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Roundness measuring machine is a sophisticated inspection device with a precision spindle that measures various circular or cylindrical features. The measurement of roundness deviation of work pieces is essential in mechanical production control. Most roundness Measurements are carried out with rotating spindle instruments. The spindle run out errors of roundness testers is verified and eventually corrected using roundness standards such as precision spheres or hemispheres.

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that measures various circular or cylindrical features. The measurement of roundness

deviation of work pieces is essential in mechanical production control. Most roundness

Measurements are carried out with rotating spindle instruments. The spindle run out errors of

roundness testers is verified and eventually corrected using roundness standards such as

precision spheres or hemispheres. For the traceable calibration of roundness standards

primary roundness measuring machines are used, offering lowest possible measurement

uncertainty. A primary roundness measuring machine is distinguished by the fact that the

roundness measuring machine is distinguished by the fact that the roundness measurement is

independent of any standard due to the application of error separation techniques, by the

possibility for a complete characterization of all relevant components and influence quantities

and by achievement of state of the art measurement capability.

Name of instrument

Model

Make

Range & Resolution

MMQ42

Mahr perthen

Height 300mm, Diameter 300mm

Uncertainty

Name

& 0.01m

0.17m

Model

Make

Range &

Uncertainty

Form tester

Resolution

Height 300mm

0.17m

Form meter

Rotary table

Probe

F3P

T6W

Mahr perthen

Mahr perthen

Mahr perthen

& 10nm

10nm

Diameter 300mm

0.17m

The two basic types of high precision of roundness measuring instruments are one in which

high precision spindle carries a sensitive indicator around the circumference of the workpiece

which is stationary and another is one in which a high precision turntable rotates the

workpiece against a stylus which is held stationary. The work piece, object whose roundness

is to be measured, is first kept on the rotatory table of the form tester. The probe is made to

touch several points on the work piece. The surface of work piece deflects the probe and this

deflection is transferred as a graph of roundness profile of the work piece to the form meter.

The continuous trace got in the polar graph represents the radial deviation given by the work

piece when the probe was deflected. Magnification factor used exaggerates the profile in the

radial direction but the angular position on the graph of the profile is not magnified and is

same as that of the work piece. In some cases the output of a roundness trace consists not of a

polar graph but a set of numbers which represent radial deviation of the workpiece at equally

spaced points around the circumference. This is equivalent to a polar graph except that the

trace consists of a discrete number of points instead of a continuous curve. There are several

ways to assign numerical roundness value to the workpiece from its polar graph. One way is

to draw either the minimum circumscribing circle or maximum inscribed circle and state of

maximum departure from one or the other. Another way is to draw the pair of concentric

circles which enclose the graph and have minimum radial separation. This separation is then a

measure of the out of roundness. A slightly more sophisticated approach is the least squares

circle that fits to the data at equally spaced angles gives the estimates of P-R, the non

circularity, where R is the radius of the circle and P is the distance from the center of the

circle to the trace. Least squares analysis of the measurements enables the non circularity of

the spindle to be separated from the profile of the standard. Consider a polar graph given in

rectangular coordinate system. Let point 0 be the center of rotation of the spindle and yibe

thedistancefrom0topointPonthecurveattheangularposition i.Letpoint(a,b)bethe

centeroftheLeastSquaresCircle(LSC)andRbetheradiusofLSC.Let c2=a2+b2and

tan=b/a.thenthetrianglebetweenpoints0,Pand(a,b)hastherelationship:

yi= [(R+i)2 c2 sin2(i)]1/2+ccos(i)

Wherei isthedeviationofpointPfromtheLSC.Sincecismanyordersofmagnitudeless

thanR(inawellcenteredtrace),thetermc2 sin2(i)canbeneglected,thus

yi =R+ccos(i)+i

Since a = c cos and b = c sin this expression can be expanded to give

yi =R+ccosicos+csinisin+i

or

yi =R+acosi+bsini+i

let{i,I=1,n}benequallyspacedangles.Thenthesumofsquaresofthedeviations R=

1/nyi

a=2/nyi cosi

b=2/nyi sini

thedeviationsini aregivenbyi =yi Racosibsini

Wherei=1,n.

Whenroundnessvaluesareassignedfromasinglegraph,asintheabovecase,thegraph

containsboththeworkpieceprofileandthespindleprofile.Thecomputerprogramfordata

acquisition,profilefiltering,evaluationoftheroundnessparametersandgraphicaloutputof

theresultsaswellasfortheinstrumentcontrol(settingthemotorspeedandselectionofthe

amplifierrange)hasbeenrealized. The deflection of the probe is calibrated by the help of

gauge blocks, which is traceable from the gauge block interferometer. Some measurements of

roundness dont require a high level of precision, such as measurements on cylinder, sphere,

and ring gauges where roundness is not of prime importance. For this purpose a single trace

is made of the workpiece. High precision measurements of roundness are appropriate where

an object, such as a hemisphere, is intended to be used primarily as a roundness standard. The

measurement sequence involves making multiple traces of the roundness standard where the

standard is rotated between the traces.

Thespindleerrorisdeterminedbyapplicationofthewellknownmultisteperrorseparation

technique. A high quality roundness standard with small surface roughness and a low

harmoniccontentismeasuredin10angularpositionsevery36.Thespindleerrorisobtained

fromtheaverageofthetenprofiles.Byaveraginginthisway,theroundnessdeviationofthe

referenceartifactiscancelledexceptallmultiplesofthe10harmonic.Thedeterminationof

theroundnessdeviationofthereferencesphereismadebythesameway,butshiftingthe

measuredprofilesbythecorrespondingmultipleof36beforetakingtheaverage,andthus

eliminatingtherunouterrorofthespindle,againexceptallmultiplesofthe10harmonicof

thespindleerror.Ithastobenoted,thatusingasphereastheartifactyieldsonlytheradial

spindle error, whereas using a hemisphere, where the measurement is not taken in an

equatorialplane,alsoanaxialcomponentofthespindleerrorisdetermined.Inpractice,each

profileismeasuredfivetimesinordertoreducenoiseandtodetectanyirreproduciblepeaks

intheprofilecausedbydustoranyotherdisturbance.Specialattentionhastobegiventothe

alignmentoftheartifactwithrespecttothespindleandtheindexingtable.Oneofthemajor

problemsinroundnessmeasurementisthethermaldriftofthemeasuredobjectwithrespect

tothespindleduringthemeasurement.Themechanicalloopbetweenobjectandprobeis

alwaysratherlarge:itcomprisesthemeasurementtablewithpositioningstagesforadjusting

the object, the instruments column, the spindle and finally the probe with again some

adjustments.Forhighprecisionroundnessmeasurements,allthis isrequiredtobestable

withinabout1nmduringthemeasurementtimeofroughly10seconds.Mostofcommercial

software artificially close the beginning and the end of the measured profile taking into

accountasmalloverlapoftheprofileendsandthendeformtheprofileinordertoclosethe

circle.Ithastobenoted,thataradialdriftoftheeccentricityinthedirectionoftheprofile

start has a maximum effect on the closure error, whereas a drift perpendicular to that

direction cannot be seen as a closure error, but still considerably deform the roundness

profile, essentially to produce an elliptic shape. The eccentricity continuously during

successivemeasurementsandtotaketheprofiledataonlyoncethedriftoftheeccentricity

perrevolutionisbelowapresetvalue.Thismeansthattheinstrumentmuststabilizeatleast

onehourafterhavingdoneanyadjustments.Driftswellbelow1nmbetweensuccessive

roundnessmeasurementscanbeobtained.Theestimationofthemeasurementuncertaintyfor

roundnessmeasurementisextremelydifficultandcannotbebasedonananalyticalmodel

withoutsomesimplifyingassumptions.Themathematicalmodelingoftheeffectofdifferent

influence quantities and the combination of the distribution functions to the resulting

uncertaintyoftheindividualprofilepointandthepeaktovalleyroundnessdeviationshould

infactbecarriedoutratherbynumericalsimulation,takingintoaccounttheactualspindle

errorandtheroundnessdeviationofthemeasuredartifact.Thesimplifiedapproachoutlined

byNeugebaueressentiallydistinguishesbetweenshortwavedcontributions,consideredtobe

uncorrelatedandthusreducedbyfiltering,andcorrelatedlongwavedcontributions.Short

andlongwavedmeanfrequenciesconsiderablyhigherandlowerthanthecutofffrequency.

Correlationmeans,thattheuncertaintyofaprofilepointiscorrelatedtotheuncertaintyofthe

points in the neighborhood of the profile. We shall hereafter estimate the uncertainty of

measurementofaperfectlyroundidealartifact,theactualroundnessdeviationistherefore

notrelevantandnoinfluencefromtheimpossibilitytoreproduceexactlythesamelocation

ontheartifactorfromthelimitedbandwidthforthehigherharmonicsintheprofilewillbe

considered.Thesecontributionshavetobeevaluatedseparatelyandaddedtotheuncertainty

budget.

The machine is used to measure roundness, cylindricity, straightness, flatness,

concentricity, coaxiality, radial run-out, total radial run-out, axial run-out,

total axial run-out, parallelism, perpendicularity and angularity, while

adhering

to

both

National

and

International

Standards.

Whether

grooves and cross-holes are detected automatically, regardless of their

positions, and the corresponding profile interruptions are not evaluated.

A surface is the transition region between the bulk properties of one material and those of

another. The location of a surface depends on the means used to detect it; there is an

operational definition involved and there can be major or minor differences in interpretation

of the surface location. The surface roughness is defined as the fine structure observed on the

surface of the material. To study this fine structure of surface is possible only when large

magnification instruments are used to resolve vertical structures developed on the surface of

the material. It is necessary to define the scale of roughness to measure the surface roughness

otherwise there wont be any difference in the structure at atomic level or gross features

millimeters in size. There is a convention in nomenclature that is fairly universally accepted

that describes the topography as:

Form: It refers to the very long wavelength components of a surface

components.

For completeness, flaws are also mentioned to make sure that their contribution to structure is

assessed in a consistent way. To able to measure a surface in quantitative terms the boundary

between roughness and waviness must be defined with sufficient precision to achieve the

uncertainty required in the measurements. This is done by specifying the characteristics of a

high pass filtering process which excludes the long spatial wavelength components in a

controlled manner. This filtering process is most important of the essentially arbitrary

conditions which have to be imposed to make surface roughness measurable.

Name of instrument

Model

Make

Range & Resolution

Uncertainty

Name

Perthometer

Perthen S6P

Mahr perthen

50m & 0.01m

6 percent

Model Make

Serial No. Range &

S6P

Mahr

perthen

6710217

Resolution

50m &

Uncertainty

6 percent

0.01m

contact profiling instruments have a fine stylus attached to a displacement transducer to trace

profiles of a surface. As the stylus is drawn across and in contact with surface, an electrical

analog of the surface is generated. This analog is usually recorded graphically and processed

electronically or digitally to give the surface parameters. The stylus instrument gives

roughness in terms of arithmetic mean deviation of the profile from a reference line. It also

produces a graphical record.

The are two main reasons for surface roughness measurements are

a. To provide quantitative data to explain functional behavior.

The state of roughness of a surface influences a wide variety of materials physical properties

like friction and wear, electrical and thermal contact resistance, corrosion resistance, sterile

properties, and radiation absorption properties. Its important for some industries to have

surfaces with roughness within the specified limits and is of certain type. Profiling

instruments use a sharp stylus attached to a transducer to trace profiles of a surface are by far

the most common instrument. Magnification in commercial instruments goes as high as

200,000 and there are low magnification instruments also. In their simplest form, stylus

instruments give a measure of roughness in terms of arithmetic mean deviation of the profile

from a reference line. They may also have provision for producing a graphical record of the

surface. There is a class of stylus instruments which can be used to obtain profiles with very

high vertical resolutions. With these high magnifications is obtainable giving a better

resolution than 2 nanometer. They have specialized uses such as the measurement of optical

finish and can also be used for measuring the thickness of the films. To ensure reproducibility

of results and consistency, it is necessary to standardize a number of features of instruments

in an arbitrary way.

Profilometers are essentially displacement measuring devices and require calibration at

regular intervals to maintain their accuracy. The two functions profile recording and

parameter measurement are often calibrated separately even though both derive their signal

from the stylus transducer. The instrument transducer may be calibrated by using gauge

blocks at the low magnifications or block gauges and a lever arm at higher magnifications.

The roughness standard has been examined at the national measurement laboratory and the

following is the result obtained.

The roughness standard and the two sets of grooves were examined using a microscope with

a magnification of 160. This examination revealed one small defect at the centre of the

standard groove marked 2.46m. The arithmetical mean deviation at 0.8mm cut off has been

determined, by reference to a master standard, at 25 locations distributed evenly over the

outlined area using a calibrated Talysurf 5 profile instrument with a nominal stylus radius of

2.5m. At 10 additional locations, 4096 ordinates were recorded by a numerical process at a

spacing of 1m and the Ra value calculated after numerically applying a filter with a standard

instrument cut off of 0.8mm. The analyzed profiles were taken in the direction of the arrows

on the outlined area.

From the recorded data, the following results were obtained:

Marked Ra value

Mean measured Ra value

Standard deviation

Range of measured Ra values

0.78m

0.788m

0.003m

0.782m 0.794m

The value quoted above for the mean measured Ra value has an estimated uncertainty of

0.03m.

Groove depths: Using the Talysurf instrument described above, determinations were made

of the total height of the central of each of the two sets of three grooves. Profiles of these

grooves were recorded at 5 locations and the depths calculated from the recorded profile

ordinates. From these values the following results were obtained:

Marked groove depth

Mean measured groove depth

Range of measured groove depth

2.46m

2.45m

2.40 2.48m

Mean measured groove depth

Range of measured groove depth

0.33m

0.34m

0.333 0.343m

The values quoted above for the mean depth of grooves have an estimated uncertainty of 3

percent. Profile graphs of the Ra standard were taken normal to the lay at a horizontal

magnification of 100 and a vertical magnification of 5000. The profile graphs showed no

irregularities.

Angular measurements are necessary to determine the precise shape or form of an object in

addition to linear measurements. For precise length measurements, it is essential to have

traceability to a primary standard. But in the case of angular measurements, no corresponding

primary standard is required, since any angle can be established by appropriate sub-division

of a circle. However, for practical purposes, the reference and working standards of angle are

available in the form of end standards such as angle gauges and polygons with the angle

defined between their adjacent faces, or in the form of line standards such as uniformly

divided circles with lines engraved at regular intervals. The unit for angle measurement used

is RADIAN. It is defined as the angle between two radii of a circle, which cut off on the

circumference an arc equal to the radius of a circle. The various angle measuring instruments

are discussed below.

Autocollima

tor

Tilting Table

with Drum

Micrometer

Angle

Measurin

g

Instrume

nt

Angle

Gauges

Indexing

Table

Autocollimator

Autocollimators are optical instruments capable of measuring small angles of tilt of a

reflecting face. There is no restriction on direction but many autocollimators are constructed

for measurement in planes close to the horizontal and/or vertical. Some autocollimators are

visual types incorporating a micrometer eyepiece. Others are photoelectric types either with

null setting of an electrical meter by means of a micrometer drum or with direct analogue or

digital readout. Autocollimators are typically used as reading devices in the calibration of

precision polygons and angle gauges.

Name of instrument

Model

Make

Serial no.

Range & Resolution

Uncertainty

Name

Autocollimator

ELCOMAT 2000

MOLLER WEDEL

294

1050 arc seconds & 0.01 seconds

0.03 seconds

Model

Make

Range &

Autocollimation

ELCOMAT

MOLLER

measuring head

Evaluation unit

ELCOMAT

WEDEL

MOLLER

Uncertainty

Resolution

1000 seconds &

0.05 seconds

WEDEL

The measuring principle is based on auto collimation. The image of an illuminated object,

located in the posterior focal plane of the collimator lens, is projected to infinity and reflected

via mirror. A light-sensitive receiver picks up the image. A slight alteration of the angle

between the optical axis of the autocollimator and the mirror causes a deviation, which can be

determined very precisely.

Deviation, = y/ (2*f)

The electronic autocollimator provides measurement of smallest deviation of direction and

inclination in fractions of arc seconds. It can simultaneously measure height and width. The

measurements are performed without physical contact and in the visual spectral range. The

receiver is a CCD line sensor. The completely digital signal reception and processing

guarantees exact linear behavior in the entire measuring range. The integrated

microelectronics provides precise evaluation and presentation of the measuring signals very

reliably. Data processing is controlled by an integrated microprocessor.

Each autocollimator is calibrated and contains one calibrated X-axis and one calibrated Yaxis. A computer interface is also available in the evaluation head for data transfer of the

measuring values to the computer.

Autocollimators are typically used to align components and measure deflections in optical or

mechanical systems. The electronic autocollimator is a complete measuring station for high

precision angle measurement. It is used for

a. Quality assurance for machine tools (straightness, parallelism, rectangularity, position

uncertainty (rotational), flatness)

b. Automatic angle adjustment

c. Optics (angle measurement)

d. Monitoring of positions (angles)

Angle Gauges

A practical form of angle standards was devised by G. A. Tomlinson at the NPL, UK, in

1941. Sets of these standards, known as combination angle blocks, are nowadays widely used

in industry. These comprise hardened steel blocks, having two highly finished faces mutually

inclined so as to form included angles of selected nominal sizes. These faces are flat to within

a few hundredths of a micrometer, posses a wringing property similar to that of slip gauges

and, in addition, have a high degree of reflectivity which enables them to be used with an

autocollimator. The set consists of thirteen blocks by means of which any required angle,

between 0 to 360 degree in steps of 3 seconds of arc, can be quickly built up, as with a set of

slip gauges.

Name of instrument

Model

Make

Range & Resolution

Uncertainty

Angle Gauges

3 arc second

Combinations of blocks are formed by wringing them together; advantage being that a block

may be wrung to another block so as to increase or decrease the angular size of the

combination depending in which sense it is wrung. The nominal values of the blocks are as

follows:

3

1

1

9

3

3

27

9

9

seconds

27

27

minutes

41

degrees

Temporal Stability of Angle Blocks: In order to provide basis in this context, a survey was

made of the long-term stability of several sets of angle blocks over a ten year period by Ralph

C. Veale and Charles P. Reeve. Their conclusion is that a significant long-term variation in

the measurement system does not exist, but the long-term slope of the blocks which were

surveyed is not significantly different from zero. None of the blocks exhibited a significant

change in value over a ten year period, so it was concluded that the angle blocks were stable

over long periods of time.

Indexing Table

Indexing table is an important instrument to be used in angle measurement. Indexing table

has a rotatory indexing device constructed with two matched sets of equally spaced radial

face teeth (serregations) arranged in a circle mounted in the fixed base and the upper rotable

table.

Name of instrument

Model

Make

Range & Resolution

Uncertainty

Indexing Table

1440

A A Moore ,USA

15 arc minute

0.1 arc second

The indexing device is based on the principle of circle divider. Two faces gears are generated,

each identical in diameter, shape and number of teeth. When the two opposite faces of the

gears are brought in contact face to face, that is root to crest, they lock together and prevent

any rotation or side movement, unless they are disengaged, rotated and brought in contact

again. The angular displacement corresponds to the number of teeth through which the table

has been indexed. Indexing plate is used along with autocollimator for calibration of

polygons.

Tilting Table with Drum Micrometer

Tilting table along with the drum micrometer is used for the calibration of electronic levels,

which are further used in industries to find out the tilt or perpendicularity of any material

surface.

Name of instrument

Make

Range & Resolution

Uncertainty

Name

Drum micrometer

Steel scale

Tilting table

NPL workshop

Length 850mm & 0.002mm

(210-6L/m)

Model

Make

Range &

810879

B259

Mitutoyo

Resolution

0-10mm &

Chesterman

0.002mm

100cm & 1cm

Uncertainty

(2106

L/m)

The drum micrometer is attached on the one end of the 850mm long tilting table apparatus.

The object to be calibrated is kept fixed on the tilting table. The laser interferometer and the

drum micrometer together with tilting table are used in calibration of electronic levels. The

drum micrometer offers circular motion in both clockwise and anticlockwise direction. The

rotation leads to tilting of the table in either direction. On moving the drum micrometer, the

table is tilted by some arc seconds, which is displayed in millimeter units by the object

(electronic level), kept on the tilting table. The laser source and the two optics are set in a

straight line on the tilting table. The two interference optics are placed such that one is fixed

near drum micrometer and the other is kept on tilting table. The other reading, which is in arc

seconds, is given by the computer attached to the laser interferometer. When the table is

parallel to the ground, the interference pattern shows zero arc seconds but when the table is

tilted the position of one of the reflector changes with respect to other and a different position

shows a value in arc seconds. The computer shows the reading in arc seconds. For different

drum micrometer reading different amount of tilting is there and for these different tilts the

object to be calibrated shows different values. The readings are noted down and further

calculations are done to find out the uncertainty and the error. The difference in the readings

of laser interferometer and the electronic level is known as deviation.

Experiment

Reference

Polygons and angle blocks are the most important transfer standards in the field of angle

metrology. Polygons are used by National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) as transfer standards

to industry, where they are used in conjunction with autocollimators to calibrate index tables,

rotary tables and other forms of angle measuring instruments. Polygons and angle blocks are

also the most common angle standards in comparisons of angle measurements between NMIs

and accredited laboratories.

Autocollimators, the main instruments used in the measurement of angle, are calibrated with

small angle generators, using laser interferometers. A vast amount of time is invested in their

calibration. Index tables are usually calibrated using another index table and an

autocollimator with a mirror. To measure the angle differences between the tables all the steps

(i.e. every 30o) are measured. Research has shown that it is possible to calibrate both

autocollimators and index tables very accurately.

Appendix

2. International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM)

4. Charge- Coupled Device (CCD)

5. Gauge Block (GB)

6. Universal Measuring Machine (UMM)

7. Laser Interferometer (LI)

8. Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT)

9. Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM)

10. Direct Computer Control (DCC)

11. LeastSquaresCircle(LSC)

12. nanometer (nm)

13. millimeter (mm)

14. meter (m)

15. micrometer (m)

16. Pascal (Pa)

17. meter/second (m/s)

18. Decibel (db)

19. Percentage (%)

20. Kelvin (K)

References

1. P.C. Jain, Weights, Measures and Dimensional Metrology, Pragati Prakashan Meerut.

2. Operating Manual AUTOCOLLIMATOR ELCOMAT 2000

3. Operating Manual ELECTRONICS LEVEL

4. Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics, Vol. 43, May 2005, pp. 319-328

Mechanical Comparison, Case 1, 16 May 1996

6. A. Godina, et al., Measurement , Vol. 40, 2007, pp. 607-614

7. Recent Developments in Traceable Dimensional Measurement III, Proceedings SPIE,

Vol. 5879 (2005)

8. Charles P. Reeve, The Calibration of a Roundness Standard, NBSIR 79-1758, June

1758.

9. Self-Calibratable Rotary Encoder, Journal of Physics: Conference Series 13 (2005),

pp. 240-245

10. Rio de Janeiro, High accuracy angle indexing table, Metrology for a sustainable

development, 17-22 September 2006

11. Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Vol. 109,

number 3, May-June 2004, pp. 319-333.

12. O. A. Kruger, Metrologia, Vol. 37, 2000, pp. 101-105

13. www.werthmesstechnik.com

14. www.engineersedge.com

15. www.wikipedia.org/wiki/CMM

16. www.wikipedia.org/geometric dimensioning and tolerance

17. www.engineersedge.com/gdt.htm

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