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You are on page 1of 21

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et

MECHANIC

te

s

MECHANIC

no

VIRTUAL WORK

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tp

://

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.h

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ey

MATHEMATICS

B.SC

BY:

ZEESHAN SHOUKAT

International Islamic University

ISLAMABAD

Virtual Work

Page | 1

"VIRTUAL WORK"

Particle

chapter :

Thrust constraint

Thrust negative

Rigid

Positive

.h

on

ey

no

te

s

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et

its contact with plane. Any displacement along the plane is consistent with the

constraint. If the force does no virtual work then the constraint is called

workless.

For Single Particle:

A particle subjected to workless constraint is in equilibrium iff

zero virtual work done by the applied force in any arbitrary infinitesimal

displacement consistent with the constraint.

Proof:

Let the total force acting on the particle be F, As the particle is in

equilibrium so F = 0. Let Fa and Fc be the applied and constraint forces acting on

the particle then,a F +Fc =0. Let r be any arbitrary infinitesimal displacement

consistent with the constraint then Fa Fc . r 0 . As constraint are workless so

ht

tp

://

w

A set of particles subjected to a workless constraint, is in

equilibrium iff zero virtual work is done by applied force in any arbitrary

infinitesimal displacement consistent with the constraints.

Proof:

Let m1 , m2 , m3 ..............mn be the particles. Let total force acting on mi be the

Fia & Fic . As the particle are in equilibrium so Fia + Fic 0 , i= 1, 2, 3............. Let ri

be any arbitrary infinitesimal displacement of mi , then total work done by all forces

n

i 1

i 1

i 1

i 1

A set of rigid body subjected to a workless constraint is in

equilibrium iff zero virtual work is done by applied forces and applied torque in

any arbitrary infinitesimal displacement consistent with the constraint.

IIUI | By Kaleem Arif 1

Page | 2

Virtual Work

Proof:

force and single couple. Let "R" be the single force and "G" be the moment of

single couple. As body is in equilibrium so R= 0, and G=0 further Ra Rc 0 and

Ga Gc 0 where R a and R c are the total applied and constraint forces. Similarly G a

and G c be the total applied torques and torque of constraints. Let r & be any

arbitrary infinitesimal linear and angular displacement consistent with the

constraints.

Ra Rc . r 0 And Ga Gc . 0

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et

Example#01:

A Particle of mass 20lb is suspended by a force of magnitude x lbs,

which make an angle of 30 with the inclined plane of inclination 60 . Find "x" and

also the reaction of the plane on the particle?

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w

.h

on

ey

no

te

s

Solution:

Let r be the infinitesimal displacement along the plane. As the system is

in equilibrium. By applying principle of virtual work, we have

xCos 30 r 20Sin 60 r 0

tp

3

3

20

x 20 lbs

2

2

ht

As system is in equilibrium so by applying the p. v.w we have,

R 20Cos 60 xSin 30

So,

Where x = 20 lbs

R = 20 lb

Virtual Work

Page | 3

Example #02:

A light thin rod, 12 ft long, can turn in a vertical plane about one of its points

which is attached to a pivot. If weights of 3 lbs and 4 lbs are suspended from its ends,

it rests in a horizontal position. Find the position of the pivot and its reaction on the

rod.

Solution:

Let "x" be the distance of pivot from end A. Let " " be infinitesimal angular

no

te

s

.n

et

We have 3 x 4 12 x 0

6

ft

7

Let " r " be the infinitesimal displacement along the direction of reaction. As system

is in equilibrium so by applying p. v.w,

R. r 3 r 4 r 0, R=7 lbs

://

w

.h

on

ey

3 x 48 4 x 0 , x 6

ht

tp

Example #03:

Four equal uniform rods are smoothly jointed to form a rhombus ABCD,

which is placed in a vertical plane with AC vertical and A resting on a horizontal

plane. The rhombus is kept in shape, with the measure of angle BAC equal to , by a

light string joining B and D. Find the tension in the string.

Solution:

Four equal uniform rods each of length l and weight w are freely jointed to

form rhombus with A fixed in horizontal. Angle BAC = . Shape of rhombus is kept

joining B and D by a string.

( )

Height of C.G of rod AB and AD =

Height of C.G of rod BC and CD =

( )

( )

Length of String BD = 2

Applying principle of Virtual Work,

Virtual Work

Page | 4

2

2

3

2

( ) 2

( )

3

2

( )

( )

=2

( ) =0

( )

=0

.n

et

( )

(1 +

on

ey

no

te

s

Example# 04:

A heavy elastic string whose natural length is 2 , is placed round a

smooth cone whose axis is vertical and whose semi-vertical angle has measure . If

W be the weight and l the modulus of string, prove that it will be in equilibrium

l

( ))?

://

w

.h

Solution:

A heavy elastic string of natural length 2

is placed on a smooth cone,

whose axis is vertical and semi-vertical angle is . And l is the modulus of string.

Let "x" be the radius of string when placed on the cone then

ht

tp

= l(

2

(2 ) = 0,

l

Or,

+

= (1 +

l

( )

=0

( )=

Page | 5

Virtual Work

Example# 05:

Six equal rods AB, BC, CD, DE, EF and FA are each of weight W and

are freely jointed at their extremities so as to form a hexagon. The rod AB is fixed in

a horizontal position and the middle points of AB and DE are jointed by a string.

Prove that its tension is 3W?

Solution:

Six equal uniform rods of length l and weights W are freely jointed to

form a hexagonal. Rod AB is fixed in horizontal position. Mid points of AB and DE

are joined by a string.

Depth of C.G of AF and BC =

( )

( )

3

2

( ) +2

ht

tp

://

w

.h

on

ey

no

te

s

.n

et

Depth of C.G of DE = 2

( )

Length of string = 2

( )

By applying principle of virtual work

( )

+2

3

2

( ) +

( )

=2

(2

2

( )

( )

( ) =0

( )

=0

=2

Example# 06:

A weightless tripod, consisting of three legs of equal length l, smoothly

jointed at the vertex, stands on a smooth horizontal plane. A weight W hangs from the

apex. The tripod is prevented from collapsing by three inextensible strings, each of

length l/2, joining the mid-points of legs. Show that tension in each string is

Solution:

IIUI | By Kaleem Arif

Page | 6

Virtual Work

Three equal uniform rods of length l are freely jointed to form a tripod which is

placed on smooth plane. Mid points of rods are jointed by three inextensible strings

each of length l/2. A weight W hangs from the apex.

( )

Height of pt of application of W =

( ),

Height of rod DE =

( )=

Height of rod DH =

=

=2

( )

( )

ey

no

te

s

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on

3

2

( ) 3

.h

( )

tp

://

w

ht

As length of string is = =

So,

33

2

2

33

( )

=0

tan ( )

( ) =0

( )

, tan=

Virtual Work

Page | 7

Exercise # 6

Question # 01:

A uniform ladder rests with its upper end against a smooth vertical wall and its foot

on rough horizontal ground. Show that the force of friction at the ground is

( ),

ey

no

te

s

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et

where W is weight of the ladder and is its inclination with the vertical.

Solution:

A uniform rod of length "l" and weight "W" rests with end A on a rough

horizontal ground and end B on a smooth vertical wall. Inclination of the ladder with

the vertical is ,

( )

)=0

on

+ (

( )

.h

( )

ht

tp

://

w

Question# 02

:

Four equal heavy uniform rods are freely jointed to form a rhombus

ABCD which is freely suspended from A, and kept in shape of a square by an

inextensible string connecting A and C. Show that tension in the string is 2W, where

W is the weight of one rod.

Solution:

Four equal uniform rods each of length "l" and weight "W" are freely jointed

to form a rhombus which is suspended at A. Shape is kept by joining A and C by an

inextensible string AC,

( )

Depth of C.G of rods BC and CD =

3

lCos

2

By applying principle of virtual work

Virtual Work

Page | 8

te

s

.n

et

2

2

T 2W

no

Question# 03:

Six equal uniform rods AB, BC, CD, DE, EF, FA, each of weight "W"

on

ey

are freely jointed to form a regular hexagon. The rod AB is fixed in a horizontal

position, and the shape of the hexagon is maintained by a light rod joining C and F.

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Solution:

Six equal uniform rods each of length "l" and weight "W" are freely jointed

to form a regular hexagon, with rod AB fixed in horizontal position. C and F are

joined by a light rod to maintain the shape.

l

Sin

2

3l

Sin

Height of C.G of the rod's CD and EF =

2

Height of C.G of the rod's DE = 2lSin , Length of rod CF = l 2lCos

ht

tp

Page | 9

Virtual Work

2

2

1

T 3w

3w

3

Solution:

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et

Question# 04:

A hexagon ABCDEF, consisting of six equal heavy rods, of weight w,

freely jointed together, hangs in a vertical plane with AB horizontal, and the frame is

kept in the form of a regular hexagon by a light rod connecting the mid-points of CD

on

ey

no

te

s

l

Sin

2

3

Depth of C.G of rod's CD and EF = lSin

2

Depth of C.G of rod's DE = 2lSin , length of rod GH = l lCos

Depth of C.G of rod's BC and AF =

ht

tp

://

w

.h

2

2

1

T 6w

2 3w

3

Virtual Work

P a g e | 10

Question# 05:

Three equal rods, each of weight "w" are freely jointed together at one

extremity of each to form a tripod, and rest with their other extremities on a smooth

horizontal plane, each rod inclined at an angle of measure to the vertical,

equilibrium being maintained by three equal light strings each joining two of these

extremities. Prove that the tension in each string is w

tan

2 3

l

Cos

2

te

s

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et

Solution:

Three equal uniform rods each of length "l" and weight "W" are freely jointed

at one end to form a tripod. The other extremities are placed on a horizontal plane.

Angle of each rod with the vertical is . Extremities are joined by three equal length

strings.

no

3

lSin

2

ey

ht

tp

://

w

.h

on

3w Cos 3T 3lSin 0

2

w

tan

T

2 3

10

Virtual Work

P a g e | 11

Question# 06:

Six equal uniform rods freely joined at their extremities form a

tetrahedron. If this tetrahedron is placed with one face on a smooth horizontal table,

prove that the thrust along a horizontal rod is

w

, where w is the weight of a rod.

2 6

Solution:

Six equal uniform rods each of length "l" and weight "w" are freely joined to

form a tetrahedron which is placed with one face on a smooth horizontal table. Let

be the angle with vertical of each rod.

Height of C.G of rods AD, AB and AC =

l

Cos

2

3

lSin

2

DH DGCos 30

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et

te

s

tp

://

w

.h

on

ey

no

3w Cos 3T 3lSin 0

2

l

3w Sin 3T 3lCos 0

2

w

T

tan

2 3

ht

As length of rod = l =

So, T

3lSin

w 1

w

2 3 2

2 6

11

Virtual Work

P a g e | 12

Que stion# 07

Four equal un ifo rm rods, e ach of weight w, are

connected at one end of eac h by mean s o f a s mo oth joint, and the

othe r ends rest on a smooth table a nd are connected by e qual s trings .

A weight W is s uspended fro m the joint. Sh ow that the tens ion in each

a

W 2w

?

4 4l 2 2a 2

string is

te

s

.n

et

Solution:

Four equal un ifo rm rods OA, OB, OC, and OD each of length

"l" an d weight "W " are free ly jointed at O. The othe r extremitie s a re

placed on a s mo oth table. Shape is kept by joining e ach of the

extremitie s b y four equal le ngth string (each o f length a). A weight W

hangs at O. Le t be the an gle of ea ch rod with the vertical.

l

2

no

ey

on

1

lSin

2

.h

ht

tp

://

w

2

2w W Sin = 2w W tan

T

4 2Cos

4 2

12

Virtual Work

P a g e | 13

As length o f string = a =

2l 2 a 2

a 2w W

a 2w W

a

2

2

2

2

4 2

2l a 4 4l 2a

no

te

s

.n

et

Four uniform rods are fre ely jointed at their extremities

and form a paralle lo gram ABCD, which is su spen ded fro m th e join t A,

and is kep t in shape b y a n inextens ible s tring AC. Pro ve that the

tens ion of the string is equal to half the whole weight.

Solution:

Four uniform rods are fre ely jointed to fo rm a parallelogram

wh ich is s uspended at A. Shape is kept joining A a nd C by a string let

l1 and w1 be th e length and weigh t respective ly of ro d AD a nd BC. Le t

ey

on

angle o f rods AB a nd CD with the verti cal.

.h

l1

Cos 1

2

l

De pth o f C.G o f rod AB = 2 Cos 2

2

://

w

De pth of C.G of ro d AD =

l

2

l

De pth of C.G of ro d CD = l1Cos 1 2 Cos 2

2

Length of s tring = l1Cos 1 l2Cos 2

ht

tp

13

Virtual Work

P a g e |14

l

l

l

1 2 Cos2 T lCos

1 l2Cos2 0

1

1

2

2

2

1

2w1 2 w2 , which is half o f wh ole weight.

2

no

T l1Sin 1 1 w1 w2 T l2 Sin 2 2 0

te

s

.n

et

w w

.h

on

ey

A s tring, of length a, form the sho rte r diagonal o f a

rhombus formed by fou r u niform rods , each of length b and weight W ,

wh ich are h inge d together. If one of th e rod be supported in a

2W 2b2 a 2

b 4b 2 a 2

ht

tp

://

w

Solution:

Four equal un ifo rm rods of length "b " and weigh t "w" are

fre ely jointed to fo rm a rh ombus which is s uspended with rod AB

fix ed in horizontal po sition. A s tring o f le ngth "a " for sho rter

diagonal of rhombus.

Depth of C.G o f rod AD and BC =

b

Sin

2

14

Virtual Work

P a g e |15

te

s

.n

et

2w Sin w bSin T 2bSin 0

2

.h

on

ey

no

1

b

2w Cos w bCos T 2bCos 0

2

22

2wCos

T

Cos

2

a

AS len gth of string =a = 2bSin and Sin

2 2b

2

4 4b2 a 2

tp

://

w

Therefore, T

2w 2b 2 a 2

ht

A u niform rod of le ngth 2a re st in eq uilibrium against a

smooth ve rtical wa ll and upo n a smoo th peg at a dista nce b fro m the

wa ll. Show that in the pos ition of equ ilibrium, the beam is in clined to

1

b 3

the wall at an angle Sin ?

a

1

Solution:

A u niform rod of le ngth "2 a" res t in equilibrium with one end

on a smoo th vertical wall and supported at "p " by a peg at a distance

"b " from the wa ll. Let be the angle o f rod with the wall.

15

Virtual Work

P a g e |16

b

Sin , and AP bCsc

AP

PG AG AP a bCo sec

no

te

s

.n

et

ey

1

.h

on

b 3

Sin 1

a

tp

://

w

Two equal p articles are c onnec ted by t wo given

we ightle ss strings, which are place d like a nec kla ce on a smoo th cone

wh ose axis is vertical an d whose vertex is up permos t. Sho w th at the

ht

Solution:

Two equal p articles ea ch o f we igh t "w" are connected by two

strings which are placed on a smooth vertical cone of s emi-vertical

angle" " like a ne cklace. Le t "x" be th e radius of circle formed by

the plane of string in equilibrium po sition and "y" be the dep th of

plane fro m vertex O'.

From figures

x

tan x ytan

y

16

Virtual Work

P a g e |17

The total weight o f both the particles is "2w". Let "T" be th e tens ion

in the s tring. Consider the virtual displace ment such that x chan ges to

x x .

.n

et

2w y T 2 x 0 2w y 2 T x 0

te

s

x

tan , therefore

y

on

w

x

0 2w 2 T tan So T= Cot

.h

2w 2 T

ey

no

As given th at

Question# 12:

://

w

ht

tp

weight w, freely jointe d together is suspended from one corner. Show that the

thrust in each horizontal rod is

3

2w ?

2

Solutio n:

Twelve equal u niform rods ea ch of length "" and

weigh t "w" are freely jointed to form a octahedron which is suspen ded

at O. Let " " be the angle of each ro d with vertical.

Depth o f C.G o f rod OA, OB, OC, an d OD =

Cos

3

Cos

2

17

Virtual Work

P a g e |18

Depth of C.G of rods AB, BC, CD, DA = Cos and from fig,

DG Sin , DH DGCos 45

Sin

2

te

s

.n

et

ey

no

2

2 Sin 0

3 2

w

2

.h

on

tp

://

w

Question# 13:

A rhombus ABCD o f s mo othly jointe d rods, rests on a

smooth table with th e rod BC fixed in position . The middle p oints of

AD, DC are connected by a s tring which is kept taut by a couple G

applied to the rod AB. Pro ve that the tension o f string is

ht

2G

1

Cos ABC

AB

2

Solutio n:

A rhombus ABCD is p laced on a s moo th horizon tal table. Rod

BC is fixe d in position. Middle points of AD a nd CD are join ed b y

strin g. A couple G is applie d o n the rod AB to keep the s tring tight.

Then fro m figure, EG

2

2

2

18

Virtual Work

P a g e |19

ht

tp

://

w

.h

on

ey

no

te

s

.n

et

G T Sin 0

2

G T Cos 0

22

2G

T

Cos

2

2G

T

1

ABCos ABC

2

19

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