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# Objectives

## Define a new property called entropy to quantify the second-law

effects.
Establish the increase of entropy principle.

## Calculate the entropy changes that take place during processes

for pure substances, incompressible substances, and ideal
gases.

Entropy

## Examine a special class of idealized processes, called isentropic

processes, and develop the property relations for these
processes.
Derive the reversible steady-flow work relations.
Develop the isentropic efficiencies for various steady-flow
devices.
Introduce and apply the entropy balance to various systems.

The content and the pictures are from the text book: engel, Y. A. and Boles, M. A., Thermodynamics:
An Engineering Approach, McGraw-Hill, New York, 6th Ed., 2008

Definition of Entropy

Definition of Entropy

## If we extend this to a thermodynamic cycle, there is a new statement as

follows:

QH QL 1000kJ 300kJ
+
=
+
=0
TH TL
1000k
300 K

1000kJ

1000kJ

1000kJ

## Clausius inequality: for any thermodynamic cycle, reversible or irreversible,

the cyclic integral of Q/T is always less than or equal to zero.

## For the irreversible engine:

QH QL 1000kJ 550kJ
+
=
+
TH TL
1000k
300 K

The symbol (integral symbol with a circle in the middle) is used to indicate
that the integration is to be performed over the entire cycle.

= 0.83 < 0
300kJ

## For the impossible engine:

Q H QL 1000kJ 200kJ
+
=
+
TH TL
1000k
300 K

550kJ
300k

300K

200kJ

can be viewed as the sum of all the differential amount of heat transfer
divided by the temperature at the boundary.

300K

= 0.33 > 0

Q
Q
QH QL
Q
+
= ( H + L)=
TH TL TH
TL
T

## <0 irreversible engine

=0 reversible engine
>0 impossible engine

Definition of Entropy

The equality in the Clausius inequality holds for totally or just internally
reversible cycles and the inequality for the irreversible ones.

Definition of Entropy
Entropy is a property, like all other properties, it has a fixed value at a fixed
sate. The entropy change between two specified states is the same whether
the process is reversible or irreversible.

## A quantity whose cyclic integral is zero (i.e., a

property like volume) typically depends on the
state and not the process path. Thus such a
quantity is a property. Therefore (Q/T)in, rev must
represent a property in the differential form.

## In a special case (an internal reversible

process), the entropy change between two
specified states:

## Clausius has realized this point and discovered

a thermodynamic property named entropy

## Entropy (S) is an extensive property of a system.

Entropy per unit mass, designated s, is an
intensive property with the unit kJ/kg.K.
Note: Cv, Cp and R have the same unit kJ/kg.K

## For a closed system that undergoes an

irreversible process, the entropy change
between two specified states:
The net change in volume
(a property) during a cycle
is always zero.

Entropy

## Considering a cycle that is made of two

processes: Process 1-2, which is
arbitrary (reversible or irreversible), and
Process 2-1, which is internally reversible.
From the Clausius inequality:

## This equation is particularly useful for determining the entropy changes of

thermal energy reservoirs that can adsorb or supply heat indefinitely at a
constant temperature.
Heat transfer to a system increases the entropy of a system, whereas heat
transfer from a system decreases it. In fact, losing heat is the only way the
entropy of a system can be decreased.

## The term is equal to the entropy change S1-S2:

A cycle composed of
a reversible and an
irreversible process.

## (1).The equality holds for an internally

reversible process. The entropy change
becomes equal to
, which represent
entropy transfer with heat.
(2). The inequality for an irreversible process.

## The Increase of Entropy Principle

The inequality indicate that the entropy change of a closed system during an
irreversible process is greater than entropy transfer. In other words, some
entropy is generated or created during an irreversible process. The entropy
generated is called entropy generation, Sgen.
Rewrite the above equation

The entropy generation Sgen is always a positive quantity or zero. Its value
depends on the process path, and thus it is not a property of a system
For an isolated system (an adiabatic closed system), the heat transfer is
zero, thus

## The entropy change of an

isolated system is the sum of the
entropy changes of its
components, and is never less
than zero.

## A system and its surroundings

form an isolated system.

This equation indicates that the entropy of an isolated system during a process
always increases. It never decreases. Increase of entropy principle

## The Increase of Entropy Principle

Some entropy is generated or created during an irreversible process, and
this generation is due entirely to the presence of irreversibilities.
The Increase of entropy principle can summarized as follows:

1. Processes can occur in a certain direction only, not in any direction. A
process must proceed in the direction that complies with the increase of
entropy principle, that is, Sgen 0. A process that violates this principle is
impossible.
2. Entropy is a nonconserved property, and there is no such thing as the
conservation of entropy principle. Entropy is conserved during the
idealized reversible processes only and increases during all actual
processes.

## (1). The entropy generation, Sgen, is not

a property of a system. Its value
depends on the process path. It is
always a positive quantity or zero.
(2). The entropy, S, is a property. It is
independent on the path. The entropy
change (S2-S1) can be zero, positive, or
negative

## 3. The performance of engineering systems is degraded by the presence of

irreversibilities, and entropy generation is a measure of the magnitudes
of the irreversibilities during that process. It is also used to establish
criteria for the performance of engineering devices.
4. Entropy can transferred by two ways: (i) heat transfer and (ii) mass
transfer. Net work can not transfer entropy.

## Conservation of energy is applied to a closed system that undergoes any processes

regardless of reversible of irreversible, hence the energy balance equation:

E in E out = E sys
Q in Q out + W in W out = E system = U + PE + KE
There is no conservation of entropy for a closed system that undergoes any
processes regardless of reversible of irreversible, hence the entropy balance equation:

Qin Qout

+ S gen = S sys = S 2 S1
Tin Tout
In a special case, a closed system undergoes an internal reversible processes, then
the entropy balance equation becomes:

Qin Qout

= S sys = S 2 S1
Tin Tout

Example 7-2

Example 7-2

## Entropy Change of Pure Substances

Entropy is a property, and thus the value of entropy of a system is fixed once
the state of the system is fixed.

The value of entropy at a specific state is determined just like any other
proper.
In the saturated region:

## Especially, the T-s

diagram of water is shown
in Figure A-9 in Pg. 926

P=
co
ns
ta n
t

## The entropy of a pure

substance is determined
from the tables (like other
properties).

Example 7-3

## Entropy Change of Pure Substances

Example 7-3

Example 7-3
Table A-13
Superheated
vapor
Table A-12

Isentropic Processes

Isentropic Processes

## A process during which the entropy remains constant is called an isentropic

process.
During an internally reversible
entropy remains constant.

## The isentropic process appears as a

vertical line segment on a T-s
diagram.

Isentropic Processes

Isentropic Processes

Example 7-5

Example 7-5

From Table A-5, the Tsat= 263.94 oC when P1= 5000 kPa.
T1=450 > Tsat= 263.94 oC, Therefore, it is superheated vapor under the State 1. So
s1 can be obtained from Table A-6, s1=6.8210 KJ/kg K and h1= 3317.2 kJ/kg k
(page 922)

## Property Diagrams Involving Entropy

Isentropic Processes

## For an internal reversible process:

Example 7-5

From Table A-5, the Sg= 6.4675 KJ/kg K when P1= 1400 kPa.

## On a T-S diagram, the area under

the process curve represents the
heat transfer for internally reversible
processes. But the area has no
meaning for an irreversible process

## s2=s1= 6.8210> sg@p=1400 kPa = 6.4675 kJ/kg K. Therefore, it is superheated vapor

under the State 2. So h2 can be obtained from Table A-6, h2=2967.4 kJ/kg K
through interpolation (page 921)

Temperature-entropy diagram

or

## Property Diagrams Involving Entropy

An isentropic process appears
as a vertical line segment on a
T-s diagram. This expected
since an isentropic process
involves no heat transfer, and
therefore the area under the
process path must be zero.

## The T-s diagram serves as a

valuable tool for visualizing the
second law aspects of
processes and cycles.
The T-s diagram of the Carnot Cycle
An isentropic process appears as a
vertical line segment on a T-s diagram

## Property Diagrams Involving Entropy

What is Entropy?
Entropy is a measure of molecular disorder or molecular randomness

## The h-s diagram is useful

turbines, compressors and
nozzles:
(i). The vertical distance h
(between the inlet and the exit
states) on an h-s diagram is a
measure of work.
(ii). The horizontal distance s
is a measure of irreversibilities
associated with the process.

## Mollier diagram: The h-s diagram

Fig. A-10 in Appendix in Page 927

The T ds Relations

## The level of molecular disorder

(entropy) of a substance increases
as it melts or evaporates.

## A pure crystalline substance at

absolute zero temperature is in
perfect order, and its entropy is zero
(the third law of thermodynamics).

The T ds Relations

## For a closed system that undergoing an internal reversible process:

Tds PdV = du
the first T ds, or Gibbs equation

Tds PdV = du
the first T ds, or Gibbs equation

## the second T ds equation

The T ds Relations
The T ds relations are derived from an internal reversible process. However,
it is valid for both reversible and irreversible processes and for both closed
and open systems, since entropy is a property and the change in a property
between two states is independent on the type of process the system
undergoes.

## The T ds relations are valid

for both reversible and
irreversible processes and
for both closed and open
systems.

Since

## Liquids and solids can be

approximated as
incompressible substances
since their specific volumes
remain nearly constant during
a process.

process:

## Under the constant-specific-heat

assumption, the specific heat is
assumed to be constant at some
average value.

## We choose absolute zero as the reference

temperature and define a function s as

On a unitmass basis

On a unitmole basis

Example 7-9

## The entropy of an ideal

gas depends on both T
and P. The function s
represents only the
temperature-dependent
part of entropy.

Example 7-9

S2- S1 =

## exp(s/R) is the relative pressure Pr

The use of Pr data for calculating the final
temperature during an isentropic process.

## The isentropic relations of ideal gases

are valid for the isentropic processes
of ideal gases only.

## T/Pr is the relative specific volume vr

The use of vr data for calculating the final
temperature during an isentropic process

## Variable Specific Heats (Exact Analysis)

Table A-17
The use of Pr data for calculating
the final temperature during an
isentropic process.

Table A-17
The use of vr data for calculating
the final temperature during an
isentropic process

Example 7-10

Example 7-10

## If we use k=1.400 at the initial temperature 295 K

T2=(295K) (8)1.4-1
T2 = 667.7 K
Thus we can estimate the average
temperature is 481 K
At 481k, K=1.389 based on Table A-2b
T2= 662.4 K

## Isentropic process: internal reversible, adiabatic

The isentropic process involves no irreversibilities and serves as the ideal
Isentropic Efficiency of Turbines:

## Isentropic efficiency is also called the second law efficiency, which is a

measure of the deviation of actual processes from the corresponding
idealized ones.
Thermal efficiency is
called the first law
efficiency.
Typically a turbine under
inlet state of the working
fluid and the exhaust
pressure is fixed

## The h-s diagram for the actual

and isentropic processes of an

## 3. For a turbine under the steady operation,

the inlet state of the working fluid and the exhaust pressure is fixed.

Example 7-14

Example 7-14

negligible

## Can you use isentropic efficiency for a nonadiabatic compressor?

Can you use isothermal efficiency for an
For a reversible isothermal process, then we
can define an isothermal efficiency:

## Wt and Wa are the required work inputs to the

compressor for the reversible isothermal and
actual processes.

## The h-s diagram of the actual and

isentropic processes of an

## Isentropic Efficiencies of Pumps

Compressors are
sometimes intentionally
cooled to minimize the
work input.

## Isentropic Efficiencies of Pumps:

When kinetic and potential energies
of a liquid are negligible

Example 7-15

Example 7-15
State 1:

10

Example 7-15

## Isentropic Efficiency of Nozzles

Isentropic Efficiency of Nozzles is defined as:

E in = E out

Since Q = 0,

W = 0,

pe 0

V2
V
m( h1 +
) = m( h2 a + 2 a )
2
2

2
1

## If the inlet velocity of the fluid is small

relative to the exit velocity, the energy
balance is

## The h-s diagram of the actual and

isentropic processes of an

Then

Example 7-16

Example 7-16

(m / s )

## Alternatively, use a constant Cp

0.92 =
h1 = 988 kJ/kg = 988,000 J/kg at 950K (Table A-17)
h2s = 766 kJ/kg = 766,000 J/kg at 748K
V1 = 0

988 h2 a
988 766

Interpolation:

## 780 T2 a 800.03 783.8

=
780 760 800 778.18

T2a = 765K

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Entropy Balance

Example 7-16

are not uniform

## Entropy can be transferred to or from a system by two mechanisms: heat

transfer and mass flow.
Entropy transfer by heat:

## No entropy accompanies work as it

crosses the system boundary. But
entropy may be generated within the
system as work is dissipated into a
less useful form of energy.
(1). For an irreversible process, the entropy generation (Sgen) is greater
than zero
(2). For a reversible process, the entropy generation (Sgen) is zero and thus
the entropy change of a system is equal to the entropy transfer

## Heat transfer is always accompanied by

entropy transfer in the amount of Q/T,
where T is the boundary temperature.

## Mass contains entropy as well as

energy, and thus mass flow into or out
of system is always accompanied by
energy and entropy transfer.

The entropy change between the final state and the initial state of
system that undergoes a process:
1) The entropy transfer by heat
2) The entropy transfer by mass flow
3) The irreversibility extent of the process

12

## A closed system involves no mass transfer across its boundary

Noting that any closed system and its surroundings can be treated as an

## For an adiabatic process, no heat transfer across the boundary of a closed

system, the entropy change of the system only depends on the irreversibility
of the process:
Entropy generation outside system
boundaries can be accounted for by
writing an entropy balance on an
extended system that includes the
system and its immediate
surroundings.

surr

## As compared with a closed system, a control volume involves mass transfer

across its boundary. Thus the entropy balance:

Energy balance:

## (Qin Qout ) + (Win Wout ) = U + KE + PE

For a closed system without change in the KE and PE

Entropy balance:

Qk

T + m s m
i

Mass balance :

se + S gen = 0

## Balance Equations of Control Volumes

For a general control volume:

## The entropy change within a control volume

during a process is equal to the sum:
(1) Entropy transfer by heat
(2) the net entropy transfer by mass flow
(3) the entropy generation as result from
irreversibility

(kW/K)

## For a single-stream, steady-flow device:

Energy balance :

Q
T k + m( si se ) + S gen = 0
k

m( si se ) + S gen = 0

Entropy balance :

reversible process:

si = se

13

## Balance Equations of Steady-flow Control Volumes

Entropy Generation

## For a steady-flow control volume:

Mass balance :

Energy balance :

Entropy balance :

Qk

T + m s m
i

se + S gen = 0

Entropy Generation
Example 7-18

Entropy Generation
Example 7-18

Qk

T + m s m
i

se + S gen = 0

(Table A-6)
(Table A-6)
Interpolation

Entropy Generation

Entropy Generation
Example 7-19

14

Entropy Generation

Entropy Generation
Example 7-19

## Now we take the lake as the closed system.

Cavg=

The heat transfer form the iron block to the lake while the lake keeps a
constant temperature (285K). Therefore, we can consider this isothermal
process is an internal reversible. Thus Sgen =0

## Qnet ,in Wnet ,out = U

Entropy Generation

Entropy Generation

Example 7-19

Entropy Generation

Entropy Generation

Example 7-20

Energy Balance:

Qk

T + m s m
i

se + S gen = 0

h1 = ?
s1 = ?

15

Summary
Entropy
The Increase of entropy principle
Entropy change of pure substances
Isentropic processes
Property diagrams involving entropy
The T ds relations
Entropy change of liquids and solids
The entropy change of ideal gases