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Literature Review

There are 5 journal that related to the waste on Lean Management.


Lean Wastes and its Consequences for Readymade Garments (RMG)

Journal of Researches in Engineering: G Industrial EngineeringVolume 15 Issue 1 Version 1.0
Year 2015Type: Double Blind Peer Reviewed International Research Journal Publisher: Global
Journals Inc. (USA)
According to lean manufacturing these dead wastes encompasses overproduction, more
waiting time and bottlenecks, over transportation, excess inventory, more processing (re-works),
excess motion and defects. These lean wastes could not contribute in adding value of different
This research paper mainly underscored on seven lean wastages of RMG industries and its
consequences for increasing production cost and hindrance of productivity due to greater
production time.
As a conclusions
Line balancing can also reduce unnecessary motions of the workers during working time.
Besides, industries must have a good strategy to motivate and encourage the workers through
offering various incentives and reward schemes for their performance through productive works.
The industry also has traffic light performance assessment system by which workers became
more attentive towards their works and thus fewer defects were produced in a line. In this
process they were found to prepare a check sheet and were attached in every workstation beside
the workers. An assigned person observed how many defected products a worker made in one
hour. According to workers performance they get the color mark GREEN (no defects),
YELLOW (first time warning) and RED (second time warning). Using of this system can be
imperative for other industries for the improvement of its productivity with quality products.

Other effective lean tools like 5S, KAIZEN, JIT, KANBAN, SMED, TPM, and VSM may also
be employed in the RMG industries for the reduction of these lean wastes. These tools are
effective enough to minimize the production time and increase the productivity which will help
readymade garments (RMG) industries to compete and survive with less manufacturing cost and
higher product quality.


Lean thinking for a maintenance process

Production & Manufacturing Research: An Open Access Journal, 2015 Vol. 3, No. 1, 236272,
Sherif Mostafaa* , Sang-Heon Leeb, Jantanee Dumrakc , Nicholas Chileshea and Hassan Soltand
aSchool of Natural and Built Environments, University of South Australia, Adelaide 5000,
Australia; bSchool of Engineering, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes 5095,
Australia; cGlobal Management Program, Torrens University Australia, Adelaide, SA 5000,
Australia; dProduction Engineering and Mechanical Design Department, Faculty of Engineering
Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt
(Received 26 January 2015; accepted 15 July 2015)
This research proposes a new structure for LM process based on a systematic literature review of
a significant number of related articles that were pub lished on LM. The process structure is
designed based on the five lean principles to guide and support organizations to pursue
maintenance excellence. This study establishes a scheme for LM tools that are structured into 2
level 4 bundles and 26 lean practices/tools and develops a House of Waste (HoW) to demonstrate
the association between maintenance wastes and the LM tools. With a successful
accomplishment of the proposed scheme, the performance of a maintenance department can
create more improvement opportunities over time to reach the maintenance excellence status.
As a conclusion
In order to achieve world-class performance, the maintenance strategies should be linked to

manufacturing strategies such as the lean concept. Applying an effective maintenance strategy
can ensure a high degree of utilization, reliability, and availability of manufacturing facilities
especially in a continuous production process. This study has introduced a process to adopt lean
into maintenance activities. The process highlights types of NVA maintenance activities, a
package of VSM symbols to capture the maintenance activities, LM tools scheme, and
tools/wastes association. Moreover, it promotes the culture of continuous improvement aiming at
maintenance excellence. In general, any improvements attained from implementing the
suggested process might take time to transform maintenance activities into LM. Nevertheless,
commitment and direct involvement of an organizational management along with employee
training and teamwork development can be a catalyst to accelerate the transformation process.
The proposed LM process can be applied in real conditions to test its validity and reliability of
the process. This can be considered as a further suggestion to the proposed process in this
research. Hence, application of the process in different industrial sectors and a wide range of
manufacturing companies can contribute to additional empirical evidence.
3. Applying Lean Six Sigma for Waste Reduction in a Manufacturing Environment
Mohamed K. Hassan*

The University of Akron Research Foundation, Akron, OH, USA *Corresponding author:
Received September 10, 2013; Revised October 17, 2013; Accepted October 18, 2013
This study was applied in a welding wire manufacturing plant to improve the quality of the
manufactured welding wires, reduce the manufacturing waste and increase the yield of the
manufacturing process, by applying the Lean Six Sigma (LSS) methodology and waste
management. LLS is considered one of the successful approaches in the field of quality
improvement and cost reduction. The case study plant working environment was analyzed to
isolate the root causes for the waste generation. Remedies and countermeasures were suggested
and some were implemented. The study compares the performance of the plant before and after
implementation of the proposed solutions for waste reduction. Improvements in yield, waste,
Defects Per Million Opportunities (DPMO), and sigma levels were achieved. The LSS

methodology was linked to the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to prioritize the causes of
waste. The objective was to use an analytical method in judging the influence of the waste causes
on the amount of waste to enrich the methodology effectiveness and facilitate some ease of use
in the practical field.
As a conclusion
The five phases of the LSS methodology DMAIC process were implemented in the welding wire
manufacturing company. The tools of the LSS methodology enriched the efforts towards waste
reduction. Linking AHP for prioritizing the influence of causes on the waste generation and to
determine their countermeasures to cure the root causes of the problems. As one of the industrial
engineering tools, AHP integration was also a contribution of the current work to increase the
effectiveness of such a methodology of LSS. The AHP questionnaires were conducted by the
welding wire manufacturing company key persons and their feedback was analyzed to categorize
the priorities of the causes of waste. Cause and effect study using the fishbone diagram was used
to address the main causes of the waste in the welding wire manufacturing. The 80/20 rule of the
Pareto analysis was used to identify the most important causes of waste to deal with.The
objective of the companys management was to reduce the waste ratio to be below 4%, which
could not be achieved without following a systematic methodology like LeanSix Sigma. LSS
was proved to be a valuable tool in the case of systematic waste reduction objectives. Integrating
LSS with other statistical tools could extend its effectiveness and sustain the improvements
obtained as in the case of applying the quality plan tool.

4. Lean Thinking: Reduction of Waste, Lead Time, Cost through

Lean Manufacturing Tools and Technique
Denish B.Modi , Hemant Thakkar








EngineeringWebsite: (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 3, March

M.E. [Industrial Engineering], Associate Professor, G. H. Patel College of Engineering and

Technology, V. V. Nagar, Gujarat, India

This paper demonstrates various lean manufacturing principles, which includes advantages,
implementation strategy and hurdles in implementation for manufacturing industry. The study
specially focuses on the Green manufacturing which is highly in demand in new era. It indicates
the use of processes that doesn't harm environment, provides safety to consumers & employers.
Lean manufacturing is a precise approach for economical utilization of raw product and
eliminating waste through continuous improvement, and aimed to provide qualitative product to
the customers.
As a conclusion

[1] S.P. Vedan, K. Sakthidhasan

The paper suggests Value Stream Mapping (VSM) is an ideal tool to expose the waste and to
identify improvement areas. VIPPLANOPT Simulation software is used to substantiate
effectiveness. Decisions for implementation like material and money flow leads to desired
benefits. Like an experimental analysis of a Motor manufacturing company where, the first
machine is 100% busy, the second machine is 74.45% busy and 27.56% idle, like that all
machine performance. The fixed terminal board and rotor cover fitting is 99.3% to increase the
machine utilization and to increase the productivity. And by modified layout using
VIPPLANOPT software which reduced the transportation cost, inventory between the process
and part waiting time. For example the distance between 1st machine and 2nd machine is 51.6
meters, like that calculate to total modified layout distance is 75.6 meters.
Result shows that further implementation is still required in manufacturing motors. It helps

companies to reach their ultimate targeted goal.

[2] Yu Cheng Wong and Kuan Yew Wong
This paper shows the lean manufacturing adopted in the Malaysian electrical and electronics
industry by providing the practices and the tools for improvement. Companies that want to
implement lean manufacturing system need to know what is required for implementation. The
manufacturing process is to be carefully judged, it is not a simple procedure to be followed, but
innovative ideas needs to apply for implementation.
[3] Rakesh Kumar, Vikas Kumar
Lean manufacturing is mainly waste reduction, continuous improvement, process improvement
and improving supplier customer relationship by reducing lead time. It offers various tools to
improve manufacturing, selection of tools depends on understanding focus area for
improvement, current condition etc. like smaller lot size and reduction of changeover time
strategies. Improvement of lean manufacturing is very important aspect. It should be carefully
prepared, followed and obstacles must be taken care of, else leads to loss of inventory and harms
to ethics of employees. It is a longer process, it is a way of life for improving manufacturing to
make more profit, production and customer oriented service.
[4] Sunil M. satao, Dr. G.T.Thampi, Santosh d. Dalvi
Waste reduction is the one of the main goal of green manufacturing which needs to prevent
pollution and protect environment. The paper review focused on the objective of green
manufacturing, which is achieved through the tools of lean manufacturing.
[5] Mehmet C. Kochkulah, Jason F. Brown, Joshua W. Thomson
Only 3% of the industries are undergoing through lean manufacturing philosophy. Mostly found
as reluctance of its using and understanding including major of those ideas are from American
origin and were only pulled together and part of the TOYOTA production. Hundreds of
manufacturing companies had got success by using lean manufacturing. Another example is by
business enterprise system giant SAP (Gordon 2007).

Lean is all about stream lining the flow of value through the organization. Improved bottom line
performance, greater productivity, increased quality, cost reduction, customer satisfaction, and
greater market share are some of the results. All of these tie in to increase in shareholder wealth
in the companies.
[6] Ahmed Nasser Mohd. Rose, Baba Md. Deros and Mohd. Nizam Abdul Rahman
The paper shows that Small, Medium industries (SME) could face problems in implementing
lean manufacturing because of limited resources, compared to large organizations. But by
implementing feasible practices and low cost consumption such as 5S, Kanban (without
computerized system), employee involvement, they can strengthen the internal capability by
appointed lean manufacturing representative who look the overall lean process and conduct in
house training for particular principle and practices. Smart partnership between supplier and
customer in lean manufacturing could benefit both parties. Authors concluded that the basic lean
tools which are feasible to implement in SME and they have proposed the feasible lean model
which could help the SMEs to implement lean successfully.
5. New Strategy for Warehouse Optimization Lean warehousing U.S.S.
Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations
Management Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, January 22 24, 2011

Dharmapriya Department of Engineering Mathematics University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

A.K.Kulatunga Department of Production Engineering University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
Co-ordination of warehouse operations efficiently is critical in the supply chain management of
all manufacturing industry. Lean tools and techniques are widely used in optimization problems
where this study also the get the assistance of Lean techniques to optimize the warehouse
operations. According to Lean thinking it can be decided that the efficiency of warehouse
operations depends on the layout arrangement, material handling techniques and media of
transportation. Therefore, this study attempts to optimize warehouse layout: by allocating an

economical place to each type of item while minimizing the honeycombing. However, due to the
computational complexity of finding an optimal allocation within reasonable time frame, this is
mathematically termed as NP-hard type problems. It has been found in the literature that the
heuristic approaches are highly attractive than the traditional approaches for this instances. The
Simulated Annealing heuristic was used to determine the optimal allocation of each category
once the initial solution is generated by greedy approach. Generating a shortest route to collect
all the items of a respective order is also an objective of this study. The route was decided based
on the items rank in the delivery route, distance in between two consecutive types of items and
the weight. The improved layout was tested on several case studies and simulation results show
that improved layout is beneficial in terms of travel distance (reduced by 30% ) and resource

As a conclusions
In this paper warehouse functions were optimized with the help of Lean tools and techniques.
Warehouse layout design models designed to achieve warehouse optimization objectives. Based
on dedicated based and class based storage policy and considering the characteristics of each
item, an economical layout arrangement is proposed. SA heuristic was used to find an optimal
place for each item type. Results show that the proposed locations are significant in terms of
travel distance and cost. Moreover, unnecessary movements were significantly reduced by
shipping more than one product at a time. It can be concluded that the approach used to decide
the item location and the shipping system is beneficial in Lean warehousing since it could
achieve 30% reduction from overall travel distance.