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Introduction To Mechanics (B.Sc) Engineering Mechanics

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M th

PROJECTILE MOTION

CHAPTER

ne

t

projectile

s.

An object thrown into space with certain velocity, fired from a gun or dropped from a moving

plane is called projectile.

.h

on

Trajectory of a Projectile

ey

n

ot

e

A projectile moves with a constant horizontal velocity and at the same time falls freely under

the action of gravity. The path of projectile is called trajectory.

Let a particle of mass m is projected from a point O with initial velocity v0 making an

angle with horizontal. Take O as origin and horizontal and vertical lines through O as

x-axis and y-axis respectively.

://

ht

tp

P(x, y)

v0

r

mg j

x-axis

Suppose that after time t the particle is at point P(x, y) whose position vector is r . i.e.

r = xi + yj

dy

dr dx

j

= i +

dt dt

dt

dx

dy

j

v = i +

dt

dt

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2

dv d2 x

d2 y

=

i + 2 j

dt dt2

dt

d2 x

d2 y

a = 2 i + 2 j

dt

dt

________(i)

F = mg j

________(ii)

F = ma

d2 x

d2 y

= m 2 i + 2 j

dt

dt

From (ii) & (iii), we get

d2 x

d2 y

m 2 i + 2 j mg j

dt

dt

s.

ot

e

ey

n

.h

on

d2 x

d2 y

i + 2 j 0.i g j

dt2

dt

2

d x

d2 y

0 and

g

dt2

dt2

On integrating with respect to t, we get

dx

dy

= A and

= gt + B

dt

dt

ne

t

________(iii)

_________(iv)

dy

= v0sin

dt

://

and

tp

dx

= v0cos

dt

Where A & B are constant of integration. To determine the value of these constant we apply

the initial conditions.

Initially at t = 0

ht

A = v0cos and B = v0sin

Using values of A & B in (iv), we get

dx

dy

= v0cos

= v0sin

and

gt

dt

dt

________(v)

Eq(v) gives the horizontal and vertical components of velocity at any time t.

On integrating (v), with respect to t, we get

1

x =

v0cost + C and y =

v0sint gt2 + D

________(vi)

2

Where C & D are constant of integration. To determine the value of these constant we apply

the initial conditions.

Initially at t = 0, x = 0 and y = 0

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3

C=D=0

Using value of C & D in (vi), we get

x =

v0cos

t

________(vii)

1

y =

v0sin

t gt2

________(viii)

2

Equations (vii) and (viii) are parametric equations of trajectory. Now we find Cartesian

equation of trajectory.

From (vii)

x

t=

v0cos

and

ne

t

y = xtan

gx2

sec2

2v0 2

s.

2

1

x

x

g

v0cos 2 v0cos

ot

e

y =

v0sin

ey

n

.h

on

ht

tp

://

gx2

y = xtan

sec2

2v0 2

gx2

sec2 = xtan y

2v0 2

2v0 2

2v0 2

2

x =

xtan y

gsec2

gsec2

xv0 2 sincos 2yv0 2 cos2

2

x =

g

g

2

2yv0 2 cos2

xv0 sincos

x2

g

g

v0 2 sincos

Adding

on both sides we get

g

2

2yv0 2 cos2

xv0 2 sincos

v0 2 sincos

v0 2 sincos

x

+

g

g

g

g

2

2v0 2 cos2

v0 2 sin2

v0 2 sincos

=

y

x

g

g

2g

Comparing with (x h)2 = 4a(y k), we get

2

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4

v0 2 sincos

2v0 2 cos2

v0 2 sin2

h

, 4a

, k

g

g

2g

Thus, Vertex =

h, k

v0 2 sincos v0 2 sin2

,

g

2g

Height (H) = k

2v0 2 cos2

g

v0 2 sin2

2g

Focus

v0 2 sincos

g

v0 2

sin2

2g

s.

ne

t

ey

n

ot

e

v0 2 2sincos

2g

.h

on

1

Y-coordinate of focus = H (Latus Rectum)

4

2g

4

g

://

v0 2 sin2 v0 2 cos2

2g

2g

v0 2

v0 2

cos2 cos2

cos2

2g

2g

ht

tp

Thus,

v0 2

v0 2

Focus = sin2,

cos2

2g

2g

Equation of Directrix

Height of directrix above the x-axis is:

1

y = H + (Latus Rectum)

4

v0 2 sin2 1 2v0 2 cos2

+

4

g

2g

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5

v0 2 sin2 v0 2 cos2

+

2g

2g

v0 2

sin2 + cos2

2g

v0 2

2g

Time of Flight

s.

ne

t

The time taken by the projectile in reaching the final point is called the time of flight of the

projectile. We know that parametric equation of trajectory of projectile are:

1

x =

v0cost and

y =

v0sint gt2

2

To find the time of flight put y = 0

ey

n

t0

.h

on

1

v0sin gt t = 0

2

1

v0sin gt = 0

2

2v0sin

t=

g

ot

e

v0sint gt2 = 0

2

2v0sin

g

T.F =

tp

://

Thus,

ht

Range of a Projectile

The range or horizontal range of the projectile is the horizontal distance covered by the

projectile during time of flight.

Range (R) = (Horizontal Velocity)(Time of Flight)

2v0sin

v2

0 sin2

g

g

v0cos

i.e.

sin2 = 1

2 = sin 1(1)

2 = 900

= 450

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6

Which shows that if projectile is projected with an angle of 450 then it covers the maximum

horizontal distance.

v0 2

Thus

Rmax =

g

Question 1

Determine the maximum possible range for a projectile fired from a cannon having muzzle

velocity v0 and prove that the height reached in this case is

v0 2

4g

ne

t

Solution

Solution

ey

n

2v0sin

v0 2

v0cos

sin2

g

g

ot

e

s.

We know that

.h

on

sin2 = 1 2 = sin 1(1)

2 = 900

= 450

i.e.

ht

tp

://

Which shows that if projectile is projected with an angle of 450 then it covers the maximum

horizontal distance.

v0 2

Thus Rmax =

g

v0 2 sin2

As

Height reached

2g

0

Put = 45

1 2

v0 2

2

2

v0 sin 45

v0 2

2

Height reached

2g

2g

4g

Question 2

What is the maximum range of possible for a projectile fired from a cannon having muzzle

velocity 1mile/sec. What is the height reached in this case.?

Solution

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7

We know that

Rage = (Horizontal Velocity)(Time of Fight)

2v0sin

v0 2

v0cos

sin2

g

g

R will be maximum when sin2 is maximum.

i.e.

sin2 = 1

2 = sin 1(1)

2 = 900

= 450

v0 2

Rmax =

So

g

Given that

v0 = 1 mile/sec = 1760 yard/sec = 1760 3 ft/sec = 5280ft/sec

52802

Thus Rmax =

32

871200

871200 feet

mile 165 mile

5280

v0 2 sin2

As

Height reached

2g

0

Put = 45

v0 2 sin2 45

Height reached

2g

1 2

v0 2

v0 2

2

2g

4g

://

.h

on

ey

n

ot

e

s.

ne

t

ht

tp

52802

4(32)

217800 feet

217800

mile 41.25 mile

5280

Question 3

A cannon has its maximum range R. Prove that

(a)

(b)

Solution

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8

We know that

Rage = (Horizontal Velocity)(Time of Fight)

2v0sin

v0 2

v0cos

sin2

g

g

R will be maximum when sin2 is maximum.

Time of Flight

ne

t

w

://

Question 4

2Rgsin45 2Rg

2R

=

=

g

g

g2

2v0sin

g

= 450

s.

v0 2 sin2

2g

1 2

R

Rg sin2 45

2 R

2

2g

4

We know that

ot

e

Height reached

2 = 900

ey

n

As

2 = sin 1(1)

.h

on

sin2 = 1

v0 2

Rmax =

So

g

Given that

Rmax = R

v0 2

R=

g

2

v0 = Rg

i.e.

ht

tp

A projectile having horizontal range T, reaches a maximum height H. Prove that it must

have been launched with

(a) an initial speed equal to

gR2 +16H2

8H

sin1

4H

R2 +16H2

Solution

We know that

R = Rage = (Horizontal Velocity)(Time of Fight)

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9

v0 2

v0 2 sin2

R +16H = sin2 + 16

g

2g

v0 4 sin4

v0 4

2

2

= 2 4sin cos + 4

g2

g

4v0 4

= 2 sin2 cos2 + sin2

g

4v0 4 sin2

=

g2

R2 +16H2 4v0 4 sin2

g

=

8H

g2

4v0 2 sin2

2

v0 2

g

2

gR +16H2

2

v0 =

8H

gR2 +16H2

v0 =

8H

R2 +16H2 =

tp

://

2v0 2 sin

g

2

4H

2v0 sin2

g

=

2

g

2v0 sin

R2 +16H2

4H

4H

sin

sin1

R2 +16H2

R2 +16H2

ht

From (i)

.h

on

ey

n

________(i)

ot

e

ne

t

Now

s.

and

2v0sin

v0 2

v0cos

sin2

g

g

v0 2 sin2

H = Height reached

2g

Question 5

Find the range of a rifle bullet when is the elevation of projection and v0 the speed. Show

that, if the rifle is fired with the same elevation and the speed from a car travelling with

speed V towards the target, and the range will be increased by

2v0Vsin

Solution

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10

We know that

Rage = (Horizontal Velocity)(Time of Fight)

R

v0cos

2v0sin

v0 2

sin2

g

g

When shell is fired from a car moving with velocity V towards the target then the horizontal

velocity increased by V.

i.e.

R = (New Horizontal Velocity)(Time of Fight)

2v0sin

v0cos + V

g

s.

2v0Vsin

g

v0 2

2v0Vsin v0 2

sin2 +

Vsin2

g

g

g

ey

n

ot

e

Increased in Range = R R

.h

on

Now

ne

t

2v0Vsin

v0 2

sin2 +

g

g

Question 6

Solution

ht

tp

://

The range of a rifle bullet is 1200yards when is the elevation of projection. Show that, if

the rifle is fired with the same elevation and the speed from a car travelling at 10 miles per

hour towards the target the range will be increased by 220tan

feet.

Given that

R = 1200yards = 1200 3 = 3600ft.

and

V = 10 mile /h

=

10 1760 3

3600

44

ft/sec

3

We know that

Rage = (Horizontal Velocity)(Time of Fight)

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11

R

v0cos

v0 2

2v0sin

v0 2

sin2

g

g

Rg

sin2

Rg

Rg

v0

2sincos

sin2

When shell is fired from a car moving with velocity V towards the target then the horizontal

velocity increased by V.

i.e. Horizontal velocity = v0cos + V

Let R be new range. Then

ne

t

ey

n

ot

e

2v0Vsin

v0 2

sin2 +

g

g

Now

2Vsin

Rg

g

2sincos

tp

2v0Vsin

g

v0 2

2v0Vsin v0 2

sin2 +

Vsin2

g

g

g

://

.h

on

Increased in Range = R R

s.

2v0sin

v0cos + V

g

ht

2R

V tan

g

44 2 3600

tan

3

32

44

3

60

tan

4

220tan

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12

Question 7

A battleship is steaming ahead with sped V and a gun is mounted on the battleship so as

the point straight backwards, and is set at an angle of elevation . If v0 is the speed of

projection (relative to the gun), show that the range is

2v0

sin

v0 cos

V

g

Also prove that the angle of elevation for maximum range is

cos

1

4v0

$

#

ne

t

Solution

"

V +V2 + 8v0 2

ot

e

ey

n

i.e.

s.

When shell is fired from a battleship moving ahead with velocity V towards the target which

is behind the battleship then the horizontal velocity decreased by V.

2v0sin

g

.h

on

v0cos V

2v0sin

v0cos V

g

Differentiating w.r.t , we get

dR 2v0

%cos

v0cos V & sin

v0sin '

g

d

tp

2v0

(v0cos2 Vcos v0sin2 )

g

ht

://

2v0

(v0cos2 sin2 Vcos)

g

2v0

*v0 cos2

1 cos2
Vcos+

g

2v0

%2v0cos2 Vcos v0'

g

2v0

%v0

2cos2 1 Vcos'

g

d2 R 2v0

%4v0cossin + Vsin'

g

d2

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13

Putting

2v0

sin%V 4v0cos'

g

dR

= 0, we get

d

2v0

%2v0cos2 Vcos v0' 0

g

2v0cos2 Vcos v0 0

cos =

At

V V2 + 8v02

4v0

cos =

V + V2 + 8v02

4v0

d2 R

V + V2 + 8v02

So

< 0 at cos =

4v0

d2

s.

ot

e

2v0

sin *V2 + 8v02 +

g

ey

n

ne

t

V + V2 + 8v02

d2 R 2v0

sin -V 4v0

.

g

d2

4v0

.h

on

V + V2 + 8v02

Which shows that R is maximum at cos =

.

4v0

Thus the angle of elevation for maximum range is given by

://

V + V2 + 8v02

1

0

4v0

tp

cos

1

ht

Question 8

A shell bursts on contact with the ground and pieces from it fly in all directions with all

speeds up to 80feet per seconds. Prove that a man 100 feet away is in danger for 5

2

seconds.

Solution

We know that

Rage = (Horizontal Velocity)(Time of Fight)

2v0sin

v0cos

g

v0 2

sin2

g

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14

Given that

R = 100ft, v0 = 80ft/sec and g = 32ft/sec2

So

802

100 =

sin2

32

100 =

sin2 =

6400

sin2

32

1

1

2 = sin1 2 = 30, 150 = 15, 75

2

2

For the range of 100ft. there are two angles of projection. Let T1 and T2 be the times of the

flights respectively. Then

ne

t

2v0sin15

2v0sin75

and T2 =

g

g

s.

T1 =

T2

750

T1

150

100ft.

ht

tp

://

.h

on

ey

n

2v0sin75 2v0sin15

g

g

2v0

sin75 sin15

=

g

75 + 15

75 15

2v0

=

2cos

sin

g

2

2

2v0

2cos45sin30

=

g

5

4(80) 1 1

=

sec

=

32 2 2

2

=

ot

e

T = T2 T1

Question 9

A number of particles are projected from the same point at the same instant in various

directions with speed v0. Prove that at any subsequent time t, they will be on a sphere of

radius v0t and determine the motion of the centre of the sphere.

Solution

Let a particle moving with velocity v0 makes an angle . Let after time t a particle is at a

point P(x, y, z). Then

x = (v0cos)t

y = (v0sin) t

1 2

1

gt y + gt2 = (v0sin) t

2

2

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15

z=0

Squaring and adding we get

1 2 2 2

x + y + gt + z =

(v0cos)t2 +

(v0sin)t2

2

2

= v0 2 t2 cos2 + sin2

=

v0 t2

Which is a sphere of a radius v0t centered at 0, 2 gt2, 0
. Since the centre lies on the

1

vertical axis and as t increases centre descends under gravity along vertical axes.

ne

t

Question 10

ey

n

ot

e

g a2 + h2 h

s.

Prove that the speed required to project a particle from a height h to fall a horizontal

distance a from the point of projection is at least

.h

on

Solution

v0

://

ht

tp

P(a, h)

Let O be the point of the projection from where the projectile is projected. Let v0 be the

velocity making angle with horizontal. Let h be the height of the point of the projection O

and projectile fall a distance a from O. Let it falls at a point P, therefore the coordinates of P

are (a, h).

We know that the Cartesian equation of the trajectory of a projectile is:

gx2

y = xtan

sec2

2v0 2

ga2

sec2

h = atan

2v0 2

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16

Since it is coodratic in tan and tan is real therefore discriminate is greater than zero.

i.e.

b2 4ac 0

4

v0 4 + 2ghv0 2 g2 a2

v0 2 + gh3 g2 a2 & h2

v0 4 g2 a2 2ghv0 2

v0 4 + 2ghv0 2 +

gh2 g2 a2 +

gh2

v0 2 ga2 & h2 gh

ne

t

2av0 2 3 4

ga2

ga2 2v0 2 h

v0 g a2 & h2 h

s.

2av0 2 3 4

ga2

ga2 2v0 2 h 0

ot

e

ey

n

.h

on

v0 = g a2 & h2 h

Question 11

tp

://

A projectile is launched at an angle from a cliff of height H above the see level. if it falls

into the sea at a distance D from the base of the cliff, prove that the maximum height above

sea level is

D2 tan2

4

H + Dtan

ht

H+

Solution

v0

D

H

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17

Let O be the point of the projection from where the projectile is projected. Let v0 be the

velocity making angle with horizontal. Let H be the height of the point of the projection O

and projectile fall a distance D from O. Let it falls at a point P, therefore the coordinates of P

are (D, H).

Let h be the height above the x-axis then

v0 2 sin2

2g

We know that the Cartesian equation of the trajectory of a projectile is:

h=

y = xtan

________(i)

gx2

sec2

2v0 2

v0

s.

ot

e

gD2

Dtan + H =

sec2

2v0 2

gD2

=

2

H + Dtancos2

D2 tan2

=

4

H + Dtan

.h

on

sin2

gD2

h=

2

H + Dtancos2 2g

ey

n

gD2

sec2

2v0 2

ne

t

H = Dtan

://

ht

tp

D2 tan2

H+

4

H + Dtan

Question 12

A ball is dropped from the top of a tower of height h. At the same moment, another ball is

thrown from a point of the ground at a distance k from the foot of tower so as to strike the

first ball at the depth d. Show that the initial speed and the direction of projection of the

speed ball are respectively

g h 2 k 2

h

and tan 1

2d

k

Solution

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18

I

P

hd

v0

II O

ne

t

Let the first ball is dropped from the height h and it strikes the second ball at the depth d at a

point P whose coordinates are (k, h d).

1 2

gt

2

ot

e

x = ut +

s.

We know that

ey

n

1 2

gt

2

For 2nd ball parametric equations are

x = (v0cos)t

y = (v0sin)t

________(i)

.h

on

and

d=

So

://

tp

k = (v0cos)t

h d = (v0sin)t

ht

and

1 2

gt

2

Since P(k, h d) lies on it therefore

______(ii)

1 2

gt

2

______(iii)

h = (v0sin)t

______(iv)

h2 + k2 =

(v0sin)t2 +

(v0cos)t2

= v02 t

sin2 + cos2 = v02 t2

2

= v0 2

v0

2d

g

gh2 + k2

2d

By(i)

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gh2 + k2

2d

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19

tan =

h

k

h

= tan1

k

Question 13

From a gun placed on a horizontal plane, which can fire a shell with speed 2gH, it is

required to thro a shell over a wall of height h, and the elevation of the gun cannot exceed

< 450. Show that this will be possible only when h < Hsin2, and that, if this condition

be satisfied, the gun must be fired from within a strip of the plane whose breadth is

4cos

H

Hsin2 h

Solution

ey

n

ot

e

s.

ne

t

.h

on

v0

://

O

Let AC be a wall of height h and particle be projected at O with speed v0 making an angle .

ht

tp

Now for a shell to cross the wall, the height of the wall is less than the height of vertex.

v0 2 sin2

2g

i.e.

h <

2gHsin2

h <

2g

h < Hsin2

v0 = 2gH

Which is required.

We know that the Cartesian equation of the trajectory of a projectile is:

y = xtan

gx2

sec2

2v0 2

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20

x2

h = xtan

sec2

4H

x2 4xHtancos2 + 4hHcos2 0

x2 4xHsincos + 4hHcos2 0

x=

1(4hHcos2 )

2

=

2

Thus

s.

ot

e

ey

n

ne

t

=

2

.h

on

ht

tp

://

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21

Question 14

A shell fired with speed V at an elevation , hits an airship at height H,, which is moving

horizontally away from the gun with speed v0. Show that, if

2Vcos

v0 V2 sin2 2gH = v0 Vsin

The shell might also have hit the air ship if the latter had remained stationary in the position it

occupied when the gun was actually fired.

Solution

ot

e

s.

ne

t

.h

on

ey

n

We know that

://

Let A be the position of airship when shot was fired and it hit plane at B. If t is the time taken

1 2

gt

2

H = (Vsin)t

1 2

gt

2

ht

tp

y = (v0sin)t

2H = (Vsin)t gt2

t=

2g

g

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22

Let t1 and t2 be the time taken by the shell to reach the point A and B respectively. Then

t1 =

and t2 =

g

T = t2 t1

g

g

|AB| = Distance covered by shell

ne

t

Now

= (Horizontal Velocity)(Time)

s.

ot

e

______(i)

.h

on

Now

ey

n

Vcos

= (Velocity)(Time) = v0t2

tp

ht

g

______(ii)

://

g

v0 Vsin =

2Vcos v0 V2 sin2 2Hg

Which is required.

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23

Question 15

An aeroplane is flying with constant speed v0 and at constant height h. Show that if, a gun

is fired point blank at the aeroplane after it has passed directly over the gun when its angle

of elevation as seen from the gun is , the shell will hit the aero plane provided that

2

Vcos

v0 v0 tan2 = gh

Where V is the initial speed of the shot, the path being assumed parabolic.

Solution

B

ne

t

s.

ey

n

ot

e

Let A be the position of plane when shot was fired and it hit plane at B. Let v0 be the speed of

plane.

From fig.

Horizontal coordinate of B = OD

( S = vt)

.h

on

AB = v0t

= OC + CD

://

= OC + AB

AB = v0t

_____(i)

ht

In AOC

tp

= OC + v0t

AB = CD

AC

= tan

OC

h

h

= tan OC

OC hcot

OC

tan

Thus coordinates of B are (hcot + v0t, h)

The parametric equations are:

x = (v0cos)t

y = (v0sin)t

1 2

gt

2

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24

Here v0 = V therefore

x = (Vcos)t

______(ii)

y = (Vsin)t

1 2

gt

2

______(iii)

Using x = hcot + v0t in (ii), we get

hcot + v0t = (Vcos)t

t=

hcot

Vcos v0

ne

t

= (Vsin) Vcos v

hcot

g Vcos

2

1

v0

hcot

ot

e

s.

1 2

gt

2

ey

n

h = (Vsin)t

ghcot2 = 2

Vcos

Vcos v0 2

Vcos v02

://

2

Vcos v02 = 2

Vcos

Vcos v0 hgcot2

ghcot2 = 2

Vcos v0

Vcos Vcos + v0

tp

2

Vcos

h

cot

g

1 =

Vcos v0

2 Vcos v0

ht

.h

on

2

Vhcos

1

hcot

=

g

Vcos v0

2 Vcos v0

gh = 2v0

Vcos v0tan2

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25

Parabola of Safety

A parabola which touches the every trajectory of a projectile which is formed inward for

different value of angle of projection with same initial velocity v0 is called parabola of safety.

y

ey

n

ot

e

s.

ne

t

Parabola of safety

ht

tp

://

.h

on

gx2

sec2

y = xtan

2v0 2

gx2

1 + tan2

y = xtan

2v0 2

gx2

gx2

tan2

y = xtan

2v0 2 2v0 2

gx2

gx2

2

tan xtan + 2 + y = 0

2v0 2

2v0

This equation is quadratic in tan. For envelope put discriminate of equation equal to zero.

i.e.

b2 4ac = 0

gx2

gx2

x2 4 2 2 + y = 0

2v0

2v0

g

gx2 + 2v0 2 y

1 2 2

=0

v0

2v0 2

gx2 + 2v0 2 y

=1

g

v0 4

v0 4

2

2

gx + 2v0 y =

g

v0 4

gx2 = 2v0 2 y +

g

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26

2v0 2 y 2v0 4

x =

+

g

2g2

2v0 2

v0 2

2

x =

y

2g

g

Which is the equation of parabola of safety.

2

Question 16

2ga of which the vertical component is V. Show that at time t = 2a/V the particle is on a

fixed parabola (parabola of safety), that its path touches the parabola, and that its direction of

motion is then perpendicular to its direction of projection.

A particle is projected at time t = 0 in a fixed vertical plane from a given point O with speed

ne

t

Solution

v0 2

2v0 2

y

x =

g

2g

2

2ga

22ga

x =

7y

8

g

2g

= 4a

y a

.h

on

ey

n

ot

e

s.

_______(i)

______(ii)

______(iii)

tp

x = (v0cos)t

ht

://

y = (v0sin)t

At t =

2a

ii becomes

V

x = (v0cos)

= (v0cos)

1 2

gt

2

2a

V

2a

v0sin

x = 2acot

At t =

______(iv)

2a

iii becomes

V

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27

2a

1 2a 2

y = (v0sin)

g

V

2 V

= (v0sin)

2a

1

2a 2

g

v0sin

2 v0sin

1

2a

= 2a g

2 2ga sin

= 2a a cosec 2

______(v)

Putting (iv) and (v) in (i), we get

ne

t

s.

a2 cot2 = a2

cosec 2 1

a2 cot2 = a2 cot2

ot

e

4a2 cot2 = 4a

a acosec 2

L.H.S = R.H.S

ey

n

2acot2 = 4a

2a a cosec 2 a

.h

on

Thus P(x, y) lies on the parabola of safety. So at t = 2a/V this trajectory touches the parabola

of safety.

Differentiate (ii) & (iii) w.r.t t, we get

At t =

://

v0 sin gt

v0 cos

ht

dy dy dx

= :

dx dt dt

tp

Now

dy

dx

= v0 cos and

= v0 sin gt

dt

dt

2a

V

2a

dy v0 sin g V

=

dx

v0 cos

=

=

Vv0 cos

v0 sinv0 cos

V = v0 sin

2gasin2gasin 2ag

2gasin2gacos

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v0 = 2ga

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28

2agsin2 2ag

2agsincos

=

1 sin2

sincos

cos2

=

sincos

= cot

Since

dy

= tan

dx

ne

t

s.

= 900 +

ot

e

ey

n

.h

on

tp

://

ht

So

Let a plane be inclined at an angle to the horizontal. Let a particle is projected from point O

with velocity v0 by making an angle to the horizontal with < . Let the projectile meet

the inclined plane at a point P(x, y). Then OP = r is called the range of projectile on inclined

plane.

Then x = rcos and y = rsin

P(x, y)

r

v0

rsin

rcos

gx2

sec2

y = xtan

2v0 2

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29

gr2 cos2 2

rsin = rcostan

sec

2v0 2

grcos2

sincos cossin

=

2v0 2 cos2

cos

grcos2

= sin

2v0 2 cos

r=

ne

t

sin

grcos2

=

cos

sin

2v0 2 cos2

cos

2v0 2

cossin

gcos2

s.

Replacing by , we get

ot

e

grcos2

= costan sin

2v0 2 cos2

.h

on

____________(i)

ey

n

grcos2

sin = costan

2v0 2 cos2

___________(ii)

v0 2 sin(2 ) sin

r=

cos2

g

tp

://

2 = sin 1(1)

ht

2 = + 900

= + 450

2

Thus,

r<=> =

=

v0 2 1 sin

g

cos2

v0 2 1 sin

g 1 sin2

1 sin

v0 2

v0 2

=

g

1 + sin

g

1 sin

1 + sin

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30

Question 17

A fort and a ship are both armed with guns which give their projectiles a muzzle velocity

2gk, and the guns in the fort are at a height h above the guns in the ship. If d1 and d2 are

the greatest horizontal ranges at which the fort and ship, respectively, can engage, prove

that

d1

k+h

=

kh

d2

Solution

ot

e

s.

ne

t

ey

n

v0

.h

on

d2

://

Let S be ship and F be fort. Let fort makes angle with x-axis. i.e. ASF = . Let SF = r

Since d2 is greatest horizontal range for gun in the ship so r is the maximum range on inclined

plane with inclination . Then

v0 2

g

1 + sin

ht

Put v0 = 2gk

tp

r=

r=

2gk

g

1 + sin

2k r + rsin

From fig.

h = rsin

2k r + h

r 2k h

r2 = h2 + d2 2

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31

2k h2 = h2 + d2 2

4k2 + h2 4hk = h2 + d2 2

d2 2 4k2 4hk 4k

k h

_______(i)

d1 2 4k

k + h

From (i) and (ii), we get

d1 2

d2

4k

k + h

4k

k h

ne

t

d1

k+h

d2

kh

s.

_______(ii)

ot

e

Question 18

.h

on

ey

n

A shell of mass m1 + m2 is fired with a velocity whose horizontal and vertical components

are u, v and at the highest point in its path the shell explodes into two fragments m1, m2.

The explosion produces additional kinetic energy E, and the fragments separate in a

horizontal direction. Show that they strike the ground at a distance apart which is equal to

V

1

1

2E

g

m1 m2

Solution

_______(i)

ht

tp

u = v0cos

://

v = v0sin

______(ii)

At the highest point, there is only horizontal velocity u. Let v1 and v2 be the velocities of m1

and m2 respectively at the time of explosion. Then by law of conservation of momentum.

m1v1 + m2v2 = (m1 + m2)u

u=

m 1 v1 + m 2 v2

m1 + m2

_______(iii)

Now

Increase in K.E. = K.E. after explosion K.E. before explosion

1

1

1

E = m1 v1 2 + m2 v2 2

m1 + m2 u2

2

2

2

2E = m1 v1 2 + m2 v2 2

m1 + m2 u2

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32

2E = m1 v1 + m2 v2

m 1 v1 + m 2 v2 2

m1 + m2

m1 + m2

By (iii)

2

m1 + m2 E =

m1 + m2

m1 v1 2 + m2 v2 2

m1v1 + m2v22

= m 1 2 v1 2 + m 1 m 2 v2 2 + m 2 m 1 v1 2 + m 2 2 v2 2 m 1 2 v1 2 m 2 2 v2 2

2m1 m2 v1 v2

= m1 m2 v2 2 + m2 m1 v1 2 2m1 m2 v1 v2

= m1 m2

v2 2 + v1 2 2v1 v2

2

m1 + m2 E

m1 m2

1

1

v2 v1 2E

m1 m2

ne

t

v2 v1 3

s.

= m1 m2

v2 v1 3

ot

e

1

(Time of flight)

2

1 2v0 sin

v0 sin

=

=

2

g

g

v

=

By (ii)

g

.h

on

Time =

ey

n

Now the time taken by pieces to touch the ground is given by:

tp

://

v

v2 v1

g

ht

v

1

1

2E

g

m1 m2

Which is required.

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33

Show that least speed with which a particle must be projected so that it passes through two

points P and Q at height hP and hQ respectively is:

ghP + hQ + PQ

Solution

y

Directrix

s.

ne

t

y=

v0 2

2g

.h

on

ey

n

ot

e

hP

hQ

ht

From fig.

tp

://

LM = LP + PM

v0 2

= hP + PM

2g

_________(i)

RN = RQ + QN

v0 2

= hQ + QN

2g

_________(ii)

v0 2

= hP + hQ + PM + QN

g

v0 2 = ghP + hQ + PM + QN

= ghP + hQ + PS + QS

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By focus-directrix property

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34

v0 = ghP + hQ + PS + QS

v0 is least when PS + QS is least, which is least when S lies on PQ. i.e. when

PS + QS = PQ

Hence

ht

tp

://

.h

on

ey

n

ot

e

s.

ne

t

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