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Brush up Your Essentials of Competitive English Mahesh Pareek Jyoti Pareek
Brush up Your Essentials of Competitive English Mahesh Pareek Jyoti Pareek

Brush up Your Essentials of Competitive English

Mahesh Pareek Jyoti Pareek
Mahesh Pareek
Jyoti Pareek
Brush up Your Essentials of Competitive English Mahesh Pareek Jyoti Pareek
Brush up Your Essentials of Competitive English Mahesh Pareek Jyoti Pareek
Brush up Your Essentials of Competitive English Mahesh Pareek Jyoti Pareek
Brush up Your Essentials of Competitive English Content : Amar Ujala Education Books Authors’ Panel Contribution
Brush up Your Essentials of Competitive English
Content
:
Amar Ujala Education Books Authors’ Panel
Contribution
Mahesh Pareek, Jyoti Pareek
© Amar Ujala Publications Ltd.
Published by Amar Ujala Publications Ltd.
and printed at C-21, Sector 59, Noida - 201301 (U.P.)

Edition : 2016

Price : ` 200/-

ISBN : 978-93-82948-21-6

Due care and diligence has been taken while publishing this book. However, the publisher does not hold any responsibility for any mistake that may have inadvertently crept in. The publisher does not accept responsibility for any loss arising out of the use of this book.

All rights reserved. Neither this publication nor any part of it may be repro- duced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

All disputes are subject to the exclusive jurisdiction of competent courts and forums in Noida only.

Preface

Aspirants of different competitive examinations want to use English simply to perform better in their examina- tion. They need to know more than the fundamental grammar structures normally taught in academic classes. They want to avoid misunderstandings and pitfalls while they are solving problems in a time-bound ambiance. They look for pragmatic grammatical descriptions to come to a sure as shooting conclusion. In fact they are in search for a stuff that appears in these examinations.

Preface Aspirants of different competitive examinations want to use English simply to perform better in their

The concept, pattern, format and content of this book are solely envisioned to meet the cognitive criteria of the readers and enable them to do all that observed above. The concept is formulated and articulated in a way that brings forth alternative structures which is just what a grammar adapted for competitive examinations should manifest.

Preface Aspirants of different competitive examinations want to use English simply to perform better in their
Preface Aspirants of different competitive examinations want to use English simply to perform better in their

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Brush up Your Essentials of Competitive English

Brush up Your Essentials of Competitive English Contents 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
Brush up Your Essentials of Competitive English Contents 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Contents

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Plurals Countable and Uncountable Nouns Concord Determiners
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Plurals
Countable and Uncountable Nouns
Concord
Determiners
Pronouns
Adjectives
Adverbs
Prepositions
Conjunctions
7
13
16
21
47
61
106
131
162
10.
Simple, Compound and Complex Sentences
174
11.
Tenses
177
12.
The Sequence of Tenses
210
13.
Modal Verbs
214
14.
The Subjunctive
225
15.
Question Tags, Short Answers and Ellipsis
241
16.
Transitive and Intransitive Verbs
246
17.
Non-Finite Verbs
251
18.
The Passive Voice
256
19.
Direct and Indirect Speech
260
20.
Spelling
268
21.
Phrasal Verbs
279
22.
Appropriate Words
309
23.
Idioms and Phrases
348
24.
Proverbs
380
25.
Antonyms
385
26.
Review Exercises
402
27.
Irregular verbs
463

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Brush up Your Essentials of Competitive English

Brush up Your Essentials of Competitive English Plurals 1. For nouns ending in ch, s, sh,
Brush up Your Essentials of Competitive English Plurals 1. For nouns ending in ch, s, sh,

Plurals

1. For nouns ending in ch, s, sh, x or z, the plural is formed by
1.
For nouns ending in ch, s, sh, x or z, the plural is formed by
adding -es. The reason for this is that these words would be
difficult to pronounce if only s were added. For example:
Singular
Plural
branch
branches
bus
buses
pass
passes
dish
dishes
There is one exception to this rule. If the -ch ending is pro-
nounced with a k sound, add -s rather than -es:
Singular
Plural
stomach
stomachs
epoch
epochs
  • 2. Nouns ending in y preceded by a consonant usually form the plural by changing the y to i and adding -es. For example:

Singular

Plural

candy

candies

story

stories

  • 3. Nouns ending in y preceded by a vowel usually form the plu- ral simply by adding -s. For example:

Brush up Your Essentials of Competitive English Plurals 1. For nouns ending in ch, s, sh,
Brush up Your Essentials of Competitive English Plurals 1. For nouns ending in ch, s, sh,

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Brush up Your Essentials of Competitive English

Brush up Your Essentials of Competitive English Singular Plural boy boys day days 4. Some English
Brush up Your Essentials of Competitive English Singular Plural boy boys day days 4. Some English

Singular

Plural

boy

boys

day

days

  • 4. Some English nouns ending in f form the plural by changing the f to v and adding -es and the nouns ending in fe form the plural by changing the f to v and adding -s. For example:

Singular Plural calf calves elf elves half halves leaf leaves loaf loaves self selves sheaf sheaves
Singular
Plural
calf
calves
elf
elves
half
halves
leaf
leaves
loaf
loaves
self
selves
sheaf
sheaves
shelf
shelves
thief
thieves
wolf
wolves
knife
knives
life
lives
wife
wives
There are also a few nouns ending in f which can form the plu-
ral in two different ways. For example:
Singular
Plural
hoof
scarf
staff
hoofs or hooves
scarfs or scarves
staffs or staves
wharf
wharfs or wharves

Most other nouns ending in f or fe form the plural simply by adding -s.

  • 5. Some English nouns ending in o form the plural by adding -s, some form the plural by adding -es, and some can form the plural by adding either -s or -es.

Brush up Your Essentials of Competitive English Singular Plural boy boys day days 4. Some English
Brush up Your Essentials of Competitive English Singular Plural boy boys day days 4. Some English

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Brush up Your Essentials of Competitive English

Brush up Your Essentials of Competitive English The following fairly commonly used nouns form the plural
Brush up Your Essentials of Competitive English The following fairly commonly used nouns form the plural

The following fairly commonly used nouns form the plural by adding -es:

Singular Plural archipelago archipelagoes cargo cargoes echo echoes hero heroes innuendo innuendoes mosquito mosquitoes potato potatoes
Singular
Plural
archipelago
archipelagoes
cargo
cargoes
echo
echoes
hero
heroes
innuendo
innuendoes
mosquito
mosquitoes
potato
potatoes
tomato
tomatoes
tornado
tornadoes
torpedo
torpedoes
veto
vetoes
volcano
volcanoes
Most other nouns ending in o, particularly those of Spanish or
Italian origin, can form the plural simply by adding -s. For
example:
Singular
Plural
albino
albinos
alto
altos
casino
casinos
piano
pianos
radio
radios
ratio
ratios
silo
silos
solo
solos
sombrero
sombreros
soprano
sopranos
studio
studios
  • 6. Many words from other languages have been adopted into the English language. Most of these form the plural by adding -s or -es, but some, particularly Greek and Latin words used for

Brush up Your Essentials of Competitive English The following fairly commonly used nouns form the plural
Brush up Your Essentials of Competitive English The following fairly commonly used nouns form the plural

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Brush up Your Essentials of Competitive English

Brush up Your Essentials of Competitive English scientific purposes, form the plural in the same way
Brush up Your Essentials of Competitive English scientific purposes, form the plural in the same way

scientific purposes, form the plural in the same way that they do in the original language. For example:

Singular Plural analysis analyses axis axes basis bases crisis crises criterion criteria honorarium honoraria hypothesis hypotheses
Singular
Plural
analysis
analyses
axis
axes
basis
bases
crisis
crises
criterion
criteria
honorarium
honoraria
hypothesis
hypotheses
medium
media
nebula
nebulae
nucleus
nuclei
oasis
oases
parenthesis
parentheses
phenomenon
phenomena
spectrum
spectra
stimulus
stimuli
stratum
strata
synopsis
synopses
synthesis
syntheses
thesis
theses
vertebra
vertebrae
  • 7. In the case of nouns formed from two or more words joined by hyphens, usually only the last word forms a plural. However, there are a few cases in which only the first word forms a plural. For example:

Singular

Plural

brother-in-law

brothers-in-law

daughter-in-law

daughters-in-law

father-in-law

fathers-in-law

mother-in-law

mothers-in-law

Brush up Your Essentials of Competitive English scientific purposes, form the plural in the same way
Brush up Your Essentials of Competitive English scientific purposes, form the plural in the same way

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Brush up Your Essentials of Competitive English

Brush up Your Essentials of Competitive English runner-up runners-up sister-in-law sisters-in-law son-in-law sons-in-law 8. There are
Brush up Your Essentials of Competitive English runner-up runners-up sister-in-law sisters-in-law son-in-law sons-in-law 8. There are

runner-up

runners-up

sister-in-law

sisters-in-law

son-in-law

sons-in-law

  • 8. There are still a few words surviving from Old English, which do not use -s to form the plural. For example:

Singular Plural child children foot feet goose geese tooth teeth louse lice mouse mice ox oxen
Singular
Plural
child
children
foot
feet
goose
geese
tooth
teeth
louse
lice
mouse
mice
ox
oxen
man
men
woman
women
policeman
policemen
9.
A few nouns do not change in the plural. For example:
Singular
Plural
deer
deer
sheep
sheep
salmon
salmon
  • 10. Some English nouns are usually used only in the plural. Such nouns take a plural verb, and generally have a plural form:

alms

annals

chattels

goods

measles

thanks

tidings

The following nouns, which all refer to objects with two parts, are usually used only in the plural:

Brush up Your Essentials of Competitive English runner-up runners-up sister-in-law sisters-in-law son-in-law sons-in-law 8. There are
Brush up Your Essentials of Competitive English runner-up runners-up sister-in-law sisters-in-law son-in-law sons-in-law 8. There are

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Brush up Your Essentials of Competitive English

jeans pajamas pliers scissors spectacles stockings shorts trousers If it is desired to refer to such
jeans
pajamas
pliers
scissors
spectacles
stockings
shorts
trousers
If it is desired to refer to such objects individually, the expres-
sion pair of is often used:
a pair of jeans
a pair of pliers
a pair of pajamas
a pair of scissors
11.
Uncountable nouns can be used to refer to individual things
by being preceded by a countable noun and the word of and
may, of course, be put into the plural.
two pieces of information
four glasses of milk
three grains of wheat
five patches of sunlight
12.
Proper, material and abstract nouns have no plural except
when they are used as common nouns. When such nouns are
used in the plural, they become common nouns with changed
meaning:
coppers
=
irons
=
tins
=
woods
=
copper coins
fetters
cans made of tin
forest

Brush up Your Essentials of Competitive English jeans pajamas pliers scissors spectacles stockings shorts trousers If
Brush up Your Essentials of Competitive English jeans pajamas pliers scissors spectacles stockings shorts trousers If

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