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WAVES-2

1)

Two waves of equal frequencies have their amplitudes in the ratio of 3:5. They are
superimposed on each other. Calculate the ratio of maximum and minimum
intensities of the resultant wave.

2)

A harmonic wave is travelling on string 1. At a junction with string 2 it is partly


reflected and partly transmitted. The linear mass density of the second string is
four times that of the first string, and that the boundary between the two strings is
at x = 0. If the expression for the incident wave is,
yi A i cos(k1x 1t)
a) What are the expressions for the transmitted and the reflected waves in terms
of A i ,k1 and 1 ?
b) Show that the average power carried by the incident wave is equal to the sum
of the average power carried by the transmitted and reflected waves.

3)

A standing wave is formed by two harmonic waves, y1 A sin(kx t) and


y2 A sin(kx t)travelling on a string in opposite directions. Mass density of the
string is and area of cross-section is S. Find the total mechanical energy between
two adjacent nodes on the string.

4)

A string fixed at both ends has consecutive standing wave modes for which the
distance between adjacent nodes is 18cm and 16cm respectively.
a) What is the minimum possible length of the string?
b) If the tension is 10N and the linear mass density is 4g/m, what is the
fundamental frequency?

5)

A string of linear mass density 5.010 3 kg/m is stretched under a tension of 65 N


between two rigid supports 60cm apart.
a) If the string is vibrating in its second overtone so that the amplitude at one of its
antinodes is 0.25cm, what are the maximum transverse speed and acceleration of
the string at antinodes?
b) What are these quantities at a distance 5.0cm from a node?

6)

A 2m wire fixed at both ends is vibrating in its fundamental mode. The tension in
the wire is 40N and the mass of the wire is 0.1kg. At the midpoint of the wire the
amplitude is 2cm.
a) Find the maximum kinetic energy of the wire.
b) At the instant the transverse displacement is given by (0.02m) sin (x / 2) , what
is the kinetic energy of the wire?
c) At what position on the wire does the kinetic energy per unit length have its
largest value?
d) Where does the potential energy per unit length have its maximum value?

7)

An aluminum wire of cross-sectional area 106 m2 is joined to a steel wire of the


same cross-sectional area. This compound wire is stretched on a sonometer pulled
by a weight of 10kg. The total length of the compound wire between the bridges
is 1.5m of which the aluminum wire is 0.6m and the rest is steel wire. Transverse
vibrations are set-up in the wire by using an external source of variable frequency.
Find the lowest frequency of excitation for which the standing waves are formed
such that the joint in the wire is a node. What is the total number of nodes at this
frequency? The density of aluminum is 2.610 3kg/m3 and that of steel is 1.04104
kg/m3 (g 10m/ s2)

8)

In a stationary wave pattern that forms as a result of reflection of waves from an


obstacle the ratio of the amplitude at an antinode and a node is 1.5 . What
percentage of the energy passes across the obstacle?

9)

Two wires of different densities are soldered together end to end then stretched
under tension T. The wave speed in the first wire is twice that in the second wire.
a) If the amplitude of incident wave is A, what are amplitudes of reflected and
transmitted wave?
b) Assuming no energy loss in the wire, find the fraction of the incident power that
is reflected at the junction and fraction of the same that is transmitted.

10)

A sonometer wire under a tension of 64N vibrating in its fundamental mode is in


resonance with a vibrating tuning fork. The vibrating portion of the sonometer
wire has a length of 10cm and a mass of 1g. The vibrating tuning fork is now
moved away from the vibrating wire with a constant speed and an observer
standing near the sonometer hears one beat per second. Calculate the speed with
which the tuning fork is moved. The speed of sound in air is 300 m/s.

11)

A light string is tied at one end to a fixed support and to a heavy string of equal
length L at the other end as shown in figure. Mass per unit length of the strings is
and 9 and the tension is T. Find the possible values of frequencies such that
point A is a node/antinode.

12)

A string fixed at both ends is vibrating in the lowest possible mode of vibration of
which a point at quarter of its length from one end is a point of maximum
displacement. The frequency of vibration in this mode is 100Hz. What will be the
frequency emitted when it vibrates in the next mode such that this point is again a
point of maximum displacement?

13)

y1 10cos(5x 25t)
A wave is represented by
Where x is measured in meters and t is seconds. A second wave for which

y2 20cos 5x 25t interferes with the first wave. Deduce the


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amplitude and phase of the resultant wave.

14)

Find the ratio of the fundamental tone frequencies of two identical strings after one
of them was stretched by 1 2% and the other by 2 4% . The tension is
proportional to elongation.

15)

Standing waves are set up in a string of length 240cm clamped horizontally at


both ends. The separation between any two consecutive points where the
displacement amplitude is 3 2 mm is 20cm.
a) Determine the overtone is which the string is vibrating
b) Find also the maximum displacement amplitude.

16)

A longitudinal and standing wave y=a cos kx. cos t is maintained in a


homogeneous medium of density . Find the expressions for the space density of
a) Potential energy p(x,t) ;
b) kinetic energy k (x,t).

17)

A string 120 cm in length sustains a standing wave, with the points of the string at
which the displacement amplitude is equal to 3.5mm being separated by 15.0 cm.
Find the maximum displacement amplitude.
To which overtone do these
oscillations correspond?

18)

Determine in what way and how many times will the fundamental tone frequency
of a stretched wire change if its length is shortened by 35% and the tension
increased by 70%.

19)

A string of mass m is fixed at both ends. The fundamental tone oscillations are
excited with circular frequency and maximum displacement amplitude amax . Find:
a) the maximum kinetic energy of the string:
b) the mean kinetic energy of the string averaged over one oscillation period.

KEY:
1)16 :1

3) E

2) a) yt

A 22s
k

2
Ai
A i cos(2k1x w1t), I
cos(k1x w1t)
r
3
3
4) a) 144cm

b) 3.22 m/sec, 5.8103 m/sec2.

6) a) 9.910 3 x sin x 0.02J b) zero

11)

1 T 1 T 3
,
,
22 L 2L
antinode.

8) 96%

9) a)

c) x = 1cm

A 2
, A
3 3

b)

1 8
,
9 9

T
3
etc when A is a node.

4L

T 5
,
4L

12) 300 Hz
13) 26.46m, (5x 25t 0.714) rad
over tone) b) 6mm
16) a) wp

1 2 2
a sin2 kx. cos2 t
2

b) wk

17)

amax 5mm, to the third overtone.

19)

a) Tmax

Ai
cos(k1x w1t )
3

b) 17.36 Hz

5) a) 4.48 m/sec , 8.0103 m/sec2

7) fmin 163.4Hz, Five.

1
2
2
m 2amax
b) T 1,8m2amax
4

d) x = 1m

10) 0.725 m/sec


T
etc when A is an

14) 0.7 a) n = 5 (5th

1 2 2
a cos2 kx. sin2 t
2
T
T 2times
18) Will increase
l
1
l
1