirect objects(see Lessons 4, 5, 6, 18, 24-26).
E.g., He had anxiously inquired after his mother's health.
He anxiously inquired after his mother's health. He
inquireq. after his mother's health anxiously. He briejly
outlinedthe whole situation. He outlined the situation
briejly. He deeply regretted his action. He regretted his
action deeply. He ardently desired it. He desired it

359. But the following adverbs of manner are usually

placed only ajter the verb and its objects, if it has them;
and if not, immediately ajter the verb (see Lessons 5, 9, 18,

29):terribly (inspiring terror)

all together (unanimously)
still (motionless)
precisely (exactly)
alone (unaccompanied)
just so

naturally (unaffectedly)
fair1y (with justice)
badly (not well)
anyhow (carelessly)
awkwardly (clumsily)
horribly (in a horrible manner)
very well

Examples.-.They answered all together that they

wanted to go. He divided the money fairly among them.
The maid does her work satisjactorily; but the footman
does his badly. Few children can sit still for any length
of time. He acted very i"egularly in opening the letter.
It is a waste of time to do your work anyhow. One should
always act and speak naturally. Bulgaria made peace
independently. He stutters ho"ibly when he speaks. She
cleans up the place tidily after work. They lived happily
ever after. He looked at her terribly. She arrived sajely.



He always speaks 'Very precisely. The officers and the

soldiers dine separately. The burglar eyed the policeman
uneasily. Men cannot do housework properly. She
smiled to him in'Vitingly. The two look alike. 1 shall
finish my joumey alone. They now live aparto The
sun shone brightly into the room. We and the French
often look at things differently. He always likes things
done just so. He tries to talkfunnily by imitating an Irish
accent, but he really only squawks absurdly. She walked
through the cemetery fearfully and fasto She smiled
intimately; so he took her hand and held it tightly. He
looked in at the window curiously, and saw people sitting
comfOTtably before a fire. Mary stumbles awkwardly
over her Spanish; but Peter' speaks it ftuently. He
succeeded wonderjully irhis investigations. They divided
the money equally. Peter thinks 'Very originally. John
knows London well.
360. The following adverbs of manner can also be
placed before the subject of the sentence (see Lessons 1,
15) :rightly or wrongly
natural1y (logical1y)

all at once

personally (emphatic)
very likely

Examples.-Rightly or 'lOTongly, he thinks himself a

genius. He, rightly OT 'lOTongly, thinks himself a genius.
He thinks himself a genius, rightly or wrongly. N aturally,
1 do not want to be ill. 1 naturally thought that you were
in Berln. Personally, 1 do not like Milton. 1, personally,
do not like Milton. 1 ,do not like Milton, personally.
1 like painting, personal/y.' Fortunately, the doctor
arrived in time. He was fortunately able to find the
money. You are not my sister, jortunately. He will
'Very likely" go to J apan. Very likely he is a German.
All at once he exploded into wild laughter. Suddenly,
he drew a pisto!. Luckily the injuries were not serious.
361. Ad'Verbs oj degree, quantity, or precision usualIy
go after the object, if there is one; or immediately after



the verb, if there is not (see Lesson 3). E.g., 1 have worked
enough for to-day. He has told the story at least a dozen
t'imes. He thinks too mucho 1 know him slightly.
362. The following adverbs of degree, quantity, or
precision are, however, usually placed between the subject
and the verb; or i11Jmediately after the anomalous jinite,
if there is one (se e Lessons 16 and 23) : doubly
only just
just about
Exa!'lples.-He fairly shocked everybody in the room.
He is doubly entangled in the business. Sometimes 1
hardly know what 1 am doing. Mary rather wants a teaset for Christmas. She scarcely spoke to me the whole
evening. Peter practically called John a liar. She. almost
wept with chagrin. They. fairly shrieked with laughter
at the idea. 1 half believe that what you say is true. 1
merely wish to say that 1 must suspen<;lmy judgement.
They only just managed to reach safety in time. 1 quite
like Mary. They just about murdered him.. 1 am about
tired of it aH. He has just come in.
363. The following adverbs of degree can be placed
after the anomalous jinite, if there is one; between the
subject and the verb, if there is not; or after the noun or
pronoun objects, if .there are any (see Lessons 16, 18, 23) : definitely
very much
particularly strongly
badly (very much)
Examples.-I definitely refuse to have anything to do
with it. He told me definitely that there was nothing
more to be done. 1 deeply regret being unable to go. 1
regret deeply being unable to go. He has completely
finished his work. He has finished his work completely.
1 fully understand the implications of your remarks.
1 understand them fully. 1 partly believe you. 1 believe
you partly. He greatly annoyed his mother-in-law, and



very much arnused everybody in so doing. She likes

London very mucho 1 absolutely deny that I ever said
any such thing. Yes, l' deny it absolutely. You well
knew what you were doing. 1 particularly asked you to
be careful. I asked him particularly to be here at six.
He strongly dislikes the clinging type of girl. He wants
to marry her badly. She badly wants to rnarry him. I
quite like that girl. I don't know quite what to do.
364- Adverbs 01 time usually go before the subject, or
after the object, if there is one. If not, immediately ajter
the verb. When placed before the subject, they usually
refer back to a previous statement or question (see Lessons
8, 9, 13-14, 19, 21, 22, 26). E.g., What have you been
doing during the past fero days'? On Sunday 1 was in
Brighton; and yesterday I was at home. John told rne
this morning thathe :was unwell.
365~ The following ad'verbt of time can also be placed
after the anomalous jinite, if there is one; or between the
subject and the verb, if there is not (see Lessons 8 and 10) : afterwards then
at last
eventualIy so far
at once itnmediately at first
Examples.-Then he carne. He then carne. He carne
then. At last "he arrived. He ai last arrived. He arrived
at lasto At first he was adarnant; but he afterwards
relented, so that the prisoner was eventually set free.
Peter has so far done nothing to set the Thames on fire.
He now believes that he has rnissed his vocation; and
has lately been talking of taking up journalisrn. He soon
recovers his spirits after a setback. I suppose that he will
eventually fall on his feet. He once tried his hand at being
a baqnan, though he had originally intended to enter
the Church. His father immediately put his foot down.
Peter at jirst held out, but in the end gave in. He sometimes regrets his weakness, and often says so.

366. Other exceptional adverbs of time (Lesson 8) : (a) "Early" and " late" go ajter the object; or, if



there is none, immediately ajter the verbo E.g., They had

dinner early. Peter arrived late.
(b) "Just" goes ajter the anomalous jinite, if there is
ane; and, if there is not, between the subject and the verb.
E.g., He has just told me about ita 1 just saw him
minute ago.
(c) "Still," "already," and "shortly~' jollow the
an.omalous jinite; or, if there is none, go between the
suhject and the verbo They may also go ajter the object;
or ajter the verb, if there is no object. E.g., He still
lives here. He lives here still. He is shortly leaving for
Palestine. He is going thereshortly. John already knows
about it; and Mary knows about it already too (Lesson 8).

367. Adverbs oj place usually go ajter the object; or,

if is none, immediately ajter the verb (Lessons 7,
1 1, 12, 20). E.g., 1 met him in town last night. He woke
me up in my room. John bought the dog in Pars.

368 . The following' adverbs of place can be placed

before the subject, especiaIly in exclamations (see Lesson 12).
A noun. suhject, in such exclamatory sentences, is usually
placed after its verb, and the adverb then immediately
precedes the verbo
Examples.-In you go! There comes John! On top
aj the box is a handkerchief. Round and round they flew.
Off you pop! Here you are I Up you jump! Away
they went! Down carne the books with a crash. Over
fell the horses into the ditch. Along carne the policeman.
369- Most adverbs of affirmation and probability can
be placed in anypositt'on except between the verb and its
abject (Lesson 18).
no doubt
very likely
very well
in fact
of course



Examples.-You no doubt feel that you will pass your

examinations. No doubt you feel tht you will pass your
exams. You feel, no doubt, that you will pass.

370. Exceptional adverbs of affirmation and negation

(Lessons 2, l8) :(a) The. following are placed only before the subject : yet
Examples.-You say that, yet you do the opposite.
Yes, I am English. No, I am not Polish.
(b) "Not" is usually found only after an anomalous
finite. But it can follow certain verbs expressing opinion.
E.g., I suppose noto He thinks noto We hope noto They
believe noto I presume not (par. l5, Note).
(c) "Never" precedes or follows an anomalous finite.
If there is none, it goes between the subject and the verbo
E.g., I can never understand why he did ita I never can
understand why he did ita
(d) Emphatically, "simply" precedes an anomaious
finite. E.g., Y ou simply cannot let him do ita You simply
must come.
Between a subject and its verb, or after an anomalous
finite, " simply " often weakens to the meaning of" merely."
E.g., I simply told him the truth. You must simply tum
the handle, and the machirte 'will start going.
371. Miscellaneous adverbs.
(a) Before the subject only : firstly secondly lastly last but not least and so so
Examples.-Last but not least comes John, the noblest
Roman of them all! When the French admiral was asked
why he did not salute the English ships as they approached,
he answered tbat firstly, he did not see them;' secondly,
that when he did see them, he did not recognize them as
batt1eships. He went on to give twenty-eight other
reasons, and finally gave the most cogent of aH. "Lastly,"
he said, " I had no powder." I have married a wife,
and so I cannot come.



(b) Before the subject, after an anomalous finite, or

between the suhject and the verb :either or 1
Examples.-Either he will or he won't. He either
will or he won't. l ~ve bought two yoke of oxen, and
therefore 1 cannot come. He therefore took the necessary
precautions. He is unwell, and consequently he cannot go
to work to-day. . He is eonsequently unable lo go to work.
He consequently refused to go.
(e) Between the subject and the verb, or alter an
anomalous finite :- .
nelther . . . nor
Examples.--He neither spoke nor ate. He both thought
and said it. He could neither speak nor eat. He must
both work and play.




In writing an English sentence, and especially in
translating from his own language mto English, the student
should keep the basic order of words in the English
sentence (par. 372) constantIy before his mind. If he
does this, he can hardly be in error. The structure of
sentences in other languages, notably German, often
varies very much from that of English; and the student,
particularly in translation, must be ruthless in reducing
the forms of hi~ own language to the English mould.
Moreover, in translating sentences of very complicated
construction into English, it i8 a useful rule to split such
sentences up into two or more shorter ones. The short
sentence is, in any case, desirable; in the ftrst place,
because it is generally good style, and in the second place,
1 If the subjects are singular, the English verb is singular. E.g.,
Neither John nor Peter knows it. Either John or Peter has come.



because it places less' of a strain on the powers of concentration of the hearer or reader.
With regard to vocabulary, it is a good rule never to
use a word of foreign derivation, especially Latin or Greek,
'lOhenan A;nglo-Saxon 'lOord will do. It will have been
noticed already that the vocabulary of, the idiomatic
expressions to be found in the Prose Passages is predominantly .of Anglo-Saxon origino To the Englishman,
Anglo-Saxon words are instinct with spirit and life,
whereas Latin and Greek words lack vividness and fire.
Used in excess, Latin and Greek words are the refuge
of the pompous Civil Servant, arid of the pedante
No Prose \Passage has beep. written for this Lesson,
because the student can best practise the 'application of
the rules laid down in translations from bis own language
into English. This will force him to make a positive
effort to shake off whatever influ~nces his own language
may still exert on bis English speech.



37Z. The basic order of words in the English sentence
is as follows ! -

Direct object
Indirect 9bject



to }ohn

a book
for John

was told
a story

was told

by John

to Peter
by John

373. A sentence can also be introduced by:(a) An adverb. E.g., Never will he consent to do it
(par. 10). Rightly or wrongly, I feel that I ought to go
(par. 360). Yesterday, he played football (par. 364).
At lasi the news has come (par. 365). In you get (par.



368). Naturally 1 canswirn ! (par. 369). Yes, of course

you can! (par. 370). Lastly, see par. 371.
(b) An interrogative word (:tesson 23). E.g., Who are
you? Where is it? (Par. 229, page 334) .
(e) A preposition. E.g., To whom do 1 owe the honour
of this visit? With such means at my disposal, 1 could
do nothing.
(d) An objective noun-elause (Lesson 23). E.g., What
he intends to do, 1 have no idea. How he could have the
courage to fight, 1 never understood.
(e) An anomalous finite in the past tense introducing
the eondition in a conditional sentence (par. 46b). The
" if" is then suppressed. E.g., Were 1 to tell you all
that 1 know, you might change your opinion. Should 1
meet him, 1 shall tell him what 1 think of t aH. Did 1
know, 1 should tell you.
(f) The anomalous finite introducing a question' (par.
5). E.g., Can you tell me the way to Trafalgar Square ?
374- The verb is generally placed after its subject.
Constructions like " Come the daWIl " should be avoided.1
But: (a) An anomalous finite is often placed before its
noun subject (par. 7). E.g., There is a man in the room.
There must come a change sometime or other. (The verb
exist can follow this construction also. E.g., There must
exist an explanation.) See also par. loa, page 15, and
par. 46b, page 86.
(b) If the subject is verbal, and is placed after its
verb, the latter need not be compounded with an anomalous finite. E.g., lt makes one's blood boil to hear such a
thing, i.e., To hear such a thing makes one's blood boil.
(e) The verbs in exclamatory sentences often precede
their noun subject (see par. 368). Up snot the water!
(d) In writing, verbs in the present habitual or preterite often precede their nouns after a verbatim quotation.
E.g., " 1 do not think so," answered John. "That is the
absolute limit," exclci'Zmed Mary. "It is true," repeated
375- If the direct object of a transitive verb is a noun,
the verh may be foIlowed either by the direct object and
1 If "come" is preceded by an adverb of time the construction is
correcto E.g., Then came the climax.


then the indirect object ,wit4 its ,preposition; or by the


indirect object without a preposition, al}d then the direct

a book.
object. E.g., He gave a book to him. He gave
He bought a hatf.or Mary. He bO,ught Mary a hato
376. If the direct object is a pronoun, the indirect
Qbject (with its preposition) usualIy follows the direct
object. E.g., Give them to him. 1 bought it for Mary.
He got it for him.
377. If the indirect object is a pronoun, it usually
precedes the noun direct object, the preposition being
suppressed. 1 got him the book yesterday.
378. If a verb has an indirect object only, the latter
retains its preposition. E.g., 1 will write to him to-morrow.


(" 1 will write him to-morrow" is a construction which

should be limited to business letters.)
379- It is not usual to place the indirect object before
the noun direct object, after the following verbs:-.
draw (puJI) ask
Examples.-Peter introduced Michael to Marie. 1
have said the same thing to Archibald. She drew
the baby to her., 1 asked James for a drink. He drooe
the car for her. 1 will aTTange the matter for her. She
answered the letter for Peter. He jinished the work for
M uriel. As he could not understand, 1 pronounced the
word to him again. He explained the matter to her as
well as he could. 1 started the car for him. He began
the work for her. 1 paid him for the house yesterday.
1 began the necessary arrangements for Muriel. He spoke
bis lines to an appreciative audience. James posted the
letter to Frank at six. He suggested an altemative plan to
his colleagues. 1 translated the document to him as 1
read it. He proposed another plan of action to the officer.
380. If the noun direct-object is determined by a
following adjectival-group, the indirect object with "to"



may be placed before the noun direct -object and its

determining group. E.g., He explained to us the difference
between the words to " declare " and " to say."
381. If sentences are joined by " and," " but," " nor "
in combination with "neither," or "or" in combination
with "either," and both sentences have the same subject,
the latter need not be repeated before the second verbo
E.g., He went to London, and during bisstay visited the
British Museum. He has lived in London for years, but
has not yet been inside the National Gallery. He neither
sleeps nor eats. In the evening, he either stays in bis
club, or goes to the theatre.
38a. Adverbs which modify adjectives or other adverbs
usually precede the adjective or adverb so modified. The
following are exceptions :-

Pre-position or post-position.
at all
by far
by haIf
Examples.-I am not at all angry with you. Do you
think the work is god enoUgh. She is not clever enough
by half. It was brave of you indeed to do it. It was brave
indeed of you to do it. Peter is braver by far than John.
Peter is by far the bravest man 1 know. Jetta Georgina
is a very pretty girl indeed.