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Signal Flow Graph is one of the most important topics in Control Systems for GATE 2017. You can also download it in PDF.

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Material in PDF

You must be gearing up for exams like GATE 2017, DRDO, IES, BARC, BSNL if you are

looking at these free GATE Notes for Signal Flow Graph and its Significance. In

this GATE Preparation Notes, we learn to calculate the system gain. Conventionally, Block

Diagram Algebra is used to derive the same. However, for some systems the block diagram

is too complex to apply steps of reduction. Hence we used the method of Signal Flow

Graph Reduction to find the gain of such system. Before going through these Signal Flow

Graph - notes, you should learn about Block Diagram Algebra

You can also download this GATE Study Material in PDF to help you revise Signal Flow

Graph at your convenience.

There are some basic terms connected to signal flow graph. These are:

i.

Node: The point at which branches meet is known as node. If a node has only

outgoing branches, then it is known as input node. While if the same has only

incoming branches, it is known as output node.

ii.

Forward Path: The path from input to output without repeating any node.

iii.

Loop: The path which originates and terminates on the same node with no

repetition of other nodes.

iv.

Path gain: The product of the branch gains along the path.

v.

Loop gain: The product of the branch gain of the branches coming in the loop.

vi.

Non Touching Loop: The loops which have no common nodes, branches and

paths.

How a block diagram is changed to signal flow graph has been demonstrated below -

In the given signal flow graph, we can see the summing points and junctions are converted

into nodes. While the gains in the block diagram been converted into paths.

Now, we can calculate the gain from this signal flow graph using Masons gain formula

!! !!

!

k = 1 (Sum of all individual loop gains not touching kth forward path) + (Sum of product

of gains of two non-touching loops not touching the kth forward path)

= 1 (Sum of all individual loop gains) + (Sum of product of gains of two non-touching

loops) (Sum of product of gains of combinations of three non-touching loops) + .

Now, for the previously given signal flow graph,

There are two forward paths, G1G2 and G1

There is only one loop, - G1H1

Also, this loop touches both forward paths.

Hence, P1 = G1G2, 1 = 1

P2 = G1, 2 = 1

= 1 (G1H1)

=1 + G1H1

Gain for the given system, T =

!! !! !!!

!!!! !!

Now, we will take the case for another signal flow graph given as below.

P1 = G1G2G3G4G5G6

P2 = G1G2G7G5G6

There are three loops

L1 = G1H1

L2 = H3

L3 = G4G5H2

For P1 path, all loops are touching it, hence 1 = 1.

For P2 path, L2 loop does not touch it, hence 2 = 1 H3

Now, L1 & L2 as well as L1 & L3 are non-touching loops

= 1 (L1 + L2 + L3) + (L1L2 + L1L3)

= 1 (G1H1 + H3 + G4G5H2) + (G1H1H3 G1H1G4G5H2)

= 1 + G1H1 H3 G4G5H2 G1H1H3 G1G4G5H1H2

Hence, gain T = !!!

!! !! !! !! !! !! !!! !! !! !! !! !!!!

! !! !!! !!! !! !! !!! !! !! !!! !! !! !! !!

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