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# CH-3

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MECHANIC

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MECHANIC
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VIRTUAL WORK

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MATHEMATICS
B.SC

BY:

ZEESHAN SHOUKAT
International Islamic University

Virtual Work

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## MECHANIC (B.SC MATHEMATICS)

"VIRTUAL WORK"
Particle

chapter :

Thrust constraint

Thrust negative

Rigid

Positive

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## If a particle is moving down on an inclined plane, then constraint on its motion is

its contact with plane. Any displacement along the plane is consistent with the
constraint. If the force does no virtual work then the constraint is called
workless.
For Single Particle:
A particle subjected to workless constraint is in equilibrium iff
zero virtual work done by the applied force in any arbitrary infinitesimal
displacement consistent with the constraint.
Proof:
Let the total force acting on the particle be F, As the particle is in
equilibrium so F = 0. Let Fa and Fc be the applied and constraint forces acting on
the particle then,a F +Fc =0. Let r be any arbitrary infinitesimal displacement
consistent with the constraint then Fa Fc . r 0 . As constraint are workless so

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## For set of particle:

A set of particles subjected to a workless constraint, is in
equilibrium iff zero virtual work is done by applied force in any arbitrary
infinitesimal displacement consistent with the constraints.
Proof:
Let m1 , m2 , m3 ..............mn be the particles. Let total force acting on mi be the
Fia & Fic . As the particle are in equilibrium so Fia + Fic 0 , i= 1, 2, 3............. Let ri

be any arbitrary infinitesimal displacement of mi , then total work done by all forces
n

i 1

i 1

i 1

i 1

## For rigid Body:

A set of rigid body subjected to a workless constraint is in
equilibrium iff zero virtual work is done by applied forces and applied torque in
any arbitrary infinitesimal displacement consistent with the constraint.
IIUI | By Kaleem Arif 1

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Virtual Work
Proof:

## As any system of forces acting on rigid body can be reduced to a single

force and single couple. Let "R" be the single force and "G" be the moment of
single couple. As body is in equilibrium so R= 0, and G=0 further Ra Rc 0 and
Ga Gc 0 where R a and R c are the total applied and constraint forces. Similarly G a
and G c be the total applied torques and torque of constraints. Let r & be any
arbitrary infinitesimal linear and angular displacement consistent with the
constraints.
Ra Rc . r 0 And Ga Gc . 0

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Example#01:
A Particle of mass 20lb is suspended by a force of magnitude x lbs,
which make an angle of 30 with the inclined plane of inclination 60 . Find "x" and
also the reaction of the plane on the particle?

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Solution:
Let r be the infinitesimal displacement along the plane. As the system is
in equilibrium. By applying principle of virtual work, we have

xCos 30 r 20Sin 60 r 0

tp

3
3
20
x 20 lbs
2
2

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## Again consider s be the displacement along line perpendicular to the plane.

As system is in equilibrium so by applying the p. v.w we have,

R 20Cos 60 xSin 30

So,

Where x = 20 lbs
R = 20 lb

## IIUI | By Kaleem Arif 2

Virtual Work

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Example #02:
A light thin rod, 12 ft long, can turn in a vertical plane about one of its points
which is attached to a pivot. If weights of 3 lbs and 4 lbs are suspended from its ends,
it rests in a horizontal position. Find the position of the pivot and its reaction on the
rod.
Solution:
Let "x" be the distance of pivot from end A. Let " " be infinitesimal angular

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## displacement of the rod. As the rod is in equilibrium. So by applying p. v.w,

We have 3 x 4 12 x 0

6
ft
7
Let " r " be the infinitesimal displacement along the direction of reaction. As system
is in equilibrium so by applying p. v.w,
R. r 3 r 4 r 0, R=7 lbs

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3 x 48 4 x 0 , x 6

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Example #03:
Four equal uniform rods are smoothly jointed to form a rhombus ABCD,
which is placed in a vertical plane with AC vertical and A resting on a horizontal
plane. The rhombus is kept in shape, with the measure of angle BAC equal to , by a
light string joining B and D. Find the tension in the string.
Solution:
Four equal uniform rods each of length l and weight w are freely jointed to
form rhombus with A fixed in horizontal. Angle BAC = . Shape of rhombus is kept
joining B and D by a string.
( )
Height of C.G of rod AB and AD =
Height of C.G of rod BC and CD =

( )

( )
Length of String BD = 2
Applying principle of Virtual Work,

Virtual Work

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2
2

3
2

( ) 2

( )

3
2

( )
( )

=2

( ) =0

( )

=0

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( )

(1 +

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## when in the form of a circle of radius

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Example# 04:
A heavy elastic string whose natural length is 2 , is placed round a
smooth cone whose axis is vertical and whose semi-vertical angle has measure . If
W be the weight and l the modulus of string, prove that it will be in equilibrium
l

( ))?

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Solution:
A heavy elastic string of natural length 2
is placed on a smooth cone,
whose axis is vertical and semi-vertical angle is . And l is the modulus of string.
Let "x" be the radius of string when placed on the cone then

ht

tp

= l(

2
(2 ) = 0,
l
Or,

+
= (1 +

l
( )

=0

( )=

## IIUI | By Kaleem Arif

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Virtual Work

Example# 05:
Six equal rods AB, BC, CD, DE, EF and FA are each of weight W and
are freely jointed at their extremities so as to form a hexagon. The rod AB is fixed in
a horizontal position and the middle points of AB and DE are jointed by a string.
Prove that its tension is 3W?
Solution:
Six equal uniform rods of length l and weights W are freely jointed to
form a hexagonal. Rod AB is fixed in horizontal position. Mid points of AB and DE
are joined by a string.
Depth of C.G of AF and BC =

( )

## Depth of C.G of CD and EF =

( )

3
2

( ) +2

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Depth of C.G of DE = 2
( )
Length of string = 2
( )
By applying principle of virtual work

( )

+2

3
2

( ) +
( )

=2

(2
2

( )
( )

( ) =0
( )

=0

=2

Example# 06:
A weightless tripod, consisting of three legs of equal length l, smoothly
jointed at the vertex, stands on a smooth horizontal plane. A weight W hangs from the
apex. The tripod is prevented from collapsing by three inextensible strings, each of
length l/2, joining the mid-points of legs. Show that tension in each string is

Solution:
IIUI | By Kaleem Arif

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Virtual Work

Three equal uniform rods of length l are freely jointed to form a tripod which is
placed on smooth plane. Mid points of rods are jointed by three inextensible strings
each of length l/2. A weight W hangs from the apex.
( )
Height of pt of application of W =
( ),

## Height of the rod DG =

Height of rod DE =

( )=

Height of rod DH =
=

=2

( )

( )

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## By applying principle of virtual work,

on

3
2

( ) 3

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( )

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As length of string is = =
So,

33
2
2

33

( )

=0

tan ( )

( ) =0

( )

, tan=

## IIUI | By Kaleem Arif

Virtual Work

Page | 7
Exercise # 6

Question # 01:
A uniform ladder rests with its upper end against a smooth vertical wall and its foot
on rough horizontal ground. Show that the force of friction at the ground is

( ),

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where W is weight of the ladder and is its inclination with the vertical.
Solution:
A uniform rod of length "l" and weight "W" rests with end A on a rough
horizontal ground and end B on a smooth vertical wall. Inclination of the ladder with
the vertical is ,

## By applying principle of virtual work

( )

)=0

on

+ (

( )

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( )

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Question# 02
:
Four equal heavy uniform rods are freely jointed to form a rhombus
ABCD which is freely suspended from A, and kept in shape of a square by an
inextensible string connecting A and C. Show that tension in the string is 2W, where
W is the weight of one rod.
Solution:
Four equal uniform rods each of length "l" and weight "W" are freely jointed
to form a rhombus which is suspended at A. Shape is kept by joining A and C by an
inextensible string AC,

( )

## Depth of C.G of rods AB and AD =

Depth of C.G of rods BC and CD =

3
lCos
2

## Length of String = 2lCos

By applying principle of virtual work

Virtual Work

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2

## 2w Sin 2w lSin T 2lSin 0

2

T 2W

no

Question# 03:
Six equal uniform rods AB, BC, CD, DE, EF, FA, each of weight "W"

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are freely jointed to form a regular hexagon. The rod AB is fixed in a horizontal
position, and the shape of the hexagon is maintained by a light rod joining C and F.

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## Show that the thrust in the rod is 3W .

Solution:
Six equal uniform rods each of length "l" and weight "W" are freely jointed
to form a regular hexagon, with rod AB fixed in horizontal position. C and F are
joined by a light rod to maintain the shape.

l
Sin
2
3l
Sin
Height of C.G of the rod's CD and EF =
2
Height of C.G of the rod's DE = 2lSin , Length of rod CF = l 2lCos

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Virtual Work

2

2

1
T 3w
3w
3

## and EF. Show that the thrust in the light rod is 2 3w ?

Solution:

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Question# 04:
A hexagon ABCDEF, consisting of six equal heavy rods, of weight w,
freely jointed together, hangs in a vertical plane with AB horizontal, and the frame is
kept in the form of a regular hexagon by a light rod connecting the mid-points of CD

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l
Sin
2
3
Depth of C.G of rod's CD and EF = lSin
2
Depth of C.G of rod's DE = 2lSin , length of rod GH = l lCos
Depth of C.G of rod's BC and AF =

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2

2

1
T 6w
2 3w
3

## IIUI | By Kaleem Arif

Virtual Work

P a g e | 10

Question# 05:
Three equal rods, each of weight "w" are freely jointed together at one
extremity of each to form a tripod, and rest with their other extremities on a smooth
horizontal plane, each rod inclined at an angle of measure to the vertical,
equilibrium being maintained by three equal light strings each joining two of these
extremities. Prove that the tension in each string is w

tan
2 3

l
Cos
2

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## Height of C.G of rods OA, OB, OC =

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Solution:
Three equal uniform rods each of length "l" and weight "W" are freely jointed
at one end to form a tripod. The other extremities are placed on a horizontal plane.
Angle of each rod with the vertical is . Extremities are joined by three equal length
strings.

no

3
lSin
2

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## By applying principle of virtual work

3w Cos 3T 3lSin 0

2
w
tan
T
2 3

## IIUI | By Kaleem Arif

10

Virtual Work

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Question# 06:
Six equal uniform rods freely joined at their extremities form a
tetrahedron. If this tetrahedron is placed with one face on a smooth horizontal table,
prove that the thrust along a horizontal rod is

w
, where w is the weight of a rod.
2 6

Solution:
Six equal uniform rods each of length "l" and weight "w" are freely joined to
form a tetrahedron which is placed with one face on a smooth horizontal table. Let
be the angle with vertical of each rod.
Height of C.G of rods AD, AB and AC =

l
Cos
2
3
lSin
2

DH DGCos 30

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## By applying principle of virtual work

3w Cos 3T 3lSin 0

2
l

3w Sin 3T 3lCos 0
2

w
T
tan
2 3

ht

As length of rod = l =
So, T

3lSin

w 1
w

2 3 2
2 6

## IIUI | By Kaleem Arif

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Virtual Work

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Que stion# 07
Four equal un ifo rm rods, e ach of weight w, are
connected at one end of eac h by mean s o f a s mo oth joint, and the
othe r ends rest on a smooth table a nd are connected by e qual s trings .
A weight W is s uspended fro m the joint. Sh ow that the tens ion in each

a
W 2w
?

4 4l 2 2a 2

string is

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Solution:
Four equal un ifo rm rods OA, OB, OC, and OD each of length
"l" an d weight "W " are free ly jointed at O. The othe r extremitie s a re
placed on a s mo oth table. Shape is kept by joining e ach of the
extremitie s b y four equal le ngth string (each o f length a). A weight W
hangs at O. Le t be the an gle of ea ch rod with the vertical.

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1
lSin
2

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## 4w Cos W lCos 4T 2lSin 0

2
2w W Sin = 2w W tan
T

4 2Cos
4 2

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Virtual Work

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## 2lSin , therefore tan

As length o f string = a =

2l 2 a 2
a 2w W
a 2w W
a

2
2
2
2
4 2
2l a 4 4l 2a

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## Que stion# 08:

Four uniform rods are fre ely jointed at their extremities
and form a paralle lo gram ABCD, which is su spen ded fro m th e join t A,
and is kep t in shape b y a n inextens ible s tring AC. Pro ve that the
tens ion of the string is equal to half the whole weight.
Solution:
Four uniform rods are fre ely jointed to fo rm a parallelogram
wh ich is s uspended at A. Shape is kept joining A a nd C by a string let
l1 and w1 be th e length and weigh t respective ly of ro d AD a nd BC. Le t

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## Let 1 be th e angle of rod AD and BC with the ve rtical and 2 be the

angle o f rods AB a nd CD with the verti cal.

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l1
Cos 1
2
l
De pth o f C.G o f rod AB = 2 Cos 2
2

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De pth of C.G of ro d AD =

l
2
l
De pth of C.G of ro d CD = l1Cos 1 2 Cos 2
2
Length of s tring = l1Cos 1 l2Cos 2

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Virtual Work

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l
l
l

## w1 1 Cos1 w2 2 Cos2 w1l2Cos2 1 Cos1 w2lCos

1 2 Cos2 T lCos
1 l2Cos2 0
1
1
2
2
2

1
2w1 2 w2 , which is half o f wh ole weight.
2

no

T l1Sin 1 1 w1 w2 T l2 Sin 2 2 0

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## Que stion# 09:

A s tring, of length a, form the sho rte r diagonal o f a
rhombus formed by fou r u niform rods , each of length b and weight W ,
wh ich are h inge d together. If one of th e rod be supported in a

## horizontal pos ition , Prove that tension in th e s tring is

2W 2b2 a 2
b 4b 2 a 2

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Solution:
Four equal un ifo rm rods of length "b " and weigh t "w" are
fre ely jointed to fo rm a rh ombus which is s uspended with rod AB
fix ed in horizontal po sition. A s tring o f le ngth "a " for sho rter
diagonal of rhombus.
Depth of C.G o f rod AD and BC =

b
Sin
2

## IIUI |By Ka leem Ar if

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Virtual Work

P a g e |15

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2w Sin w bSin T 2bSin 0
2

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1
b
2w Cos w bCos T 2bCos 0
2

22

2wCos
T

Cos
2

a
AS len gth of string =a = 2bSin and Sin
2 2b
2
4 4b2 a 2

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Therefore, T

2w 2b 2 a 2

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## Que stion# 10:

A u niform rod of le ngth 2a re st in eq uilibrium against a
smooth ve rtical wa ll and upo n a smoo th peg at a dista nce b fro m the
wa ll. Show that in the pos ition of equ ilibrium, the beam is in clined to
1

b 3
the wall at an angle Sin ?
a
1

Solution:
A u niform rod of le ngth "2 a" res t in equilibrium with one end
on a smoo th vertical wall and supported at "p " by a peg at a distance
"b " from the wa ll. Let be the angle o f rod with the wall.

## IIUI |By Ka leem Ar if

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b
Sin , and AP bCsc
AP
PG AG AP a bCo sec

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b 3
Sin 1
a

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## Que stion# 11:

Two equal p articles are c onnec ted by t wo given
we ightle ss strings, which are place d like a nec kla ce on a smoo th cone
wh ose axis is vertical an d whose vertex is up permos t. Sho w th at the

ht

## and 2 th e mea sure of vertica l angle of cone.

Solution:
Two equal p articles ea ch o f we igh t "w" are connected by two
strings which are placed on a smooth vertical cone of s emi-vertical
angle" " like a ne cklace. Le t "x" be th e radius of circle formed by
the plane of string in equilibrium po sition and "y" be the dep th of
plane fro m vertex O'.
From figures

x
tan x ytan
y

## IIUI |By Ka leem Ar if

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Virtual Work

P a g e |17

The total weight o f both the particles is "2w". Let "T" be th e tens ion
in the s tring. Consider the virtual displace ment such that x chan ges to

x x .

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## By applyin g prin ciple of vir tu al work

2w y T 2 x 0 2w y 2 T x 0

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x
tan , therefore
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on

w
x
0 2w 2 T tan So T= Cot

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2w 2 T

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As given th at

Question# 12:

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## A regula r octahe dron formed of twelve equal rods, each of

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weight w, freely jointe d together is suspended from one corner. Show that the
thrust in each horizontal rod is

3
2w ?
2

Solutio n:
Twelve equal u niform rods ea ch of length "" and
weigh t "w" are freely jointed to form a octahedron which is suspen ded
at O. Let " " be the angle of each ro d with vertical.
Depth o f C.G o f rod OA, OB, OC, an d OD =

Cos
3
Cos
2

## IIUI | By ka leem Ari f

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Virtual Work

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Depth of C.G of rods AB, BC, CD, DA = Cos and from fig,

DG Sin , DH DGCos 45

Sin
2

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2

2 Sin 0

3 2
w
2

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## 12wSin 4 2TCos , Finally T=

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Question# 13:
A rhombus ABCD o f s mo othly jointe d rods, rests on a
smooth table with th e rod BC fixed in position . The middle p oints of
AD, DC are connected by a s tring which is kept taut by a couple G
applied to the rod AB. Pro ve that the tension o f string is

ht

2G
1

Cos ABC
AB
2

Solutio n:
A rhombus ABCD is p laced on a s moo th horizon tal table. Rod
BC is fixe d in position. Middle points of AD a nd CD are join ed b y
strin g. A couple G is applie d o n the rod AB to keep the s tring tight.
Then fro m figure, EG

2
2
2

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G T Sin 0
2

G T Cos 0
22

2G
T

Cos
2
2G
T
1
ABCos ABC
2

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