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OSI Model

OSI Layer Model describes how information is transmitted between


networking devices. In thistutorial I will provide a brief introduction of OSI
Layer model including its advantage and services.OSI model was developed
in 1984. It divides data transmission process in seven layers. Each layer has
its own functions and protocols.

An Overview of the OSI Model

The main benefits of the OSI


model include the following
:

Helps users understand the big picture of networking


Helps users understand how hardware and software elements
function together
Makes troubleshooting easier by separating networks into
manageable pieces
Defines terms that networking professionals can use to compare
basic functional relationships on differentNetworks
Helps users understand new technologies as they are developed

. Seven Layers of OSI model

Layer 1 The Physical Layer

The physical layer of the OSI model defines connector and


interface specifications, as well as the medium

(cable) requirements. Electrical, mechanical, functional, and


procedural specifications are provided for sendinga bit stream on
a computer network.

Features

Cabling system components


Adapters that connect media to physical interfaces
Connector design and pin assignments
Hub, repeater, and patch panel specifications

Devices
HUBS
REPEATERS
AMPLIFIERS
TRANSCIEVER
MULTIPLEXERS
RECIEVERS

Protocol

Layer 2 The Data Link Layer

The data link layer provides error-free transfer of data frames


from one node to another over the physical layer, allowing layers
above it to assume virtually error-free transmission over the link. .
To do this, the data link layer provides:

Link establishment and termination: establishes and


terminates the logical link between two nodes.

Frame traffic control: tells the transmitting node to "back-off"


when no frame buffers are available.

Features
Allows a device to access the network to send and receive
messages

Offers a physical address so a devices data can be sent on the


network
Works with a devices networking software when sending and
receiving
messages
Provides error-detection capability

Devices
BRIDGES
SWITCHES
BROUTERS

Protocol
HDLC
LLC
PPP

Layer 3 The Network Layer

The network layer controls the operation of the subnet, deciding which physical
path the data should take based on network conditions, priority of service, and
other factors

Features
Routing: routes frames among networks
Subnet traffic control: routers (network layer intermediate systems) can
instruct a sending station to "throttle back" its frame transmission when the
router's buffer fills up

Logical-physical address mapping: translates logical addresses, or names, into


physical addresses.

Devices
ROUTERS
LAYER 3 SWICHES

Protocol

IP
IPX
RIP

Layer 4 The Transport Layer

The transport layer of the OSI model, offers end-to-end


communication between end devices through anetwork.
Depending on the application, the transport layer either offers
reliable, connection-oriented or connectionless,
best-effort communications.

Features

Application identification
Client-side entity identification
Confirmation that the entire message arrived intact
Segmentation of data for network transport
Control of data flow to prevent memory overruns

Devices
Gateways

Protocol
TCP
UDP
SPX

Layer 5 The Session Layer


the session layer, provides various services, including tracking the
number of bytes that each end ofthe session has acknowledged
receiving from the other end of the session. This session layer
allows applicationsfunctioning on devices to establish, manage,
and terminate a dialog through a network

Features

Virtual connection between application entities


Synchronization of data flow
Creation of dialog units
Connection parameter negotiations

Devices
Gateways

Protocol
TFTP
SMTP
HTTP

Layer 6 The Presentation Layer


The presentation layer, is responsible for how an application
formats the data to be sent out onto thenetwork. The
presentation layer basically allows an application to read (or
understand) the message

Features
Encryption and decryption of a message for security
Compression and expansion of a message so that it travels
efficiently
Graphics formatting
Content translation
System-specific translation

Devices
SMTP
TELNET
TFTP

Protocol
Gateways

Layer 7 The Application Layer


The application layer, provides an interface for the end user
operating a device connected to a network.This layer is what the
user sees, in terms of loading an application (such as Web
browser or e-mail); thatis, this application layer is the data the
user views while using these applications

Features
Support for file transfers
Ability to print on a network

Electronic mail
Electronic messaging
Browsing the World Wide Web

Devices
gateways

Protocol
SNMP
FTP
TFTP
SMTP