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Development of Distance Education Program for the Elderly in

Retirement Homes in the Philippines


Project Focus
Retirement Homes can be developed to have a Distance Education (DE) Program. This

can be provided as an additional service that can promote self-improvement among the elderly
even in their later years.
The questions this study will answer are the following:
a. What are the resources needed to set-up a Distance Education Program that
the elderly can use in the Philippine setting?
b. What audience specific requirements are needed to be customized in the DE
Program to suit the elderly and what distinguishes them from the typical adult
learner requirements?
c. What DE subjects can be recommended for Retirement Homes in the
Philippines that are suited for its residents?

Retirement Homes are designed to house the elderly who are unable to live by

themselves due to absence of a relative or a helper in their own place of residence to assist
them in their daily functions such as but not limited to walking, eating and bathing and may
include medical support. The said homes are communal and depending on the size of the place
may house to a large number of individuals. Other names to which Retirement Homes are
called are Hospice Care, Assisted Living Care Facilities, Long Term Care Facilities and Home
for the Aged and these are either supported by the government or privately funded.
The initial and common notion of a retirement home is that it is a sanctuary for the
elderly to spend their remaining years in. Most would assume that besides providing medical
support there is entertainment by the use of board games, radio and/or television to keep the
residents pre-occupied.
Continuing education plays an increasingly significant role in our society, no matter your
age. It does not only promote your individual social participation, but enables you to assist in our
societys development. It is an opportunity and the right time to provide concrete data on the
specifics of DE requirements in retirement homes in the Philippines given the limited of
information on this subject matter. This study will also look into the social context and on the
theory of independence and autonomy as applied in a non-traditional DE environment.


Review of Related Literature

The cognition (e.g. perception, memory, attention, comprehension) of a person is fully

developed by the age of 25. As a person ages, cognitive functions deteriorate with similar
trajectories through the years.

However, it must be emphasized that despite decline, the

cognitive capacity of a person with advanced age is well preserved and provides the possibility
to continue a normal and good life with ability for lifelong learning. Dementia and other cognitive
decline are some of the biggest fears of elderly. These symptoms are not always part of the
normal ageing process and may be a sign of a pathological syndrome. Respectively, there is
worsening in working memory which is a part of short term memory. This is caused by the
slowing down process in ageing. However, it must be stressed that there are wide differences
between individual performances. There are seniors between the ages 75-90 without any
noticeable decline in their memory performance (Suutama 2010).

Various factors affecting

memory functions are important to know when arranging education for seniors. They need to
know that memory skills can be exercised. Lifelong learning that is individually tailored for the
elderly provides a progressive learning atmosphere that stimulates and supports positive mood.
Illnesses and syndromes should be properly taken care of in order to optimize the level of
cognitive functions.
Successful ageing is not only a disease-free life but equally requires elements such as
subjective life satisfaction, social participation, good cognitive performance and psychological
resources. Professor Bowling and Dieppe (2005) delineated further the concept of successful
aging using several approaches, namely psychosocial or biomedical approaches, or
combinations of these. Psychosocial theory emphasizes life satisfaction, social participation
and functioning, and psychological resources, including personal growth while biomedical theory
defines successful ageing largely in terms of the optimization of life expectancy while minimizing
physical and mental deterioration and disability. According to them, the elements (life
satisfaction, social functioning and participation; absence of disease and good physical and
mental functioning; and good cognitive performance and psychological resources) are the
gateways to successful aging. Researchers tend to address this through distance education in
the absence of an immediate and proximate alternative.
At a very basic understanding, Distance Education takes place when a teacher and
students are separated by physical distance and time and bridged by the use of technology.

With distance learning courses, students can complete their course work from just about
anywhere, provided there is an access device such as a computer and internet connection.
Learners who want to enroll themselves to distance education programs require adaptability to
new technologies (Advantages and Disadvantages of Distance Learning, n.d). While distance
education is often the proposed alternative for individuals limited by transportation or geography,
it may not prove to be a viable solution for all older adults. This is because, in part, it does not
sufficiently provide the sense of community that drives so many older adults to pursue higher
education, and also because many older adults have limited experience with technology,
particularly those in low-skill jobs (American Council on Education, 2007). This is further
supported by the fact that biggest educational barrier to postsecondary education is the lack of
basic and intermediate computer training. Many participants have never used a computer and
require a more personalized or self-paced approach to overcome their anxiety and increase
their success (Roberson, 2004). However, According to Kingston (2007), older people must be
given more chances to learn if they are to contribute to society rather than be a financial burden.
The capacity of older adults to remain physically, mentally, and socially active is partly
dependent on continued participation in learning and education. Older adults, however, often
are not considered as likely candidates for learning (Purdie & Boulton-Lewis, 2010). But the
elderly actually need to sustain their intellectual needs, because health literacy is defined as the
cognitive and social skills which determine the motivation and ability of individuals to gain
access to, understand, and use information in ways that promote and maintain good health
(World Health Organization, 2009). Being health literate involves a multitude of cognitive
processes that are challenging for any one at any age. Retrieving prescriptions and referrals,
selecting providers from a list of names and addresses, calculating when to take multiple
medications, interpreting medical terminology, comparing different insurance plans, and sifting
through a myriad of health-related information available in magazines, on the Internet, and on
television are just a few of the complex thought processes that are involved in selecting,
understanding, and using health-related information. Comprehension, problem-solving,
comparing and contrasting, reasoning, computing, adapting, and synthesizing are all higher
order cognitive processes required for health literacy. Psychologists agree that although
cognitive aging varies between individuals, certain types of cognitive capacities decline with
increasing age in most adults (Kintsch, 1998). Older adults tend to process information at a
slower pace, have less working memory (the ability to process multiple bits of information at a
given moment), and experience difficulty in comprehending abstractions (U.S. Department of
Health & Human Services, n.d.). Nurses can assist their older patients to compensate for

cognitive aging by using a specific set of teaching and communication techniques. The teaching
challenges posed by cognitive declines in fluid intelligence, the older learners inability to
manage multiple messages at one time, and a decreased capacity to draw conclusions from
inference must be addressed to effectively promote health literacy in this population (Speros,
The advent of technologies paved way to easier implementation of distance education.
With the development of synchronous (two-way, real-time interactive) technologies, such as
audio teleconferencing, audio graphics conferencing, and videoconferencing, it is now possible
to link learners and instructors who are geographically separated for real time interaction.
However, the type of interaction that takes place is usually on a one-to-one basis, between one
learner and another and between one learner and the instructor at one particular time. These
technologies are not very suitable for promoting cooperative learning between groups of
learners (located at different sites. Also, the synchronous nature of these technologies may not
be suitable or convenient for many distance learners (McIsaac & Gunawardena, n.d.).
Theories of Distance Learning
A. Theory of Transactional Distance
One of the most powerful theories for distance learning is transactional distance -- a
theory developed by Michael Moore (1996). The term transactional distance refers to the idea
that distance is pedagogical, not geographic, in nature. In other words, when we are referring to
distance education, it is not the separation of teacher and student in terms of where each is
located, but how they deal with that separation from a teacher-student interaction standpoint
and from a course design standpoint. What must be examined from a pedagogical standpoint
are ideas of how to account for instructional design and interaction procedures in distance
learning courses.
Boyd and Apps (1980) discussed the concept of transaction as follows: It connotes the
interplay among the environment, the individuals, and the patterns of behaviors in a situation
(p.5). According to Moore (1996), The separation actually dictates that teachers plan, present
content, interact, and perform the other processes of teaching in significantly different ways from
the face-to-face environment (p.200).
Moore adds that "the transactional distance is such that special organizational and
teaching behaviors are essential. How special will depend on the degree of the transactional
distance" (p.201).

Moore (1996) classifies these special teaching behaviors into two clusters: dialog and
structure. In Moore's (1996) theory, structure and dialog collectively measure transactional
distance. If the course has substantial structure and there is no teacher-learner dialog, the
transactional distance is high. In a course where there is more dialog and less structure, the
transactional distance is lower. The transactional distance differs from program to program. The
strength of the course structure and the degree of dialog can dictate what students are
supposed to learn, how they can study, and what types of materials they need.
B. Theory of Interaction and Communication
Borje Holmberg (1988) proposed the idea of guided didactic conversation, which he
refers to as empathy. Holmberg argues that the most important factor in the success of a
distance learning program is the interaction between the teacher and the student. According to
Simonson et al. (1999), Holmberg argues his theory had explanatory value in relating teaching
effectiveness to the impact of feelings and belonging and cooperation and to the actual
exchange of questions, answers, and arguments in mediated communication (p.67).
Holmberg (2003, p. 80) believes the following four hypotheses are important for distance
1) The stronger the conversational characteristics the stronger the students feelings of
personal relationship to the supporting organization;
2) The stronger the students feelings that the supporting organization is interested in
making the learning matter personally relevant to them, the greater their personal involvement;
3) The stronger the students feelings of personal relationship to the supporting
organization and of being personally involved with the learning matter, the stronger the
motivation and the more effective the learning;
4) The more independent and academically experienced the students, the less relevant
the conversational characteristics.
Holmbergs (2003) theory of interaction and communication is vital to improving
persistence in distance education courses. When students feel they are part of their institution
their chances of persistence increase.
Holmbergs (2003) other main point emphasizes the importance of making the subject
matter to the individual.
Synthesis of Distance Learning Theories
As a conclusion of the above article reviews or research, there are many thoughts that

go around the concept of the Distance Education. The articles emphasized on the definition of
distance education and focused on information technology and Internet based access in
education. However, the two distance learning theories demonstrate how designers/teachers
can create and conduct their online courses to be the most effective for their students,
especially for the older adult learners. Another major issue that needs to be addressed when
courses are being designed is knowing the audience.
Thus the focus of this study is on theories of how adults will learn from Distance

It will describe several factors that instructional designers and teachers should

consider when creating or teaching courses for distance education.

Older Adult Learners
As we have evolved as a society, our need to increase our level of education has
increased. Older adult learners are defined as persons age 55 and over in this study. This age
definition is used because older adulthood is commonly associated with retirement, and most
people do intend to retire early (Hermalin, Chan, Biddlecom, & Ofstedal, 2002).
Theory of Independent Study For Wedemeyer (2003), the essence of distance education was
the independence of the student. This was reflected in his preference for the term independent
study for distance education at the college or university level. Wedemeyer was critical of
contemporary patterns of higher education. He believed that outdated concepts of learning and
teaching were being employed and that they failed to utilize modern technologies in ways that
could alter the institution.
Wedemeyer set forth a system with 10 characteristics emphasizing learner
independence and adoption of technology as a way to implement that independence. According
to Wedemeyer, the system should:

Be capable of operation any place where there are studentsor even only one


studentwhether or not there are teachers at the same place at the same time
Place greater responsibility for learning on the student
Free faculty members from custodial-type duties so that more time can be given to


truly educational tasks

Offer students and adults wider choices (more opportunities) in courses, formats, and


Use, as appropriate, all the teaching media and methods that have been proved


Mix media and methods so that each subject or unit within a subject is taught in the
best way known


Cause the redesign and development of courses to fit into an articulated media


Preserve and enhance opportunities for adaptation to individual differences
Evaluate student achievement simply, not by raising barriers concerned with the


place, rate, method, or sequence of student study

Permit students to start, stop, and learn at their own paces
Transformative Learning Defined
The historical origins of Mezirows (1991) transformative learning theory are in the

educational experiences of returning adult students. When Mezirows wife returned to college to
complete her undergraduate degree after several years away from schooling, he became
interested in understanding her dramatically transformative experience (p. xvii). His wifes
experience led him to undertake a national study (Mezirow, 1975) that evolved into the concept
of transformative learning.
While Mezirow (1975, 1978) delineated 10 phases in the transformative learning
process, the core steps of the transformative learning process are most often recognized as (a)
a trigger or disorienting dilemma, (b) critical refection, (c) discourse with another, and (d) action
(Henderson, 2002).
The paradigm of transformative pedagogy (Mezirow & Associates, 2000; Taylor, 2007)
can provide faculty with a useful theoretical perspective to guide their classroom effort. Mezirow
(1991) argued that students experience personal and intellectual growth when they face
disorienting dilemmas because they examine their assumptions related to the contradictory
information, seek out additional perspectives, and ultimately acquire new knowledge, attitudes,
and skills in light of these reflections. Transformative learning also helps students examine their
experiences in consideration of social issues and then take action to effect broader change
(Cummins & Sayers, 1997).
Interest in Transformative Learning
Transformative learning is a popular area of research in the field of adult education as
indicated by an increase in the number of peer-review journal publications and the initiation of a
bi-annual international conference specifically for the study of transformative learning (Taylor,

With this interest comes investigation into the practice of fostering transformative

learning and suggestions for transformative pedagogy when teaching online (Meyers, 2008).

Taylor (2008) agreed that research would likely continue with exploration into the potential and
the means of the online setting as an avenue for fostering transformative learning.
Moreover, adult educators need to understand that transformative learning can take several
forms involving either objective or subjective reframing. Transformative learning is rooted in the
way human beings communicate and is a common learning experience not exclusively
concerned with significant personal transformations. To facilitate transformative learning,
educators must help learners become aware and critical of their own and others assumptions.
Learners need practice in recognizing frames of reference and using their imaginations to
redefine problems from a different perspective. Finally, learners need to be assisted to
participate effectively in discourse. Discourse is necessary to validate what and how one
understands, or to arrive at a best judgment regarding a belief. In this sense, learning is a social
process, and discourse becomes central to making meaning (Mezirow, 2000, p.6).
The area of education for older adults is only going to become more persistent in the future.
As the proportion of older adults continues to grow and with it the demand for education for
older adults, it is important for administrators of older adult education programs to know how to
attract, plan for, and accommodate this population on their campuses. One of the major tasks
for program planners and service providers is to match organizational goals and institutional
policies with the actual educational needs of older people. Lack of correspondence between
organization goals and educational needs of older adults will result in programs that are
unattractive to the target population.
Meanwhile, the fact is that older adults are heterogeneous and have a diverse array of
learning interests and needs that can only be met through alternative forms of adult education
that are responsive to those needs. No matter how the learning activity is organized and carried
out, via either formal or informal education programs, it all comes down to one question: how
can we make this older learning population satisfied? One fundamental concern for adult
educators and instruction designers is to provide them with quality education and rich learning
experiences. Student satisfaction is a key indicator of educational quality (Walker, 2003).

Theoretical Framework
In the Philippines the size of elderly is increasing dramatically, and may outpace the

growth of the general populace. According to National Statistics Office, the number of older

people will comprise 11.5% of the total population, which is almost twice the size recorded in
year 2010 (Ageing population in the Philippines, 2014).
belonging to the elderly phase have needs to fulfil.

Like in other life stages, people

Physical needs such as mobility,

transportation, medication, personal care, and nutrition are required to compensate for the
prevalence of chronic diseases, physical disabilities, mental illnesses and other co-morbidities
(Shrivastava, Shrivastava, & Ramasamy, 2013).

The Elderly also needs social, emotional,

spiritual and intellectual support among others.

All of these should be provided in their

retirement homes.
A Retirement home is a building occupied primarily by persons who are 65 or older, and
are occupied by at least six people not related to the operator and makes available care
services. These include providing meals, assistance with bathing, personal hygiene, dressing
or ambulation, providing a dementia care program, administering medicine, providing
incontinence care or making available the services of a doctor, nurse or pharmacist (Retirement
Living, 2013). Global Ageing has motivated different developers in the Philippines to build
retirement villages or offer existing facilities to retirees catering to the needs and wants of the
elderly, including amenities like clubhouse, chapel, restaurant, grocery, swimming pools, activity
center, sport facilities, and on-site medical facilities. The services provided in the retirement
homes in the Philippines obviously address the physical, emotional, social, and spiritual needs
of elderly, with little attention on nurture of the intellectual needs.
Distance Education is less a philosophy and more a method of education. Learners can
study in their own time, at the place of their choice (home, work or learning centre), and more
often without face-to-face contact with a teacher.
synchronous and asynchronous.

Learning at a distance has two types--

Synchronous instruction requires the simultaneous

participation of all students and instructors. The advantage of synchronous instruction is that
interaction is done in "real time" and has immediacy. Examples include interactive tele courses,
teleconferencing and web conferencing, and Internet chats. Asynchronous instruction does not
require the simultaneous participation of all students and instructors. Students do not need to
be gathered together in the same location at the same time. Rather, students may choose their
own instructional time frame and interact with the learning materials and instructor according to
their schedules. Asynchronous instruction is more flexible than synchronous instruction but
experience shows that time limits are necessary to main focus and participation. The self-paced

format accommodates multiple learning levels and schedules (What Is Distance Education?,
Educational programs for elderly people have complicated treatment plans because their
age will increase their awareness level of medical treatment (Shen et al., 2006). Likewise, in
studies conducted in different parts of the world, it was found that there is a need for serious










Doucette&Andersen, 2005; Koh, 2011; Vintila, 2011).

As one ages chronologically, not only are physical changes taking place such as
reduced vision and hearing ability, but other age related factors can impact cognitive function

Factors such as impaired blood circulation, decreased neurotransmitters, depression,

stress, and chronic illness can all have an effect on the ability of the individual to learn (Merriam,
In 1927, Edward L. Thorndike reported that the ability to learn declined very slowly and
very slightly at about 1% per year after age twenty-five. Until then, adult educators had mostly
operated under the notion that "you can't teach old dogs new tricks". But later studies by Lorge
revealed that the decline was that of speed of learning, not intellectual power, and that even this
was minimized by continual use of the intellect (Knowles, 1980). Therefore, to say that one's
ability to learn peaks at a young age and then tapers off slowly is generally true for most
individuals, but it is also too simplistic and ultimately deficient in describing how aging affects
the complex process of learning.
Most theorist believe that intelligence consists of several factors. These factors can be
separated into primary mental abilities and secondary mental abilities (Cavanaugh & BlanchardFields, 2002). A common subset of the primary mental abilities is made up of numeric facility,
word fluency, verbal meaning, inductive reasoning, and spatial orientation while secondary
mental abilities usually focuses on two: fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence. Younger
people perform at a higher level where rote memorization that is part of fluid intelligence is
measured whereas older, more experienced people make up for this in what is called
crystallized intelligence through better developed verbal abilities and judgment.


Several methodologies can be employed when teaching elderly. Among others, the
teachers are asked to facilitate learning. They should create the environment in which learning
occurs, and guide the learners through the learning process; however, they should not dictate
the outcome of the experience. They may seek to create an awareness of a specific learning
need in the students; to confront students with a problem requiring a solution; to provide the
students with an experience and encourage reflection on it (Jarvis, 2004). Teachers should
provide autonomy and independence. This can mean the freedom of pace, choice, method,
content, or assessment. For instance, students should be free to work at their own speed,
choose to study particular aspects of a course, choose to study particular aspects of a course,
adopt whatever learning style suits them best, and be free to choose what they learn. Teaching
should empower learners. As a corollary to the need to provide autonomy and independence,
teachers should share power and decision-making roles with their students. Teachers should
avoid being in the position of providing right answers. They should make sure that there is
equal access to all resources, include self-evaluation in graded courses, involve students in
managing the learning environment, and be open and explicit about what is happening and why
(Rubenson, 2011).
There are many specific teaching methods that can be used to support adult learning.
Jarvis (2004) provided a list, dividing it into two categories, teacher-centered and studentcentered.

Teacher-centered methods include lectures, guided discussions, demonstrations,

mentoring, and tutorials. Student centered methods include group discussions, debates, buzzgroups, fishbowls, role-playing, simulations, and gaming.
Didactic Teaching is an approach that can be very effective when used to encourage
students to analyze the course content rather than just learn it by rote. This can be done by
encouraging learners to ask questions, thus initiating the learning process themselves. Further,
if a student asks a question to which the teacher doesnt know the answer, Jarvis stressed the
importance of asking the class if anyone knows the answer, and then suggesting students go
out and find the answer themselves. When a teacher admits to not knowing the answer and
trusting the students to be able to figure it out, this demonstrates a respect for the students
knowledge and experience, as well as facilitating their independent learning.
Socratic Teaching introduces questioning into the teaching and learning process; it
consists of the teacher directing a logical sequence of questions at the learners, so that they are

enabled to respond and to express the knowledge that they have, but which they might never
have crystallized in their own mind. The Socratic method is an effective method to employ
when teaching adults because it: o utilizes both their store of knowledge and their experience
of life o help the learners create rather than reproduce knowledge o actively engage learners
in the learning process.
Problem-Based Learning is the focusing of the learning process on the identification,
exploration, and attempted resolution of realistic problems (Tight, 2003). By presenting a
problem as a simulation of professional practice or a real life situation getting students to
identify their own learning needs and appropriate use of available resources, and reapplying this
new knowledge to the original problem and evaluating their learning processes, the instructor
has engaged adult learners in relevant problems, given them responsibility over their own
learning, and valued their existing knowledge and experience (Engaging Adult Learners, n.d).
However, there are some barriers to learning capacity of elderly which need to be considered
during teaching so that the learning potential of the elderly can be realized. These barriers can
be mostly classified as sensory loses, mental illnesses and chronic diseases (Tabloski, 2010;
Cornett 2011). Therefore, the researchers found it imperative to determine the most effective
strategy to be introduced to distance education to facilitate the learning mechanism of older
adults in retirement homes.
Despite the presence of individual limitations due to age and health there is also the
need to explore and review social presence theory to verify what, if any, support exists as a
guiding principle to developing learning experiences in adult education.
The core framework of this study is based on the paradigm of a community of inquiry
designed by Garrison et al. (2000). Social presence argues that learners evolve as creators of
knowledge through the community of learning they participate in.

The learners role is to

discover theory independently not just act as recipients of knowledge. The teachers role is to
organize and direct learners rather than guide and teach principles of theory.
Garrison et al. (2000) expressed views regarding community of inquiry as a progressive
concept. They state participants in any particular configuration of a community of inquiry are
able to construct meaning through sustained communication (p. 89). They revealed in their
work the significance of social presence as a critical operator in the community of inquiry for

learners to develop cognitive presence in higher learning environments.

They note

collaboration in education was observed by Dewey (1882-1953) for Dewey, education is a

collaborative reconstruction of experience (p. 92). They reason the basis of critical thinking as
it relates to experience is based on the ideas of Dewey (1933) and his conception of practical
inquiry (p. 98).

Figure 1. Theoretical Framework of the Study

From this research, Rourke et al. (1999) reviewed and analyzed a concept of community
of inquiry (Garrison et al., 2000. Unpublished manuscript). Within this context, they argued
social presence can be traced back to Mehrabians (1969) concept of immediacy (p.53).
They describe in detail the concept of community of inquiry reported as Garrison, Anderson,
and Archers (2000) community of inquiry model, which was specifically designed to guide the
use of computer conferencing to support critical thinking in higher education (p. 51).
This model is represented as an innovative concept with some reference traced back to
Deweys (1882-1953) perception of education linked to collaboration and experience.

This study will use mixed method research. According to Creswell (2009) recognizing

that all methods have limitations, researchers felt that biases inherent in any single method
could neutralize or cancel the biases of other methods (p. 14). This type of research is defined
by Creswell (2009) as an approach to inquiry that combines or associates both qualitative and
quantitative forms of research. It involves philosophical assumptions, the use of qualitative and
quantitative approaches, and mixing of both approaches in a study (p. 230). For validation of

data, both a quantitative survey and qualitative set of open-ended questions will be deployed for
this study
A survey is needed using a standard questionnaire form so that the data can be
tabulated and quantified.

The interview shall add to the details on the gathered data to

understand what the participants meant by their answers.

With the 73 government-registered facilities throughout the Philippines, the study shall
acquire a sample of at least five (5) of the twenty seven (27) retirement homes located in the
Metro Manila due to time constraints.

Retirement homes in Metro Manila are assumed to

represent the state and living conditions of other facilities in the Philippines at least in the basic
services given to its residents.
For a retirement home to qualify in the survey the participants must have the following
a. Worked in the facility for at least 6 months
b. The role of owner, manager or senior staff
a. Is living in the facility for at least a month
The questions of the survey shall include the facilities financial capability,
hardware/equipment requirements, subject/s of interest by the residents and segmentation of
residents based on age, gender and disability among others.


Ethical Considerations
The participants shall be contacted by phone, email or through a visit at their place of

business. A formal letter of request indicating the purpose of the survey shall be provided to the
Meetings shall be scheduled once a participant agrees on the request and if an interview
with a resident is allowed by the management then the time most convenient for the elderly shall
be considered.


The privacy of the participants shall be of utmost priority and permission is needed from
their end if their names can be disclosed in the research. The source of funding and donor
identities shall not be asked from the administrator/management. As for the residents, there will
be no questions regarding family background, reasons of their stay, and medical conditions that
do not concern hearing and reading capabilities shall be included in this study.











a. Desk Research
b. Sourcing of
c. Survey/Interview
d. Tabulation of
e. Analysis and
a. Desk Research Initial research shall be done using the internet and phone calls to
determine the universe of retirement homes in the Philippines from government
agencies handling this industry.

A list of retirement homes and their contact

information shall be created where the sample shall be taken from.

b. Sourcing of Participants Letters of Intent shall be sent and meetings shall be set
with the target facilities.
c. Survey/Interview Engagement of the participants for the survey and gather data.
d. Tabulation of Results Gathered data shall be summarized and organized. Going
back to the source of information if any clarification is needed.
e. Analysis and Reporting Making sense of the data to provide answer on the
questions raised in the study.
Your study is concerned with two main issues:
1. Lifelong learning needs of eledrely residents in elederly homes
2. Willingness of eledrely to take part in non-formal DE program
3. Capacity and willingness of retirement homes to provide DE programs.
Your literature seems to focus on the learning behaviour of elderly people. That should give you
the kind of DE programs that can be offered to them. Beyond the issue of topics of interest of

your target learners, you should use the theories you have studied to determine the possible
course design scenarios (includes content,pedagogy, and technology) that can be offered to the
elederly. You can then design your survey questionnaire to verify the applicability of these
scenarios/typologies based on your target learners circumstances and preferences as well as
those of the retirement homes themselves.
This brings us to the institutional issue, Since your study hopes to make recommendations to
the retirement home sector, you need to have a good representation of the retirement homes to
be covered in your study. In your literature review, you also need to cite empirical work on DE
programs offered in retirement homes here (if any) and abroad or other similar institutions (e.g.,
hospitals, hospices, etc.). You need to identify from the literature the institutional factors that
must be looked into when assessing the capability of organizations to offer adult education
programs via DE.
Assessing the feasibility of offering DE prphgrams in retrirement homes does not rest on these
organizations only. You need the support of the larger elderly care system. Does DOH or DSWD
have offices or programs that are concerned with this? You may need to interview these
institutions as well in terms of how they can assist such programs.
In sum, your theoretical framework should include three subsystems --

the teaching and

learning 9for the elderly); institutions (retirement homes) and sector (elderly care system). You
need to discuss the sub-components of each subsystem and the interrelationships between the
three in your theoretical framework,

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