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You are on page 1of 16

effects.

Establish the increase of entropy principle.

for pure substances, incompressible substances, and ideal

gases.

Entropy

processes, and develop the property relations for these

processes.

Derive the reversible steady-flow work relations.

Develop the isentropic efficiencies for various steady-flow

devices.

Introduce and apply the entropy balance to various systems.

The content and the pictures are from the text book: engel, Y. A. and Boles, M. A., Thermodynamics:

An Engineering Approach, McGraw-Hill, New York, 6th Ed., 2008

Definition of Entropy

Definition of Entropy

follows:

QH QL 1000kJ 300kJ

+

=

+

=0

TH TL

1000k

300 K

1000kJ

1000kJ

1000kJ

the cyclic integral of Q/T is always less than or equal to zero.

QH QL 1000kJ 550kJ

+

=

+

TH TL

1000k

300 K

The symbol (integral symbol with a circle in the middle) is used to indicate

that the integration is to be performed over the entire cycle.

= 0.83 < 0

300kJ

Q H QL 1000kJ 200kJ

+

=

+

TH TL

1000k

300 K

550kJ

300k

300K

200kJ

can be viewed as the sum of all the differential amount of heat transfer

divided by the temperature at the boundary.

300K

= 0.33 > 0

Q

Q

QH QL

Q

+

= ( H + L)=

TH TL TH

TL

T

=0 reversible engine

>0 impossible engine

Definition of Entropy

The equality in the Clausius inequality holds for totally or just internally

reversible cycles and the inequality for the irreversible ones.

Definition of Entropy

Entropy is a property, like all other properties, it has a fixed value at a fixed

sate. The entropy change between two specified states is the same whether

the process is reversible or irreversible.

property like volume) typically depends on the

state and not the process path. Thus such a

quantity is a property. Therefore (Q/T)in, rev must

represent a property in the differential form.

process), the entropy change between two

specified states:

a thermodynamic property named entropy

Entropy per unit mass, designated s, is an

intensive property with the unit kJ/kg.K.

Note: Cv, Cp and R have the same unit kJ/kg.K

irreversible process, the entropy change

between two specified states:

The net change in volume

(a property) during a cycle

is always zero.

Entropy

processes: Process 1-2, which is

arbitrary (reversible or irreversible), and

Process 2-1, which is internally reversible.

From the Clausius inequality:

thermal energy reservoirs that can adsorb or supply heat indefinitely at a

constant temperature.

Heat transfer to a system increases the entropy of a system, whereas heat

transfer from a system decreases it. In fact, losing heat is the only way the

entropy of a system can be decreased.

A cycle composed of

a reversible and an

irreversible process.

reversible process. The entropy change

becomes equal to

, which represent

entropy transfer with heat.

(2). The inequality for an irreversible process.

The inequality indicate that the entropy change of a closed system during an

irreversible process is greater than entropy transfer. In other words, some

entropy is generated or created during an irreversible process. The entropy

generated is called entropy generation, Sgen.

Rewrite the above equation

The entropy generation Sgen is always a positive quantity or zero. Its value

depends on the process path, and thus it is not a property of a system

For an isolated system (an adiabatic closed system), the heat transfer is

zero, thus

isolated system is the sum of the

entropy changes of its

components, and is never less

than zero.

form an isolated system.

This equation indicates that the entropy of an isolated system during a process

always increases. It never decreases. Increase of entropy principle

Some entropy is generated or created during an irreversible process, and

this generation is due entirely to the presence of irreversibilities.

The Increase of entropy principle can summarized as follows:

1. Processes can occur in a certain direction only, not in any direction. A

process must proceed in the direction that complies with the increase of

entropy principle, that is, Sgen 0. A process that violates this principle is

impossible.

2. Entropy is a nonconserved property, and there is no such thing as the

conservation of entropy principle. Entropy is conserved during the

idealized reversible processes only and increases during all actual

processes.

a property of a system. Its value

depends on the process path. It is

always a positive quantity or zero.

(2). The entropy, S, is a property. It is

independent on the path. The entropy

change (S2-S1) can be zero, positive, or

negative

irreversibilities, and entropy generation is a measure of the magnitudes

of the irreversibilities during that process. It is also used to establish

criteria for the performance of engineering devices.

4. Entropy can transferred by two ways: (i) heat transfer and (ii) mass

transfer. Net work can not transfer entropy.

regardless of reversible of irreversible, hence the energy balance equation:

E in E out = E sys

Q in Q out + W in W out = E system = U + PE + KE

There is no conservation of entropy for a closed system that undergoes any

processes regardless of reversible of irreversible, hence the entropy balance equation:

Qin Qout

+ S gen = S sys = S 2 S1

Tin Tout

In a special case, a closed system undergoes an internal reversible processes, then

the entropy balance equation becomes:

Qin Qout

= S sys = S 2 S1

Tin Tout

Example 7-2

Example 7-2

Entropy is a property, and thus the value of entropy of a system is fixed once

the state of the system is fixed.

The value of entropy at a specific state is determined just like any other

proper.

In the saturated region:

diagram of water is shown

in Figure A-9 in Pg. 926

P=

co

ns

ta n

t

substance is determined

from the tables (like other

properties).

Example 7-3

Example 7-3

Example 7-3

Table A-13

Superheated

vapor

Table A-12

Isentropic Processes

Isentropic Processes

process.

During an internally reversible

and adiabatic process, the

entropy remains constant.

vertical line segment on a T-s

diagram.

Isentropic Processes

Isentropic Processes

Example 7-5

Example 7-5

From Table A-5, the Tsat= 263.94 oC when P1= 5000 kPa.

T1=450 > Tsat= 263.94 oC, Therefore, it is superheated vapor under the State 1. So

s1 can be obtained from Table A-6, s1=6.8210 KJ/kg K and h1= 3317.2 kJ/kg k

(page 922)

Isentropic Processes

Example 7-5

From Table A-5, the Sg= 6.4675 KJ/kg K when P1= 1400 kPa.

the process curve represents the

heat transfer for internally reversible

processes. But the area has no

meaning for an irreversible process

under the State 2. So h2 can be obtained from Table A-6, h2=2967.4 kJ/kg K

through interpolation (page 921)

Temperature-entropy diagram

or

An isentropic process appears

as a vertical line segment on a

T-s diagram. This expected

since an isentropic process

involves no heat transfer, and

therefore the area under the

process path must be zero.

valuable tool for visualizing the

second law aspects of

processes and cycles.

The T-s diagram of the Carnot Cycle

An isentropic process appears as a

vertical line segment on a T-s diagram

What is Entropy?

Entropy is a measure of molecular disorder or molecular randomness

analysis of adiabatic steadyflow devices, such as

turbines, compressors and

nozzles:

(i). The vertical distance h

(between the inlet and the exit

states) on an h-s diagram is a

measure of work.

(ii). The horizontal distance s

is a measure of irreversibilities

associated with the process.

Fig. A-10 in Appendix in Page 927

The T ds Relations

(entropy) of a substance increases

as it melts or evaporates.

absolute zero temperature is in

perfect order, and its entropy is zero

(the third law of thermodynamics).

The T ds Relations

Tds PdV = du

the first T ds, or Gibbs equation

Tds PdV = du

the first T ds, or Gibbs equation

The T ds Relations

The T ds relations are derived from an internal reversible process. However,

it is valid for both reversible and irreversible processes and for both closed

and open systems, since entropy is a property and the change in a property

between two states is independent on the type of process the system

undergoes.

for both reversible and

irreversible processes and

for both closed and open

systems.

Since

approximated as

incompressible substances

since their specific volumes

remain nearly constant during

a process.

process:

assumption, the specific heat is

assumed to be constant at some

average value.

temperature and define a function s as

On a unitmass basis

On a unitmole basis

Example 7-9

gas depends on both T

and P. The function s

represents only the

temperature-dependent

part of entropy.

Example 7-9

S2- S1 =

The use of Pr data for calculating the final

temperature during an isentropic process.

are valid for the isentropic processes

of ideal gases only.

The use of vr data for calculating the final

temperature during an isentropic process

Table A-17

The use of Pr data for calculating

the final temperature during an

isentropic process.

Table A-17

The use of vr data for calculating

the final temperature during an

isentropic process

Example 7-10

Example 7-10

T2=(295K) (8)1.4-1

T2 = 667.7 K

Thus we can estimate the average

temperature is 481 K

At 481k, K=1.389 based on Table A-2b

T2= 662.4 K

The isentropic process involves no irreversibilities and serves as the ideal

process for adiabatic devices.

Isentropic Efficiency of Turbines:

measure of the deviation of actual processes from the corresponding

idealized ones.

Thermal efficiency is

called the first law

efficiency.

Typically a turbine under

the steady operation, the

inlet state of the working

fluid and the exhaust

pressure is fixed

and isentropic processes of an

adiabatic turbine.

the inlet state of the working fluid and the exhaust pressure is fixed.

Example 7-14

Example 7-14

negligible

Can you use isothermal efficiency for an

adiabatic compressor?

For a reversible isothermal process, then we

can define an isothermal efficiency:

compressor for the reversible isothermal and

actual processes.

isentropic processes of an

adiabatic compressor

Compressors are

sometimes intentionally

cooled to minimize the

work input.

When kinetic and potential energies

of a liquid are negligible

Example 7-15

Example 7-15

State 1:

10

Example 7-15

Isentropic Efficiency of Nozzles is defined as:

E in = E out

Since Q = 0,

W = 0,

pe 0

V2

V

m( h1 +

) = m( h2 a + 2 a )

2

2

2

1

relative to the exit velocity, the energy

balance is

isentropic processes of an

adiabatic nozzle.

Then

Example 7-16

Example 7-16

(m / s )

0.92 =

h1 = 988 kJ/kg = 988,000 J/kg at 950K (Table A-17)

h2s = 766 kJ/kg = 766,000 J/kg at 748K

V1 = 0

988 h2 a

988 766

Interpolation:

=

780 760 800 778.18

T2a = 765K

11

Entropy Balance

Example 7-16

are not uniform

transfer and mass flow.

Entropy transfer by heat:

crosses the system boundary. But

entropy may be generated within the

system as work is dissipated into a

less useful form of energy.

(1). For an irreversible process, the entropy generation (Sgen) is greater

than zero

(2). For a reversible process, the entropy generation (Sgen) is zero and thus

the entropy change of a system is equal to the entropy transfer

entropy transfer in the amount of Q/T,

where T is the boundary temperature.

energy, and thus mass flow into or out

of system is always accompanied by

energy and entropy transfer.

The entropy change between the final state and the initial state of

system that undergoes a process:

1) The entropy transfer by heat

2) The entropy transfer by mass flow

3) The irreversibility extent of the process

12

Noting that any closed system and its surroundings can be treated as an

adiabatic system, and then:

system, the entropy change of the system only depends on the irreversibility

of the process:

Entropy generation outside system

boundaries can be accounted for by

writing an entropy balance on an

extended system that includes the

system and its immediate

surroundings.

surr

across its boundary. Thus the entropy balance:

Energy balance:

For a closed system without change in the KE and PE

Entropy balance:

Qk

T + m s m

i

Mass balance :

se + S gen = 0

For a general control volume:

during a process is equal to the sum:

(1) Entropy transfer by heat

(2) the net entropy transfer by mass flow

(3) the entropy generation as result from

irreversibility

(kW/K)

Energy balance :

Q

T k + m( si se ) + S gen = 0

k

m( si se ) + S gen = 0

Entropy balance :

reversible process:

si = se

13

Entropy Generation

Mass balance :

Energy balance :

Entropy balance :

Qk

T + m s m

i

se + S gen = 0

Entropy Generation

Example 7-18

Entropy Generation

Example 7-18

Qk

T + m s m

i

se + S gen = 0

(Table A-6)

(Table A-6)

Interpolation

Entropy Generation

Entropy Generation

Example 7-19

14

Entropy Generation

Entropy Generation

Example 7-19

Cavg=

The heat transfer form the iron block to the lake while the lake keeps a

constant temperature (285K). Therefore, we can consider this isothermal

process is an internal reversible. Thus Sgen =0

Entropy Generation

Entropy Generation

Example 7-19

Entropy Generation

Entropy Generation

Example 7-20

Energy Balance:

Qk

T + m s m

i

se + S gen = 0

h1 = ?

s1 = ?

15

Summary

Entropy

The Increase of entropy principle

Entropy change of pure substances

Isentropic processes

Property diagrams involving entropy

The T ds relations

Entropy change of liquids and solids

The entropy change of ideal gases

Isentropic efficiencies of steady-flow devices

Entropy balance

16

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