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Laminar Flowmeters

R. SIEV

(1969)

B. G. LIPTK

(1995)

FI

J. B. ARANT

(1982, 2003)

Design Pressure

Design Temperature

Material of Construction

Fluids

Flow Range

3

0.0003 to 10 GPM for liquids (1 cm /min to 38 l/min)

Inaccuracy

Flow Turndown

10:1 minimum

Flow Characteristic

Costs

A 1/2-in. (13 mm) stainless-steel laminar flow element costs $700, a 2-in. (50 mm)

unit costs $1500, and a 16-in. (300 mm) all-stainless unit costs $11,000. The differentialpressure readout devices are additional to the above element costs.

Alicat Scientific, ATC (www.alicatscientific.com)

Chell Instruments Ltd. (UK), Hastings (www.chell.co.uk)

CME, A Division of Aerospace Control Products (www.cmeflow.com)

Matheson Tri-Gas (www.matheson-trigas.com)

Meriam Instrument Division of Scott Fetzer (www.meriam.com)

National Instruments (www.ni.com)

Universal Flow Monitors Inc. (www.flowmeter.com)

where the requirements might include low to extremely low

flow rates, linear calibration and low noise, the ability to

measure high-viscosity liquids, or steady low-flow repeatability and control accuracy. Laminar flowmeters are

intended for very low flow rates where other types of meters

are either marginal in performance or cannot be used at all.

Laminar flowmeters can be constructed by various methods,

but the most common is with capillary tubes. Hence, the

terms laminar flowmeter and capillary flowmeter are virtually

synonymous. Proprietary commercial units use other matrix

shapes and are intended for use with gases (Figure 2.9a).

Where gas is metered, it is preferable to use calibrated commercial units instead of undertaking the design of a laminar

flowmeter.

The flowmeter consists of the laminar flow element and

a differential-pressure measuring instrument. While the flow

nonlinearities are often encountered. In most cases, these are

of little consequence.

The theory for laminar flowmeters is based on the

HagenPoiseuille Law for laminar flow and the Reynolds

number as a means of defining the type of flow. Both are

required to investigate and design a laminar flow element.

More detailed explanations and discussions of theory can be

found in any standard textbook on fluid mechanics.

THEORY

Fluid flow in pipes and tubes is characterized by a nondimensional number called the Reynolds number (Re). Up to

approximately Re 2000, the flow is called laminar, viscous, or

streamline. Above 10,000, the flow is called fully developed

201

202

Flow Measurement

FIG. 2.9a

The laminar flowmeter and its matrix element with miniature triangular duct passage with under 0.1-mm effective diameters. (Courtesy of

Meriam Instrument Div. of Scott Fetzer Co.)

flow is shifting from laminar to turbulent, is not clearly

defined but is called transitional. Generally, laminar flow

elements are restricted to numbers under 2000 and, most

commonly, well below 1200. Certain methods will enable a

capillary element to be used satisfactorily up to Re 15,000

with a modest sacrifice in error and linearity.

Reynolds number is defined by the following equations:

TABLE 2.9b

Gas Properties under the Standard Conditions of 29.92 in

of Mercury and 70F (760 mm of Mercury and 21C)

Gas

Re =

where

Re =

=

Q=

D=

=

W=

6.32W

50.7 Q

or Re =

D

D

2.9(1)

Density (lb/ft )

Viscosity,

Micropoise

Specific

Gravity

Air

0.0749

181.87

1.000

Argon

0.1034

225.95

1.380

Helium

0.0103

193.9

Hydrogen

0.0052

88.41

0.0695

Nitrogen

0.0725

175.85

0.968

Oxygen

0.0828

203.47

1.105

Carbon dioxide

0.1143

146.87

1.526

0.138

where

SG = specific gravity relative to air (Table 2.9b)

P = flowing gas pressure in inches of mercury absolute

P = differential pressure in inches of water

m = viscosity of the flowing gas in micropoise

(Table 2.9b)

Reynolds number

3

density (lb/ft ) at flowing temperature

flow rate (gal/min)

internal tube diameter (in.)

viscosity of flowing temperature (centipoise)

flow rate (lb/h)

HagenPoiseuille Law

For gas flow,

Re =

6.32 Q

D

or

Re =

6.32W

D

2.9(2)

where

Q = flow rate (scfh)

Other units = as defined for liquid

3

Reynolds number is limited to a range of 150 to 300 and is

calculated as

Re = 228( SG)( P)( P)/ m

2.9(3)

according to the Reynolds number calculation has been

defined, the length of the capillary has to be determined to

design the laminar flowmeter system. These equations are as

follows.

For liquid flow,

L = 1.5876 103

PD4

Q

2.9(4)

or

L=

PD4

7.86 10 5 W

2.9(5)

where

L

P

D

Q

W

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

203

Capillary

differential pressure drop (in water)

tube internal diameter (in.)

viscosity at flowing temperature (centipoise)

3

density at flowing temperature (lbm/ft )

flow rate (gal/min)

flow rate (lbm/h)

flow capillary element if the value of P is no greater than

10% of the inlet pressure. Otherwise, changes in gas density,

specific volume, and flow velocity cause too many complications in the calculations. While the calculation is in

weight units, this can be easily converted to any desired

scale units.

Temperature

Control

Low

Pressure

Steam

Jet

Mixer

Overflow

to Drain

Filter

Tempering

Coil

Differential

Pressure Transmitter

FIG. 2.9c

Typical capillary with constant temperature bath.

Design Parameters

There are a number of guidelines for successful design of a

laminar flowmeter.

1. The differential pressure drop can range from 5 to 800

in. of water (1.24 to 200 kPa).

2. (L/D)/Re should be a minimum of 0.3; for best linearity, a value of 0.6 or greater is preferable. Large L/D

ratios and/or lower Reynolds numbers contribute to

accuracy. For example, the entrance effect for laminar

flow is negligible if (L/ D)/Re > 0.3 and Re < 500.

3. The area of the flow conduit preceding the capillary

should be a minimum of 20 times the capillary area.

4. The differential-pressure instruments pressure connections should be located 100 to 200 capillary diameters from the capillary ends.

5. A filter capable of removing particles 0.1 in. (2.54

mm) or larger than the capillary internal radius should

be installed upstream of the system.

6. The metering system should be sloped up for liquids

to permit gas venting and sloped down for gases to

permit liquid draining.

7. Examination of the Hagen-Poiseuille equation shows

that viscosity is a primary variable; changes in viscosity can result in large flow measurement errors. With

a known fluid or composition, the only thing that

affects viscosity is temperature. For this reason, the

temperature must be known and held essentially constant. This can be done by immersing the metering

system and measuring capillary in a constant temperature bath as shown in Figure 2.9c. If the flow is measured in weight units such as pounds per hour, then

fluid density must be known. Fluid density also varies

with temperature, but controlling the temperature to

fix viscosity will also fix density. With some fluids,

cooling may be required instead of heating, but the

overall principle is the same.

Based on the flow rate and the viscosity of the fluid, select

a tube internal diameter that will result in a Reynolds number

within the laminar range and preferably less than 1200. Calculate the length of tubing required using the selected tube

diameter to ensure that it is a reasonable length and that it

meets the (L/D)/Re criteria. By working back and forth

between the various equations, the system can be tailored to

meet almost any design criteria. For example, let us assume

that it is desired to design a capillary flowmeter to measure

a small liquid catalyst stream, and the basic data for the

catalyst flow is as follows:

Maximum flow capacity: 50 lbm/h

Viscosity: 20 cP at 100F

3

Density: 53.8 lbm/ft

Desired instrument P: 100 in of water

Small-diameter, standard stainless-steel tubing is readily

available and should be used. To design as linear and accurate

a flowmeter as possible, a tube bore that provides a large

(L/D)/Re is desirable. To minimize plugging problems and to

enable the use of a filter that wont clog easily, start by looking

at a 3/16 0.032-in. wall thickness tubing with a nominal

internal diameter of 0.1235 in. From Equation 2.9(1),

Re =

6.32W

6.32 50

=

= 128

0.1235 20

D

2.9(6)

This is well into the laminar range, so the length of the flow

element can be calculated to determine if it will make a

reasonable design. From Equation 2.9(5),

L=

PD4

=

= 15.7 in.

5

7.86 10 W 7.86 10 5 20 50

2.9(7)

( L / D) Re = (15.7 / 0.1235)/128 = 0.993

2.9(8)

204

Flow Measurement

element and a constant temperature bath, and it looks like a

reasonable design based on the criteria.

When the fluid exits the capillary, the flow path enlarges.

If the piping is similar to that described under inlet loss, the

loss can be calculated by

Pe =

ERROR SOURCES

Changes in viscosity and density can result in flow measurement errors. Viscosity changes in liquid as a result of temperature can be substantial, while density changes are more

moderate. With gases, the reverse is usually true, with temperature having more influence on density and less on viscosity. The need for careful control of the operating temperature to minimize these effects must be emphasized.

From Equations 2.9(4) and 2.9(5), it can be seen that

internal diameter of the tube is very important, because it is

multiplied to the fourth power. While high-quality tubing will

be very close to published specifications, manufacturing tolerances will result in variations from these dimensions, both

laterally and longitudinally. If the actual effective internal

diameter of the capillary tube differs by 1% from the value

used in the calculation for a given P, an error of about 4%

will result. Therefore, the laminar flowmeter should be calibrated on a known fluid before use, and appropriate design

adjustments should be made as necessary.

To measure the true capillary differential pressure drop

according to the Poiseuille equation, it would be necessary

to put the pressure taps into the capillary at the calculated L

dimension. This is impractical because of the small tubing.

A pressure tap must be perfectly flush with the inside of the

tube and must be clean with no burrs or other projections

into the tube. Otherwise, considerable differential-pressure

measurement error will result. Using practical methods of

constructing a capillary flowmeter, there are three additional

sources of pressure drop in addition to the capillary loss.

These are all additive and will give a greater indicated pressure drop than the capillary flow alone. These three sources

of error are inlet loss, exit loss, and capillary entrance loss.

These losses also contribute to nonlinearity.

There is very little loss from the entrance fitting into the

capillary tube if laminar flow conditions exist. But if the

piping cavity ahead of the capillary is extremely large relative

to the capillary (approximating a reservoir) and the fluid

velocity is thus extremely low (approaching zero), there can

1

be an inlet effect and pressure loss. This is a result of the

sudden contraction from the large reservoir to the small tube

bore, forming a bell-mouth shape approach flow. This loss

can be expressed as

Pi =

2.8 10 7 W 2

D4

2.9(9)

out of a reservoir.

5.6 10 7 W 2

D4

2.9(10)

pressure drop in the initial fluid path distance or, to state it

in another way, for a short distance the pressure drop is higher

2,3

than that predicted by the Poiseuille Equation. The additional loss is due to the work expended in the formation of

the parabolic velocity distribution profile characteristic of

laminar flow. It can be expressed in terms of an equivalent

length of capillary, Leq, added to that calculated by the Poiseuille

equation. Refer to Figure 2.9d for determining the Leq.

The following equation can be used for the pressure drop:

Pen =

1.96 10 7 W 2

D4

2.9(11)

design factors that will minimize overall entrance effects. For

the conditions given in the table, the error involved will be

less than 1%. In general, the effect of all of the above errors

will be minimized if the Reynolds number is low, the laminar

flow element is long, and the pressure drop is high. The overall

Leq /D

Reference 3

0.40

0.35

0.30

Recommended for

Re < 800

Recommended for

Re > 1000

0.25

0.20

0.15

100

Re 1000

10,000

FIG. 2.9d

Equivalent length of capillary (Leq).

TABLE 2.9e

L/D Ratio to Minimize Entrance Effect

Re

10

50

100

500

1000

2000

L/D>

15

75

150

750

1500

3000

Percent error =

TABLE 2.9f

Critical Reynolds Number vs. Coil Curvature

Ratio

=

L

P

2.9(12)

Coil

Curvature Ratio (Dc/D)

Critical

Reynolds Number (Re)c

Straight Pipe

2100

2000

2700

1000

2900

500

3200

100

4600

50

5700

10

10,000

15,000

10

8

6

Le /L

laminar flow elements. One is to use a number of capillary

tubes in parallel. The other is to use a tight helical coil capillary. The choice of technique depends on such factors as

desired flow rate, nonlinearity requirements, Reynolds number, capillary length, and system space design limitations.

If the amount of flow desired is greater than can be

conveniently handled by a single capillary, the flow can be

4

split into many smaller units as necessary. Units with matrix

elements (Figure 2.9a) or with more than 900 individual capillary tubes have been built and used successfully. The

mechanical construction of multiparallel capillaries can be a

problem. Tube packing voids may not affect meter operation

but add considerable difficulty to calculating the meter range.

Normally, it is best to eliminate the voids by filling the spaces

with solder, braze material, or plastic resin; the filler material

chosen will depend on fluid compatibility and operating conditions. Overall, it is a tricky mechanical design.

Coiling a length of straight capillary results in a flow

phenomenon called the Dean effect. When a fluid flows

through a curved pipe or coil, a secondary circulation of fluid,

known as a double eddy, takes place at right angles to the

main direction of flow. This circulation accounts for the fact

that the pressure drop in curved pipe is greater than in a

corresponding length of straight pipe. The Dean effect stabilizes laminar flow and raises the Reynolds number at which

turbulent flow starts. It has been established that this will

allow properly designed coiled capillaries to be operated up

5

to a Reynolds number of 15,000. The Reynolds number at

which laminar flow can be sustained for various coil curvature ratios is called the critical Reynolds number. It is a

function of the internal diameter of the tube and the coil

tightness or diameter. Table 2.9f gives the approximate critical Reynolds number at which laminar flow can be sustained

for various coil curvature ratios.

In this table, D is the tube inside diameter, and Dc is the

mean coil diameter, centerline to centerline. From a practical

viewpoint, the ratio of D/Dc = 1/9 is equivalent to the maximum allowable critical Reynolds number of 15,000 and can

be used as a safe design in most cases.

The pressure drop of laminar flow through coils can be

expressed in terms of an equivalent length, Le, of straight

pipe of the same diameter and shape which will have the

same friction loss as the curved pipe. The ratio of the equivalent to actual coil length, Le /L is a function of the Dean

205

4

3

2

1

10

3 4

6 8 102

2 3 4

Re/(Dc/D)1/2

6 8 103

3 4

FIG. 2.9g

Equivalent lengths for curved pipe.

1/2

is accurate to about 5%.

The equation for calculating the length of a coiled capillary

required to meet a specific metering design is expressed by

L=

PD4

7.86 10 5 WC

2.9(13)

The coil factor correction is a function of the term

1/2

1/2

Re(D/DC) . Refer to Figure 2.9h for C vs. Re(D/DC) or to

Figure 2.9i for C versus Re for various D/Dc ratios. In very

small capillaries, the coil diameter can be the nominal value,

since exact centerline measurement is insignificant.

In laminar flow, the friction factor is a function of Reynolds

number only and is independent of surface roughness.

The friction factor can be expressed as

f = 16/Re

2.9(14)

alternate means of calculating the capillary element as

shown by

L=

2 Pgc D

4 fV 2

2.9(15)

206

Flow Measurement

8

7

6

5

C

4

3

2

1

10

100

1000

10,000

N Re(D/Dc)1/2

FIG. 2.9h

Correction factors for coiled capillary flowmeter (data adapted from

reference 5).

CONCLUSION

0.10

0.08

0.06

8

7

D

0.04

6

C

5

Dc

0.02

4

3

2

1

100

1000

NRe

10,000

FIG. 2.9i

Correction factors for coiled capillary flowmeters (data adapted

from reference 5).

where

L = capillary length (ft)

2

P = pressure drop (lbf/ft )

2

gc = gravity constant 32.17 (ft/sec )

D = capillary internal diameter (ft)

= fluid density (lbm/ft)

V = fluid velocity (ft/sec)

In the past decade, the use of laminar flowmeters has greatly

expanded, and the number of suppliers has also increased.

Their applications range from the testing of internal combustion

and fan or blower calibration. Standard units are available in

several materials, including stainless steel. They can be provided with a variety of connections and in sizes ranging from

0.25 to 16 in. (6 to 400 mm).

In terms of airflow capability, these units range from 5

cc/min to approximately 65 cubic meters/min (2285 SCFM).

Pressure differentials generated by the laminar flow elements

are usually under 20 in. of water (510 mm of water). The

recommended installation practice is to provide 10 to 15

diameters of straight pipe upstream of the flow element.

Installation of a filter is also recommended at the meter inlet.

In engine testing, a backfire trap is also desirable to prevent

carbon deposits on the matrix element.

The measurement error is usually between 0.5 and 1%

of actual flow within a 10:1 range. However, this performance

is a function of both the quality of calibration of the system

and of the precision of the d/p detector.

rates of liquids and gases. Design of the elements is based

on the use of the Reynolds number and Poiseuilles law.

Design for most units is relatively simple, but fabrication of

a complete unit and system can be complex. Simple capillary

units can be fabricated by the user, but most require manufacturers skills and design knowledge.

It is highly recommended that the final system be calibrated with the same type of fluid as the fluid upon which

the sensor will operate, such as air or nitrogen for gas services

and water for liquid services. After such calibration, the conversion is easily made to the actual fluid. The critical consideration is to calibrate the unit under conditions that will

approximate the actual in-service Reynolds number of the

application. Some sources of calibration services, other than

the manufacturers, are the National Institute of Standards and

Technology (NIST), Edison ESI, and the Colorado Engineering Experiment Station, Inc. (CEESI).

References

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Willoughby, D. A. and Kittle, P. A., Industrial and Eng. Fundamentals,

6(2), 304306, 1967.

Rivas, M. A. Jr. and Shapiro, A. H., Trans. ASME, 489497, April 1956.

Greef, C. E., and Hafckman, J. R., ISA J., 7578, August 1965.

Powell, H. N. and Browne, W. G., Rev. Sci. Instr., 28(2), 138141, 1957.

Bibliography

Bowen, LeBaron R., Designing laminar-flow systems, Chemical Eng., June

12, 1961.

Cushing, M., The future of flow measurement, Flow Control, January 2000.

and Control in Science and Industry, Volume 2, Instrument Society of

America, Research Triangle Park, NC, 1981.

Gann, R. G., J. Chemical Ed., 51(11), 761762, 1974.

Hughes, R. A., New laminar flowmeter, Instrum. Control Syst., April 1962.

Instrum. Control Syst., 7576, 1976.

Liptk, B. G., Flow measurement trends, Control, June 2000.

Mahood, R. F. and Littlefield, R., private communications, March 1952.

Polentz, L. M., Capillary flowmetering, Instrum. Control Syst., April

1961.

207

Spitzer, D. W., Flow Measurement, 2nd ed., ISA Press, Research Triangle

Park, NC, 2001.

Thomas, D. L., Laminar flow elements, Control, March 1991.

Todd, David, A., A universal calibration curve for laminar flowmeters, in

Flow, Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, Volume

2, Instrument Society of America, Research Triangle Park, NC, 1981.

Weigand, J. and Lombardo, L., The use of laminar flow element in computerized flow measurement, 1989 ISA Conference, Paper #890002.

Welch, J. V., Trends in low gas flow metering, InTech, February 1991.

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